**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

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2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(12) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(16)

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2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(35) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(30) - 1405(38) - 1406(34) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(29)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(28) - 1503(25) - 1504(27) - 1505(29) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(41) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(47)

2016 - 1601(32) - 1602(51) - 1603(41) - 1604(34) - 1605(33) - 1606(44) - 1607(21) - 1608(40) - 1609(47) - 1610(25)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2237] **viXra:1610.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-19 09:37:53*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In the theory of special relativity, a particle that has rest mass with subluminal velocity needs infinite energy to accelerate to the speed of light. Special relativity does not prohibit the existence of particles that travel faster than light. In arXiv:1303.0614 quantum entanglement was measured at 10,000 times the speed of light or 4 orders of magnitude the speed of light or 2.99 E 12 m/s 2. At the quantum level some believe that retrocausality is forbidden. The purpose of this paper is to show how an email message can go proportionally faster than light to report on an event from the present into the past. The event reported from the present is sent into the past in the Inbox history instantaneously and a copy of the email that is (-) 2.7 hours in the past will also be sent to the Inbox history. Whether or not the event reported from the present that is sent into the past can be changed is not the purpose of this paper. The purpose of this paper is to show how a message from now can report on an event from now and sent into the past.(retrocausal communication)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2236] **viXra:1610.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-19 10:23:54*

**Authors:** Mugur B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We deduce from Newtonian mechanics the cosmological constant, following some older ideas. An equivalent to this constant in classical mechanics it was found. Therefore in our development, the cosmological constant appears in a natural way into Friedmann cosmological model. But the theoretical context in which it appears tells almost nothing about the nature of expanding universe force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2235] **viXra:1610.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-18 06:34:22*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 1 Page. This article was submitted on 2nd May 2016 to the 2016 International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (COSPA), hosted at the University of Sydney, 28 Nov - 02 Dec 2016.

There exists an infinite equivalence class of solutions for the equations Rμν = 0, thereby constituting all admissible 'transformations of coordinates'. If any element of this infinite equivalence class cannot be extended to produce a black hole then none can be extended to a black hole, owing to equivalence. No such element can be extended to produce a black hole. Consequently, the mathematical theory of black holes violates the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2234] **viXra:1610.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-18 08:02:05*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 25 Pages. none

This article describes the new model of the Universe that is an alternative for the well-known Big Bang (BB) model. The recently published paper [1], where the authors have presented data on the oldest star in the Milky Way galaxy halo, challenges the validity of the BB model claim about the age of the Universe. It is thus apparent that there is a need to develop an alternative model for the Universe that would not have this problem and provide a better agreement with observations. The model presented in this paper offers such a new alternative by assuming that the Universe is not expanding and is filled with a static gravitating "dark matter" (DM) that is transparent and therefore does not absorb light. This matter provides a framework in which the visible matter moves similarly as defects or vacancies move in a crystal floating from the bulk to the surface. It is further assumed that the visible matter may have been created from this dark transparent matter by an unspecified process sometime in the past, or is being constantly created with a smaller rate. After aggregation to stars and galaxies the visible matter is driven out to the edge of the Universe where it disintegrates and generates the immense Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). This radiation then may contribute to the generation of new matter throughout the Universe similarly as the assumption that the matter is being constantly created in the Fred Hoyle's model of the Universe [2]. The DM model provides equations for the observed recession velocities of distant galaxies, and for many remaining parameters that follow directly from the Hubble constant such as: the size and the mass of the Universe, the maximum observable luminosity modulus, the maximum observable Z shift, the maximum galaxy recession velocity, the size of the average galaxy, etc.. An important relation, also derived from the model, is the relation between the Hubble constant and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). This relation allows a precise calculation of Hubble constant from this temperature. The developed theory is compared with the available data of the GRBs, the Supernova Cosmology project, and the BATSE catalog, and a very good agreement is obtained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2233] **viXra:1610.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-18 04:23:17*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the cited paper author (Robert J. Buenker) “proves” invalidity of the special relativity length contraction prediction, relaying on muon experiments and using incorrect calculation of the relative velocity. This phenomenon is common in anti-relativistic texts: arguments against the special theory of relativity authors base on misunderstandings (misconceptions) of the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2232] **viXra:1610.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 20:46:35*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

The observation of two occurrences of time dilation underlie new conclusions about the essence of gravity that cascade logically from these observations, but are at odds with the descriptions of gravity offered by conventional physics. 1) An examination of the time dilation of a process reveals that it is a function of the velocity of the process relative to space itself, not relative to an arbitrary frame of reference. A fundamental frame of reference for motion in the Universe must permeate all space at both the greatest and smallest scales. A field of particles that I call the Temporal-Inertial (TI) field that supports the propagation of nature’s force particles meets the requirements of such a fundamental frame of reference for motion. 2) The Global Positioning System (GPS) compensates precisely for the time dilation introduced by the GPS satellite’s orbital speed and the gravitational field of Earth. I argue that this precise compensation is achievable only if Earth is at rest relative to the TI field. Accordingly, Earth and particles of the TI field must orbit the Sun in concert. Hence, particles of the TI field must be subject to gravity. Several other behaviors ensue from these two observations of time dilation: 3) the TI field mediates gravity, 4) massive particles and objects comprising massive particles are not directly subject to gravity, 5) in the ‘near’ vicinity of a gravitational body the velocity of the TI field is directed toward the center of mass of the body, 6) gravitational time dilation is caused by the infall velocity of the TI field toward a gravitational body, not directly by gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2231] **viXra:1610.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 08:57:38*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper will answer the mystery of the coupling constant (e), a puzzle of its origin
that was made popular by Richard Feynman, by using what will be defined as “temporal
kinematics”. Temporal kinematics studies the motion of time, we will name this “temporal
motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more
accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation
studies. Temporal motion should not be confused with cosmic inflation, it can only act as an
initiator of it. Temporal kinematics functions as a bridge between General Relativity and
Quantum Mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2230] **viXra:1610.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-16 11:57:46*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the cited paper author (R.K.) “proves” invalidity of the special relativity using invalid transformation formula(s) for the electromagnetic wave period (and the wavelength). This phenomenon is common in anti-relativistic texts: arguments against the special theory of relativity authors base on misunderstandings (misconceptions) of the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2229] **viXra:1610.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-16 03:08:22*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The original ideas

We determine nonlinear Lorentz transformations between coordinate systems
which are mutually in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion. The maximal
acceleration as an analogue of the maximal velocity in special relativity follows
from the nonlinear Lorentz group of transformtion. The mass formula was derived
by the same method as the Thomas precession formula by author. It can play
crucial role in particle physics and cosmology

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2228] **viXra:1610.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-13 18:20:17*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The 8 Ht, Zt, Htt, and Ztt Fermibosonic entities and anti-entities seen at the LHC played a crucial role role in bringing fermibosonic matter from the previous universe into our present universe, where it could form new fermonic matter at no energy cost or loss of universe flatness. The used H particles are later swallowed in the large black holes at the centers of spiral galaxies (these black holes had survived the big bang). The Z components are used again, as food for growing stars in the spiral arms of the same galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2227] **viXra:1610.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-13 20:06:03*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A simple principle is provided so that future scientists can understand the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2226] **viXra:1610.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-13 11:13:59*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper will answer the mystery of the coupling constant (e), a puzzle of its origin that was made popular by Richard Feynman, by using what will be defined as “temporal kinematics”. Temporal kinematics study the motion of time, we will name this “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion should not be confused with cosmic inflation, it can only act as an initiator of it most probably caused by quantum vacuum fluctuations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2225] **viXra:1610.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-12 16:01:39*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. PUBLISHED BY: ...

Einstein used the term ‘unified field theory’ in a title of a publication for the first time in 1925. Somewhat paradoxically, an adequate historical, physical and philosophical understanding of the dimension of Einstein’s unification program cannot be understood without fully acknowledging one of Einstein’s philosophical principles. Despite many disappointments, without finding a solution besides of the many different approaches along the unified field theory program and in ever increasing scientific isolation, Einstein insisted on the unity of objective reality as the foundation of the unity of science. Einstein’s engagement along his unification program was burdened with a number of difficulties and lastly in vain. Nevertheless, a successful geometrization of the gravita-tional and the electromagnetic fields within the framework of the general theory of relativity is possible. Thus far, it is a purpose of the present contribution to geometrize the electromagnetic field within the framework of the general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2224] **viXra:1610.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-12 09:14:02*

**Authors:** Enrico Belmonte

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Three hypotheses on spacetime expansion are presented. First, velocity is independent of spacetime expansion. Second, spacetime expansion does not change energy. Third, spacetime expansion is a change in size of spacetime and energy conversion is a change in shape of spacetime, or equivalent to change in velocity. These are mathematical arguments hence mathematical proofs are presented in each hypothesis. The difference in the calculation of velocity between Hubble’s law and Belmonte theory is discussed. The so-called dark energy emerges as a consequence of velocity calculation in Hubble’s law but it does not appear in Belmonte theory. It is shown that the cosmological constant in the general theory of relativity arises from a violation of the conservation of energy. The cosmological constant does not appear in Belmonte theory as energy is automatically conserved in the theory. Following the Second Hypothesis, the Belmonte Mass is predicted. This is the total mass of dark matter and baryonic matter in the observable universe. It is derived theoretically from the Planck vacuum energy density.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2223] **viXra:1610.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-12 00:21:49*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the standard model of cosmology, λCDM, were introduced to explain the anomalies of the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters highest according estimated by General Relativity the dark matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe the dark energy. The model λCDM is based in the equations of the General Relativity that of the total mass-energy of the universe assigns 4.9% to matter (including only baryonic matter), 26.8%, to dark matter and 68.3% to dark energy adjusted according observed in Planck mission, therefore, excluding bosonic matter (quantum vacuum). However, the composition of dark matter and dark energy are unknown. Due to that it lacks of a correct physical theory of gravity since General Relativity is only their powerful equations, which in their applications, their results are interpreted arbitrarily. Properties as curvature, viscous fluid, dragging frame and gravity action are attributed mistakenly to the spacetime by the materialist substantivalism, the most credible philosophical interpretation that complements the General Relativity, caused by its absence of physical definition of spacetime and static gravitational field as immaterial, but which violates, the conception of gravity as an effect of coordinates of the generalization of the inertial motion to the accelerated motion and, in particular, the description of the metric tensor of gravity as a geometric field. These properties are really of the quantum vacuum, the main existence form of the matter. In this paper we propose that the quantum vacuum is the source of dark matter and dark energy, therefore, the components of the quantum vacuum are of them. Both are opposite effects of the quantum vacuum that when gravitationally interacts with the cosmic structures, the vacuum it curves and when such interaction tends to cease by declination of the formation of these structures, occurring since near five milliard of years ago, vacuum it maintains quasi plane, since it interacts gravitationally very weakly with itself, accelerating expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2222] **viXra:1610.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-11 08:11:23*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This article was submitted to the editors of the Astrophysical Journal on 11 October 2016 for the purpose of publication.

It has recently been reported that the candidate HLX ultrasoft x-ray source J141711+52 in SO galaxy GJ1417+52 is explained best by the presence of a massive black hole, of ~105 solar masses. Although the size of the black hole has been reported, the type of black hole has not. In any event, no black hole is associated with J141711+52 because the mathematical theory of black holes violates the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2221] **viXra:1610.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-09 08:35:29*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions, which are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions, are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using simple photon clocks. This approach avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2220] **viXra:1610.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-08 22:46:57*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Updated conclusion

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a
product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion
inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it
“temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space ever since.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2219] **viXra:1610.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-08 07:26:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A Stanford physicist has proposed this radical idea in the form of a new equation, ER=EPR – and he says it could build a space-time bridge between the long-competing theories of general relativity and quantum mechanics. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2218] **viXra:1610.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-08 08:45:07*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: giving a viewpoint about the structure and composition of cosmic ontology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2217] **viXra:1610.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-07 20:01:26*

**Authors:** LI WeiGang

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Consider, for example, that the BBO emits a pair of entangled beams, a beam of horizontally polarized light to Alice, and another beam of vertically polarized light to Bob. Now, if a polarizer is placed in front of Alice's detector and driven by a 16Hz motor so that the "state" of the beam changes continuously, it is now questionable whether Bob's detector is more or less "Induced" 32 Hz light intensity changes or other changes?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2216] **viXra:1610.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-07 00:36:11*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space ever since.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2215] **viXra:1610.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-04 11:13:48*

**Authors:** Omar Shabsigh

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

This research paper discusses the validity of Einstein’s relativity theory. It took four years of intensive work to reach the final conclusions. All assumptions of Einstein and his mathematics (where it exists) will be reviewed. Experiments done to show the validity will be restudied then we shall show their correctness under the constraints and conditions made by Einstein and show their practical and scientific value. We shall also show how much is the truthfulness of general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2214] **viXra:1610.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-03 19:06:18*

**Authors:** Chunxuan Jiang

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

using space-time ring we establish mathematical theory of space-time .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2213] **viXra:1610.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-02 07:16:46*

**Authors:** Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Based on Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle it is concluded that the vacuum is filed
with matter and anti-matter virtual pairs (“quantum foam”) that pop out and
annihilate back in a very short period of time. When this quantum effects happen
just outside the "event horizon" of a black hole, there is a chance that one of these
virtual particles will pass through the event horizon and be sucked forever into the
black hole while its partner virtual particle remains outside the event horizon free to
float in space as a real particle (Hawking Radiation).
In our previous work [1], we claim that antimatter particle has anti-gravity
characteristic, therefore, we claim that during the Hawking radiation procedure,
virtual matter particles have much larger chance to be sucked by gravity into the
black hole then its copartner the anti-matter (anti-gravity) virtual particle.
This leads us to the conclusion that hawking radiation is a significant source for
continuous generation of mostly new anti-matter particles, spread in deep space,
contributing to the expansion of space through their anti-gravity characteristic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2212] **viXra:1609.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 08:59:01*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages

It is revealed with mathematical justification that the Lorentz transformation is actually limited to events with coordinates satisfying the light speed space-time relation (i.e., x = ct). It is therefore shown that applying the LT on certain events while maintaining the above limitation, leads to mathematical contradictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2211] **viXra:1609.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 05:56:22*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages. A first step to an effective Grand Unification Theory

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2210] **viXra:1609.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 00:35:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Understanding Today's Science with Help from Special Relativity and General Relativity. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3863556.v1 Retrieved: 05 21, Sep 28, 2016 (GMT)

This article began to take shape in my mind when I read an item in Astronomy magazine. That item mentioned how timing by GPS (the Global Positioning System) requires input from both Special Relativity - where time slows down fractionally for the fast-moving satellites in orbit – and General Relativity, where the satellites' distance from Earth's gravity causes their time to speed up fractionally. This led to the conclusions that 1) the gravitational waves making up the gravity field are, as Einstein suggested in a paper written four years after publication of the general theory, involved in production of mass, 2) these waves participate with the other long-range force, electromagnetism, to also produce the two nuclear forces associated with the mass (making nuclear forces non-fundamental and the Higgs force another name for gravitational-electromagnetic coupling), 3) black holes are composed of gravitational and electromagnetic waves focused on them from deep space, and this accounts for their extreme gravity as well as extreme mass, 4) there's a link between the macroscopic black holes of astronomy and the subatomic gluons of particle physics, and 5) Einstein's contributions don't end with the two Relativities, or even the paper written 4 years after the general theory, but can be extended to his Unified Field Theory.
His Unified Field might not be generally accepted today because it was incomplete, just as he described quantum mechanics as incomplete. In 1957, Charles Misner and John Wheeler, in the “Annals of Physics”, claimed Albert Einstein’s latest equations demonstrated the unified field theory. However, the necessary completion of the unified field may not exclusively lie with the mathematics Einstein seemed to increasingly rely on as he aged but with concepts in computer science as well as intuitions in the mathematical branch called topology. Einstein was a Superman at exploring new ideas in his youth. Had electronic computers been invented 30 or 40 years earlier, it appears likely we’d be living with the fruits of the unified field now.
PS This article also mentions superconductivity, imaginary time, complex number plane, quark-gluon plasma, antigraviton, shape of space, dark energy, dark matter and antimatter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2209] **viXra:1609.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-27 12:58:51*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: put forward a viewpoint of the origin of our universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2208] **viXra:1609.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 17:14:28*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 74 Pages.

We summarize how the Lorentz Force motion observed in classical electrodynamics may be understood as geodesic motion derived by minimizing the variation of the proper time along the worldlines of test charges in external potentials, while the spacetime metric remains invariant under, and all other fields in spacetime remain independent of, any rescaling, i.e., re-gauging of the charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In order for this to occur, time is dilated or contracted due to repulsive and attractive electromagnetic interactions respectively, in very much the same way that time is dilated due to relative motion in special relativity and due to gravitational fields in general relativity, without contradicting the well-corroborated experimental content of standard electrodynamic theory and both special and general relativity. As such, it becomes possible to lay an entirely geometrodynamic foundation for classical electrodynamics in four spacetime dimensions, in which mechanical motions and objects are merely promoted into canonical motions and objects in accordance with well-established local symmetry principles. Further, when we consider the self-interactions of individual leptons understood to be responsible for the magnetic moment anomalies, and upon identifying a universal relation between time and energy whereby all forms of energy dilate (or contract) time regardless of their kinetic or interaction origin, it is shown how these magnetic moment anomalies which are quintessential hallmarks of quantum field theory, both measure and empirically validate electromagnetic time dilation, and are a direct and immediate consequence of local abelian and non-abelian gauge symmetries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2207] **viXra:1609.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 15:13:52*

**Authors:** Aleksandr Tsybin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Currently, most research suggests that the physical vacuum is not empty, and the medium
is composed of dark matter and dark energy and this allows hope that the speed of light in
the physical vacuum can be transcended.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2206] **viXra:1609.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 11:30:05*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2205] **viXra:1609.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 11:35:38*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores.
Da análise do desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória podemos sintetizar as seguintes conclusões:
-é uma teoria com princípios totalmente físicos,
-as transformações são lineares,
-matem intactos os princípios Euclidianos,
-considera a transformação de Galileu distinta em cada referencial,
-une a velocidade da luz e o tempo em um único fenômeno,
-desenvolve uma translação real entre os referenciais.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2204] **viXra:1609.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 02:15:43*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment is a strong and compelling evidence for emission theory of light. Emission theory, unlike ether theory, can also explain Bradley stellar aberration easily. There is also the less known Bryan G Wallace analysis of Venus planet radar range data anomaly, which could be explained only by emission theory. The emission theory was abandoned because : 1) it was not compatible with Maxwell's electrodynamics: it predicted frozen light for a light source moving with velocity of light away from an observer 2) moving source experiments showed that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. The first of these problems is solved by a new interpretation of Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light ' ): constant phase velocity and variable group velocity of light. For an observer moving away from a light source at the speed of light, the phases will still move at the speed of light relative to the observer, but the group will be 'frozen'. This interpretation requires that Doppler effect depend only on source observer relative velocity, demanding a new symmetrical law for Doppler effect of light. This is the Exponential Law of Doppler effect of light proposed in this paper, which can easily explain the Ives-Stilwell experiments. The second problem is resolved by a new hypothesis that the effect of absolute motion of a light source is to change the speed of light relative to the source so that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. Ether theory and emission theory are seamlessly united into a new theory. This is also in line with light having both wave and particle properties. The ether doesn't exist. The conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment was fundamentally flawed in that they considered light as ordinary material waves . A new interpretation of absolute motion is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2203] **viXra:1609.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 12:58:51*

**Authors:** Peter Hlavačka

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Unified gravito-kinematics theory unifies gravity and kinematics on deeper level as current theories. It is generally compatible with equotations of General relativity, but it extends it and introduces different explanations to selected underlying principles on which is General relativity based. Unified gravito-kinematics theory explains or solves following open problems: primary cause and underlying mechanism of inertia, explanation of speed of light as speed limit, primary cause and underlying mechanism of relativity (Lorentz transformations), explanation of creation of rings of planets explanation of increasing speed of expansion of universe (dark energy), explanation of galaxy rotation problem, solving of some singularities in relativity theory and solution for compatibility of relativity theory with quantum mechanics, which will open door to merge of quantum mechanics and what is now relativity theory. What is most important, Unified gravito-kinematics theory makes very specific predictions, which can be tested by experiments and by astronomic observations. This paper includes one proposed rotation experiment and explanation of creation of rings around planets and smaller objects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2202] **viXra:1609.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 09:19:29*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Clifford Chafin, Domenico De Falco

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The vacuum catastrophe refers to the discrepancy between the predicted and detected values of repulsive vacuum energy. To tackle the issue, we start from a model of inflation in a time-symmetric quantistic vacuum, which, due to the Mandelstamm-Tamm inequality, leads to a trapping of a part of the original vacuum during the formation of our closed Universe. We show how the energy of our cosmos is stored in two different compartments, the microscopic quantistic vacuum and the macroscopic detectable cosmos. If we take into account, at the time of the Big Bang, the occurrence of time symmetry breaking into our Universe, we achieve a macroscopic energetic system governed by the second law of thermodynamics, where time acts like a continuous gauge field able to progressively increase the entropy. Our framework makes it possible to assess, among other issues, the vacuum catastrophe, to calculate the minimum three-dimensional volume of the pre-Big Bang vacuum and to make previsions for the future evolution of the two energetic compartments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2201] **viXra:1609.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 16:41:04*

**Authors:** Mutasim A. Ahmed

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The first attempt to construct a gravitational theory similar to Maxwell,s electromagnetic theory was done by the English physicist Oliver Heaviside, then it was improved by the German physicist Hermann Minkowski , and given the name Lorentz Invariant Theory of Gravity or LITG for short, so from the name it's Lorentz transformation's invariant in conformity with the special theory of relativity, again it was further improved and generalized by the Russian mathematician Sergey Fedosin to be known as the co-variant theory of gravitation, the co-variant theory will reduce to LITG at low velocities and week gravitational fields, therefore for our work we need only use the LITG theory as a special case of the co-variant theory, and we will use the similarity between electromagnetism and gravitomagnetism to drive laws.
To explain flyby effect we argue that the individual photons of the telemetry signal emitted from the free-falling spacecraft being themselves a source of gravitomagnetic field, interact with the field generated by the relatively moving Earth, because the spacecraft is in free-fall state an observer on-board it can claim to be at absolute rest according to the equivalence principle, therefore an observer and in this case the telemetry photons can assume being emitted from the spacecraft which is at rest towards the Earth which is now moving towards them with the same velocity of the spacecraft, the gravitomagnetic force in this case will be attractive, and due to the highly symmetric trajectory of the spacecraft an equivalent force of repulsion will be experienced by telemetry photons during the departure of the spacecraft, because in this case the photons and the Earth will be moving in the same direction, the force of attraction will manifest in the form of a blue-shift and that of the repulsion will manifest as a red-shift, so if we measure the effect equally during the inbound and the outbound, the two effects will add to zero, the effect is highly dependent on the way we observe it, that is why the effect is minimum when the trajectory is symmetrical about the equator, because the DSN antennae are distributed near the equator, hence the blue-shift and the red-shift cancel out.
As for the gravity probe-b case, we argue that, one of the most important results of the theory of relativity, is that there is no absolute frame of reference, we have to ask a particular observer about the results of his observations within his frame, we are not allowed to dictate or force our own conceptions on him, this condition wasn't fulfilled in the case of gravity probe-b theoretical framework, the researchers assumed that the spacecraft is revolving around Earth along with the four perfectly manufactured gyroscopes, from our point of view as observers on Earth this is true but for an observer on-board the spacecraft the situation is totally different, in this case the spinning gyroscopes are in free fall state which is according to the equivalence principle is a privileged inertial frame of reference, where Newton's first law of motion is perfectly operational, therefore anyone of the four gyroscopes have the full right to claim the state of absolute rest while the Earth is revolving around them with the same period by which the spacecraft is revolving around Earth as judged by us on Earth, also the gyroscopes as observers they claim that the Earth is spinning around an axis perpendicular to its own axis of rotation, with the same period of about 97.5 minutes of the spacecraft, using this reasoning and applying the approximate version of the co-variant theory of gravitation namely LITG, we obtained a gravitomagnetic effect nearly 100 times as large as that expected by the researchers, as we will show.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2200] **viXra:1609.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 20:56:16*

**Authors:** Kapil Chandra

**Comments:** 4 Pages. prepared for Reseach proposal for Doctoral studies

The cosmological problem has been a long standing unsolved problem of physics. In this manuscript, we propose a new hypothesis to solve it and we reported that the theoretically calculated value is in good agreement with its current observed value. We also derived a new mathematical expression of gravity which is inverse of classical Newton gravity, our hypothesis suggests; the inversion of gravity is responsible for cosmic acceleration. It has been also explained, why the gravity is too weak force of nature. We reported here, there is a close link between the weak gravity and cosmological constant problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2199] **viXra:1609.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 11:38:11*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Escape velocity for black holes depends on the region we are at. When we are on the Schwarzschild’s sphere, it’s equal to the velocity of light and when we are inside the Schwarzschild’s sphere, it exceeds the velocity of light. On the other hand, tidal forces act on the object and turn it apart into pieces. Based on angular momentum conservation, as the pieces of object go inside the Schwarzschild’s radius, because their distance with singularity decreases, their velocity increases in order to make a balance and the angular momentum stay constant.
The Schwarzschild’s solution for schwarzschild’s sphere and inside, will show what happens to the space-time; in the Schwarzschild’s sphere, the space would be undefined and the time warps, but inside the sphere, "r" and “t” change their place in equation and because of "θ" and "φ" object’s geodesic will bend and object swirl around the singularity but "r" behaves like time and "t" behaves like space. Needless to say, g_μυ will be different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2198] **viXra:1609.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 09:36:48*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Based on the Mach’s principle, black holes warp the space time in a way that geodesic for every object which is moving toward black hole start to bend and object starts to rotate around the black hole. Even light cannot be able to escape from the strong gravitational field of black hole. Before arriving to the Schwarzschild’s Sphere, object faces with length extension because of the difference between amount of tidal forces on the nearest and furthest points of object that take the object apart and after passing the Schwarzschild’s sphere, based on the Special relativity of Einstein, the parts of object face with length contraction.
At the Ergo sphere Region of black hole, a particle that gets into it will divide into 2 pieces, one of them falls into the black hole and another gets out of the Schwarzschild sphere very fast and it’s called the black hole radiation.
According to the Diagram drawn by R. Rafini and J. Weeler, an object gets out of white hole in past space-time, it can be able to send signals to us and we can receive it but black hole which is located in future space-time, after object enters to the Schwarzschild’s Sphere, the signals it sends won’t be received.
In order to reach the third space-time which is like a mirror to our universe, our speed needs to exceed the speed of light to pass the Einstein-Rosen Bridge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2197] **viXra:1609.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 07:07:24*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper the Lorentz Transformation (LT) is shown to be merely a set of equations applicable under the conditions reflecting the theorized principle of the speed of light invariance implemented in the direction of relative motion. It is revealed the LT is limited to events with coordinates satisfying the light speed space-time relation (i.e., x = ct). Einstein’s prediction of time dilation and length contraction is based on applying the LT equations to restricted coordinates. It is shown that such LT applications lead to mathematical contradictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2196] **viXra:1609.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 09:08:57*

**Authors:** Royan Rosche

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

All matter and energy make use of the four forces in modern sciences as they are made up of the four forces which mean that ancient elemental unification is the exact same thing as unification of the four forces. This paper points out that human beings are “calculating” in order to actually see what reality is instead of “observing” it. The author is reveals the uncertainty principle can be bypassed when we know what we are looking at by connecting the above celestial bodies to the below quantum world. All reality is mental based, i.e. on imagination. The meaning of the four elements is explained for modern comprehension.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2195] **viXra:1609.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-21 04:43:32*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Saadeh et al recently reported in Phys. Rev. Lett.
that ''anisotropic expansion of the Universe is strongly disfavoured, with odds of 121,000:1 agains'', using CMB temperature and polarisation data from the WMAP and Planck satellites. However, it is impossible to determine anything about expansion of the Universe from the WMAP and Planck
datasets for a number of reasons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2194] **viXra:1609.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 08:04:15*

**Authors:** Tibor Endre Nagy

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the theory of general relativity, it is possible to calculate the size and age of the cosmos using a new Einsteinian gravitational field equation. The equation describing the radius of the universe contains the mass of the Earth, of which the mass under certain conditions is equivalent to the mass of the cosmos. Looking back in time at the point when the universe was the same size as the Earth as a black hole, the mass of the Earth would increase in parallel with the universe’s decreasing size, in the end resulting in the total mass of the cosmos (5.4976•1053kg). Under these conditions, the average main mass density of the present cosmos would be 5.9814•10-26kg∙m-3. Using the masses calculated on the basis of the equatorial and polar radius of the Earth, it is possible to determine the ‘inside mass of the horizon of the cosmos’ in a figure of 2.9075•1051kg, when the mass density of the universe is 3.1634•10-28kg∙m-3. Solving the newfound equation for g, given that the size of the universe equals to that of the Earth as black hole, it is also possible to determine the total gravity of the primordial universe, which is 9.0273•1029m∙s-2. Replacing these results with the original equation, it is possible to determine both the initial radius and mass of the cosmos in figures of 1.5334•10-32m and 6.4877•10-5 kg (both ≈948.8 times the Planck length and Planck mass), while the primordial density is 4.29•1090 kg∙m-3. Under the premise of the above information, the time when the universe may have been formed can be calculated (5.1151•10-41s).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2193] **viXra:1609.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 05:59:02*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This paper has the aim to study the relativistic behaviour of motions that happen in a gravitational field with respect to two reference frames that are in relative motion in the field. Let us consider the two main gravitational motions: the free fall of a body in a gravitational field of first type and the orbital motion in a gravitational field of second type. We will study different physical situations and we will distinguish situations in which the complete physical process happens inside a laboratory (Galilean reference frames) from situations in which physical process happens in open systems (Einsteinian reference frames).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2192] **viXra:1609.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 22:44:15*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

As No.1 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the same points of law of gravity (including improved law of gravity) and general relativity: they are all the effective theories of gravitational interaction, and can be used to solve the problems of advance of planetary perihelion and deflection of photon around the Sun; and the different points of them: general relativity can conform to general relativity principle while law of gravity cannot conform to this principle, and law of gravity can solve the constraint problems in gravitational field (such as a small ball rolls along the inclined plane) while general relativity cannot solve these problems. These two theories can also overcome their own weak points by learning from each other's strong points, and jointly present the new explanation that the advance of planetary perihelion is the combined result of two motions: the first elliptical motion decided by law of gravity creates the perihelion, and the second vortex motion creates the advance of perihelion in which the advance parameters can be decided by general relativity. The common defect of these two theories is that they cannot take into account the principle of conservation of energy, comparing with the result that applying the principle of conservation of energy to derive Newton's second law and law of gravity, the further topic is applying the principle of conservation of energy to derive the related formulae and equations of general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2191] **viXra:1609.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-18 16:30:10*

**Authors:** Pavel Voráček

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A trivially easy argument, which – in fact – follows from the General relativity theory, is used in order to point out an evident flaw in the commonly accepted interpretation of the Principle of equivalence in Einstein’s box. It is shown that the flaw by itself has no destructive impact on the Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2190] **viXra:1609.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-18 22:43:52*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 1 Page. This Comment was submitted to the editors of 'Astronomy and Astrophysics' on 18 September 2016, for publication in accordance with its Comment criteria.

It has recently been reported in the journal 'Astronomy and Astrophysics' that the active galactic nucleus of Markarian 1018 has likely changed optical type due to the effects of a supermassive black hole or a binary system consisting of two such black holes. It is however impossible for any type or form of black hole to be involved with Mrk 1018 because the mathematical theory of black holes violates the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2189] **viXra:1609.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 19:33:43*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This is an updated version of the paper.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2188] **viXra:1609.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 10:36:16*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is demonstrated in the present work that the standard integration of the proper time along a freefalling geodesic in Schwarzschild spacetime does not properly account for the coordinate curvature in the vicinity of the event horizon. It is shown that that the condition given by the metric, namely that the change in proper time of the freefalling observer per change of coordinate time goes to zero at the horizon can be maintained while still allowing for an infinite proper time to the horizon. With the aid of a transformation of the radial Schwarzschild coordinate and analysis of light signals, we find that observers at rest will see the freefalling observer slow exponentially as she approaches the horizon, while the freefaller will see rest observers slow asymptotically as she approaches the horizon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2187] **viXra:1609.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 00:26:53*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2186] **viXra:1609.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 03:40:42*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

In his 1905 paper on special relativity, Einstein derived the relativistic Doppler shift formula from the Lorentz transformation. The wave time-period equation deduced from the relativistic Doppler shift is shown to result, with the help of the Lorentz transformation, in another time equation in contradiction with the formerly mentioned one. The end result: the Lorentz contraction factor γ is reduced to unity; the whole theory of relativity is thus undermined. Furthermore, for the case of relative circular motion, a critical contradiction of the relativistic Doppler principle with the special relativity time dilation prediction is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2185] **viXra:1609.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 07:17:41*

**Authors:** Masamichi Sato

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Topological data analysis (TDA) is a current hot field in mathematical study of data science and this is based on topology.
On the other hand, information space can be described with differential geometry.
We investigate the critical phenomena of gravitational collapse with these tools, because the gravitational phenomena is described by Einstein's general relativity which is formulated on differential geometry.
After investigations, we give some comments on observation scales obtained from the results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2184] **viXra:1609.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 18:03:19*

**Authors:** Amine Benachour

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We confirm the self-consistency of the Lorentz transformation by solving the mathematical problem encountered when one deal with some thought experiments involving simultaneous events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2183] **viXra:1609.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 15:01:57*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez Saldarriaga

**Comments:** 52 Pages. Español

Se trata de mostrar algunos aspectos en el desarrollo histórico de las relatividades
que traten de quebrar la ilusoria imagen de teorías
completas e infalibles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2182] **viXra:1609.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 12:01:47*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The expansion of the space. and The density of dark energy.
The space continues expanding.
The density of dark energy should become light.
The fixed number of the gravity equation shows a value of the dark energy.
The fixed number of the gravity equation is a constant value. I do not change.
By hypotheses of the elementary particle pulsation principle, I always set fixed number Λ with zero.
I set a density of dark energy level with a vacuum of energy zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2181] **viXra:1609.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-11 17:07:58*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Haug 2016 has recently shown there is a speed limit for fundamental particles just below the speed of light. This speed limit means that the mass of a fundamental particle not will go towards infinity as v approaches c in the Einstein relativistic mass equation. The relativistic mass limit for a fundamental particle is the Planck mass. In this paper we use the same velocity limit in the Lorentz transformation. This leads to what we think could be significant results that we will discuss in more detail later on. This time we only present the derivations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2180] **viXra:1609.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 14:26:23*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

In the "General Theory of Relativity" power formula force. The decomposition of this force into components, interaction of the electric and magnetic forces. If a closer look at the possible expansion of this force, we can find the force that gives the accelerated expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2179] **viXra:1609.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 07:02:09*

**Authors:** IElkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

In the "General Theory of Relativity" power formula force. The decomposition of this force into components, interaction of the electric and magnetic forces. If a closer look at the possible expansion of this force, we can find the force that gives the accelerated expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2178] **viXra:1609.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 09:54:41*

**Authors:** Royan Rosche

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Nature is one single thing made out of one single element and one single force. Elements are not moved by themselves but by energy. All life is made out of the combined elements forming a single elemental system matching the primordial one substance of the Universe. Our Universe is made out of the elements as well, meaning it is also a living being. There is only one thing in existence, that one thing is life, this opens up wisdom to us of the past, present, and future. The living Universe is both chaos and order at the same time. DNA is revealed to have the exact same properties as observation reality from earth formed as a standing wave composed of one part heat and one part sound.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2177] **viXra:1609.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 10:02:37*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that the large-scale application of the Newtonian approximation and general relativity leads to certain value for the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2176] **viXra:1609.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-07 12:31:10*

**Authors:** Alexander P.Sobolev

**Comments:** 36 Pages. 1 - 18 english, 19 - 36 russian

The article presents some results of a nonsingular theory of gravity (hereinafter - NTG) based on the axiomatics which differs somewhat from the axioms of the general theory of relativity (GR) and free from the internal problems inherent to GR. Nonsingular space kinematics is constructed on this basis. It is proved that from the condition of energy positivity follows: global isotropy of homogeneous space, existence of a change of the acceleration - deceleration eras and negative value of the scalar curvature of space. Nonsingular basic phenomenological model of evolution of the Universe is constructed, described by the smooth one-parametrical dependence from the moment of the beginning of evolution to an arbitrary point of time, coordinated with the observational astronomical data but without an involvement of the hypotheses of the existence of a dark energy, dark matter and inflatons. The particle-like solution of the NTG equations for the static isotropy metric is found. The behavior of the solution in the region of weak fields is specified on the basis of correspondence principle with GR. It is shown that in the certain region of space the distributions of fields can exist, for which the equality of inertial (defined according to Mach’s principle) and gravitational mass is satisfied. The horizon characteristic for the solutions of GR equations in the isotropic case is absent in NTG.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2175] **viXra:1609.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 18:15:37*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In 1905, Einstein presented his famous relativistic mass energy equation mc^2/Sqrt(1-v^2/c^2). When v approaches c, the expression containing the moving mass approaches infinity. Einstein interpreted this in the following way: since one needs an infinite amount of energy to accelerate even a small mass to the speed of light, it would appear that no mass can ever reach the speed of light. In this paper, we present a new solution to the infinite mass challenge based on combining special relativity with insights from Max Planck and maximum frequency. By doing this we show that there is an exact limit on the speed v in the Einstein formula. This limit is only dependent on the Planck length and the reduced Compton wavelength of the mass in question.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2174] **viXra:1609.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 22:58:10*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 16 Pages. in Polish

W artykule wykazaliśmy, że istnieje cała klasa teorii z eterem, które prawidłowo wyjaśniają eksperymenty, w których mierzono prędkość światła.
Przedstawiliśmy założenia Szczególnej Teorii Eteru z dowolnym skróceniem poprzecznym oraz wyprowadziliśmy ogólną postać transformacji eter-układ inercjalny. Następnie wyznaczyliśmy prędkość światła w próżni dla ruchomego obserwatora oraz pokazaliśmy trzy konkretne przykłady transformacji eter-układ inercjalny.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2173] **viXra:1609.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 15:29:04*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The validity of the logical relations between the basic propositions of modern cosmology is examined and the source of the cosmological constant problem is determined and a proposed solution is given.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2172] **viXra:1609.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 07:47:18*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Кому понравилось, могут пожертвовать некоторую сумму денег на WM: R335877695266 или Z300715849159

Einstein's general relativity gives excellent results of calculations, which are based on the principle of least action. But the principle is not in a position to make the move in a certain path, it can only make the interaction, the disclosure of which is derived from this principle. In other words, there are some well-known interaction. It is, according to formulas derived from the principle of least action, acts on a material object. Therefore, a material object and makes movement, according to the principle of least action. About this and made to explain the inertia of bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2171] **viXra:1609.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 05:09:34*

**Authors:** Kumar Deepayan Turja

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Special Relativity leads us to draw conclusion on mass-energy conversion but does not tell about the governing limits occupied with the process. This paper has developed a probabilistic approach to show the proper limit of mass-energy conversion in an inertial frame of reference. Here we will see that mass or energy can never be converted fully into each other by itself. An indirect proof & restatement of the 2nd law of thermodynamics has been given from the view-point of special relativity and the conclusion derived from the method. At the end an alternative explanation of radioactive decay & fate of the universe has been discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2170] **viXra:1609.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-05 09:16:55*

**Authors:** Aleksandr Tsybin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The presence of dark matter and dark energy, which is also called physical vacuum
substantially change our views on gravity. This is due to the fact that the vacuum has
physical properties possessed by the liquid. These properties should be attributed
primarily flow rate, density and impermeable screen for this substance

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2169] **viXra:1609.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-05 10:02:11*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Einstein's general relativity gives excellent results of calculations, which are based on the principle of least action. But the principle is not in a position to make the move in a certain path, it can only make the interaction, the disclosure of which is derived from this principle. In other words, there are some well-known interaction. It is, according to formulas derived from the principle of least action, acts on a material object. Therefore, a material object and makes movement, according to the principle of least action. About this and made to explain the inertia of bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2168] **viXra:1609.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-05 07:10:28*

**Authors:** Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s equation matter and anti-matter annihilate into photonic radiation energy. Photons have unique characteristics since they are massless and they travel at the speed of light in all the inertial reference frames. No other particle shares these unique characteristics. We claim that this unique behavior is due to the fact that photons do not apply gravitational effects on space-time, meaning,although photons will be forced to move in a curved line if space-time is curved they
will not curve space time by themselves or apply gravity forces and time dilation on
one another.
In order to prove our claims we suggest a thought experiment that leads to a paradox.
The only way to explain this paradox is to conclude that anti-matter impose anti–gravity and therefore matter and anti-matter together impose zero gravity.
Furthermore, this proves that the photonic energy from the annihilation phase has also zero gravity effect on space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2167] **viXra:1609.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-01 07:52:21*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper was erroneously attached as 1608.0427v1

Borrowing concepts from the Electric/Plasma Universe theories [1], I examine a possible explanation of at least part of the observed behavior for the galactic rotation anomaly for spiral galaxies by considering an idealized case where the combined magnetic fields from the galactic core (assumed to be a rotating charged sphere) and spiral arms (assumed to be a rotating charged disk exhibit a trend toward the ‘flatness’ in these rotation curves as one proceeds outward radially from the galactic core to its edge. This hopefully is a plausible addition to the various alternate explanations for this anomaly that do not invoke the likely fiction of ‘dark matter,’ alleged to comprise roughly 85% of the total matter in the universe (and, with the other likely fiction ‘dark energy,’ alleged to comprise roughly 95% of the total mass-energy of the universe). In the process, I provide at least an introduction to some of these other alternative explanations for the galactic rotation anomaly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2166] **viXra:1608.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 04:45:12*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Clifford Chafin, Domenico De Falco

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The concepts of “constraints” and “virtual displacement” from analytical mechanics shed new light on the role of time and timescales in physical systems such as the Universe. We propose a covariant version of a gauge theory, in which the required global symmetry stands for the real constrained trajectories, i.e. the energetic gradient flows dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. The virtual displacements, occurring while time is held constant, stand for the local transformations acting on the system and able to “break” the symmetry. The time stands for the gauge field able to keep the Lagrangian invariant. We also provide a theoretical framework in which a topological approach to gravitational lenses is able to elucidate aspects of our theory of “time as a gauge field”. Thus, time is no longer one of the four phase space coordinates of a 4-D Riemannan Universe: it is just a gauge field superimposed to a 3-D system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2165] **viXra:1608.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 10:26:08*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Observing galactic density as a function of increasing distance (and, correspondingly, earlier times given the travel time of light) should provide evidence as to whether a ‘steady-state’ (non-expanding) or Big-Bang-driven expanding universe is the more defensible cosmology. Working independently, but later discovering additional recent work in this area by Heymann, I attempt to address this question by simulating galactic densities for the two types of cosmological model. Results suggest that the non-expanding universe may be more consistent, or at least less inconsistent, with both observation and expectation. Further, they are consistent with conclusions drawn by Heymann from his recent studies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2164] **viXra:1608.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 12:45:39*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Electric Universe (EU) theory postulates that gravity is just another manifestation of electromagnetism, albeit at an almost inconceivably lower force (~1E-39 as strong). This paper examines the EU conjecture about an electromagnetic basis for gravity based on simplified mathematical analysis for an idealized arrangement of three hydrogen atoms. Results suggest that the possibility of an electromagnetically-induced distortion of a hydrogen to create an atomic dipole is at least plausible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2163] **viXra:1608.0425 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 12:49:58*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

‘Dissident’ physicists have postulated various alternative explanations for the alleged cosmic expansion due to the Big-Bang-induced and dark-energy-sustained ever-increasing expansion of space(-time). Among these is the effect of gravity which allegedly ‘stretches’ light waves (and allegedly also bends them via gravitational lensing) as they pass large masses, such as stars, galaxies or galactic clusters. The stretching phenomenon is an increase in wavelength, and corresponding decrease in frequency, required by the assumption that light speed remains constant (within a medium). If light speed is variable, would there also be a gravitational cosmic redshift, i.e., one that alters light speed without affecting the waveform itself (i.e., no ‘stretching’)?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2162] **viXra:1608.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 12:55:01*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Hubble’s law of cosmic expansion is typically based on fitting data for relatively low (on a ‘universal’ scale) redshifts and distances. Extrapolating Hubble’s law to the entire observable universe, proponents of the Big Bang Standard Cosmological Model claim the universe is expanding (possibly faster than their sacred speed of light due to a repulsive acceleration being produced by ‘dark energy’) because galactic redshifts increase linearly with distance from the earth. To them, this ‘proves’ there was a Big Bang and the resulting universe will continue without bound to expand until all dies out in the absolute cold of space. However, a relatively simple analysis of galactic redshifts vs. distance spanning the full range of the observable universe, not just the ‘nearby’ galaxies, suggests that there is an anomaly in the reputed increasing recessional speed with distance. The nature of this anomaly is examined here, and speculation offered as to one possible explanation, albeit far from definitive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2161] **viXra:1608.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 12:59:49*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

One of the long-standing ‘proofs’ of Einstein’s relativity is the alleged time dilation effect that muons created during cosmic ray collisions with particles in our upper atmosphere experience as they plummet downward at nearly the speed of light. Given the assumption that all are created at one high altitude, relativists see only a ‘slowing’ of their ‘clocks’ as the means by which their decay can be sufficiently delayed so that an unexpectedly (according to classical physics) large number reach sea level. One of the earliest experiments allegedly demonstrating this was by Frisch and Smith in 1963. Dissident physicists have offered non-relativistic explanations for the relatively high numbers of atmospheric muons reaching sea level, including the possibility that they are created by cosmic ray collisions with particles throughout our atmosphere, not just at a single altitude. The plausibility of this argument is examined here as an alternative explanation to relativistic time dilation as the only acceptable answer offered by mainstream physics today.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2160] **viXra:1608.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:03:35*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Despite much obeisance paid to black holes by ‘Standard Model’ cosmologists (not to mention Hollywood, e.g., the recent film “Interstellar,” alleged to have a basis in physics, but really pure science fiction), dissident physicists, led by Stephen Crothers, have re-examined the original analysis by Karl Schwarzschild which, due to an error by David Hilbert, has provided much of the basis for the alleged existence of black holes. This substantial body of work suggests black holes cannot exist, leading me to the logical conclusion that the densest stars possible are neutron stars (or perhaps, if such are possible, ‘quark’ stars) which have relatively small but ‘non-singular’ dimensions. Both the mass and “pulse” rate of many neutron stars (also known as pulsars) have been recorded. Examination of these data opens an avenue of speculation based on their angular momenta that perhaps could aid in the understanding of how ‘heavy” (relative to our sun) rotating stars might evolve into pulsars.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2159] **viXra:1608.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:07:23*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The classic double-slit experiment, first performed by Young in 1801, is often cited as proving the dual wave-particle nature of light, with an emphasis on the wave aspect. In fact, when first conducted, the conclusion refuted newton’s postulate of a corpuscular nature to light in favor of light being purely a wave. Not until the discovery of the photoelectric effect did light’s potential behavior as a particle become rejuvenated. This paper examines a possibly enhanced role for light’s corpuscular nature beyond what is currently assigned as a result of the double-slit experimental results in hope of opening yet another avenue of exploration into the still mysterious nature of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2158] **viXra:1608.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:11:32*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Photon-particle interactions, both ‘classical,’ such as Compton Scattering, and ‘speculative,’ such as ones associated with ‘tired light’ theories of the cosmological red-shift, are explained with the assumption of the constancy of the speed of light. For classical interactions, reciprocal variations in light frequency and wavelength occur under the constraint that their product always equals constant speed ‘c.’ Proponents of a cosmological red-shift claim that the universe is expanding due to expansion of space (or space-time) itself as light, traveling at ‘c,’ is stretched as the distance between the source and observer increases due to this space (or space-time) expansion. Counter arguments to this interpretation often fall into the realm of ‘tired light,’ dismissed by mainstream physicists for various reasons, but still advocated by various ‘dissident’ physicists, since the term was first coined by Zwicky in 1929. In this paper, I examine a classical photon-particle interaction, Compton Scattering, and one of the more popular ‘tired light’ theories to show that the assumption of a constant speed of light is unnecessary, i.e., similar results evolve from assuming a variable light speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2157] **viXra:1608.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:15:50*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Formation of the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter is traditionally assumed to have occurred primordially when a group of planetesimals formed protoplanets that, through gravitational perturbations from Jupiter, were imbued with too much orbital energy to accrete into a planet, until violent collisions shattered most of the protoplanets, thereby forming the asteroid belt. Electric Universe theory contends there was an electrical discharge interaction on a planetary scale when a planetesimal closely encountered Mars, causing not only Mars’ material to be ejected, but also disintegrated much, if not all, of the planetesimal. The ejected debris eventually formed the asteroid belt; and possibly Valle Marineris which scars nearly 20% of Mars’ circumference, is the ‘smoking gun.” Here I examine not the electrical discharge phenomena, but crudely estimate whether or not the total mass of the belt could have arisen from such an interaction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2156] **viXra:1608.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:18:57*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Despite the long-accepted claims by mainstream physicists that the 1887 Michelson-Morley interferometer experiment ‘proved’ that an aether did not exist, based on its alleged ‘null result,’ ‘dissident’ physicists have long contended that it proved the opposite. Now there may be as many aether theories as there are dissident physicists who postulate an aether, some believing it to be fixed against absolute space, others that it can be ‘dragged’ by massive bodies such as Earth (and hence the alleged ‘null result’), and some that believe it flows between ‘sources’ and ‘sinks’ throughout the universe. Some believe it comprises all matter and energy, with light just being one of its various manifestations. I know not whether there is an aether, but of all the theories so far encountered, one by Steven Rado appears to be quite plausible and complete. The goal here is to examine one aspect of Rado’s theory for plausibility, via a fairly simple analogy of a rotating spring.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2155] **viXra:1608.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:22:16*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Since first proposed by Fatio in in 1690 and allegedly enhanced by Le Sage in 1748, one possible explanation for gravity is that it is a pushing force theory that involves ‘shadowing’ of omnidirectional gravity particles that impinge on all matter so as to make gravity appear as an attractive phenomenon. At least for a special case (large distance between spheres), a mathematical model that assumes gravity to be a pushing force, with shadowing and including the possibility of acting throughout the shadowed corridor of the sphere with attenuation effects, suggests a possible alignment with one of the known effects of gravity, namely that it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the spheres’ centers. This hopefully lends some credence to the theories first proposed by Fatio and Le Sage, and since supported by many dissident physicists, including Schroeder, et al., and members of the Gravity Group of the John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society. It is offered as one small contribution to furthering examination of this possible explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2154] **viXra:1608.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:25:22*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Classical Newtonian gravitation is considered to be an attractive force, although the mechanism by which this is manifested remains unknown. Speculation includes graviton particles, space-time warping, etc. LeSagian gravitation is considered to be a pushing force, the net result of which appears to be attractive. It coincides with, but does not necessarily depend on, various aether theories where the universe is filled with moving ‘particles’ capable of exerting forces on whatever they contact. ‘Pushing’ gravity occurs when two objects ‘shadow’ each other by blocking the flow of these particles so as to create an area where the density of the particles is less than that ‘outside’ the shadow. The higher density outside the shadow impinges on a greater surface area than the lower density within the shadow, resulting in a net pushing force which appears to be an attraction between the two bodies toward one another (gravity). This paper examines how the results for ‘pushing’ gravity between the sun and a planet compare to those for ‘pulling’ gravity, as per Newton.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2153] **viXra:1608.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:29:43*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Molecular hydrogen (H2), virtually undetectable from space, has long been a viable candidate for the alleged ‘dark matter’ supposedly accountable for the ‘flattening’ of the galactic (tangential) rotation curves. Presented here is a simplified analysis, assuming such molecular hydrogen is uniformly distributed throughout the Milky Way Galaxy’s disk, that examines the plausibility of such ‘dark matter’ providing a definitive gravitational explanation for the observed rotational behavior.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2152] **viXra:1608.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-29 15:36:55*

**Authors:** Mark s. Cater

**Comments:** 132 Pages. author wishes to be remian as originator of paper

Concepts Behind Aleodeology is copyright (c) as originally titled Quantum Nanotechnogy Mark Cater 2009-2016 and re-titled here for my parent theory Primer to Aleodeolgy available at . http://vixra.org under Relativity and Cosmology at http://vixra.org/author/mark_s_cater. You are free to use and redistribute both papers as long as credit as given to the original author Mark S Cater as being the originator of the paper. NOTE: Some of the date found here may be new to you but outdated to me, many of the CONCEPTS/THEORIES were afterword debunked by myself; the more important information may be found at the links above and is freely available for use. It is provided here for educational use and free use and interactions/contributions. Not for sale or reselling. You are free to print and redistribute with the provision that no changes be made to any section in whole or part be made to this information AND/OR revised digitally or other. Revisions will be added as they come and not as a result of expectations, pressure, paid or otherwise contacted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2151] **viXra:1608.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-28 17:30:31*

**Authors:** Mark s. Cater

**Comments:** 21 Pages. free to read and distribute

The Idea has come up of lately that space has time only with respect to energy. Energy as it stands is manually based and it`s measurements rely primarily upon values, which differs extremely from symbols based with respect to the true source of information itself. This form of information encompasses massive amounts of data that cannot be handled with conventional means and differs from knowledge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2150] **viXra:1608.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-27 08:26:58*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez Saldarriaga

**Comments:** 9 Pages. En Español

Muchos sistemas en delicado equilibrio lo perderían ante cambios de las dimensiones de sus partes, como las que se darían para observadores con diversas velocidades relativas respecto a esos sistemas, si la relatividad fuera cierta. Tal es el caso de un tranvía que cae y no cae en un abismo, según los observadores. De ahí la paradoja. O que cae para todos los observadores, pero violando las mas elementales leyes física, si se intenta resolver desesperadamente la tal paradoja.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2149] **viXra:1608.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-23 20:38:53*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The light clock is wrong.

The apparatus (the clock) would just move away from the beam of light.

You would have to angle the light beam to make it hit the clock pads (mirrors) and that changes everything. i.e. the distance the light beam has to travel does NOT increase because of the moving
clock -- it is because you have to angle the beam.

You might need to think about it for a couple of months to realize everything. Good luck with your endeavors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2148] **viXra:1608.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-23 11:06:29*

**Authors:** Erik A. Cerwen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Special and general relativity theories are critically evaluated regarding their contemporary role as a foundation for a cosmological world picture. It is argued that the rest frame, where all physical processes take place, is more important in this role than the various relativistic distortions of these processes seen by different remote observers. This idea was previously formulated quantitatively with numerical examples from the Bohr atom, quantum physics and astrophysical observations. The theory identifies an observer on one local spatial dimension via Lorentz transformations connected with a space-like separated perpendicular observer who is non-local and only measures time. It was shown that this geometrical construction, where each unit local length comes with a line increment, is relevant both to the atom and to the universe. For example, the Planck length obtained from the Bohr atom could be expressed in terms of the apparent local Hubble expansion rate and the latter substituted into the Schroedinger equation to yield a circular current surrounding a magnetic pole. The distant non-local observer sees the radius Lorentz-contracted at relativistic speeds ultimately so much as to be able to contribute dynamics to the local frame, which was exemplified numerically by the CMBR. Evidence was also presented indicating that the oscillating line increment is capable of contributing mass from vacuum via the resonance particles. Elaborating on the latter idea indicates energy contributions of around 80, 90 and 125 GeV embedded in a robustly defined geometrical framework that has relevance (and even precedence) also in classical physics. The apparent transition from one to several spatial dimensions is exemplified by reinterpreting Compton scattering. The emergence of additional spatial dimensions and tangible locality are also discussed in terms of the number pi which appears by applying the Wallis product to the 1-D universe. The presence of the number pi thus indicates the presence of local particles as further exemplified by the CMBR and Compton scattering. The mass of the 1-D universe is obtained by considering local as well as non-local contributions as prescribed on the basis of the geometry. This yields corrections to the ‘classical’ geometrised mass such that the universe’s baryon particle density visible on the local axis is close to its electron density. Several unrelated numerical approaches guided by the proposed geometry indicate that the particle density of a primordial universe is roughly 1/m^3 (1/m^2).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2147] **viXra:1608.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-22 10:36:22*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

There are more phenomena in quantum mechanics and in cosmology that we cannot imagine how they work. The four most known phenomena are the result of the double-slit experiment, the spooky action at a distance (the working method of the non-local correlation in quantum entanglement), how the tunneling works, and why the Universe accelerates. These phenomena cannot be explained in the system of the space-time model. We need a new model with a new axiom. Space-matter theory changes the axiom of space and time. Space waves. We can express spatial distances, time units and energy with space waves. Space is what the matter senses as space. Time is one characteristic of space waves. Using this new approach, we can solve our old mysteries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2146] **viXra:1608.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-20 10:51:22*

**Authors:** Pranoy Ghosh

**Comments:** Pages.

How would Newtonian formulation look, if he lived in modern era? This paper introduces definition of relativistic mass and force to derive Newtonian equations for motion from Special Theory of Relativity.
Although new mathematical definitions are introduced, conservation of energy and linear momentum are achieved. We now hold in our hands, equations from classical mechanics that obey Lorentz transforms. So Newtonian mechanics has overcome its limitation.
Calculus of several variables is the mathematical tool.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2145] **viXra:1608.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-19 00:24:57*

**Authors:** Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Assuming that during the “big bang” matter and anti-matter pair production and annihilation governed the first phase before the expansion and cool down of the universe, we would expect to find a universe consisting of both matter and anti-matter uniformly spread apart throughout space.
That is obviously not the case as we can observe today and we expect to find some new kind of anti-symmetry between matter and anti-matter.
In this paper we will show a paradox that leads to the conclusion that anti-matter must have "anti-gravity". Based on this conclusion we claim that matter and anti-matter preserve two new conservation laws: 1. Conservation of gravity, 2. Conservation of time.
Based on these new conservation laws we predict that anti-matter is uniformly spread, as anti-atoms or anti-elementary particles, throughout space and it’s one of the main reasons for space expansion.
We strongly believe that future tests on the influence of anti-matter on gravity and time will prove this theory.
.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2144] **viXra:1608.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-19 00:47:14*

**Authors:** Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In our previous paper [1] we show a paradox that leads to the conclusion that anti-
matter must have "anti-gravity". Based on this conclusion we claim that matter and
anti-matter preserve two new conservation laws: 1. Conservation of gravity, 2.
Conservation of time.
In this article, based on these new conservation laws, we claim that the number of all
matter particles in the universe must be equal exactly to the number of all antimatter
particles. Moreover, each matter particle must be entangled to a "partner" antimatter
particle since entanglement is the only mechanism that can synchronize between
matter and antimatter particles in order to preserve the new conservation laws mentioned
above.
This phenomena can be examined at the LHC and if proven to be correct it is another
proof that entanglement is truly a “spooky action at a distance” (EPR paradox) and
has nothing to do with hidden variables. It also opens the possibility that if anti matter
particles remain and exist from the "big bang" somewhere in the universe they are still
entangled to the matter particles although the drastic annihilation during the big bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2143] **viXra:1608.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-19 00:53:27*

**Authors:** Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In our previous paper [1] we show a paradox that leads to the conclusion that anti-
matter must have "anti-gravity". Based on this conclusion we claim that matter and
anti-matter preserve two new conservation laws: 1. Conservation of gravity,
2. Conservation of time.
In our previous paper [2] we show that based on the conservation of gravity and time,
we expect that when a pair of matter and anti-matter particles is produced from pure
energy (e.g. pair production from an energetic photon ), they are entangled through
gravity and time. This entanglement of time and gravity is not restricted to the
quantum rules, and it will be referred as "non-quantum entanglement through time".
In this article, based on the non-quantum entanglement through time, we claim that
we can exploit this non-quantum entanglement in order to communicate
instantaneously through large distances.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2142] **viXra:1608.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-18 08:35:23*

**Authors:** Branislav Pavlovic

**Comments:** 338 Pages.

In this article I will present the main results of my scientific work . The title of my book is Gravitoelectromagnetism. I have developed my own theory of gravity, and I called it Gravitoelectromagnetism. According to my theory, an explanation of the dynamic effects is mainly based on formal analogy with electrodynamics. I will mention just a few experiments (effects) which I have explained from the standpoint of my theory: perihelion precession of Mercury, framedragging experiments (Gravity Probe B experiment), gravitational waves (Hulse–Taylor binary, detection of gravitational waves) and so on. Increase of astronomical unit has been analyzed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2141] **viXra:1608.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-13 23:43:48*

**Authors:** Fredrick W. Cotton

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The proposed modifications of the Einstein-Maxwell equations include: (1) the addition of a scalar term to the electromagnetic side of the equation rather than to the gravitational side, (2) the introduction of a 4-dimensional, nonlinear electromagnetic constitutive tensor and (3) the addition of curvature terms arising from the non-metric components of a general symmetric connection. The scalar term is defined by the condition that a spherically symmetric particle be force-free and mathematically well-behaved everywhere. The constitutive tensor introduces two auxiliary fields which describe the particle structure. The additional curvature terms couple both to particle solutions and to electromagnetic and gravitational wave solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2140] **viXra:1608.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-11 17:19:45*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper will present a new theory for what we call “Dark Energy” by explaining it as a form of kinetic energy. It will be presented within General Relativity where we will use new terms and explain them in detail. Some of the new terms that will be presented also fall under Quantum Mechanics. It will be explained in detail how and why dark energy comes to be and why it is now dominant in the Universe which will explain the observational evidence that has been attained on this subject and has so far been rather puzzling to scientists when it comes to the very nature of “Dark Energy”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2139] **viXra:1608.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-11 05:18:21*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

At the close of the 19th century there were four fundamental theories of physics: Newtonian mechanics, Maxwell’s equations, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. The 20th century added: special relativity, general relativity and quantum mechanics. Planck’s constant h is central in quantum mechanics and as a quantum of action is measured in units of energy (ergs) × time (seconds). As a four-dimensional constant in special relativity action is seen to be the same for all observers even if they disagree about the size of the energy and time components of that action. The use of a four-dimensional constant in the context of a three-dimensional or nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, however, is inconsistent and renders its ad hoc introduction in the various formalisms of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics chimerical. Using reason and a minimum of assumptions all the classical theories mentioned will be used for a final time to reveal the foundations of a new paradigm of physics. This paradigm is inevitable and shows the significance of h when consistently incorporated into general relativity via special relativity. What remains is the theory of Relativity. Historically speaking the advent of quantum mechanics in 1925 could have been avoided. This has already been discussed in [1] and [2] but will be clarified here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2138] **viXra:1608.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-11 02:02:37*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Qualitatively and quantitatively, we review the basics of standard cosmology with respect to Planck scale, Mach’s principle, superluminal expansion speeds and superluminal rotation speeds. Important results to be noted are: 1) At H0=70 km/sec/Mpc, fitted current cosmic temperature is 2.721 K; 2) Estimated current cosmic radius is 90 billion light years and is 2 times the current observable cosmic radius; 3) Estimated current cosmic mass is 1.146E54 kg and is 8 times the current estimate; 4) Magnitude of the currently believed visible mass density is equal to the estimated current cosmic mass density; 5) Magnitude of the currently believed dark energy is equal to the magnitude of the estimated current cosmic rotational kinetic energy;

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2137] **viXra:1608.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-05 07:50:34*

**Authors:** Bengt Månsson

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

As seen from a spaceship accelerating towards a star, the star approaches the ship at a speed that can exceed c, the speed of light in vacuum. For the particular case of constant acceleration with given final speed kc at the star this speed is calculated as a function of the ship's proper time and it is found that the upper bound of this speed is 1,5c. Some other cases are investigated including hyperbolic motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2136] **viXra:1608.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 16:28:21*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. -

Annotation
Given the approximate form of interaction, which we consider as the gravitational interaction, but in fact it is small does the members in the formula of the electric interaction. And he showed that in addition to the square of the distance, the other depending on the distance not there (for small-scale universe of distances).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2135] **viXra:1608.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 21:06:47*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is prepared in order to point out to the reader, if the reader is not already so informed, of some glaring omissions and/or deficiencies in the original paper so titled. (1) the first omission lies in the fact that no clear cut indication was given of the source of the so called “mass velocity vector”. Originally, the idea was obtained from Bernoulli fluid flow theory, but, lately, the author has discovered that this idea can also be derived from a four dimensional covariant (or tensor) formulation of the Fokker-Planck equation, which describes the time development of a type of random/stochastic process called a Markoff process. (2) The second omission was a failure to give the equation for the Fermi constant in terms of the fundamental constants that were appropriate thereto. (3) The third omission involved giving only the value of the predicted mass that CERN should find as 1118 times the mass of the proton, without giving the Gev value as well. (4) The fourth omission consisted of a math error on page 20 of the original manuscript: the author failed to pick up the mathematical error. (5) The fifth omission is found on page 23 of the original manuscript, in which the author discusses the reason why photons do not travel at infinite speed. The example used there was not very enlightening, and the author realized it at the time. In order to make up for that omission, the author has devised a new example which, it is hoped, will make the inertial problem of the photon much clearer. (6) This is a grab bag of future research problems: which ones are real, imaginary, crazy, or insane?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2134] **viXra:1608.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 09:33:54*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Annotation
Given the approximate form of interaction, which we consider as the gravitational interaction, but in fact it is small does the members in the formula of the electric interaction. And he showed that in addition to the square of the distance, the other depending on the distance not there (for small-scale universe of distances).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2133] **viXra:1608.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-01 17:11:12*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this monograph, digital signal processing (DSP) techniques are used together with the infophysical spacetime model (ISM) of Reality in order to find theoretical answers to the following questions: Why is the speed of light in a vacuum a constant? Why that particular speed and not any other? Is the speed of light a fundamental constant of Reality? Has it always been so? Can it change in the future?
The Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem is used to determine the scales of the cosmic wavefunction in the motional and displacement domains, thus obtaining the spatial and temporal sampling relations of Reality. The results are then applied to obtain a list of theoretical implications that propose answers to the questions mentioned above and to other related questions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2132] **viXra:1608.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-02 02:04:48*

**Authors:** Ratikanta Das

**Comments:** 03 pages

Author’s previous article ‘A New Model of Physics’, appeared in the section ‘History and Philosophy of Physics’ of viXra.org open e-print archive, seems to be a controversial one as it opposes some established theories of traditional physics. But simultaneously it also supports some established theories and gives simple explanations for many puzzles of physics which must not be regarded as matter of coincidence or chance. Again author’s speculation is not final; some points of the model may require modification. But author strongly believes that this model, when developed into a full-fledged one, will be able to unveil the beauty of absolute truth of nature. In this article author compares the physics of this new model with that of traditional models, elaborating some points discussed in the previous article.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2131] **viXra:1608.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-01 06:38:55*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Light and temperature independent biological clock has drivers (zeitgebers), which are different
for the twin, which stays on the Earth, and for other one, which flies away

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2130] **viXra:1607.0560 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-31 00:14:28*

**Authors:** Yuri Heymann

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The universe is characterized by large concentrations of energy contained in small, dense areas such as galaxies, which radiate energy towards the surrounding space. However, no current theory balances the loss of energy of galaxies, a requirement for a conservative universe. This study is an investigation of the physics nature might use to maintain the energy diﬀerential between its dense parts and the vacuum. We propose time contraction as a principle to maintain this energy diﬀerential. Time contraction has the following eﬀects: photons lose energy, while masses gain potential energy and lose kinetic energy. From the virial theorem, which applies to a system of bodies, we ﬁnd that the net energy resulting from the gain in potential energy and the loss in kinetic energy remains unchanged, meaning that the orbitals of stars in galaxies remain unaﬀected by time contraction. However, each object in a galaxy has an internal potential energy leading to a surplus of energy within the object. This internal energy surplus should balance with the energy radiated at the level of a galaxy. We illustrate this principle with a calculation of the energy balance of the Milky Way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2129] **viXra:1607.0553 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-30 04:27:11*

**Authors:** 蒋春暄

**Comments:** 10 Pages. it is a very important paper

用时空环建立新时空理论

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2128] **viXra:1607.0537 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-29 06:14:35*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 10 Pages. it is a very important paper

using space-time ring we establish the new space-time theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2127] **viXra:1607.0535 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-28 09:55:35*

**Authors:** A. Jaster

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We take an idea of Mach and postulate an absolute frame of reference, i.e. there is a state of absolute rest and motions of inertial frames of reference relative to the absolute frame can be measured.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2126] **viXra:1607.0474 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-25 05:57:48*

Двигатель космолёта на эффекте гравитационного самоускорения

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages. rus

The limited speed of propagation of gravitation leads to a relativistic effect of self-acceleration. The long object increases the speed of its movement without the application of external force to it, so-called, unsupported motion.

Считается, что для разгона космического корабля до больших, вплоть до субсветовых скоростей, необходимы значительные запасы топлива. Однако ограниченность скорости распространения гравитации приводит к возникновению релятивистского эффекта гравитационного самоускорения, когда протяженный объект увеличивает скорость своего движения без приложения к нему внешней силы, так называемое, безопорное движение. И напротив, гравитационное ускорение становится невозможным, если скорость распространения гравитации бесконечна.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1373] **viXra:1610.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-22 05:28:15*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the cited paper author (R.K.) “proves” invalidity of the special relativity using invalid transformation formula(s) for the electromagnetic wave period (and the wavelength). This phenomenon is common in anti-relativistic texts: arguments against the special theory of relativity authors base on misunderstandings (misconceptions) of the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1372] **viXra:1610.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-19 12:41:50*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 40 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. PUBLISHED BY: ...

Einstein used the term ‘unified field theory’ in a title of a publication for the first time in 1925. Somewhat paradoxically, an adequate historical, physical and philosophical understanding of the dimension of Einstein’s unification program cannot be understood without fully acknowledging one of Einstein’s philosophical principles. Despite many disappointments, without finding a solution besides of the many different approaches along the unified field theory program and in ever increasing scientific isolation, Einstein insisted on the unity of objective reality as the foundation of the unity of science. Einstein’s engagement along his unification program was burdened with a number of difficulties and lastly in vain. Nevertheless, a successful geometrization of the gravita-tional and the electromagnetic fields within the framework of the general theory of relativity is possible. Thus far, it is a purpose of the present contribution to geometrize the electromagnetic field within the framework of the general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1371] **viXra:1610.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-13 09:47:11*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Remplace

In the standard model of cosmology, λCDM, were introduced to explain the anomalies of the orbital
velocities of galaxies in clusters highest according estimated by General Relativity the dark matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe the dark energy. The model λCDM is based in the equations of the General Relativity that of the total mass-energy of the universe assigns 4.9% to matter (including only baryonic matter), 26.8%, to dark matter and 68.3% to dark energy adjusted according observed in Planck mission, therefore, excluding bosonic matter (quantum vacuum). However, the composition of dark matter
and dark energy are unknown. Due to that it lacks of a correct physical theory of gravity since General Relativity is only their powerful equations, which in their applications, their results are interpreted arbitrarily. Properties as curvature, viscous fluid, dragging frame and gravity action are attributed mistakenly to the
spacetime by the materialist substantivalism, the most credible philosophical interpretation that
complements the General Relativity, caused by its absence of physical definition of spacetime and static gravitational field as immaterial, but which violates, the conception of gravity as an effect of coordinates of the generalization of the inertial motion to the accelerated motion and, in particular, the description of the
metric tensor of gravity as a geometric field. These properties are really of the quantum vacuum, the main existence form of the matter. In this paper we propose that the quantum vacuum is the source of dark matter and dark energy, therefore, the components of the quantum vacuum are of them. Both are opposite effects of the quantum vacuum that when gravitationally interacts with the cosmic structures, the vacuum it curves and when such interaction tends to cease by declination of the formation of these structures, occurring since near five milliard of years ago, vacuum it maintains quasi plane, since it interacts gravitationally very weakly with itself, accelerating expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1370] **viXra:1610.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-10 17:58:58*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. none

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions, which are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions, are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using simple photon clocks. This approach avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1369] **viXra:1610.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-10 11:24:52*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: shows a viewpoint about the structure and composition of cosmic ontology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1368] **viXra:1610.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-09 08:16:10*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: shows a viewpoint about the structure and composition of cosmic ontology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1367] **viXra:1610.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-09 00:52:21*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: giving a viewpoint about the structure and composition of cosmic ontology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1366] **viXra:1609.0395 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-29 03:42:57*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Understanding Today's Science with Help from Special Relativity and General Relativity. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3863556.v2 Retrieved: 08 20, Sep 29, 2016 (GMT)

This article began to take shape in my mind when I read an item in Astronomy magazine. That item mentioned how timing by GPS (the Global Positioning System) requires input from both Special Relativity - where time slows down fractionally because the satellites in orbit are fast-moving – and General Relativity, where the satellites' distance from Earth's gravity causes their time to speed up fractionally. This led to the conclusions that 1) the gravitational waves making up the gravity field are, as Einstein suggested in a paper written four years after publication of the general theory, involved in production of mass, 2) these waves participate with the other long-range force, electromagnetism, to also produce the two nuclear forces associated with the mass (making nuclear forces non-fundamental and the Higgs force another name for gravitational-electromagnetic coupling), 3) black holes are composed of gravitational and electromagnetic waves focused on them from deep space, and this accounts for their extreme gravity as well as extreme mass, 4) there's a link between the macroscopic black holes of astronomy and the subatomic gluons of particle physics, and 5) Einstein's contributions don't end with the two Relativities, or even the paper written 4 years after the general theory, but can be extended to his Unified Field Theory.
His Unified Field might not be generally accepted today because it was incomplete, just as he described quantum mechanics as incomplete. In 1957, Charles Misner and John Wheeler, in the “Annals of Physics”, claimed Albert Einstein’s latest equations demonstrated the unified field theory. However, the necessary completion of the unified field may not exclusively lie with the mathematics Einstein seemed to increasingly rely on as he aged but with concepts in computer science as well as intuitions in the mathematical branch called topology. Computer science's binary digits (bits) result from apparently random Virtual Particles that conceal Chaos theory's "order within disorder". These bits are encoded in programs taking the form of topology's Mobius strips, and these combine into four-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles that make particles sensible (bottles affect every sense and scientific probe because the pulses forming them also form the complete properties of the Gravitational-ElectroMagnetic Field). The bottles also explain space-time's positive and negative curvatures, as well as the flatness of infinity/eternity. Einstein was a Superman at exploring new ideas in his youth. Had electronic computers been invented 30 or 40 years earlier, it appears likely we’d be living with the fruits of the unified field now.
PS
This article also mentions Hawking radiation, spin, superconductivity, imaginary time, complex number plane, quark-gluon plasma, antigraviton, shape of space, tachyons, dark energy, dark matter, antimatter, etc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1365] **viXra:1609.0392 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-05 09:27:32*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: put forward a viewpoint regarding to the origin of our universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1364] **viXra:1609.0392 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-30 01:26:06*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: put forward a viewpoint regarding to the origin of our universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1363] **viXra:1609.0392 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-27 22:33:02*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: put forward a viewpoint of the origin of our universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1362] **viXra:1609.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-12 04:12:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment is a strong and compelling evidence for emission theory of light. Emission theory, unlike ether theory, can also explain Bradley stellar aberration. There is also the less known Bryan G Wallace analysis of Venus planet radar range data anomaly, which could be explained only by emission theory. The emission theory was abandoned because : 1) it was not compatible with Maxwell's electrodynamics: it predicted frozen light for a light source moving with velocity of light away from an observer 2) moving source experiments showed that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. Bradley observed no variation of the angle of aberration with different stars, demonstrating that the speed of light is independent of the velocity of the stars. The first of these problems is solved by a new interpretation of Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light ' ): constant phase velocity and variable group velocity of light. For an observer moving away from a light source at the speed of light, the phases will still move at the speed of light relative to the observer, but the group will be 'frozen'. This interpretation requires that Doppler effect depend only on source observer relative velocity, demanding a new symmetrical law for Doppler effect of light. This is the Exponential Law of Doppler effect of light proposed in this paper, which can easily explain the Ives-Stilwell experiments. The second problem is resolved by a new hypothesis that the effect of absolute motion of a light source is to change the speed of light relative to the source so that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. Ether theory and emission theory are seamlessly united into a new theory. This is also in line with light having both wave and particle properties. The ether doesn't exist, but absolute motion does. The conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment was fundamentally flawed in that they considered light as ordinary material waves . A new interpretation of absolute motion is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1361] **viXra:1609.0348 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-22 13:58:50*

**Authors:** Mutasim A. Ahmed

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

To explain flyby effect we argue that. Photons of the telemetry signal. Emitted from the free-falling spacecraft. Being themselves sources of gravitomagnetic field. Will interact with the field generated by the relatively moving Earth. Because the spacecraft is in free-fall state. An observer on-board it can claim to be at absolute rest. According to the equivalence principle. Therefore an observer and in this case the telemetry photons, can assume being emitted from the spacecraft which is at rest. Towards Earth which is now moving towards them with the same velocity of the spacecraft. The gravitomagnetic force in this case will be attractive. And due to the highly symmetrical trajectory of the spacecraft. An equivalent repulsive force will be experienced by telemetry photons during the departure of the spacecraft. Because in this case photons and Earth will be moving in the same direction. The force of attraction will manifest in the form of a blue-shift. And that of the repulsion will manifest as a red-shift. So if we measure the effect equally during the inbound and the outbound, the two effects will add to zero. The effect is highly dependent on the way we observe it. As we will show.
As for the gravity probe-b case. We thought the equivalence principle must be fully applied. Therefore an observer in a free falling frame. Have the right to claim being at rest. While the rest of the Universe will be moving with his same velocity, in the opposite direction. So from the point of view of the rotating gyroscope, Earth will be orbiting the gyroscope. We usually call this an “apparent revolution”. But for the gyroscope this revolution can produce measurable effects. Using this reasoning we obtained a field which is nearly 100 times greater than the expected one.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1360] **viXra:1609.0276 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-26 06:47:10*

**Authors:** Pavel Voráček

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A trivially easy argument, which – in fact – follows from the General relativity theory, is used in order to point out an evident flaw in the commonly accepted interpretation of the Principle of equivalence in Einstein’s box. It is shown that the flaw by itself has no destructive impact on the Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1359] **viXra:1609.0275 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-20 18:04:40*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple and clear explanation to the seemingly strange observed phenomenon of the ecliptic alignment of CMB anisotropy is presented. The proposed explanation is based on the wrongly excluded cosmological model of spherical space and radial time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1358] **viXra:1609.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-20 18:52:45*

**Authors:** Amine Benachour

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We confirm the self-consistency of the Lorentz transformation by solving the mathematical problem encountered when one deal with some thought experiments involving simultaneous events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1357] **viXra:1609.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-16 20:24:58*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In this version I have added a section on rapidity as well as relativity of simultaneity for sub-atomic particles

Haug [1, 2] has recently shown there is a speed limit for fundamental particles just below the speed of light. This speed limit means that the mass of a fundamental particle not will go towards infinity as v approaches c in the Einstein relativistic mass equation. The relativistic mass limit for a fundamental particle is the Planck mass. In this paper we use the same velocity limit in the Lorentz transformation. This leads to what we think could be significant results with some interesting interpretations. In addition we look at rapidity as well as relativity of simultaneity for subatomic particles at this maximum velocity for masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1356] **viXra:1608.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-20 07:24:09*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez Saldarriaga

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Nuevo enfoque de la famosa paradoja de los gemelos
en el espacio tiempo de Minkowski.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1355] **viXra:1608.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-25 08:42:04*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez Saldarriaga

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

La paradoja del tren y el túnel, explicando la imposibilidad de que exista simetría física en varios sistemas de referencia.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1354] **viXra:1608.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-20 14:24:17*

**Authors:** Mutasim A. Ahmed

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Although relative motion in the special theory of relativity, can have true and verifiable results. At least for a particular observer. But we ignored it in the case of the rotation of Earth and other planets and cosmic objects, around their own axes. My aim is to find “Earth's Resultant Inertial Rotation” ERIR. This ERIR is resulting from the curved path due to gravity, and the circular path of an observer due to rotation. Out of the whole rotation. And for this ERIR an observer can assume the state of rest. While the whole observable universe will be revolving relatively around him in the opposite direction. This “Universe's Relative Revolution” URR will be displayed in conformity with circular motion laws. I was able to find an equation to describe this type of ERIR. Using this equation and postulating that aberration of distant objects light. Would allow us to see a component of the tangential velocity produced by the URR along our line of sight. Therefore we reinterpreted the Hubble phenomenon. And predicted a blue-shift on the other side of the sky, mostly behind the zone of avoidance. The dependence of Hubble's constant on aberration angle is emphasized. Therefore we concluded that, the great attractor, the Virgo infall, the CMB dipole, the dark energy, and the fingers of God theories and the likes were based on illusions. All the CMB anomalies detected by WMAP spacecraft, and Planck spacecraft, can be explained. And the pioneer effect, can also be explained. The diurnal and annual variations of the effect also accounted for. Also it is possible using this global URR to find a universal mechanism for magnetic field generation. Which can be applied for all cosmic objects, from asteroids to magnetars and even galaxies. By assuming an excess in the positive charge due to protons, in deep space. Therefore we will have a solenoid mechanism for magnetic field generation. But we will give only the outlines, so that other investigators can develop it further.
We made a clear distinction between the object with sufficient gravity to hold observers to its surface, while rotating around its own axis. And those objects incapable of doing this, like spacecrafts.
The results obtained for Earth can be generalized for all planets and even stars by replacing Earth's parameters by their respective parameters.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1353] **viXra:1608.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-30 11:04:03*

**Authors:** Mutasim A. Ahmed

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Although relative motion, in the special theory of relativity, can have true and verifiable results, like generation of magnetic field by an electrostatic charge at rest, because an observer moving inertially can assume the state of rest while the charge is claimed by him to be moving with his same velocity in the opposite direction, but we ignored relative motion in the case of the rotation of Earth around its own axis, my aim is to find a “resultant inertial rotation”, (resulting from the curved path due to gravity, and the circular path of an observer due to rotation) out of the whole rotation, that is to claim that if the curvature of the observer's circular path is same as the curvature produced by gravity the motion will be perfectly inertial, otherwise there will be a resultant inertial motion, and for this “resultant inertial rotation” , an observer can assume the state of rest, while the whole observable Universe will be rotating relatively in the opposite direction, this relative Universal rotation will be displayed, in conformity with circular motion laws. I was able to find an equation to describe this type of rotation, and for very distant objects, where Earth's orbit around the Sun dwarfs to zero, so using this equation, and assuming that the secular aberration of light of distant cosmic objects, due to Sun's movement with its peculiar velocity, around the Galactic center, we assumed that aberration will allow us to observe a component of the tangential velocity due to this Universal rotation, along our line of sight.
It will be possible for us, to explain the Hubble phenomenon, and predict a blue-shift, on the other side of the sky, mostly behind the zone of avoidance, hence we predict two points one with maximum red-shift and the other opposite to it with maximum blue-shift, these two points will coincide with the CMB dipole, also we can show that the Hubble constant is not a constant and its value depends on the aberration angle, therefore we can prove that the great attractor, the Virgo in-fall, the CMB dipole, the dark energy, and the fingers of God theories and the likes are based on illusions, all the CMB anomalies detected by WMAP, and Planck spacecrafts, can be explained with ease, and the pioneer effect can also be explained, and the diurnal and annual variations of the effects can be accounted for naturally due to the dependence of the effect on the aberration angle, but in the case of the pioneer spacecrafts, we have to consider Earth's revolution around the Sun, as the aberration generator, as well as the daily Earth's rotation as the source of diurnal aberration, as we will show. Also it is possible (using this rotation) to find a universal mechanism, for magnetic field generation, which can be applied for all cosmic objects, from asteroids to magnetars and even galaxies, by simply assuming an excess in the positive charge, due to protons, over the negative one, in deep space, therefore we will have a solenoid mechanism for magnetic field generation, but we will give only the outlines so other investigators can develop it further.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1352] **viXra:1608.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-22 16:29:34*

**Authors:** Mutasim A. Ahmed

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Although relative motion, in the special theory of relativity, can have true and verifiable results, like generation of magnetic field by an electrostatic charge at rest, because an observer moving inertially can assume the state of rest while the charge is claimed by him to be moving with his same velocity in the opposite direction, but we ignored relative motion in the case of the rotation of Earth around its own axis, my aim is to find a “resultant inertial rotation”, (resulting from the curved path due to gravity, and the circular path of an observer due to rotation) out of the whole rotation, that is to claim that if the curvature of the observer's circular path is same as the curvature produced by gravity the motion will be perfectly inertial, otherwise there will be a resultant inertial motion, and for this “resultant inertial rotation” , an observer can assume the state of rest, while the whole observable Universe will be rotating relatively in the opposite direction, this relative Universal rotation will be displayed, in conformity with circular motion laws. I was able to find an equation to describe this type of rotation, and for very distant objects, where Earth's orbit around the Sun dwarfs to zero, so using this equation, and assuming that the secular aberration of light of distant cosmic objects, due to Sun's movement with its peculiar velocity, around the Galactic center, we assumed that aberration will allow us to observe a component of the tangential velocity due to this Universal rotation, along our line of sight.
It will be possible for us, to explain the Hubble phenomenon, and predict a blue-shift, on the other side of the sky, mostly behind the zone of avoidance, hence we predict two points one with maximum red-shift and the other opposite to it with maximum blue-shift, these two points will coincide with the CMB dipole, also we can show that the Hubble constant is not a constant and its value depends on the aberration angle, therefore we can prove that the great attractor, the Virgo in-fall, the CMB dipole, the dark energy, and the fingers of God theories and the likes are based on illusions, all the CMB anomalies detected by WMAP, and Planck spacecrafts, can be explained with ease, and the pioneer effect can also be explained, and the diurnal and annual variations of the effects can be accounted for naturally due to the dependence of the effect on the aberration angle, but in the case of the pioneer spacecrafts, we have to consider Earth's revolution around the Sun, as the aberration generator, as well as the daily Earth's rotation as the source of diurnal aberration, as we will show. Also it is possible (using this rotation) to find a universal mechanism, for magnetic field generation, which can be applied for all cosmic objects, from asteroids to magnetars and even galaxies, by simply assuming an excess in the positive charge, due to protons, over the negative one, in deep space, therefore we will have a solenoid mechanism for magnetic field generation, but we will give only the outlines so other investigators can develop it further.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1351] **viXra:1608.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-18 07:33:36*

**Authors:** Mutasim A. Ahmed

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Although relative motion, in the special theory of relativity, can have true and verifiable results, at least for a particular observer, but we ignored it in the case of the rotation of Earth around it's own axis, my aim is to find a “resultant inertial rotation”, (resulting from the curved path due to gravity, and the circular path of an observer due to rotation) out of the whole rotation, that is to claim that if the curvature of the observer's circular path is same as the curvature produced by gravity the motion will be perfectly inertial, otherwise there will be a resultant inertial motion, and for this “resultant inertial rotation” , an observer can assume the state of rest, while the whole observable Universe will be rotating relatively in the opposite direction, this relative Universal rotation will be displayed, in conformity with circular motion laws. I was able to find an equation to describe this type of rotation, and for very distant objects, where Earth's orbit around the Sun, dwarf's to zero, so using this equation, and assuming that the secular aberration of light of distant cosmic objects, due to Sun's movement with it's peculiar velocity, around the Galactic center, we assumed that aberration will allow us to observe a component of the tangential velocity due to this Universal rotation, along our line of sight.
Abstract It will be possible for us, to explain the Hubble phenomenon, and predict a blue-shift, on the other side of the sky, mostly behind the zone of avoidance, hence we predict two points one with maximum red-shift and the other opposite to it with maximum blue-shift, these two points will coincide with the CMB dipole, also we can show that the Hubble constant is not a constant and it's value depends on the aberration angle, therefore we can prove that the great attractor, the Virgo in-fall, the CMB dipole, the dark energy, and the fingers of God theories and the likes are based on illusions, all the CMB anomalies detected by WMAP, and Planck spacecrafts, can be explained with ease, and the pioneer effect can also be explained, and the diurnal and annual variations of the effects can be accounted for naturally due to the dependence of the effect on the aberration angle, but in the case of the pioneer spacecrafts, we have to consider Earth's revolution around the Sun, as the aberration generator, as well as the daily Earth's rotation as the source of diurnal aberration, as we will show. Also it is possible (using this rotation) to find a universal mechanism, for magnetic field generation, which can be applied for all cosmic objects, from asteroids to magnetars and even galaxies, by simply assuming an excess in the positive charge, due to protons, over the negative one, in deep space, therefore we will have a solenoid mechanism for magnetic field generation, but we will give only the outlines so other investigators can develop it further.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1350] **viXra:1608.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-22 19:28:01*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Planck’s solution to the blackbody radiation spectrum in his paper from 1900 was the idea that electromagnetic energy is emitted and absorbed as “quanta” with the energy of each quantum given by E=hf where h is Planck’s constant. Einstein took this idea further in his 1905 paper on the photoelectric effect showing us that light behaves as particles or “photons.” The year 1925 saw the birth of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics where h plays a central role in its various formalisms such as Schrödinger’s wave equation and Heisenberg’s matrices, to name but two. However, not a single formalism of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is derived, but merely guessed at with h introduced ad hoc or empirically. Rather than guesswork we shall show continuity by generalising E=hf using the equations of relativistic mechanics to render relativistic dynamics consistent with the de Broglie relations. This derivation could have preceded the advent of quantum mechanics in 1925 and is the beginning of a new paradigm of Relativity showing us the true significance of Planck’s four-dimensional constant. It will be shown that the evolution from classical physics to this new paradigm of Relativity is inevitable by using mass for the final time in its derivation. Most, if not all, the problems and inconsistencies that beset theoretical physics today will be avoided. The pre-1925 physics used throughout this paper is common knowledge and can be found in any standard textbook of physics [1], with the argument already presented in [2] and [3], but clarified here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1349] **viXra:1608.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-12 02:00:09*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Planck’s constant h is measured in units of energy (ergs) × time (seconds) called “actions” and the significance of h is that it is a “four-dimensional” constant, meaning it is consistent with special relativity where the three dimensions of space and one of time are treated as a four-dimensional continuum. Action (energy × time) is the same for all observers in special relativity even if they disagree about the size of the energy and time components of that action [1]. Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is not consistent with special relativity even though h plays a central role in its various formalisms such as Schrödinger’s wave equation and Heisenberg’s matrices, to name but a few. Not a single formalism of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is derived, but merely guessed at with h introduced ad hoc or empirically. We shall resolve all these issues by generalising the energy of a photon using the equations of relativistic mechanics to render relativistic dynamics consistent with the de Broglie relations. This derivation could have preceded the advent of quantum mechanics in 1925 and is the beginning of a new paradigm of Relativity. With the advent of Relativity all the problems posed by present day theories disappear as this new paradigm leaves no other theory in its wake. Therefore, it is most expedient to focus upon deriving this paradigm, which renders the problems of present day physics of historical interest. The derivation of this paradigm has already been presented in [2] and [3], but will be clarified here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1348] **viXra:1608.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-11 17:58:13*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Planck’s constant h is measured in units of energy (ergs) × time (seconds) called “actions” and the significance of h is that it is a “four-dimensional” constant, meaning it is consistent with special relativity where the three dimensions of space and one of time are treated as a four-dimensional continuum. Action (energy × time) is the same for all observers in special relativity even if they disagree about the size of the energy and time components of that action [1]. Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is not consistent with special relativity even though h plays a central role in its various formalisms such as Schrödinger’s wave equation and Heisenberg’s matrices, to name but a few. Not a single formalism of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is derived, but merely guessed at with h introduced ad hoc or empirically. We shall resolve all these issues by generalising the energy of a photon using the equations of relativistic mechanics to render relativistic dynamics consistent with the de Broglie relations. This derivation could have preceded the advent of quantum mechanics in 1925 and is the beginning of a new paradigm of Relativity. With the advent of Relativity all the problems posed by present day theories disappear as this new paradigm leaves no other theory in its wake. Therefore, it is most expedient to focus upon deriving this paradigm, which renders the problems of present day physics of historical interest. The derivation of this paradigm has already been presented in [2] and [3], but will be clarified here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1347] **viXra:1608.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-24 21:27:37*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We shall generalise the energy of a photon using the equations of relativistic mechanics to render relativistic dynamics consistent with the de Broglie relations. In turn it will be shown why these new relations necessitates Galileo’s law of falling of bodies be exact, which is fundamental in general relativity only now tidal effects can no longer be ignored locally. This new paradigm of Relativity is inevitable and shows the true significance of Planck’s constant. In principle, it could have been discovered before the advent of quantum mechanics in 1925. Finally, we complete the argument for this new paradigm of Relativity by assuming the validity of the Bekenstein-Hawking formula. Inevitably as a paradigm the implications for the totality of physics will be discussed. This has already been done in [1] and [2] but will be clarified here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1346] **viXra:1608.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-14 19:23:26*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The General Relativity understands gravity like inertial movement of the free fall of the bodies in curved spacetime of Lorentz. The law of inertia of Newton would be particular case of the inertial movement of the bodies in the spacetime flat of Euclid. But, in the step, of the particular to the general, breaks the law of inertia of Galilei since recovers the rectilinear uniform movement but not the repose state, unless the bodies have undergone their union, although, the curved spacetime becomes flat and the curved
geodesies becomes straight lines. For General Relativity is a natural law, within of a
gravitational field, the uniform accelerated movement of the bodies, that leads to that a
geometric curvature puts out to the bodies of the repose state for animate them of the movement of free fallen. In this paper this error of General Relativity, like generalization of the law of inertia of Galilei, is examined and it is found that it is caused by suppression of mass and force
that allows conceiving acceleration like property of spacetime. This is a mathematical and non-ontological result. Indeed, mass and force are the fundament that the gravitational acceleration is a constant value for all the bodies, independently of the magnitude of mass but not of the mass and the gravitational force. The action of the gravity force, on inertial and gravitational masses of a body, produces mutual
cancellation during its free fallen. In addition, by means of the third law of Newton it
demonstrates that gravity is a force since weight is caused by gravity force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1345] **viXra:1607.0560 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-10 13:53:26*

**Authors:** Yuri Heymann

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The universe is characterized by large concentrations of energy contained in small, dense areas such as galaxies, which radiate energy towards the surrounding space. However, no current theory balances the loss of energy of galaxies, a requirement for a conservative universe. This study is an investigation of the physics nature might use to maintain the energy diﬀerential between its dense parts and the vacuum. We propose time contraction as a principle to maintain this energy diﬀerential. Time contraction has the following eﬀects: photons lose energy, while masses gain potential energy and lose kinetic energy. From the virial theorem, which applies to a system of bodies, we ﬁnd that the net energy resulting from the gain in potential energy and the loss in kinetic energy remains unchanged, meaning that the orbitals of stars in galaxies remain unaﬀected by time contraction. However, each object in a galaxy has an internal potential energy leading to a surplus of energy within the object. This internal energy surplus should balance with the energy radiated at the level of a galaxy. We illustrate this principle with a calculation of the energy balance of the Milky Way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology