**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(20) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(10) - 1005(10) - 1006(12) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(10) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(36) - 1104(10) - 1105(5) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(12) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(16)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(22) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(29) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(35) - 1402(28) - 1403(32) - 1404(32) - 1405(38) - 1406(34) - 1407(44) - 1408(32) - 1409(26) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(29)

2015 - 1501(41) - 1502(28) - 1503(26) - 1504(29) - 1505(29) - 1506(34) - 1507(25) - 1508(32) - 1509(41) - 1510(40) - 1511(40)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1835] **viXra:1511.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 18:09:13*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Published in Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk 185 (11) 1225 ± 1227 (2015)

It is shown that the gravitational and inertial masses of a photon or indeed of any body are equal. Motion past and free fall onto a center of gravitational attraction are considered.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1834] **viXra:1511.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 18:44:17*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Stevens

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

Speed C= Distance/time=0

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1833] **viXra:1511.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 01:47:44*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of general relativity, many others would look back on its history and achievements, so I will write mine focusing on the problems of general relativity and their solutions. Since its publication, general theory of relativity has been numerously challenged but time-tested in the process through numerous experiments.
However, the possibility and demand for revised general relativity is also coming to the fore.
This arises from its own problem of general relativity or is required from newly found observations. In my eyes, currently, there are three big problems with respect to general relativity. 1) Problems of integration with quantum mechanics and the case of a very big curvature in space-time. 2) The theory includes the existence of singularity, which denies the application of general relativity itself, as a solution for field equation. 3) Rising of the problems of dark energy and dark matter. I would investigate these problems in reverse order and propose my ideas to work them out or solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1832] **viXra:1511.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 01:47:12*

**Authors:** Miroslav Súkeník, Jozef Šima

**Comments:** 10 Pages. No comment

In the paper, relation of logarithmic integral (li) function to the metric of nondecelerative universe model is discussed. It opens the coupling of mathematic prime number theory and macroworld. Up-to-now there has been just a relation between zeros distribution of the zeta function, theory of random matrix and distribution of energy levels in quantum chaotic systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1831] **viXra:1511.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 07:54:00*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The general curvature of the universe which determine the shape , evolution and fate of the universe is not the same as the average curvature of the universe which is associated with the average density. Mixing them up leads to the problematic dependence of the shape , evolution and fate of the universe on its average density .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1830] **viXra:1511.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 20:38:06*

**Authors:** Chunxuan Jiang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

中国发射暗物质卫星促使nature提出zombie physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1829] **viXra:1511.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 15:38:56*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Three pages

Many talk about Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity when they are thinking Lorentz/Einstein 1916 “Lorentz Relativity.” The difference is described in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1828] **viXra:1511.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 12:10:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A Florida State University high-performance computing researcher has predicted a physical effect that would help physicists and astronomers provide fresh evidence of the correctness of Einstein's general theory of relativity. [4]
This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1827] **viXra:1511.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 15:27:33*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Please contact Gene at genebarbee@msn.com

Observations of the universe’s expansion have created discussion regarding dark energy. Preliminary type 1a supernova data suggested that the universe might be accelerating although this is now unclear. There is consensus that expansion currently is more linear than the equations R=r*t^(1/2) and R=r*t^(2/3). Since the second equation represents conversion of kinetic energy to potential energy and is a curve, data proving that expansion is almost linear in the later period appears to violate energy conservation and require a dark (unknown) energy source.
This paper presents calculations indicating that energy produced by stars causes the linear expansion curve. The analysis draws on data regarding the relative abundance of elements to determine the number of stars and their energy radiation. Energy produced by stars is fusion energy and provides an alternate to dark energy. Current cosmology is based on mass with kinetic energy (with critical density that includes a dark component). A reduced critical density value is presented which subtracts the fusion source. Revised cosmological parameters are included. A full expansion curve is presented, including an analysis of limits on baryon/photon ratio.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1826] **viXra:1511.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 07:41:35*

**Authors:** C.A. Laforet

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The (proper) transit time of a light signal emitted by an observer at rest at r_0 in a Schwarzschild gravitational field, reflected by body at some distance r>r_0 and received by the observer is shown to decrease as the observer is moved closer to the event horizon. This suggests that observers at rest close to the event horizon will see an increasingly length contracted Universe. We then seek to discover whether the free falling observer will also see the Universe similarly contracted as he/she falls toward the horizon. Using the definition of the Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates (T, X) in terms of Schwarzschild coordinates (r, t) and expanding the expression for dT/dX, it is shown that the worldlines of both timelike and spacelike observers must have slopes approaching 1 on the Kruskal-Szekeres coordinate chart implying that the free falling observer should indeed see an increasingly length contracted Universe as he/she falls toward the horizon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1825] **viXra:1511.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 05:10:23*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Lorentz transformation of special relativity theory has been derived inductively. Using this equation, we could predict possible phenomenon. But it doesn’t suggest underlying nature laws. Here we try to derive it deductively from some definitions and proposed hypotheses. If it is possible, the hypotheses could be new natural laws.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1824] **viXra:1511.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 10:06:00*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

According to Weizaecker's Ur-Theory there are N so called 'urs' that form each object in the universe. Each 'ur' is one bit of information, so the entropy S of the universe in natural units is: $S = 4\pi M^2 = 4\pi N$.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1823] **viXra:1511.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-17 19:15:07*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There is no way to know the speed things are really happening.
If everything is happening very slowly so is the way the brain sees
it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1822] **viXra:1511.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 16:45:37*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Collecting Energy from the Saturated Vacuum

Existing technology is extended with reasonable modifications to show that energy can be borrowed from the vacuum and used for a period of time before being repaid to the vacuum.
Physical laws are proposed to reside in the vacuum of space and be enforced by the vacuum energy. Fundamental principles are found in Schrödinger’s writing to govern the collection of energy in non-random systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1821] **viXra:1511.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 08:13:54*

**Authors:** Sudesh Kumar Arora

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

An alternate model for cosmology is defined using general relativity and a new metric which is based on cosmological principle and the assumption that size of atoms changes with time. Geodesic of photons calculated using the new metric indicate towards a contracting universe. Predictions for three basic tests of cosmology, viz. luminosity versus redshift relation for Type Ia Supernovae, stretched light curves of Supernovae and angular size versus redshift relation for galaxies match the observed data without any size evolution. Origin of CMB can be explained in new model and epoch of recombination is calculated at a redshift of around 30 which translates to approximately 445 billion years. Explanation for formation of large scale structures and other issues like flatness and horizon problem is straight forward in new model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1820] **viXra:1511.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 17:10:02*

**Authors:** Silas Sacheli Santos

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

New equations for the motion of the bodies are derived using concepts of Newton and Maxwell, a preferred frame (CMB), and the light and force fields with velocity c in relation to CMB. And we have a theory that explain the relativistics experiments like mass variation, time dilation, transverse Doppler effect, etc. An experiment is proposed to test this theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1819] **viXra:1511.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 21:35:04*

**Authors:** Chunxuan Jiang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

本文在中国遭遇促使nature提出一个新名词zombie.physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1818] **viXra:1511.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 08:38:15*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter, P.e

**Comments:** Three pages

If you cannot explain it to a Barmaid, you probably do not understand it yourself, sayeth Ernest Rutherford

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1817] **viXra:1511.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-13 14:10:31*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

The differences between Dissidents and the politically correct “Main Stream” are discussed along with Dr. Einstein’s consistent published ideas between 1905 and 1952

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1816] **viXra:1511.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-12 19:57:08*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Unbroken E8 symmetry is required for -mc^2 matter and supersymmetry to exist and a flat, cyclic universe to form. Our present epoch is unfortunately of broken E8 symmetry type in which negative intrinsic energy is not possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1815] **viXra:1511.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-12 13:22:09*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper is the French version of «THE ALLAIS ECLIPSE EFFECT AND THE SECULAR ADVANCES OF THE NODE OF VENUS AND THE PERIHELION OF MARS» on viXra.org/abs/1511.0101.

Dans le présent travail, on cherche à expliquer les désaccords en ce qui concerne les avances séculaires du nœud de Vénus et du périhélie de Mars. Nous supposons que ces deux désaccords relatifs aux deux planètes voisines de la Terre s’expliquent par une augmentation de l’unité astronomique (UA), résultant de l’hypothèse de l’effet d’éclipse Allais. Dans un article précédent [1], nous avons supposé que les éclipses étaient les causes plutôt que les témoins de l’éloignement de la Lune de la Terre et, du même coup, de l’éloignement du système Terre-Lune du Soleil. L’éloignement du système Terre-Lune augmente l’UA, c’est-à-dire la distance Terre-Soleil, d’environ 10 mètres par siècle, ce qui rapproche la Terre de Mars et l’éloigne de Vénus. Le rapprochement de Mars contribue à l’avance du périhélie de mars qui est de 8" par siècle et l’éloignement de Vénus contribue à l’avance du nœud de Vénus qui est de 10" par siècle (valeur des avances exprimées en secondes d’arc).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1814] **viXra:1511.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-12 13:38:35*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Is energy equal to length? How about speed? Is speed equal to mass? No, of course not.

So everyone needs to stop saying mass and energy are equal -- they are not equal.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1813] **viXra:1511.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-12 12:28:09*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the present work, we try to explain the discordances regarding the secular advances of the node of Venus and the perihelion of Mars. We assume that these two discordances concerning the two neighboring planets of the Earth can be explained by an increase of the astronomical unit (AU), resulting from the hypothesis of the Allais eclipse effect. In a previous article [1], we supposed that the eclipses were the causes rather than the witnesses of the withdrawal of the Moon from the Earth and, at the same time, of the remoteness of the Earth-Moon system from the sun. The remoteness of the Earth-Moon system increases the AU, i.e. the Earth-Sun distance, of about 10 meters per century, which approaches the Earth from Mars and moves it away from Venus. Becoming closer from Mars contributes to the advance of the perihelion of Mars that is 8" per century and the distancing of Venus helps to the advance the Venus node that is 10" per century (value of the advances expressed in arcseconds).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1812] **viXra:1511.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-12 07:08:24*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Four pages

We accurately describe what time is. And it is about time!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1811] **viXra:1511.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-11 07:11:24*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

On Tuesday, November 10, 2015 the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) showed the TV program "Einstein's Extraordinary Universe". It was a celebration of Einstein's release of the General Theory of Relativity 100 years ago this month, and was this week's edition of the ABC's program "Catalyst" (the presenter was Dr. Graham Phillips). This article is my own little way of celebrating Relativity's birthday. I had to limit my comment on the Catalyst website to 500 words, but I've expanded that here to nearly 2500 words.
PS Have I written the answer to life, the universe and everything? My smartphone says this article is 42 pages long. Didn't "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" say the answer to life, the universe and everything is 42?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1810] **viXra:1511.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-11 04:19:19*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The physico-mathematical model of force fields is based on the concept of continuity of space and it is represented by axes of the reference frame of the field whose continuity is defined by the existence of recurring decimal numbers and of irrational real numbers. Like for other fields quantum properties of gravitational field therefore have to be based on a quantization law like it happens for instance for electronic orbits inside the electrostatic field of atom. The purpose of this paper is to verify the possibility of defining a quantization law also for gravitational fields. Starting from these considerations then the author goes ahead with the calculation of relativistic errors of position and of synchronization delays relative to a system of measurement of position through satellite laboratory-stations in the gravitational field of second type.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1809] **viXra:1511.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-10 15:33:19*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Vacuum Polarization arising from high velocity

The Polarizable Vacuum theory of Harold Puthoff and others is evaluated with relativistic calculations to show that it can only be valid when velocity is small or zero.
A modification based on work by Niels Bohr in 1949 is used to extend PV theory for high velocity deep space transport.
The modification is used to predict that the high velocity of prolonged acceleration is sufficient to polarize the vacuum with a reversed curvature of space. A weakness of PV theory is removed by eliminating the leap of faith required for field effect generators.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1808] **viXra:1511.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-10 06:56:26*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Revised from 1510.0429

About special relativity theory and Lorentz transformation which is a part of the theory, some explanations used to be done. But it may be hard to understand these intuitively. The cause of it may be some basic nature laws are not discovered yet. Here we approach to the undiscovered nature laws.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1807] **viXra:1511.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-07 13:30:32*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 268 Pages. Part I in spanish

ABSTRACT
This book published in vixra; is an extensive research on the physics of the microworld
that has very direct implications for the world of the macrocosm: cosmology.
The implications are such that reveal, like gravity, including general relativity, they must
be corrected to account for gravitational anomalies as important as: 1) The rotation
speed curve within galaxies. In this research it demonstrates how there is a repulsive
acceleration caused by the quantum vacuum (c x H = a0, H = Hubble constant, c =
speed light in vacuum); It is the cause of abnormal speeds within galaxies and do not
follow the laws of gravitation, in the calculation by the laws of Keppler. Therefore, the
so-called dark matter does not exist.This acceleration repulsive also produces effects
of gravitational micro lens.
2) The annual increase in the Earth-Sun distance of about 15 cm per year. It is
calculated correctly and its cause is founded on this repulsive acceleration.
3) Similarly, the increase in the Earth-Moon distance of about 3.8 cm per year, is
calculated correctly.
4) The modification of gravity also explains the Allais effect. Effect, which in total solar
eclipses the pendulum stop rotating the plane of oscillation. It is calculated correctly.
5) The anomalous speed overflights of various spacecraft around the Earth. It explains
how the original Anderson´s equation is an adequate approximation.
6) The Chandler wobble is explained and calculated. This wobble is a rotation of
precession of the space around the Earth. Oscillation of a swing of the vacuum.
7) It is shown that the Earth is the center of the universe (hence, the alignment of the
ecliptic with the CMB is produced)
Earth being the center of the universe; is the entire space which revolves around the
Earth. This rotational speed of the universe is derived as a function of the properties of
the vacuum.
Not only the Earth does not turn on its own axis; if not that does not turn about the Sun
either. It is the Sun and the planets those that turn about the Earth.
8) If the Earth was turning on its own axis at a speed of 465 m/s it would be necessary
to produce a sonic boom. But this sonic boom, it does not take place.
9) If the Earth was turning on its own axis at the speed of 465 m/s, the friction with the
atmosphere, it would provoke that the Earth would stop its draft in 59 years.
10) The effect of the pendulum of Foucault takes place also if the space about the
Earth, turns at a speed of 465 m/s
That all these falsehoods on the existent movement of Earth's spin, have been kept so
long, are due to interests of the elite, but not at the service of truth. A lie repeated 1000
times make it a "truth"
11) The existence of a creator of the universe, God, it is a fact as scientific as could be,
for example, the existence of the light.
The book, for the time being, is only in spanish. Its extension of 537 pages will need
time to be translated into english.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1806] **viXra:1511.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-07 13:39:51*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 268 Pages. Part II only in spanish

This book published in vixra; is an extensive research on the physics of the microworld
that has very direct implications for the world of the macrocosm: cosmology.
The implications are such that reveal, like gravity, including general relativity, they must
be corrected to account for gravitational anomalies as important as: 1) The rotation
speed curve within galaxies. In this research it demonstrates how there is a repulsive
acceleration caused by the quantum vacuum (c x H = a0, H = Hubble constant, c =
speed light in vacuum); It is the cause of abnormal speeds within galaxies and do not
follow the laws of gravitation, in the calculation by the laws of Keppler. Therefore, the
so-called dark matter does not exist.This acceleration repulsive also produces effects
of gravitational micro lens.
2) The annual increase in the Earth-Sun distance of about 15 cm per year. It is
calculated correctly and its cause is founded on this repulsive acceleration.
3) Similarly, the increase in the Earth-Moon distance of about 3.8 cm per year, is
calculated correctly.
4) The modification of gravity also explains the Allais effect. Effect, which in total solar
eclipses the pendulum stop rotating the plane of oscillation. It is calculated correctly.
5) The anomalous speed overflights of various spacecraft around the Earth. It explains
how the original Anderson´s equation is an adequate approximation.
6) The Chandler wobble is explained and calculated. This wobble is a rotation of
precession of the space around the Earth. Oscillation of a swing of the vacuum.
7) It is shown that the Earth is the center of the universe (hence, the alignment of the
ecliptic with the CMB is produced)
Earth being the center of the universe; is the entire space which revolves around the
Earth. This rotational speed of the universe is derived as a function of the properties of
the vacuum.
Not only the Earth does not turn on its own axis; if not that does not turn about the Sun
either. It is the Sun and the planets those that turn about the Earth.
8) If the Earth was turning on its own axis at a speed of 465 m/s it would be necessary
to produce a sonic boom. But this sonic boom, it does not take place.
9) If the Earth was turning on its own axis at the speed of 465 m/s, the friction with the
atmosphere, it would provoke that the Earth would stop its draft in 59 years.
10) The effect of the pendulum of Foucault takes place also if the space about the
Earth, turns at a speed of 465 m/s
That all these falsehoods on the existent movement of Earth's spin, have been kept so
long, are due to interests of the elite, but not at the service of truth. A lie repeated 1000
times make it a "truth"
11) The existence of a creator of the universe, God, it is a fact as scientific as could be,
for example, the existence of the light.
The book, for the time being, is only in spanish. Its extension of 537 pages will need
time to be translated into english.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1805] **viXra:1511.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 21:13:30*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article takes the form of 3 "microarticles". They are 1) Relativity says science overvalues experiments, 2) Time dilation to co-moving and non-comoving observers and 3) EXPLORING VENUS, MARS, ETC BY ENTANGLING THEM WITH EARTH. Each microarticle was originally written to stand alone, but I decided they should be combined into one article.
Everybody (even including Nobel-winning physicists) seems to have a preference for experiment
instead of theory. This reminds me of a movie I saw about Alexander the Great. Aristotle (played by
Christopher Plummer) was teaching the young Alexander and said Greeks use their minds while
other races rely on their senses, and what they can see and hear etc. While science acknowledges the importance of theory and mind, it appears to be following Aristotle's "other races" when it declares that observation and experiment always have the last word.
This is justified by saying the ancient Greeks made mistakes because they didn't always rely enough on mathematics and experiment. However, it's well known that experimenters make mistakes too - from the days of Galileo to the recent experiments with faster-than-light neutrinos, and with the cosmic microwave background. This article hopes to plant a seed that will grow into a science which doesn't automatically assume observation and experiment must always have the last word.
The entire universe, along with all of the past and present and future, appears to be becoming unified by our science into one entity/event. Consider the 19th century's union of electricity and magnetism into the one force of electromagnetism (light, and every type of radiation, are forms of this). Consider the unifying attempts of Einstein's Unified Field Theory, as well as the union of space and time into space-time, in the 20th century - and of physics' subatomic String Theory and Theory of Everything in the 21st century. A vital player in this trend is quantum mechanics, with its experimentally verified quantum entanglement that says particles can affect each other regardless of distance in space-time.
The way things are going, the mathematics used on Earth will end up being revised. After all, it's based on the limited perceptions of our senses and the idea that a virtually unlimited set of separate observations and experiments can be made ie it says 1+1=2. But if absolutely everything is actually a single thing/event, 1+1 will have no choice but to equal 1.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1804] **viXra:1511.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-05 05:47:01*

**Authors:** Sudesh Kumar Arora

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

If we drop the generally accepted notion that size of atoms does not change in RW universe, then a new metric with scale factor as the time-time component is derived from the cosmological principal. Using Cartan-Karlhede algorithm it is proved that this metric is physically different from RW metric. This means RW metric is not a unique metric based on cosmological principal and employs certain assumptions implicitly which has not been noticed before.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1803] **viXra:1511.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-05 04:00:52*

**Authors:** Grisha Filippov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. no comment

Fundamental physical constants (FPC) and Universe co-evolution is considered, assuming that the individual set of FPC corresponding to each evolution stage (phase), differs from the FPC of the previous and the next stages, but genetically related to them. That relationship is stipulated as the FPC of any stage is "disaggregation" of the FPC previous stage. A particular version of such co-evolution stages sequence is proposed.8

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1802] **viXra:1511.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-04 10:59:50*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Everyone knows of Einstein's famous E = mc^2 equation, meaning energy is trapped in mass and ready to be released.

Tesla thought the opposite was true...

"There is no energy in matter other than that received from the environment." – Nikola Tesla

An equation has been discovered that confirms Tesla's idea.

Mnemonic memory device...

E for Einstein: E = mc^2

TL for Tesla: TL = mc^2

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1801] **viXra:1511.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-04 09:05:58*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

In this short note it is shown that the Gravitomagnetism can be misinterpreted and mistakenly identified with the gravitational mass dependence on velocity. The derivations show that a version of Gravitomagnetism can be derived for certain field arrangements from the formula for the mass dependence on velocity. For a one particular choice of the Gravitomagnetic field factor the resulting gravitational wave propagation velocity that follows from such Gravitomagnetism is larger than the speed of light, which is not acceptable. It is thus reasonable to modify the analog of Lorentz force equation instead, which leads to the speed of gravitational waves equal to c. Finally, it is found that this Generalized Lorentz force equation can be used to classify the various theories of gravitational force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1800] **viXra:1511.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 04:36:14*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The mass-energy formula E=mc^2 is thought to be derived by Einstein from special relativity. The present study shows that since the formula has also been derived from classical physics by Einstein, it has a deep-rooted connection with classical physics. The formula is implied by Maxwell’s electromagnetic momentum P=E/c and the Newtonian definition of momentum P=mv. It can be derived from classical physics with c as the constant velocity of light in its medium ether. The present study also shows that within the framework of classical physics, this classical physics based formula is correct in other inertial frames that move relative to the ether frame as well. In contrast, Einstein’s derivation in 1905 seems logically flawed as a relativistic proof, because it relies on the classical kinetic energy definition, approximates at low velocity and fails to show mass-energy equivalence in the same reference frame. Therefore, treating E=mc^2 as a quantity like the momentum P=mv , which applies to both classical physics and special relativity if relativistic mass is used in the equation, appears to be more consistent with the logic of special relativity. Then the truly relativistic formula should be E=E_0/√(1-v^2/c^2) derived by Laue and Klein, which corresponds to the formula of relativistic mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1799] **viXra:1511.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 05:45:00*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the other solution.For example, the other solution treats in Schwarzschild solution, Reissner-Nodstrom solution. Hence, the uniqueness of GR is denied by numberless solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1798] **viXra:1511.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 02:07:50*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article poses the question of a minimum cosmological constant, i.e. vacuum energy at the start of the cosmological evolution from a near singularity. We pose this comparing formalism as given by Berry (1976) as to a small time length, and compare that in its entirety to compare this value given by Berry (1976) with a minimum time length at the start of cosmological space-time evolution. Using the methodology of Zeldovich (1972) as to a problem with electron-positron pair production we also propose another upper bound to the problem of minimum time length which may be accessible to experimental inquiry. This then makes the problem of minimum time length a way of specifying a magnetic field dependence of the cosmological constant, which has major implications to answering if quinessence , i.e. a changing cosmological vacuum energy, or a constant for the “cosmological constant” problem . Our answer is an initial value greater than today which suggests either Quintessence, or if still a constant,a much better value for this parameter than what is suggested by traditional field theory methods.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1797] **viXra:1511.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-02 03:39:59*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 12 Pages. From QSCP-XX Colloquium, Septembre 2015, traducted in French

Abstract. A Coherent Cosmology is based on a number of oscillations. The main one is the matter-antimatter at 10^104 Hz. A connexion is made with the non-Doppler Kotov-Lyuty Coherent Cosmic oscillation, confirmed by a Topologic Axis which rehabilates the tachyonic boson string theory and justifies a massive gluon.
Résumé. Le transfert dimensionnel, par abus de langage, 'Principe Holographique', et sa version diophantienne, le Principe Holique (Sanchez, 1994). s'appliquent à la cosmologie permanente, en définissant une Cosmologie Cohérente, où l'Univers subit une oscillation matière-antimatière de fréquence 10^104 Hz. La fréquence de l'oscillation cosmique cohérente (non-Doppler) de Kotov-Lyuty s'intègre dans un processus d'élimination de la vitesse c, prouvant que l'Univers à un aspect tachyonique. Cela est confirmé par un Axe Topologique qui réhabilite la théorie bosono-tachyonique des cordes, et prévoit une masse au gluon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1796] **viXra:1510.0516 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-31 06:37:27*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Taking into account the energy in the beam of light between the source and the observer which increases with the expansion of the universe one can easily and conclusively prove that the total energy is conserved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1795] **viXra:1510.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 13:14:52*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 27 pages. Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 92, No. 10, P. 1074 – 1081 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjp-2013-068.

In the weak-field approximation of the covariant theory of gravitation the 4/3 problem is formulated for internal and external gravitational fields of a body in the form of a uniform ball. The dependence of the energy and the mass of the moving body on the energy of the field accompanying the body, as well as the dependence on the characteristic size of the body are described. Additions in the energy and the momentum of the system, defined by the energy and momentum of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields, associated with the body, are explicitly calculated. The conclusion is made that the energy and the mass of the system can be described through the energy of ordinary and strong gravitation and through the energies of electromagnetic fields of particles that compose the body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1794] **viXra:1510.0497 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 13:27:55*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 31 pages. Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 93, no. 11, P. 1335-1342 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjp-2015-0134.

The difference of equations of motion in the covariant theory of gravitation and in the general theory of relativity is used to explain the Pioneer anomaly. Calculation shows that the velocities of a spacecraft in both theories at equal distances can differ by several centimetres per second. This leads also to a possible explanation of the flyby anomaly and comet disturbances which are not taken into account by the general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1793] **viXra:1510.0445 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 07:30:05*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

The unnecessary confusion about Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity and why E = mc^2 is incorrect is discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1792] **viXra:1510.0443 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 18:37:06*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Adapted from a contributed talk at HTGRG-2, 11 August 2015, Quy Nhon, Vietnam.

Thirring and Feynman showed that the Einstein equation is simply a partial differential classical field equation, akin to Maxwell's equation, but its solutions are required to conform to the GR principles of general covariance and equivalence. It is noted, with many examples, that solutions of such equations can contravene required physical principles when they exhibit unphysical boundary conditions. From the equivalence principle and the necessity of the tensor contraction theorem to the general covariance of the Einstein equation, it is shown that metric tensors are physical only where all their components, and also those of their inverse matrix, are smoothly well-defined, and their signature is that of the Minkowski metric. Thus the "horizons" of the empty-space Schwarzschild solution metrics are clearly unphysical, which is traced to their violation of the boundary condition pertaining to the minimum energetically-allowed radius of a specified positive effective mass. It is also noted that the abstract "time" of "comoving" ostensible "coordinate systems" can't be registered by the clock of any GR observer, and that the metric feature which follows from that "time" clashes with well-known GR metric properties. In examples of the transformation to "standard" coordinates of "comoving coordinate" results which have unphysical metric singularities, unphysical boundary conditions in "time" are observed to be excised, and the metric singularities are seen to be excised in tandem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1791] **viXra:1510.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 07:28:11*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. rus (русский)

It is proposed a physical experiment to determine the speed of propagation of quantum information of the collapse of the wave function of entangled photons. To transfer the information need the carrier. Because the speed of the carrier faster than light, this role can perform the tachyon.

Предложен физический эксперимент по определению скорости распространения квантовой информации при коллапсе волновой функции запутанных фотонов. Для переноса информации необходим носитель. Поскольку скорость носителя выше скорости света, в этой роли может выступить тахион (tachyon).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1790] **viXra:1510.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 07:34:18*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. rus (русский)

The article provides a relativistic solution to the Ehrenfest’s paradox . It is shown the consistency of the predictions of special relativity to the rotating wheel.

Приводится решение парадокса колеса - парадокса Эренфеста. Показано, что парадокс является мнимым. В отношении вращающегося колеса специальная теория относительности делает непротиворечивые предсказания. Формулировки парадокса имеют ошибки.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1789] **viXra:1510.0410 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 17:24:09*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

This article describes two of the major errors of Einstein's reasoning in his 1905 document which founded the Special Theory of Relativity. Einstein contradicted himself by using both the principle of the constancy of speed of light, and a variable speed of light, along with a wrong synchronization method. A 3D animated simulation accompanies and demonstrates the statements of this article, and it is available at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOjNwuQUOAM

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1788] **viXra:1510.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 18:46:39*

**Authors:** Basudeba Mishra

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The concept of black-hole firewall postulated by J. Polchinski and others in July 2012
(http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.3123) was extended to suggest that typical black holes
with field theory duals have firewalls at the event horizon (10.1103/
PhysRevLett.111.171301). This argument makes no reference to entanglement between the
black hole and any distant system; hence it is not evaded by identifying degrees of freedom
inside the black hole with those outside. During the last one year, more than 100 papers and conferences/workshops have addressed the idea of firewalls and examined different
aspects. We present three different empirical solutions to the paradox by revisiting the
foundational principles in each case. In this paper, we reexamine foundations of the
Equivalence Principle (EP) using Russell’s paradox of set theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1787] **viXra:1510.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-24 00:01:52*

**Authors:** Chunxuan Jiang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

中国年底发射暗物质卫星是最大错误

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1094] **viXra:1511.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-19 09:57:38*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

According to Weizaecker's Ur-Theory there are N so called 'urs' that form each object in the universe.
Each 'ur' is one bit of information, so the entropy S of the universe in natural units is: $S = 4\pi M^2 = 4\pi N$.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1093] **viXra:1511.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-20 10:22:44*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There is no way to know the speed things are really happening. If everything is happening very slowly so is the way the brain sees it.

It's like being a character in a movie and you don't know the speed the projector is running... fast, slow, stop, start... you don't know.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1092] **viXra:1511.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-18 12:17:52*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There is no way to know the speed things are really happening. If everything is happening very slowly so is the way the brain sees it.

It's like being a character in a movie and you don't know the speed the projector is running... fast, slow, stop, start... you don't know.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1091] **viXra:1511.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-18 17:34:30*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Collecting Energy from the Saturated Vacuum

Existing technology is extended with reasonable modifications to show that energy can be borrowed from the vacuum and used for a period of time before being repaid to the vacuum.
Physical laws are proposed to reside in the vacuum of space and be enforced by the vacuum energy. Fundamental principles are found in Schrödinger’s writing to govern the collection of energy in non-random systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1090] **viXra:1511.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-16 05:30:56*

**Authors:** Sunil Thakur

**Comments:** Pages.

In this paradigm shifting paper, we show that the physical world is manifestation of a non-physical objective reality that exists absolutely, manifests relatively, and behaves relationally. We show that all the phenomena observed in the quantum world manifest themselves more eloquently even in the macro world. Things do not have any pre-existing values even in the macro world, but things do have predictable values even in the quantum world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1089] **viXra:1511.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-14 08:46:30*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter, P.e.

**Comments:** Five pages

The differences between Dissidents and the politically correct “Main Stream” are discussed along with Dr. Einstein’s consistent published ideas between 1905 and 1952

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1088] **viXra:1511.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-15 17:01:08*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Is energy equal to length? How about speed? Is speed equal to mass? No, of course not.

So everyone needs to stop saying mass and energy are equal -- they are not equal.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1087] **viXra:1511.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-14 19:06:38*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Is energy equal to length? How about speed? Is speed equal to mass? No, of course not.

So everyone needs to stop saying mass and energy are equal -- they are not equal.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1086] **viXra:1511.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-11 20:38:20*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

On Tuesday, November 10, 2015 the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) showed the TV program "Einstein's Extraordinary Universe". It was a celebration of Einstein's release of the General Theory of Relativity 100 years ago this month, and was this week's edition of the ABC's program "Catalyst" (the presenter was Dr. Graham Phillips). This article is my own little way of celebrating Relativity's birthday. I had to limit my comment on the Catalyst website to 500 words, but I've expanded that here to nearly 3,000 words.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1085] **viXra:1511.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-13 17:02:18*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Extension of Polarizable Vacuum Theory to high speed

The Polarizable Vacuum theory of Harold Puthoff and others is evaluated with relativistic calculations to show that it can only be valid when velocity is small or zero.
A modification based on work by Niels Bohr in 1949 is used to extend PV theory for high velocity deep space transport.
The modification is used to predict that the high velocity of prolonged acceleration is sufficient to polarize the vacuum with a reversed curvature of space. A weakness of PV theory is removed by eliminating the leap of faith required for field effect generators.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1084] **viXra:1511.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-09 12:15:46*

**Authors:** Sudesh Kumar Arora

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Author name corrected

If we drop the generally accepted notion that size of atoms does not change in RW universe, then a new metric with scale factor as the time-time component is derived from the cosmological principle. Using Cartan-Karlhede algorithm it is proved that this metric is physically different from RW metric. This means RW metric is not a unique metric based on cosmological principle and employs certain assumptions implicitly which has not been noticed before.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1083] **viXra:1511.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-24 13:07:55*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the other gravity field equation and the other solution. For example, the other solution treats in Schwarzschild solution, Reissner-Nodstrom solution. Hence, the uniqueness of GR solution is denied by numberless solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1082] **viXra:1511.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-05 05:54:32*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the other solution.For example, the other solution treats in Schwarzschild solution, Reissner-Nodstrom solution. Hence, the uniqueness of GR solution is denied by numberless solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1081] **viXra:1510.0445 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-30 20:56:06*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

The unnecessary confusion about Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity and why E = mc^2 is incorrect is discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1080] **viXra:1510.0445 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-30 14:54:51*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

The unnecessary confusion about Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity and why E = mc^2 is incorrect is discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1079] **viXra:1510.0445 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-30 06:03:48*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1078] **viXra:1510.0443 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-31 11:54:54*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Adapted from a contributed talk at HTGRG-2, 11 August 2015, Quy Nhon, Vietnam.

Thirring and Feynman showed that the Einstein equation is simply a partial differential classical field equation, akin to Maxwell's equation, but it and its solutions are required to conform to the GR principles of general covariance and equivalence. It is noted, with examples, that solutions of such equations can contravene required physical principles when they exhibit unphysical boundary conditions. Using the crucially important tensor contraction theorem together with the equivalence principle, it is shown that metric tensors are physical only where all their components, and also those of their inverse matrix, are finite real numbers, and their signature is that of the Minkowski metric. Thus the "horizons" of the empty-space Schwarzschild solution metrics are unphysical, which is traced to the boundary condition that arises from the minimum energetically-allowed radius of a positive effective mass. It is also noted that "comoving" ostensible "coordinate systems" disrupt physical boundary conditions in time via their artificial "composite time" which can't be registered by the clock of any observer because it is "defined" by the clocks of an infinite number of observers. Spurious singularities ensue in such unphysical "coordinates", which fall away on transformation of metric solutions to non-"comoving coordinates".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1077] **viXra:1510.0443 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-28 16:59:50*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Adapted from a contributed talk at HTGRG-2, 11 August 2015, Quy Nhon, Vietnam.

Thirring and Feynman showed that the Einstein equation is simply a partial differential classical field equation, akin to Maxwell's equation, but its solutions are required to conform to the GR principles of general covariance and equivalence. It is noted, with many examples, that solutions of such equations can contravene required physical principles when they exhibit unphysical boundary conditions. From the equivalence principle and the necessity of the tensor contraction theorem to the general covariance of the Einstein equation, it is shown that metric tensors are physical only where all their components, and also those of their inverse matrix, are smoothly well-defined, and their signature is that of the Minkowski metric. Thus the "horizons" of the empty-space Schwarzschild solution metrics are clearly unphysical, which is traced to their violation of the boundary condition pertaining to the minimum energetically-allowed radius of a specified positive effective mass. It is also noted that the abstract "time" of "comoving" ostensible "coordinate systems" can't be registered by the clock of any GR observer, and that the metric feature which follows from that "time" clashes with well-known GR metric properties. In examples of the transformation to "standard" coordinates of "comoving coordinate" results which have unphysical metric singularities, unphysical boundary conditions in "time" are observed to be excised, and the metric singularities are seen to be excised in tandem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology