Relativity and Cosmology

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3603] viXra:1912.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-15 12:57:05

Evolutionary Speed of Light and Cosmological Questions

Authors: S. Kulas
Comments: 9 Pages.

The model of the Big Bang implies that Something is created out of Nothing. Since the first moments of the Big Bang are still quite unknown, we make implications which are based on rational conclusions and end up with a variable speed of light, which was nearly zero at the beginning of the universe and grew exponentially in the first moments. Then it represents an impetus for inflation. If a fraction of this process still goes on today, it could be a source for dark matter and dark energy. We show a phenomenological approach to a simple model and the similarity to dark photons, which hopefully can be detected in the near future.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3602] viXra:1912.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-15 14:20:02

Living Cosmos: An Alternative to the Big Bang Theory

Authors: James Carter
Comments: 16 Pages. A new version of Big Bang theory without the metaphysical assumptions.

Abstract The Living Cosmos is an alternative explanation to the Big Bang theories of cosmic creation and evolution. It differs from the Big Bang on two major points. First, the Big Bang began suddenly with a singularity containing an undetermined amount of “pure energy” that was not conserved as it spread out into the universe and eventually transformed into atoms and photons. The evolution of the Living Cosmos begins with a single, matter/antimatter duality containing equal and inseparable quantities of Energy and Mass E/M = CC that remain independently conserved throughout the entire evolutionary process. Second, Big Bang theories all begin with the often unstated metaphysical assumption that the electron/proton mass ratio of e/p = 1/1836 is a universal and eternal constant that has not changed since the beginning of time. The Living Cosmos creation process begins with an electron/proton mass ratio of e/p = 1.0/1.0 that has slowly evolved throughout cosmological time to its present value of e/p = 1/1836. This new cosmic model uses Big Bang’s astronomical observations and measurements to illustrate a cosmic reproduction process producing equal quantities of atomic matter and antimatter. Instead of a nearly instant inflation followed by slow gravitational collapse, the Living Cosmos was formed through evolutionary reproduction and separation processes lasting billions of years. The galaxies, stars and atoms reached their present structures and locations through first weak nuclear, then strong nuclear, and finally electromagnetic interactions. Gravity played only a minor role in this organizational process. Contrary to Big Bang models, this new cosmic model strictly adheres to the principles of the scientific method of experimental measurement as they apply to quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, and the laws of gravitational force and motion,. The Living Cosmos examines the basic values and events in cosmological history from perspectives that are sometimes upside down, backwards, and inside out from standard Big Bang ideas. In this non-linear synchronous creation, antineutrons reproduced first, then atoms formed as they emitted photons. Galaxies formed before stars and then stars were created before protons, electrons, and photons. The conclusions reached from the slowly evolving electron/proton mass ratio provide new explanations for matter/antimatter equality, Hubble red shifts, Dark Energy, the homogeneous 2.7 K temperature of the cosmic blackbody radiation, the enormous energy of cosmic rays, the constant energy output of the sun, plate tectonics, and even the very large size of dinosaur bones.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3601] viXra:1912.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-15 18:15:00

A New Theory of Cosmology Without the Curving Spacetime of the Equivalence Principle

Authors: James Carter
Comments: 15 Pages. Definitive disproof that starlight is deflected by the sun.

The above photo of the Andromeda Galaxy is definitive proof there is absolutely no change in the momentum vectors of any photons when they pass through the extended gravitational fields of stars. If each photon in this picture was not lined up perfectly in Euclidian space and time with its emitting star, the photo would appear as a quite dim homogenous grey cloud. Any photons moving through a non-Euclidian curving gravitational spacetime would completely blur astronomical observations beyond recognition. There can be no gravitational deflection of any photon’s path through empty space without the ultimate destruction of astronomy. All photons, from gamma rays to radio waves, would be jumbled together and coming to us on trajectories far removed from their original emission vectors. Actual physical measurements of the solar deflection of photons show the effect to be an optical illusion without any change in a photon’s actual path through Euclidian space. The apparent angle of curvature is measured as changes in the gravitational momentum of Earth and not by any gravitational effect of the sun. These measurements show conclusively that the downward pointing gravity of Einstein’s equivalent principle is false and verify that Earth falls up.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3600] viXra:1912.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 08:49:25

Verification of the Nature of Cosmic Space

Authors: Donghui Wang
Comments: 8 Pages.

Scientists have explained the phenomenon of redshift in the universe by using the viewpoint of cosmic expansion, while the phenomenon of blueshift has perplexed academic circles for a long time. To solve this problem, the author conducted a thought experiment. The focus of the experiment was to let an elevator box at high altitude fall along a track and then compare the results observed by a person inside the box with the phenomena of redshift and blueshift observed by people on Earth. The results show that redshift and blueshift in the universe can be simulated above the Earth, indicating that cosmic space may have the features of a gravitational field. Thus, the author assumed that cosmic space is a gravitational field, analysed the movement pattern of celestial bodies in this context, and gave reasonable explanations for Earth’s rotation deceleration, Venus’s abnormal auto-rotation and global warming. Based on further association, the author argues that the continuous increase in the Earth’s gravity may be the cause for the largest animal on the Earth becoming progressively lighter, and this derivation can be verified by correlated detection.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3599] viXra:1912.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-14 05:23:10

A Simple Thought Experiment Saying No to Length Contraction and thus to the Theory of Relativity

Authors: Laszlo G Meszaros
Comments: 5 Pages. Opinions are welcome

In a thought experiment, in which transit-times of light signal propagation over given distances are measured, it is demonstrated that the length of an object in motion is independent of the object's (relative) velocity and, consequently, equals its resting length, i.e. its 'proper' length. Thereby, after discussing Einstein's two (essentially different) light speed postulates, the scientific merit of the Special Theory of Relativity (as well as that of the Lorentz transformations) is questioned.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3598] viXra:1912.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-14 09:47:12

The Galactic Center may be a White Hole

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 8 Pages. 3 Figure; 1 Table

It has long been assumed that the Galactic Center is a huge black hole. However, from some existing data, if the Galactic Center is a black hole, the surrounding mass will move around the Galactic Center. This will cause the outer mass of the Milky Way to move faster than the mass of the inner Milky Way. But this is not consistent with observations over the years. Although it can be explained by the existence of dark matter, direct evidence for the existence of dark matter is still lacking. If there is dark matter around the earth that has a serious effect on gravitation, there should be many experimental results that violate the law of conservation of energy. However, various experiments conducted on the earth for more than 100 years have shown that energy is conserved. However, if the Galactic Center is a white hole, the white hole continuously ejects masses, and at the same time the white hole is still rotating at a high speed, the distribution of the surrounding mass is like a spiral firework, and it has a spiral shape. Combined with my previous works, I concluded that the scope of gravitation is limited at the cosmic scale. Therefore, the motion of the galaxy's peripheral mass around the Galactic Center can be simplified to a linear fluid motion, and its velocity is equal everywhere. This can be used to explain the observations of galactic rotation curves.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3597] viXra:1912.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-13 07:36:57

Masses Reach the Speed of Light at the Time They Vanish

Authors: Yahya Awad sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages. Email:yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

An object at motion decreases in its mass and converts it into energy and vanishes when reaching the speed of light c, the kinetic energy in this case is the mass energy adding to it energy due to motion , the kinetic energy will travel with the speed of light as photon , the total energy of the rest mass is conserved , part of it change to energy and part of it still solid until it vanishes
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3596] viXra:1912.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 07:41:46

Making Sense of the Cosmos by a Fractal Geometry Experiment

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: Pages.

‘Fractals are everywhere’; but for the large-scale galaxy distribution in the observable universe, by the 2012 WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, they were ruled out. They were, however, granted on small cosmic scales, as claimed by proponents, and notwithstanding the ensuing enigma of explaining the standard model of cosmology ‘very large’ cosmic structures (LQGs) have indeed – as predicted – have been observed in the large-scale universe since the WiggleZ survey. Can a (different) fractal model explain all these cosmological observations and conjectures, and if so, are we are modelling the fractal the universe incorrectly? An experiment was conducted on a ‘simple’ (Koch snowflake) fractal from the perspective of an observer within a growing/emergent fractal – ‘looking’ in iteration-time. The fractal was inverted – to show what the fractal looks like back to its origin; new triangle sizes were held constant allowing earlier triangles in the set to expand as the set iterated. Classical kinematic equations of velocities and accelerations were calculated for total area total and the distance between points. Hubble-Lemaitre's Law and other cosmological observations and conjectures were tested for. Results showed area(s) expanded exponentially from an arbitrary starting position; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. It was concluded that the fractal is a geometrical match to the cosmological problems. It explains Hubble-Lemaitre and accelerated expansion; inhomogeneous (and said fractal) galaxy distribution on small scale and large scales; and other problems – including the cosmological catastrophe and the early inflationary expansion epoch of the universe. Also, the fractal offers a direct mechanism to the cosmological problem and can further explain the quantum problem – unifying the two realities as being two aspects of the same geometry.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3595] viXra:1912.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 19:18:17

Metric Conventions and the FLRW Metric

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 5 Pages.

We investigate the flat space time Friedmann Lemaitre Robertson Walker model of cosmology in the light of two metric signatures:(−,+,+,+) and (+,−,−,−). We arrive at the interesting fact that with the (+,−,−,−)signature both the Ricci scalar and the energy component of the stress energy tensor are negative for all points no cosmological time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3594] viXra:1912.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 18:15:37

Einstein's E=mc2 and Dark Energy

Authors: Milan D. Nešić
Comments: 11 Pages.

Aristotle, Ptolemy, and geocentrism. Copernicus, Kepler and heliocentrism. Newton, the real estate stars and the universe ether. Einstein, Lemaitre and the “big bang”—homocentrism, hidden geocentrism. One has to decide: either at once all the mass of the world was created and so large one, or the mass is variable and the measure of inertia is c2=const, whatever being energy from all over the universe. The article shows that today, when we know that there are quasars moving away from us at a speed and 95% of the speed of light, Einstein's energy E=mc2 should be considered as differential dE=c2dm. So since the corresponding binomial series for v→c is divergent, along with the solution of this differential equation goes an indefinite integration constant of infinite energy wherever we take the mass of rest m0 as coordinate origin. This is where the dark energy lies. And when Perlmutter writes that “it has long been assumed that there must be some underlying symmetry that precisely cancels the vacuum energy” at least 1055 times greater than required by astrophysical data, Maxwell Newton's postulate imposes by itself, while the unity of mass and vacuum could be shown by mathematical passage through the singularity of Planck's black body radiation, that is, of particles without mass, into Maxwell Boltzmann's distribution of velocities now of particles with mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3593] viXra:1912.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 03:06:41

Both Newton & Einstein Are Wrong

Authors: Mahesh Khati
Comments: 50 Pages.

This paper proves that Newton’s inertial frame concept & Special theory of relativity of Einstein are both wrong & requires some improvement. 1)This theory solves the problem of dark energy & dark matter. 2)This can solve the problem of dual nature of particle. 3)This gives answer for mass less photon. 4)This gives answer to difference between space & vacuum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3592] viXra:1912.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 14:15:12

Consequences of the Gravitational Red Shift of a Moving Gravity Well on The Electric Permittivity of the free space

Authors: Rayd majeed Al-Shammari
Comments: 21 Pages.

To explor the effect of the gravitational red shift of a gravity well on the electric permittivity of the free space then to expand this towards the collaboration between schwarzschild metric and lorentz transformation on electric permittivity of the free space under the unflonce of a moving gravity well .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3591] viXra:1912.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 18:27:47

On the Metric Coefficients

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 5 Pages.

The article considers a simple algebraic result to bring out an interesting mathematical property of the general relativity metric . This property creates limitation on its application in that it may not apply to all space time points.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3590] viXra:1912.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 20:59:36

Quantivity the Unified Theory of Everything I: Vacuum Mass/energy, and Redefining G as the Source of Negative Energy as the Counterpart of H

Authors: Sam Nassiri
Comments: 2 Pages.

This article is first of our multi-part articles covering our Unified Theory of Quantivity, which addresses the non-classical theoretical physics concepts studied in Quantum Mechanics, Relativity, and String Theory. This article has comprehensive coverage of the vacuum mass/energy We postulate that Planck mass refers to the neutral (i.e., with no charge) positive vacuum mass. This is the large mass unit (before being shared based on a sharing scheme to be covered in our future articles). This mass is combination of mass from h and G constants, which are sources of small units of positive and negative mass, respectively. For the first time here, we are referring to G as the counterpart of h, as the smallest unit of negative energy. We will show, while the Planck constant h is the source of positive mass with negative charge, while G is the source of negative mass with positive charge. We postulate that G could be behind the Dark energy/mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3589] viXra:1912.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 09:44:53

Exploring the Existence of Extraterrestrial Civilizations with the Liquid Universe Model

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 12 Pages. 1 Figure; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

According to the liquid universe model, some of our existing ideas about extraterrestrial civilizations may need to be revised to some extent. Considering that the development of biological civilization needs to last for a relatively long time, for example, from the formation of protein on the earth to the age of dinosaurs, to the emergence of humans, it has continued for billions of years. And this time beginning was shortly after the birth of the planet. Therefore, the appearance of life on a planet is closely related to the life of the entire galaxy. Considering the liquid universe model, there are two cases. One is that the center of the galaxy is a black hole, which will continuously absorb the surrounding masses. The other is a white hole, which constantly throws masses to the outside. A common feature of both cases is that the outer masses of the galaxy exists for a long time, while the inner masses of the galaxy exists for a short time. Combining the time required for the evolution of living things, it can be judged that if advanced biological civilization is to be evolved in a galaxy, the more proliferating planets should be closer to the periphery of the galaxy, the longer the development time, the higher the civilization. According to such a conclusion, it means that at least in the Milky Way, the biological civilization on Earth should be in a very advanced position. This article also briefly discusses the various ways of detecting extraterrestrial civilizations, and gives some suggestions for the detection of extraterrestrial civilizations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3588] viXra:1912.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 08:25:01

Unification for Gravity and Electromagnetic Field in Kerr-Newman Solution

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism has to satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Specially solution of the unified theory is generally Kerr-Newman solution in vacuum. We finally found the revised Einstein gravity tensor equation with new term (2 order contravariant metric tensor two times product and the constant matrix) is right in Kerr Newman solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3587] viXra:1912.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 13:34:45

Anti-Gravity, Gravity, and Dark Energy

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Science fiction has always wondered if there is anti-gravity. If there is a positive and negative to elementary charge, why can’t there be positive and negative gravity. If the strong force and weak force are limited by distance, why not gravity. This paper proposes gravity is limited in its action distance. After this action distance is exceeded, then anti-gravity takes over. This is the force that causes universe to look like it is expanding. This paper will propose that the limitations of gravity is about 18.93 million light years in radius. Islands of approximately 18.93 million light years in radius will form within the universe and then be pushed apart by anti-gravity. This paper’s purpose is to propose a size limit to action distance of gravity. Later papers will analyze redshift, galaxy luminosities, surface brightness, and size, and determine if this anti-gravity model correlates the information better than existing models. This model will also be used to try to model the non-linear Hubble Constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3586] viXra:1912.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 05:00:30

Disruptive Gravity (Corrected)

Authors: Ramses BOUNKEU SAFO
Comments: 20 pages in English. Corrected version of Disruptive Gravity (vixra:1905.0264)

Viewing gravity as a spacetime bending force instead of just a spacetime curvature, we come to the conclusion of rest mass relativity since it yields equivalent equations as General Relativity. A close analysis of the Schwarzschild metric leads us naturally to the Vacuum Apparent Energy Invariance principle from which we derive the metric equation. Applying this theory to cosmology, we can explain galaxies redshift as a delayed gravitational redshift which explains Hubble diagrams with no need for Dark Energy. This theory has the same predictive power as General Relativity for every local experimental tests of the latter since it's based on a slight modification of the Schwarzchild metric.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3585] viXra:1912.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 05:30:28

Undulating Relativity +§ 29 Yukawa Potential Energy “Continuation

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 164 Pages.

Undulating Relativity + § 29 Yukawa Potential Energy “Continuation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3584] viXra:1912.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 02:17:37

Equation of a Wave in Galilean Space Уравнение волны в ГП

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: timinva@yandex.ru, 11 pages in Russian

The main task of this work is a formulaic description of the wave propagation process in Galilean space (GP). The cases of isotropic wave propagation in an absolute reference system (ASO), the equation of wave propagation in inertial-term reference frame (IDF), wave propagation from moving source in its own ISO, ASO and ISO observer. Questions of Doppler effect and aberration are considered. When considering these issues, it is assumed that the source of the wave is not a point object, but is the source of a monochromatic wave that fills all space. It is also assumed that the wave source time and distance are synchronized with the GP time and distance. The word "Galileo"is often used in the work. It is this word – perhaps, the main thing in this work. Galilean space, Galilean standard, Galilean metric. The practical physical model for the application (use) of these words and phrases is a fixed continuous (air, liquid, solid) medium – ASO, in which the wave propagates, and where this "air" medium is located is an empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an absolute inertial frame of reference, it can nahzoditsya in a state of arbitrary motion in the GP. But for propagating waves as independent entities when embedded in Galilean space, this is the current Galilean ASO. A wave in a continuous medium (ASO) of GP can propagate only with one certain speed – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its basis, to forget about the existence of the material basis for its existence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. They are the frequency and speed of wave propagation. In this case, the wave as an independent object itself determines the ASO. In addition to waves, there may be non-wave objects in it, the speed of movement of which is not limited to the speed of sound. But in this work they are not considered. The word "relativistic"is hardly used. This is the next level of abstraction of the independent existence of the wave. Главной задачей этой работы является формульное описание процесса распространения волны в галилеевом пространстве (ГП). Рассмотрены случаи распространения изотропной волны в абсолютной системе отсчета (АСО), уравнение распространения волны в инерциальной системе отсчета (ИСО), распространения волны от движущегося источника в собственном ИСО, АСО и ИСО наблюдателя. Рассмотрены вопросы эффекта Доплера и аберрации. При рассмотрении данных вопросов предполагается, что источник волны не является точечным объектом, а является источником монохроматической, заполняющей все пространство, волны. Также предполагается, что время источника волны и расстояния синхронизированы с временем и расстоянием ГП. В работе очень часто используется слово "галилеево". Именно это слово – пожалуй, глав-ное в этой работе. Галилеево пространство, галилеев эталон, галилева метрика. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) этих слов и словосочетаний является неподвижная сплошная (воздушная, жидкая, твердая) среда – АСО, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "воздушная" среда, есть пустое абсолютное галилеево про-странство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, она может нахзодится в состоянии произвольного движения в ГП. Но для распространяющих-ся волн как самостоятельных сущностей при вложении в галилеево пространство это настоящее галилеево АСО. Волна в сплошной среде (АСО) ГП может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – скоростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать отдельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, оставив только существенные моменты этого факта. Ими являются частота и скорость распространения волны. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АСО. Кроме волн, в ней могут существовать и не волновые объекты, скорость движения которых не ограничена скоростью звука. Но в данной работе они не рассматриваются. Практически не используется слово "релятивистское". Это – следующий уровень абстрак-ции самостоятельного существования волны.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3583] viXra:1912.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 08:57:53

Dark Matter Particles Can Travel at the Speed of Light. Special Relativity and General Relativity Are Wrong

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 464 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light. Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong “Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light” Adrian Ferent “The gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light” Adrian Ferent “Because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent “In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong” Adrian Ferent “The electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right” Adrian Ferent You learned from Einstein, your professors that when v = c, mass and energy goes to infinity and that’s not physically possible. In particle accelerators scientists try to accelerate electrons to the speed of light. Because the scientists do not understand what the electron is, they do not understand what they do there. In Ferent Quantum Gravity, FQG, during the electron – positron collision are created gamma rays and Dark Matter electrons. I discovered that: “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent “What the scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand? When the electron is accelerated gains kinetic energy and when the electron – positron collide the kinetic energy is transferred to the photons and Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent “In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created” Adrian Ferent The electron – positron pair is produced by a photon – photon interaction. This means: “The gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light” Adrian Ferent “Because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light” Adrian Ferent “In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong” Adrian Ferent “The electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right” Adrian Ferent 279. I am the first who discovered that Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light 280. I am the first who discovered that the gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light 281. I am the first who discovered because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong 282. I am the first who discovered because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong 283. I am the first who discovered that in electron – positron collision, gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong 284. I am the first who discovered that the electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3582] viXra:1912.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 21:16:23

Effective Range of Gravitation

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 11 Pages. 1 figure

It is generally believed that both gravitational and electromagnetic forces belong to macroscopic interactions. However, since the smallest unit of matter is impossible to be infinitely small, the gravity or electromagnetic force cannot be infinitely small too. When these two macroscopic interactions are less than a certain value, it can be considered that there is no longer any interaction. How to determine the interaction range of gravitation, this article mainly analyzes by using the Planck length as the smallest unit of spacetime. It is assumed that if the gravitational potential changes across spacetime of Planck length less than a certain energy value, it indicates that gravitational potential cannot cross the Planck length. The gravitation will disappear as a result. From this, it is inferred that the effective interaction range of the gravitational force is related to the size of the mass. According to the gravitational effective range of the sun, the gravitational effective range of the huge mass of the galaxy's center can be calculated, and then the diameter of the galaxy's core can be calculated.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3581] viXra:1912.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 03:15:13

End for the Big Bang Theory, Dark Matter and Dark Energy. A New Logical, Clear and Scientific Explanation for the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Vaggelis Talios
Comments: 8 Pages.

The “big bang theory” was established at the end of the third decade of the past century, when astrophysicist Edwin Hubble made the very great discovery, that the Galaxies of the Universe do not have fixed positions, but they move and even move away, which means that the “Universe is expanding”. The theory of the big bang was in completely agreement with Hubble's discovery; so although it had many doubts, it was established as a cosmological theory, provided, of course, that over the time and the advancement of science, these doubts would be clarified. However, in the 1990s-2000s decade, something unexpected happened; two independent research teams, the Supernova Cosmology Project and the High Z Supernova Team, trying to study more thoroughly the expansion of the Universe, discovered that this expansion is accelerated, something that did not agree with the big bang theory, which provides for the opposite; that the expansion of the Universe is, a slowed down expansion. Since then, all of the scientific community has been in turmoil, because an overthrow of the theory of the big bang will overthrow and most of the newer theoretical physics too, which is related to the big bang theory. Unfortunately, science attempting to explain the accelerated expansion, through the controversial concepts of “dark matter” and “dark energy”, –defined as strange cosmic “some-things” and nothing more–, has failed and so far, not produced any positive result. Following these developments, I thought it necessary to get out of my office drawer and restore forward once again the “theory of the chain reaction”, which explains the accelerated expansion, describes with credibility and scientific consistency the creation and operation of the Cosmos and answers to almost all the questions that do not answer the big bang and the other cosmological theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3580] viXra:1912.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 07:22:50

The Cosmological Redshift Falsifies Special Relativity

Authors: Dino Bruniera
Comments: The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-2 and Italian, pages 3-4

The observations show that the apparent brightness of the celestial objects with high redshift, is lower than that expected, that is calculated considering the cosmological redshift as an indicator of the expansion of space. Which shows, of course, that it cannot be this indicator. So, since Special Relativity is compatible with the cosmological redshift only if it indicates the expansion of space, the proof that it is not so, falsifies Special Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3579] viXra:1912.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 02:09:15

Critical Mass (The End of General Relativity)

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

Having dispatched multiple, significant confirmations of General Relativity, it’s time to find out what went wrong and, if possible, fix it. (Spoiler: It can’t be fixed.)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3578] viXra:1912.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 16:22:06

QUANTIVITY The Unified Theory of Everything Part 1: Cosmological Constants as Quantized Spacetime Parameters, Vacuum Mass/Energy, and Partial Spacetime Anatomy

Authors: Sam Nassiri
Comments: 9 Pages.

Quantivity covers the fundamental concepts due to high-energy being explored in Special Relativity(SR), General Relativity(GR) Quantum Mechanics (QM) as well as String Theory (ST), and eventually reconciles them. Through our unique reverse engineering approach, we have got the big picture, we have conceptually unraveled the glorious grand design of the Universe. Our theory strongly supports the Holographic model of the universe. We claim that all the objects measurements might be turned into dimensionless frequencies, referred by us as q (or q factor), by using relevant cosmological units. It is further postulated that nature uses the same approach for objects measurements, so these q factors are compatible with each other and are capable of seamlessly being mixed with each other in any desired equation. Additionally, we strongly confirm the existence of the hidden world as mentioned in the literature, which simultaneously communicates with our visible world. While SR and GR address our visible world, and QM addresses the hidden world, QUANTIVITY addresses both. We have a comprehensive set of findings that will be published in multiple articles. In this article, as the first article of series of our articles, we concentrate on showing that the Spacetime is quantized, by deriving its grain size, rigorously, employing the previously known constants, which then consequently reveals its inverse as the number of Spacetime grains. Going into deeper discussions, we will show that, this fixed expansion of Spacetime is due to a special built-in mechanism that inflated its size vertically, due to high builtin velocity (i.e., c) and small rest mass (i.e., vacuum pos/neg masses), causing the Spacetime excitation with high frequency (coined by us as qmax, see Fig. 1). Additionally, said Spacetime inflation has caused a series of resource shortages, making objects to obey a resource sharing scheme for resources including energy, mass, space, and time. This concept might be considered as the propagation of resources, in the (vertical) Time, additional to their propagation in the (horizontal) Space. The value of this intrinsic qmax with the value of its inverse partner (qmin, as a pair of dimensionless constants) is the glorious set of numbers: 10±38.6308177. This pair behaves similar to the parameters of a balloon, wherein the size of its inflated space competes with its thickness. Further, we show that this pair of constants are being used everywhere as ultimate sizes, as well as addressing the following issues: (1) the long being sought for Cosmological Constant, (2) the ratio between the Strong Force and the Gravitational Force, (3), and the reason behind the so-called Gravity leak and/or possibly the presence of Dark Matter/Energy. Additionally, in this and our future articles we make interesting conclusions, including a postulate stating that length and space (after redefinition of space) are inverses of each other, and the time dilation, as well as the space dilation (i.e., the length contraction), lead to extreme light motion traversing the whole Spacetime almost instantly, without violating the SR’s 2nd postulate.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3577] viXra:1912.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 17:34:29

On Four Velocity and Four Momentum

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 6 Pages.

We derive in this article that the four dot product between two arbitrary velocities is less than the square of the speed of light in vacuum and the product of two four momenta is less than the product of the two masses involved and the square of the speed of light[in vacuuo].Based on these results we strive to show a contradiction. Flat spacetime has been considered.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3576] viXra:1912.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 01:47:59

Gravitational Waves Debunked

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

Applying the Natural Mechanics model (Taylor M 2019 Natural Mechanics http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0294) to describe the decay of Binary quasar systems - necessary to forge a consensus among astrophysicists
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3575] viXra:1912.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 03:18:51

Nullification of Relativity Theory Via the Sufficiency of the Galilean Velocity Transformation

Authors: John Lawrence Duval
Comments: 2 Pages.

If Relativity Theory is wrong, the error should be found at the very beginning of its derivation. This work does just that.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3574] viXra:1911.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 00:03:58

Hafele-Keating Errors, GPS Desynchronization and Time Dilation Explanation (GR not Included)

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

This paper is the second in a series dedicated to debunking a major experiment that purported y confirms Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity. The main errors throughout the remained of this series will focus on Confirmation Bias and flawed methodology (especially, design).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3573] viXra:1911.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 23:00:22

Mercurian Perihelion Precession (General Relativity Not Included)

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

The problematic assumption associated with the observed precession of the perihelion of Mercury is Mercury formed as it appears today. If Mercury’s origins were different from its assumed origins, then the calculated estimate of its density and mass would be inaccurate and this minor discrepancy would account for the precession of Mercury’s perihelion. If these values are in error, then the observed precession of Mercury’s perihelion would also be erroneous. Asserting a Relativistic solution would require all values to be accurate and the methodology to be sufficient. And would also require ignoring the actual formation of Mercury.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3572] viXra:1911.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 01:58:50

Associating Bending Geometry with Bending Space-Time

Authors: Donghui Wang
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this study, a method of bending a fan ring-shaped copper sheet into a “3D arc” or a “ring” is introduced, and the physical mechanism and mathematical connections during bending process are analyzed. Then, the shape and formation principle of the “ring” and a water wave are analyzed and compared. It is concluded that a “ring” and a water wave have many similarities. The measure of how much the water body is bent is deduced by referring to the measure of how much the quadrant is bent. Then, the relationship between the shape evolution and physical quantity variation in the water wave is studied. A series of equivalent relations are obtained, and these relations are applied to the energy and momentum calculations of a water wave or a gravitational wave. Finally, it is concluded that in the future, people will be able to determine the distance from the interception point to the gravitational wave center, the energy of the gravitational wave, and the momentum as well as and the surface gravitational acceleration of the moving body by analyzing various data of the gravitational waves from other planets.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3571] viXra:1911.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 03:07:56

A New Take on Gravitational Waves

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies, Richard Lawrence Norman
Comments: 3 Pages.

Following recent announcements concerning the detection of gravitational waves and the accompanying claims that this offers further proof of the validity of the theory of general relativity, here some long forgotten work showing that the existence of such waves was predicted in the very early years of the last century and had been hinted at even before that is brought to light. Yet again the question of whether or not a piece of experimental work establishes the place of general relativity in modern physics is raised.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3570] viXra:1911.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-27 02:48:38

Entanglement and Integration (Photons to Particles)

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 1 Page. Original work. All rights reserved.

This is the third paper in a series intended to breakdown the original paper, Natural Mechanics (http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0294). This paper will build upon the previously discussed photonic discharge from the variations in the spatial field’s densities by adding in the next emergent layer, photonic entanglement. This discussion will lead in to the integration and evolution of particles in the microscopic world.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3569] viXra:1911.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-26 01:49:16

Infinite Space, the Default Position

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 1 Page. Original work. All rights reserved.

This is the first paper in what will be an extensive breakdown of my original paper "Natural Mechanics". When we are considering the vastness of space, the evidence-based arguments in this paper draw the reasonable conclusion the default position should be space is infinite.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3568] viXra:1911.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-26 06:16:26

Something From Something

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 1 Page. Original work. All rights reserved.

This is the second paper in a series intended to breakdown the original paper, Natural Mechanics (http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0294). In this paper we build upon infinite space by discussing empty space, the spatial field, variations in densities (charges) within the spatial field, charge-charge interactions and, finally, the discharge of Nature’s essential building blocks, photons.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3567] viXra:1911.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-26 07:17:01

Magnetic Field Evolves to Gravity Field\\ Part:5 Final

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) suggests gravity emerges from magnetic effects of hods in matter structures. An experiment is performed to demonstrate the net magnetic field from hods in a body only attracts the hods from other masses to evolve into the gravity affect for distances greater than molecular sizes.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3566] viXra:1911.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-26 07:23:59

How a Four Dimensional Motion Mimics Gravitation

Authors: Midhun P Radhakrishnan
Comments: Pages.

It explains why light speed is independent of frame of references and describes gravitation and time in a different perspective.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3565] viXra:1911.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-23 10:20:08

Distance Variation in Accelerating Frames and Its Potential Role in Hubble Expansion

Authors: Ritesh Singh
Comments: 4 Pages.

We refer to distance variation as the change in Lorentz contracted apparent distance of a body in motion relative to an observer, due to a change in the velocity of the observer. We show that distance variation can have a large contribution in the apparent velocities of distant bodies. We propose that this needs to be included in cosmological models. We also show that it can potentially explain some observed cosmological peculiarities.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3564] viXra:1911.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-23 18:40:56

Time for a Change?

Authors: Raymond H Gallucci
Comments: 9 Pages.

This work was inspired by Hughes’ book The Binary Universe, which proposes a unique theory about the nature of time and its dominance over phenomena since as gravity and electromagnetic radiation. While Hughes treats time as variable and time dilation as a real phenomenon, I divert while retaining much of Hughes’ proposals to speculate that time is immutable and equivalent to change, albeit progressing at a fixed rate analogous to the fastest proposed by Hughes – the Planck time interval.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3563] viXra:1911.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-21 11:20:19

New Concept of Special Relativity

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures

Now the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is the cornerstone of contemporary physics. The comprehension of SRT is based on the presumption that all what one sees, hears, measures or in some other way perceives is reality. It leads to inexplicable paradoxes such as twin, Ehrenfest, spaceship and other paradoxes of relativity. The article discloses a different view, i.e., the measured values of physical items are apparent and the SRT allows to calculate real actual values. There are no paradoxes in this case.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3562] viXra:1911.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-21 13:34:44

Diverse Applications of Einstein’s Equations of General Relativity

Authors: R. Wayte.
Comments: 30 Pages.

This paper comprises extracts from previous articles showing how Einstein’s general relativity equations can describe different forces by substituting the associated constants. The articles depended upon a new solution of Einstein’s equations which is compatible with electromagnetic theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3561] viXra:1911.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-19 18:26:19

Explanation of What Time in Kinematics is and Dispelling Myths Allegedly Stemming from the Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 25 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether.

The paper explains the time dilation phenomenon and the Lorentz-FitzGeralda contraction phenomenon on the basis of Special Theory of Ether. Presented explanations are based on the construction of innovative technical models of these phenomena, and not only on their classical description. Time dilation is a natural property of time measured by the light clock. The paper shows that time dilation phenomenon is a proof of the existence of universal frame of reference, in which the electromagnetic interaction propagates. It has been shown that there are no theoretical grounds to argue that the velocity of light in a vacuum is the maximum velocity. The adoption of such a doctrine in modern physics results from an overinterpretation of the mathematics on which Special Theory of Relativity is based. The model presented here shows how the atomic clocks can be used to determine the motion relative to the universal frame of reference in which electromagnetic signals propagate. The presented model also shows how Michelson-Morley’s experiment can be modified to be able to detect movement with respect to ether. The paper explains what time is in kinematics theories. The entire article includes only original research conducted by its author.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3560] viXra:1911.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 10:20:29

The Light Deflection and the Anomaly near the Sun

Authors: Walter Orlov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Closer to the sun the relativistic dependence is violated. The gravitational field becomes stronger than calculated by the general relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3559] viXra:1911.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 01:14:42

Natural Mechanics

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 49 Pages. All rights reserved.

From the Microcosmic Expansions of First-Generation Universes to the Macroscopic Expansions of Late-Generation Universes and a Fair Portion of Everything in Between - and a few mistakes made along the way - a New Model of Reality Emerges.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3558] viXra:1911.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 06:56:30

New Paradox in the Special Relativity Mass-Spring-Mass Oscillator

Authors: Randolf Rolff
Comments: 7 pages; German language Deutsch: Neues Paradoxon in der SRT– Masse-Feder-Masse-Schwinger

When calculating the resonance frequency of a fast moving mass-spring-mass oscillator, this contradicts the relativistic time dilation. The calculated frequency depends on the inertial system used for the calculation. There are indications that the elastic potential energy of a spring decreases with increasing speed and does not increase as predicted by the theory of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3557] viXra:1911.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 11:38:30

Solution to the New Paradox of Special Relativity

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 2 Pages.

Albert Einstein said against Quantum Physics: "God does not play dice''. Einstein has never accepted the Quantum Physics. So, there can be contradiction between the Theory of Relativity and Quantum Physics. That mean, that one or more of these two theories are incomplete. Just like the Gödel incompleteness theorem says, that formal arithmetic is incomplete.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3556] viXra:1911.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 12:19:36

Invariance of the Speed of Light and Time Dilation

Authors: Giacomo Roccaforte
Comments: 16 Pages. This version is in Italian

In this chapter we highlight a situation in which the fact that the speed of light is constant in all reference systems would imply that even the flow of the time should be the same in all reference systems , a conclusion that is exactly and paradoxically opposed to the Theory Of Relativity At this point it would be a matter of choosing between two undisputed points: or the speed of light is constant for all the reference systems but in this case also the flow of time would be, and this is against the Theory Of Relativity. Or the flow of time is different in different reference systems, but the speed of the light would no longer be constant, and we know that this is against of the experimental data. At the end of the whole theory, we would arrive at a third possibility, in agreement with all the experimental data, and without a series of doubtful points of the Theory Of Relativity, such as the present and this one http://vixra.org/abs/1801.0229, listed and explained in the complete research already published at http://vixra.org/abs/1707.0297 . This chapter for the moment does not want to suggest a solution to a problem, but only highlights its existence.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3555] viXra:1911.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 13:26:14

Вывод всех линейных преобразований, удовлетворяющих эксперименту Майкельсона-Морли, и обсуждение основ релятивизма (In Russian)

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 36 Pages. This article presents formal proof that STR is a wrong theory (in Russian).

В статье представлено формальное доказательство того, что математика, на которойосновывается Специальная Теория Относительности (СТО), в настоящее время неверно истолкована. Доказательство опирается на анализ значения параметра e(v).Понимание значения этого параметра возможно благодаря анализу общей формы преобразования, для которого преобразование Лоренца является лишь частным случаем. Если e(v) ≠ 0, тогда часы в инерциальных системах отсчета рассинхронизированы. Величины, например, однонаправленной скорости при использовании таких часов не дают реальных значений.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3554] viXra:1911.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-10 12:29:39

The Number 273.55488 Which aids Calculation of the Mass of the Neutron Also Yields Important Dates Etc.

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages. I have held back this work because i didn't understand its significance until now

Abstract: Important dates are found from the dimensionless constant 273.55488 used to find the accurate mass of the neutron as well as a signal of the use of holography in the universe
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3553] viXra:1911.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 13:58:34

The Cosmological Redshift is Compatible with the Aether, But not with Special Relativity

Authors: Dino Bruniera
Comments: The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-3 and Italian, pages 4-6

The observations show that the apparent brightness of type Ia supernovae with high redshift, is about 25% lower than that expected. Which, according to the present paper, shows that the cosmological redshift cannot indicate the expansion of space. So since Special Relativity is compatible with the cosmological redshift only if it indicates the expansion of space, the demonstration that does not indicate it, proves that Special Relativity is not compatible with it. For the theories of the aether, on the other hand, the cosmological redshift may not indicate the expansion of space, therefore they are compatible with it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3552] viXra:1911.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 03:28:29

Energy Analysis of a Null Electromagnetic Wave

Authors: ‪Moshe Segal‬‏
Comments: 17 Pages.

The article deals with the following question: is it possible to detect a Null electromagnetic traveling wave, which is a wave that does not contain any electric or magnetic fields. The article discusses the above question and shows that any possible answer to that question provides surprising and important new insights. The article provides a description of how to implement such a Null electromagnetic wave, and it also provides a description of how to carry on a lab experiment which might provide answers to the above question. As already mentioned above, any answer to the above question also provides surprising and new insights to issues such as: Energy in general, especially energy embedded in electromagnetic waves and energy embedded in electric and magnetic fields, and even to issues such as new surprising insight into possible new features of electric charges, the charge disappearance in electron positron collisions and even some possible leads related to the Dark Energy issue.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3551] viXra:1911.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-07 13:26:36

50 Most Important Papers in MHCE8S Theory

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages. I am not sure who evaluated my work but I have a strong idea who it must have been

Abstract: 50 of my short publications as of september 4, 2019 were found to be of 4 levels of importance : ( I note that 50 is a magic number of physics)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3550] viXra:1911.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 04:24:25

On de Sitter Universe

Authors: Zlatan Stojanovic
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this letter I address the model which stems from the de Sitter space-time. We can consider empty de Sitter space-time as the Universe where space metrics i.e. expansion of space is a consequence of decrease of time elongation during evolution of Universe i.e. curved time. In de Sitter metric this is represented by the relation distance-time elongation and by the acceleration of expansion of space. New model explains that de Sitter cosmological time is proper time of the Universe. The cosmological time curvature interacts with photon's energy from distant galaxies like in classical gravitational redshift. Empty de Sitter represents inertial state of Universe. What this proposal contributes to de Sitter universe is variable cosmological constant i.e. parameter. Cosmological parameter is represented in the change of time curvature which we can correlate to the change of photons' energy of distant galaxies and CMBR in time. Keywords: de Sitter space-time, curved time, dark energy, de Sitter effect
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3549] viXra:1911.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-04 23:11:47

Cherenkov Radiation of Gravitational Waves

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 13 Pages. 6 Figure; 1 Table

If the velocity of gravitational waves is less than the speed of light, the velocity of mass motion may exceed the velocity of gravitational waves. This will cause Cherenkov-like radiation similar to electromagnetic interaction. The Cherenkov-like radiation of gravitational waves will produce a relatively specific observable effect. Due to the concentrated release of energy, the easiest to observe is that a large number of photons are radiated from the Cherenkov-like radiation source to form optical effects of high intensity and relatively special shapes. The speed of gravitational waves is less than the speed of light, because the compression of space and time by very large masses causes the gravitational waves to travel less in the masses than the speed of light. The mass of the material itself is not affected by this space-time compression. Thus, under certain conditions, the velocity of the mass of matter exceeds the velocity of the gravitational wave, forming a Cherenkov-like effect. A typical example is the aura of special structures formed by the supernova explosion. Among them, the supernova 1987A has been in existence for more than 30 years. After several years of the explosion, through the observation of the high-resolution Hubble telescope, it was found that the supernova 1987A showed two distinct auras in its explosion direction. There are many explanations for how these halos are formed. This paper points out that the formation of the two halos of the supernova 1987A is related to the propagation of gravitational waves in the mass of matter. Due to the very high mass density of the supernova explosion area, the space-time compression effect is very obvious, which will cause the gravitational wave to have a wave speed less than the speed of light. The material ejected by the supernova after exploding is close to the speed of light, and it is easy to exceed the velocity of gravitational waves propagating in the cosmic fluid around the supernova explosion, which will form the shock wave effect of gravitational waves. The Cherenkov effect of gravitational waves can also be used to explain the origin of high-intensity photon radiation in some galaxy centers. When the black hole in the center of the galaxy attracts the outer mass, the closer it is to the central black hole, the faster it moves. In the right position, the mass moves faster than the gravitational wave. The Cherenkov-like radiation of gravitational waves will be product. In addition, if there is a white hole, the energy is continuously released from the source of the white hole, which will also cause the mass ejection speed to exceed the speed of the gravitational wave, and thus produces the Cherenkov-like effect. Since the dynamic mechanism of the black hole and the white hole are different, by observing the Cherenkov-like effect of the center of the galaxy, it can effectively distinguish whether the center of the galaxy is a white hole or a black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3548] viXra:1911.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-04 20:03:05

Space, and the Redshift Effect

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 23 Pages.

Following on from the previous series of papers regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time [1-12], more specifically papers 11 [11] and 12 [12] in continuing with the explanation of the redshift effect, the idea of cosmology is measured with a new understanding of the redshift effect according to the golden ratio time-algorithm, namely the general description of the universe of stars according to the new appreciation of the redshift effect. To address this, first the idea of cosmology is introduced and what cosmology in contemporary terms seeks to deliver, and how such theories of cosmology have been arrived at. Secondly, the current problems in cosmology are discussed, namely any absences of theory that are required to explain observed data, and any absences of data that are unable to account for current theoretical models. Thirdly, a key flaw in modern cosmology central to the redshift effect is highlighted that appears to lead to all known cosmological and astronomical discrepancies faced by cosmology and astrophysics. Fourthly, a solution to this issue is proposed in line with the previous series of papers [1-12], namely the golden ratio time-algorithm as a new understanding of the redshift effect. Then, a new cosmological model is forwarded, after which anthropological evidence for this new cosmological model is presented. The standard for the cosmological model being presented in this paper is a standard that uses “all” astrophysical data with a cosmological theory that is complete, entertaining “no” assumption or “fixes” that have no astrophysical data.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3547] viXra:1911.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 21:59:42

The Solution to the Cosmological Constant Problem

Authors: Brian Craig
Comments: 7 Pages.

To account for the very low mass density associated with Dark Energy and the Cosmological Constant, a new approach to the ground state of empty space is presented. The resulting model for the vacuum state associated with empty space proposes a crystalline-like texture for the chromatic structure of empty space. This vacuum state has the appropriate mass density and predicts acceleration for the Universe expansion. Furthermore, the model predicts that this texture is anisotropic and may lead to measurable changes in the production of electron and positron pairs by gamma rays incident on a solid crystal of low mass density such as graphite.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3546] viXra:1911.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 03:21:20

Special Relativity and the Lorentz Sphere

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity demands, by Einstein’s two postulates (i) the Principle of Relativity and (ii) the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum, that a spherical wave of light in one inertial system transforms, via the Lorentz Transformation, into a spherical wave of light (the Lorentz sphere) in another inertial system when the systems are in constant relative rectilinear motion. However, the Lorentz Transformation in fact transforms a spherical wave of light into a translated ellipsoidal wave of light even though the speed of light in vacuum is invariant. The Special Theory of Relativity is logically inconsistent and therefore invalid.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3545] viXra:1910.0649 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 03:36:33

Problem Book in Relativity and Gravity (1). in Russian

Authors: A. Lightman, W. Press, K. Price, S. Teukolsky
Comments: 6 Pages. in Russian. Pay attention to the fact that this is a necessary introduction to the only published work!

In accordance with the need to comply with the copyright law in the first file of the book: A. Lightman, V. Press, K. Price, S. Tyukolsky: "Problem book in relativity and gravity " are all the formal characteristics of the book, assigned by the publishing house "Мир". The need to present the book as two files is related to the peculiarity of the formats *.docx,*.pdf,*.djvu
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3544] viXra:1910.0641 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 12:23:27

A Revised MHCE8S Model Of Physics

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The dark heavy particle is included in this model. All masses are 4 digits or less, except for the down neutron quark
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3543] viXra:1910.0640 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 15:21:39

Theory of Gamma-Ray Bursts

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here, using the dynamics of the core of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain the origin of the rest frame peak energy versus isotropic energy for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). We present also how isotropic energy depends on mass of captured star by the most massive neutron star.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3542] viXra:1910.0629 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 04:16:01

Problem Book in Relativity and Gravity (2). in Russian

Authors: A. Lightman, W. Press, K. Price, S. Teukolsky
Comments: 532 Pages. In Russian

This book, written by A. Lightman, V. Press, R. Price and S. Tyukolsky, is a collection of problems with solutions to the General theory of relativity and gravity. It is unique in its breadth and overall design. Almost 500 problems introduce the reader to the modern mathematical apparatus and methods used in this field of physics. The problems presented in this collection are borrowed from the latest original works on topical problems of General relativity and gravity (solution of the equations of gravitation, physics of curved space-time, black holes, gravitational healing, cosmological aspects of General relativity and its experimental verification). The book is intended for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and students of physical and mathematical specialties
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3541] viXra:1910.0611 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 02:02:47

Electric Charges Might be a Form of Energy

Authors: Moshe Segal
Comments: 13 Pages.

After the presentation of the Special Relativity Theory, Mass was discovered to be a form of Energy. Thus, after the presentation of the Special Relativity Theory, the Electric Charge remained the only distinct entity that is not a form of Energy. This article claims that Electric Charges might be considered also as a form of Energy. This claim is initially based on an analysis, presented in several articles, which analyze the energies embedded in electric and magnetic fields, and show that such energies, which are dependent on the existence of a force field (electric or magnetic) in order to exist, can annihilate each other, in certain situations, an annihilation that seems to violate the Energy Conservation Principle. In light of the above such energies are grouped as Energy Pairs. Then, because energies in electric and magnetic fields are generated initially from electric charges, the Energy Pairs Theory is also used to explain the issue of charge disappearance in electron positron collisions. This provides additional support to the assumption that Charge is Energy. Because, as electric or magnetic energies are shown to annihilate each other and disappear, in certain situations, positive and negative charge might also annihilate each other in certain situations, such as, in electron positron collisions, which strengthen the claim that Electric Charges are also a form of Energy. In addition to using the above, the claim, that Electric Charge might be a form of Energy, is discussed in this article from additional angles. As will be shown in this article, there are similarities between Mass and Charge which might lead us to conclude that Charge should also be considered as a form of Energy. Thus, this article does claim that Charge might also be recognized as a form of Energy, as Mass turned to be. This claim will make Energy as the only distinct entity (in addition to Time and Space), a simpler and cleaner view of nature
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3540] viXra:1910.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 05:57:21

Fictitious Forces, Inertial Forces and Mach's Principle (Ii)

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 15 Pages.

According to the principle dynamic equilibrium, we understand the force of inertia is a force that acts on whatever body that accelerated with respect to an inertial frame. It is, therefore, a real force, observed in whatever reference frame. We identify this force with force gravitational induction produced by the whole of the Universe. Therefore, the Universe is an inertial reference frame. In developing the theory, we find that the gravitational induction force produced by the entire Universe is proportional to acceleration and in the opposite sense, as is the force of inertia. In making this identification, we find that the inertial and gravitational mass are proportional, with a coefficient of proportionality depending on the cosmic time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3539] viXra:1910.0585 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 06:53:11

Complete Emptiness might be the Dark Energy

Authors: Moshe Segal
Comments: 6 Pages.

In several articles such as: "Consolidated Waves might create Dark Energy" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1909.0496 a scenario of two one dimensional electromagnetic traveling waves, which collide and then consolidate and continue to travel in the same direction, is described. In these articles it was shown that in this scenario energy is lost such that it appears to violate the Energy Conservation Principle. In some additional articles such as: "Energy Pairs Theory" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1910.0523 the Energy Pairs theory is presented which explains this energy loss. And, the above described scenario is presented as a proof of this Energy Pairs Theory. Also, in some of these articles, it was shown that Energy Pairs might turn into Dark Energy, which is a mystery that the science of Physics seeks a solution to it. In this article the argument that complete emptiness is actually the Dark Energy is presented
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3538] viXra:1910.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-27 21:24:25

A Barometrically Isolated Differential Calorimeter with Micro-Kelvin Resolution: a Feasibility Study for the Investigation of Non-Local Thermal Effects in Early “Ether Drift” Interferometers

Authors: Simon WW Manley
Comments: 12 Pages.

Micro-kelvin resolution of temperature measurement in atmospheric gas is shown to be achievable provided the sample is isolated thermally, electrically and barometrically from the environment. Such high-resolution measures should permit the investigation of thermal effects mediating the small signal residuals seen in historical data from ether-drift interferometers. The proposal of Consoli & Pluchino (2018) that small thermal gradients may result from a non-local effect brings the discussion into the framework of contemporary quantum physics and distances it from the discredited notions which motivated the original experiments.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3537] viXra:1910.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-27 03:49:11

Energy Pairs Resolve Energy Conservation Issues

Authors: Moshe Segal
Comments: 8 Pages.

In separate articles such as: "Energy Pairs Theory" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1910.0523 the Energy Pairs Theory was presented. This theory explained energy loss in a scenario described in several separate articles such as: "Consolidated Waves might create Dark Energy" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1909.0496 which described two one dimensional electromagnetic traveling waves, which collide and then continue to travel in the same direction, which manifested loss of the energy that these waves carried before that consolidation, and even full disappearace of these waves, which seemed to be a clear violation of the Energy Conservation Principle. In this article other energy conservation issues related to electric and magnetic fields are presented, and explained via this Energy Pairs Theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3536] viXra:1910.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-26 15:35:57

Representation of Momentum

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

The inelastic collision between two identical particles shows that the ratio of the momentum to the mass includes an extra term in addition to the velocity. An extra function independent of the speed of the particle is part of the momentum. This function can be determined empirically from the parameters of Large Hadron Collider at CERN.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3535] viXra:1910.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-26 10:41:00

The Main Equation in Theory of Gamma-Ray Bursts

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, using the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we derived the main equation in theory of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and used it to describe the GRB 080916C. Such theory is closely related to the theory of neutron black holes (NBHs) which is similar to the theory of baryons.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3534] viXra:1910.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 23:09:39

Reference Frames: If Inertial, then Geocentric

Authors: Robert Bennett
Comments: 24 Pages.

Applying the laws of dynamics to discern future motion is not an easy thing to do, for there are cases where these laws fail to predict what’s really measured. Inertial frames are thought to provide a stable platform of reference frames from which to solve this failure of dynamics, but current fundamental definitions related to dynamics are often incomplete, in conflict or just illogical. Adopting a credible definition of inertial frames and applying it to frames of reference in constant relative motion leads to a surprising discovery, challenging the scientific wisdom of the last five centuries and raising far-ranging and deep questions that spill over into modern worldviews and religion. As usual the epistemology is based on the scientific method’s dependence on testing and the rationality of philo-realism.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3533] viXra:1910.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 05:02:09

Energy Pairs Theory

Authors: Moshe Segal
Comments: 8 Pages.

In a separate article named "Consolidating Waves create Dark Energy" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1910.0496 a scenario of two one dimensional electromagnetic traveling waves, which collide and then consolidate and continue to travel in the same direction, is described. In that article it was shown that in this scenario energy is lost such that it appears to violate the Energy Conservation Principle. In this article, the Energy Pairs theory is presented which explains this energy loss. And, the above described scenario is presented as a proof of this Energy Pairs Theory. The article also describes various possible combinations of Energy Pairs. -
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3532] viXra:1910.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 15:20:19

Relativity Refuted in Four Short Sentences

Authors: Jeremy Fiennes
Comments: 1 Page.

1) In his station and truck observer thought exercise, Einstein shows that an observer moving inertially relative to a photon clock sees it ticking slower than his own. 2) Different inertial observers, travelling at different relative speeds, each see the clock running at a different rate. 3) The first SR postulate says all their views are correct. 4) This being absurd, so on the 'reductio ad absurdum' principle is Special Relativity itself.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3531] viXra:1910.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 18:47:52

Neoether or a New Concept of Aether in Ortimized Axiomatics as an Alternative Basis of the Special Theory of Relativity and Traditional Relativistic Physics in General

Authors: Cherkasov V.A.
Comments: 15 Pages. language - Russian

The paper describes the concept of the ether (neoether, neo-aether), which does not conflict with the main consequences of the Special Theory of Relativity. On the basis of the stated concept, the features of light propagation in inertial reference frames are determined with generalization of the results to all types of fundamental interactions. The obtained results determine the presence of Lorentz contraction factor, as well as the fact of time slowing down in inertial reference frames with elimination the Twin paradox, inherent to the Special Theory of Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3530] viXra:1910.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 03:38:38

Consolidating Waves Create Dark Energy

Authors: Moshe Segal
Comments: 14 Pages.

The issue of electromagnetic traveling waves interference was already presented and analyzed extensively. Examples of such scenarios might be counter propagating one dimensional two source waves, or a single source wave propagating in two or more dimensions via scattering one portion of the wave into another portion, such as a double slit experiment with a single source. Analysis of these scenarios show that in these cases, the interference between these waves conserve the wave energy. (Ref 3). However, the following scenario was not yet presented or analyzed, (according to the best knowledge of the writer of this article) : A scenario of very focused two source electromagnetic traveling waves, focused such that they can be considered as traveling only in one dimension, which are colliding, and following this collision, the waves consolidate, and continue to travel in the same direction. It was usually assumed, that two one dimensional waves, moving in the same direction, cannot arrive at the constellation that they collide, then consolidate and continue to move in the same direction. Because if both waves are one dimensional, in order, for the first wave, to colide with another one dimensional wave traveling in its same direction, another wave source must exist somewhere along the line the first wave is traveling on. Then, the first wave will collide with this wave source and not with the second wave. However, this scenario can happen. This article presents a description of how to arrange the above scenario, of two one dimensional waves, originating from two separate sources, which collide, then consolidate and continue to travel in the same direction. Analysis of this scenario clearly reveals that there is a loss of the energy that these waves carried before that consolidation, which is a clear violation of the Energy Conservation Principle. And if, following this consolidation, the waves have same energy and opposite amplitudes in their electric fields and also in their magnetic fields the waves actually disappear. In light of the above scenario, and because of the energy loss that is shown to occur when electromagnetic waves consolidate and become unified, and continue to travel together in the same direction, the article argues that such scenarios are the cause of the Dark Energy, which is a mystery that the science of Physics seeks a solution to it
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3529] viXra:1910.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 06:59:52

Finite Gravity Explained

Authors: Yahya Awad sharif Mohammed
Comments: 1 Page. Email:yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

A proved hypothesis : Finite gravity range extending with the speed of light c
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3528] viXra:1910.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 14:06:00

The Time and Mass Versus Number of Bursts for Gamma-Ray Bursts

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, using the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of the time and mass versus number of bursts for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3527] viXra:1910.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 15:07:48

Attempt at Self-Consistent Description of Gravity Wells and Energy Flows

Authors: Denis Nepveu
Comments: 18 Pages.

The notion that gravity stops growing at any arbitrary point is challenged as being in conflict with general relativity. As a result, the effects of gravity over large distance and time scales are predicted to differ from everyday expectations. Gravity itself is questioned as a separate force. In order to get back to a semi-coherent description of gravity, and the nature of wave-particle duality is discussed so that energy flows can be described in a way that is consistent within this paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3526] viXra:1910.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 22:31:07

Wave Pulse Theory Of Light (WPTOL) Based On Bohr Model

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 14 Pages.

The Bohr Model is an alternative theory of light to Maxwell's theory. It is extended to a wave pulse theory of light, WPTOL. It is a classical aether theory. When an orbital electron of an atom makes a quantum jump to a lower energy state, it emits a single polarization wave pulse of one wavelength in the aether. There is no neutron in the nucleus of the atom in the `Simple Unified Theory', SUT; the neutron is replaced with a proton and an nuclear electron. As the nucleus of the atom has only proton and electron, WPTOL covers the emission of gamma-rays originating from the nucleus of the atom. The binding energy within the nucleus is also the Coulomb electric force; there is no strong force. All radiation consist of single wavelength wave pulses and the wave pulses are all separate wave entities;there is no `train of light waves' in WPTOL. The train of light waves as found in Maxwell's theory has no physical basis. A light wave pulse has energy E=hν and momentum P=E/c, the same energy and momentum relation of the relativistic photon. It is this single wave pulse of one wavelength that gives the illusion of light as particle. WPTOL eliminates the `wave particle duality' hypothesis for light. The theoretical value of light speed in the aether is c=m_e e⁴ /(8ε₀h³R), R being the Rydberg constant. Newton's first law is extended to a light wave pulse in the aether which explains why light propagates in a straight line. There is no dissipation of energy of a wave pulse as it propagates in the aether. WPTOL does not need the concept of magnetism. The WPTOL is a much stronger theory of light as compared to the Maxwell's theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3525] viXra:1910.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 02:46:24

Dynamics in Relativity is the Way to Quantum Theory

Authors: Vladimir B. Belayev
Comments: 14 Pages.

Equations of the critical curve are obtained by the nonzero energy integral variation in accordance with principles of the calculus of variations in mechanics. This method is compared with the Fermat’s principle and geodesics principle. The force vector acting on the photon in Schwarzschild space-time is found for the weak gravity and corresponds to photon’s gravitational mass equal to the twice mass of a material particle of the same energy. Compliance with the law of conservation of energy as a source of gravity leads to the presence of particles with negative gravitational mass and zero kinematic momentum in the results of the annihilation reaction. Accretion of matter onto compact stars results in their absorption of positive energy from the vacuum and the release negative energy in a free deep space. The particles with negative gravitational mass create there antigravitating vacuum with negative pressure. Extended Space Model (ESM) is a generalization of the special theory of relativity at a 5-dimensional space. Rotations in extended space correspond to the motion of a particle in gravity field in the embedded four-dimensional space-time. Within the framework of ESM the photons have a nonzero mass in a gravitational field. We study how a rotation in ESM agrees with photon dynamics in the Schwarzschild field. A non-conservation of energy in gravitational systems is interpreted by the ESM as the rotation of the energy-momentum vector in 5-dimensional space. The comparison bubble cosmic structures of a type gravastar with electron an estimate of its radius is made.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3524] viXra:1910.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 14:15:20

The Hedgehog-Like Mechanism as the Origin of the Prompt Emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, using the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the hedgehog-like mechanism in the neutron stars is responsible for the prompt emission of GRBs. The half-jets/hedgehog-needles produced from the cores of baryons inside the created neutron stars act as "wave-guides" of the Einstein-spacetime scalar condensates which on surface of the neutron stars decay to gamma rays and energetic leptons. Most energetic particles are the result of annihilation of the half-jets.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3523] viXra:1910.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 17:47:47

Dark Matter and Relativity

Authors: Mohan Basnet
Comments: 5 Pages.

this is alternate explanation for the problem related with dark matter with out modifying gravity. Geometry of spacetime might work differently in large scale than we Think. just adding a simple term in the Einstein field equation, we can balance out the he problem related to dark matter and dark energy. Gravity is a long distance force and gets weaker on increase in distance but it never get ZERO. Curvature in the space-time can be add up and merge together to form a bigger curvature and it gets more smoother and stable. This model helps to visualize how curvature of the space-time works from the planets to galaxy. I do believe that this theory is the ultimate answer for the dark matter, but again just I believe in this theory, it does not necessary to be right, it has to be test and verify with different data.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3522] viXra:1910.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 04:55:23

On Gravitational Collapse (Revised)

Authors: R. Wayte.
Comments: 7 Pages.

Gravitational collapse of diffuse material has been investigated using a new solution of Einstein’s equations of general relativity. This obviates the theory of black-hole formation developed for the standard vacuum solution of Schwarzschild. The bodies which now form have reasonable physical properties, such as nuclear hard core density in collapsed stars, or 104kg/l in galactic centres. Accreting material converts to kinetic energy then radiation so that a singularity cannot be produced.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3521] viXra:1910.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 12:25:40

Foundation Armenian Theory of Special Relativity

Authors: Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan
Comments: 58 Pages. 03 August 2017, Germany, ISBN: 978-620-2-01092-4

In this first volume of our main scientific research We showed that the «Armenian Theory of Special Relativity» is full of fine and difficult ideas to understand, which in many cases seems to conflict with our everyday experiences and legacy conceptions. This new crash course book is the simplified version for broad audiences. This book is not just generalizing transformation equations and all relativistic formulas; It is also without limitations and uses a pure mathematical approach to bring forth new revolutionary ideas in the theory of relativity. It also paves the way to build general theory of relativity and finally for the construction of the unified field theory – the ultimate dream of every truth seeking physicist. Armenian Theory of Relativity is such a mathematically solid and perfect theory that it cannot be wrong. Therefore, our derived transformation equations and all relativistic formulas have the potential to not just replace legacy relativity formulas, but also rewrite all modern physics. Lorentz transformation equations and other relativistic formulas is a very special case of the Armenian Theory of Relativity when we put s = 0 and g = -1 . The proofs in this book are very brief, therefore with just a little effort, the readers themselves can prove all the provided formulas in detail. You can find the more detailed proofs of the formulas in our main research book «Armenian Theory of Special Relativity», published in Armenia of June 2013. In this visual book, you will set your eyes on many new and beautiful formulas which the world has never seen before, especially the crown jewel of the Armenian Theory of Relativity - Armenian energy and Armenian momentum formulas, which can change the future of the human species and bring forth the new golden age. The time has come to reincarnate the ether as a universal reference medium which does not contradict relativity theory. Our new theory explains all these facts and peacefully brings together followers of absolute ether theory, relativistic ether theory and dark energy theory. We just need to mention that the absolute ether medium has a very complex geometric character, which has never been seen before.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3520] viXra:1910.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 12:32:02

Foundation Armenian Theory of General Relativity

Authors: Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan
Comments: 60 Pages. 03 August 2017, Germany, ISBN: 978-620-2-01092-4

Armenian Theory of General Relativity -------- In this new - second volume of the visual crash course of "Armenian Theory of General Relativity", which is organic sequel of the first volume, we discuss the case (Case B), where observing coordinate systems moving against each other with arbitrary acceleration. We use the most general considerations and a pure mathematical approach, and in so doing, we build a theory of general relativity (kinematics) and received Armenian direct and inverse transformation equations for observed particle coordinates differentials. Our visual book, which is made for broad audiences of physicists, does not only generalize legacy theory of general relativity formulas, but also using almost the same axioms, we succeeded to build more logical and correct theory of general relativity in one physical dimension (for now kinematics only), which has two additional new constants (s and g). Our received Armenian direct and inverse transformation equations we can also obtain in a very easy way from the Armenian Theory of Special Relativity (volume A) transformation equations, by just taking particle’s infinitesimal coordinates, where reciprocal relative velocities between observing systems are instantaneous variable velocities. But we prefer to go hard way to show the fact that Armenian Theory of Relativity is a solid mathematical theory. In this volume B we also faced contradiction and our next volume we will solve this "contradiction". We also advice readers to be very cautious when comparing legacy theory of relativity with the Armenian Theory of Relativity, especially when instead of trying understand the new theory concepts, they use their whole energy trying to find “mistakes” or “paradoxes” in Armenian Theory of Relativity. Please just remember that legacy theories of relativity are symmetric theories, but Armenian Theory of Relativity is asymmetric theory of relativity. Proofs in this volume are also very brief and therefore readers need to put sufficient effort to prove all providing formulas. ======== Facing With Contradictions -------- Contradiction illustrated by (I_07) are not just specific for Armenian Theory of Relativity, discussed in this volume B, but this contradiction are already build in legacy theory of relativity as well. Unfortunately the experts in that field deliberately or unconsciously ignoring the contradiction in the legacy theory of relativity and patching all the holes. This contradiction arise when we start discussing the case of general relativity where the observing coordinate systems are moving respect to each other with accelerations. In this case we derived reciprocal relative acceleration formulas from which follows, for example, that the inverse relative acceleration depends not just on direct relative velocity and direct relative acceleration, but it also depends at arbitrary observed particle's velocity, which for different observed particles can have different arbitrary values. We can say the same thing about the direct relative acceleration formula, which depends not just on inverse relative velocity and inverse relative acceleration, but it also depends on arbitrary observed particle velocity. This exposed contradiction, which was existed in the legacy theory of relativity and just now was introduced in this volume B, we can perhaps compare to the beginning of 20-th century ultraviolet catastrophe for the black body radiation problem. But in those days, theoretical physicists faced problems head on, instead of hiding from them. It is quite logical that the reciprocal relative accelerations of the mutual observing coordinate systems cannot be dependent on the arbitrary observed particle's velocities, but that reciprocal accelerations must depend only observing origins of coordinate systems corresponding relative velocities and relative accelerations. Therefore to solve this contradiction, we need to completely revise all concepts and interpretations about how we describe relative motions in time-space and how we define observed particle time-coordinates. Therefore we need rewrite whole theory of relativity at large, which we already accomplish in our new volume C (in Armenian). In that new volume C we become victorious from this deep crisis in theoretical physics and we succeeded to build powerful "Armenian Theory of Time-Space" in one physical dimension and we will create it in three physical dimensions as well.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3519] viXra:1910.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 13:39:20

Nature of Dark side of our Universe

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Mohammadi
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper I have made a great discovery that I realized there was space-time before the Big Bang, because the universe was shrinking because dark energy was negative and then the universe has been expanding after the Big Bang, Another prediction of this paper is that ordinary matter, which makes up 5 percent of the universe, was made before the big bang, and dark matter has been made after the big bang. The reason for these predictions is that I have put the essence of dark energy into Wilmore energy and made the dark matter equivalent to the Hawking mass. Dark matter has a mathematically imaginary nature whose physical interpretation can be that it can be in and out of space-time.An other discovery is Unveiling of fine-tuning problem[1]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3518] viXra:1910.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 22:35:52

Obalenie Dogmatów na Których Zbudowano Dzisiejszą Relatywistykę (In Polish)

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 22 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

W artykule wyjaśnione zostało na podstawie Szczególnej Teorii Eteru zjawisko dylatacji czasu oraz zjawisko skrócenia Lorentza-FitzGeralda. Przedstawione wyjaśnienia polegają na konstrukcji nowatorskich technicznych modeli tych zjawisk, a nie jedynie na ich klasycznym opisie. Dylatacja czasu jest naturalną własnością czasu mierzonego zegarem świetlnym. W artykule wykazano, że zjawisko dylatacji czasu jest dowodem istnienia uniwersalnego układu odniesienia, w którym propaguje oddziaływanie elektromagnetyczne. W artykule wykazane zostało, że nie ma teoretycznych podstaw, aby twierdzić, że prędkość światła w próżni jest prędkością maksymalną. Przyjęcie takiej doktryny we współczesnej fizyce wynika z nadinterpretacji matematyki, na której opiera się Szczególna Teoria Względności. Z przedstawionego modelu wynika to, w jaki sposób przy pomocy zegarów atomowych można wyznaczyć ruch względem uniwersalnego układu odniesienia, w którym propagują sygnały elektromagnetyczne. Z przedstawionego modelu wynika także, w jaki sposób można zmodyfikować eksperyment Michelsona-Morleya, aby być może był w stanie wykryć ruch względem eteru. W artykule zostało wyjaśnione co to jest czas w teoriach kinematyki. Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania prowadzone przez jego autora.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3517] viXra:1910.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 04:28:13

Does the Polytropic Gas Yield Better Results in a 5D Framework?

Authors: Halil Ibrahim Ay, Oktay Aydogdu, Musafa Salti
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this work, we study the polytropic gas (PG) cosmology in a d-dimensional (dD) form of the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) framework. In this context, we focus on the evolution of the corresponding energy density as a first step. Next, we use the most recent data from the Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia), observational values of the cosmic Hubble parameter (OHD) and the updated Planck-results to place constraints on the free parameters defined in the model. We show that the 5D form of the scenario is more compatible with the recent observations. Moreover, according to the best values of the auxiliary parameters, we compte age of the cosmos theoretically.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3516] viXra:1910.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 04:32:57

Variable Polytropic Gas Cosmolgy

Authors: M. Salti, E. E. Kangal, O. Aydogdu
Comments: 19 Pages. Annals of Physics 407 (2019) 166–178

We mainly study a cosmological scenario represented by the variable Polytropic gas (VPG) unified energy density proposal. To reach this aim, we start with reconstructing a variable form of the original Polytropic gas (OPG) definition. We show that this model is a generalization of the OPG, cosmological constant plus cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and two different Chaplygin gas models. Later, we fit the auxiliary parameters given in the model and discuss essential cosmological features of the VPG proposal. Besides, we compare the VPG with the OPG by focusing on recent observational dataset given in literature including Planck 2018 results. We see that the VPG model yields better results than the OPG description and it fits very well with the recent experimental data. Moreover, we discuss some thermodynamical features of the VPG and conclude that the model describes a thermodynamically stable system.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3515] viXra:1910.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 04:34:45

Variable Generalized Chaplygin Gas in a 5D Cosmology

Authors: Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu, Hilmi Yanar, Kenan Sogut
Comments: 18 Pages. Annals of Physics 390 (2018) 131–142

We construct the variable generalized Chaplygin gas (VGCG) defining a unified dark matterenergy scenario and investigate its essential cosmological properties in a universe governed by the Kaluza-Klein (KK) theory. A possible theoretical basis for the VGCG in the KK cosmology is argued. Also, we check the validity of thermodynamical laws and reimpelement dynamics of tachyons in the KK universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3514] viXra:1910.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 04:36:03

Variable Chaplygin Gas in Kaluza-Klein Framework

Authors: M. Salti, O. Aydogdu, A. Tas, K. Sogut, E. E. Kangal
Comments: 9 Pages. Can. J. Phys. 97: 117–124 (2019)

We investigate cosmological features of the variable Chaplygin gas (VCG) describing a unified dark matter-energy scenario in a universe governed by the five dimensional (5D) Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravity. In such a proposal, the VCG evolves as from the dust-like phase to the phantom or the quintessence phases. It is concluded that the background evolution for the KK type VCG definition is equivalent to that for the dark energy interacting with the dark matter. Next, after performing neo-classical tests, we calculated the proper, luminosity and angular diameter distances. Additionally, we construct a connection between the VCG in the KK universe and a homogenous minimally coupled scalar field by introducing its self-interacting potential and also we confirm the stability of the KK type VCG model by making use of thermodynamics. Moreover, we use data from Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia), observational H(z) dataset (OHD) and Planck-2015 results to place constraints on the model parameters. Subsequently, according to the best-fit values of the model parameters we analyze our results numerically.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3513] viXra:1910.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 04:37:45

Machine Learning Algorithm in a Caloric View Point of Cosmology

Authors: E. E. Kangal, M. Saltiy, O. Aydogdu
Comments: 20 Pages. Physics of the Dark Universe 26 (2019) 100369

In the present work, we mainly discuss the variable polytropic gas (VPG henceforth) proposal, which is describing a self-gravitating gaseous sphere and can be considered as a crude approximation for realistic stellar denitions, from a caloric perspective. In order to reach this aim, we start with reconstructing the VPG model by making use of thermodynamics. And then, the auxiliary parameters written in the proposal are tted by focusing on updated experimental dataset published in literature. We also discuss the model in view of the statistical perspective and conclude that the caloric VPG model (cVPG henceforth) is in good agreement with the recent astrophysical observations. With the help of the statistical discussions, we see that the cVPG model is suitable for the statistical cosmology and can be used to make useful predictions for the future of the universe via the machine learning (ML henceforth) methods like the linear regression (LR henceforth) algorithm. Moreover, according to the results, we also perform a rough estimation for the lifetime of the universe and conclude that the cosmos will be torn apart after 51Gyr which means our universe has spent 21 percent of its lifetime.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3512] viXra:1910.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 08:27:28

Undulating Relativity + § 29 Yukawa Potential Energy

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 162 Pages.

Yukawa Potential Energy
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3511] viXra:1910.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 17:23:41

A Counterpart of the Isotropic Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Centres of Created Baryons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, applying the dynamics of the cores of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain the origin of the isotropic Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

Replacements of recent Submissions

[2530] viXra:1912.0175 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-11 15:15:56

Einstein's E=mc2 and Dark Energy

Authors: Milan D. Nešić
Comments: 11 Pages.

Aristotle, Ptolemy, and geocentrism. Copernicus, Kepler and heliocentrism. Newton, the real estate stars and the universe ether. Einstein, Lemaitre and the “big bang”—homocentrism, hidden geocentrism. One has to decide: either at once all the mass of the world was created and so large one, or the mass is variable and the measure of inertia is c2=const, whatever being energy from all over the universe. The article shows that today, when we know that there are quasars moving away from us at a speed and 95% of the speed of light, Einstein's energy E=mc2 should be considered as differential dE=c2dm. So since the corresponding binomial series for v→c is divergent, along with the solution of this differential equation goes an indefinite integration constant of infinite energy wherever we take the mass of rest m0 as coordinate origin. This is where the dark energy lies. And when Perlmutter writes that “it has long been assumed that there must be some underlying symmetry that precisely cancels the vacuum energy” at least 1055 times greater than required by astrophysical data, Maxwell Newton's postulate imposes by itself, while the unity of mass and vacuum could be shown by mathematical passage through the singularity of Planck's black body radiation, that is, of particles without mass, into Maxwell Boltzmann's distribution of velocities now of particles with mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2529] viXra:1912.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-08 21:29:56

Repulsive Gravity, Gravity, and Dark Energy

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Science fiction has always wondered if there is repulsive gravity. If there is a positive and negative to elementary charge, why can’t there be positive and negative gravity. If the strong force and weak force are limited by distance, why not gravity. This paper proposes gravity is limited in its action distance. After this action distance is exceeded, then repulsive gravity takes over. This is the force that causes universe to look like it is expanding. This paper will propose that the limitations of gravity is about 18.93 million light years in radius. Islands of approximately 18.93 million light years in radius will form within the universe and then be pushed apart by repulsive gravity. This paper’s purpose is to propose a size limit to action distance of gravity. Later papers will analyze redshift, galaxy luminosities, surface brightness, and size, and determine if this repulsive gravity model correlates the information better than existing models. This model will also be used to try to model the non-linear Hubble Constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2528] viXra:1912.0104 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-10 10:13:35

Why Are Gravitational Waves Detections so Close to New/full Moon?

Authors: Kovalyov, Mikhail
Comments: 11 Pages.

Of the 11 gravitational waves detections up to date, seven occurred within 43 hours of New/Full Moon or perihelion and four within a two-week period between the 2017/8/7 and 2017/8/21 eclipses. Why do the gravitational waves coming from millions of light years away arrive to Earth so close to these lunar events? The question is investigated in this paper. Of the 11 gravitational waves detections up to date, seven occurred within 43 hours of New/Full Moon or perihelion and four within a two-week period between the 2017/8/7 and 2017/8/21 eclipses. Why do the gravitational waves coming from millions of light years away arrive to Earth so close to these lunar events? The question is investigated in this paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2527] viXra:1912.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-08 13:11:29

The Equation of a Wave in Space of the Absolute Frame of Reference Уравнение волны в ГП

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: timinva@yandex.ru, 24 pages in Russian, A4

This work is devoted to the equations of propagation of harmonic waves in one of the ISOS of space–time, which can be taken as ASO for waves. The equations of wave propagation in the case of infinite, dimensionless spaces, cyclic and mixed spaces are derived. A practical physical model for the application (use) of the equations is a fixed continuous (air, liquid, three–dimensional) medium in which the wave propagates, and where this "continuous" me-dium is located can be taken as an empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an ab-solute inertial frame of reference, but for propagating waves as independent entities when embedded in Galilean space, it is a real Galilean AISO. A wave in a medium in Galilean space can propagate at only one particular speed – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its basis, to forget about the existence of the material basis for its exist-ence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. In this case, the wave as an independent object it-self determines the AISO. Galilean space with embedded AISO allows the determination of aIso pa-rameters using wave standards. Данная работа посвящена уравнениям распространения гармонических волн в одном из ИСО пространства–времени, которое можно принять как АСО для волн. Выведены уравнения распространения волн в случае бесконечных, неограниченных размерами пространств, циклических (одно направление) и смешанных пространств. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) уравнений является неподвижная сплошная (воздушная, жидкая, трердая) среда, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "сплошная" среда, можно принять как пустое абсолютное галилеево пространство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, но для распространяющихся волн как самостоятельных сущностей при вложении в галилеево пространство это настоящее галилеево АИСО. Волна в среде в галилеевом пространстве может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – скоростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать отдельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, оставив только существенные моменты этого факта. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АИСО. Галилеево пространство с вложенной в нее АИСО допускает определение пара-метров АИСО с использованием волновых эталонов.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2526] viXra:1912.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-03 18:41:09

Nullification of Relativity Theory Via the Sufficiency of the Galilean Velocity Transformation

Authors: John Lawrence Duval
Comments: 2 Pages.

If Relativity Theory is wrong, the error should be found at the very beginning of its derivation. This work does just that.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2525] viXra:1911.0501 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-05 00:35:43

Mercurian Perihelion Precession (General Relativity Need Not Apply)

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

The problematic assumption associated with the observed precession of the perihelion of Mercury is Mercury formed as it appears today. If Mercury’s origins were different from its assumed origins, then the calculated estimate of its density would be inaccurate and this minor discrepancy would account for the precession of Mercury’s perihelion. A minor increase in density wouldn't affect Mercury's mass or volume either. (See paper for details.) If Mercury's estimated density is in error, then the calculated precession of Mercury’s perihelion would also be erroneous. Asserting a Relativistic solution would require all values to be accurate and the methodology to be sufficient. And, such a solution would also require ignoring the actual formation of the planet Mercury.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2524] viXra:1911.0449 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-30 18:30:52

Diophantine Physics

Authors: F.M. Sanchez
Comments: 35 Pages. In French. A resume is submited to Astrophysics and Space Science

The Diophantine interpretation of the third Kepler law directly implies the single electron cosmology and puts forward links between gravitation, quantum physics, cosmology, particle physics and the cristallographic spaces with the superstring 10 and 11-dimensions. The critical condition is interpreted as an holographic conservation that puts back the Planck wall by a factor 10^61, resolving the vacuum energy dilema. Matter is a very rapid (10^103 Hz) oscillation matter-antimatter, while dark matter is a quadrature oscillation. The Nambu mass and the DNA codon mass play a central cosmic role, while the asymetry proton-electron explains the baryon relative density 0.047. The observed matter density is compatible with the trivial value 3/10, itself confirmed by the Eddington's large number. The holographic two-step interaction defines the photon and graviton masses, and confirms the Grandcosmos, which is, contrary to the non-scientific Multiverse, observable by its trace, the Cosmic Microwave Background. The central role of the Atiyah constant is confirmed in the Topological Axis which rehabilitates the bosonic string theory. The forgotten Eddington's Proton-Tau symmetry is confirmed by the diophantine prolongation of the Kepler law (Holic Principle). Connections reaching the ppb precision are obtained with a prediction for G compatible with the BIPM value. The mysterious numerical factors are interpretated as optimal computation bases in a Cosmos-computer, the first step to understand Biology. The overwhelming connections between physical constants, cosmical parameters and biologic ones imply an uinersality of intelligent life,with an holographic coputing ADN. The errors of the present scientific system are analyzed, resulting principally from the forgetting of the Cosmos concept, meaning beauty and simplicity. It would be the reason why extra-terrestrial civilisations dare not communicate with us.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2523] viXra:1911.0448 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-05 01:09:20

Infinite Space, the Default Position

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 1 Page. Original work. All rights reserved.

This is the first paper in what will be an extensive breakdown of my original paper "Natural Mechanics". When we are considering the vastness of space, the evidence-based arguments in this paper draw the reasonable conclusion the default position should be space is infinite.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2522] viXra:1911.0294 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-08 05:21:14

Descent Into Darkness - Natural Mechanics

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 47 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

From atop their ivory towers of Academia the priests and priestesses of the Prophet Einstein cast down their derisions upon any who dare to challenge their cultish doctrine know as General Relativity. By no means am I the first to criticize Einstein’s hypothesis of General Relativity (GR) but I will precisely detail the failed confirmations of GR and, specifically, demonstrate how GR is flawed and cannot be fixed. Dogma, accepting as true what has not been demonstrated to be true is the enemy of skepticism and it has no place in Science. Yet, those who practice the occult arts of GR adhere to principles they cannot demonstrate are even accurate approximations. Their willingness to disregard reality in favor or magic (Confirmation Bias and Flawed Methodologies) is at the very least shameful. In an era when Science is being assailed and devalued, challenging dogmatically-held scientific beliefs held among the elite priests and priestesses who believe they are the only gatekeepers of revelation comes with a cost. Because I am true to skepticism I am willing to accept accusations of being a self-publishing Internet “kook”. However, such labels fail to address my conclusions that are based upon well-established experimental data and current observations. I offer different perspectives because I am not content with incomplete consensuses or dogmatically-held beliefs that fail to account for observable Natural Mechanics. Defending the integrity of Science and the progress of Knowledge is a worthy cause.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2521] viXra:1911.0239 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-16 07:38:49

Solution to the New Paradox of Special Relativity

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 3 Pages.

Albert Einstein said against Quantum Physics: "God does not play dice''. Einstein has never accepted the Quantum Physics. So, there can be contradiction between the Theory of Relativity and Quantum Physics. That mean, that one or more of these two theories are incomplete. Just like the Gödel incompleteness theorem says, that formal arithmetic is incomplete.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2520] viXra:1911.0223 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-16 19:53:33

Формальное доказательство, что математика, на которой основывается Специальная Теория Относительности неверно истолкована (In Russian)

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 36 Pages. This article presents formal proof that STR is a wrong theory (in Russian).

В статье представлено формальное доказательство того, что математика, на которойосновывается Специальная Теория Относительности (СТО), в настоящее время неверно истолкована. Доказательство опирается на анализ значения параметра e(v).Понимание значения этого параметра возможно благодаря анализу общей формы преобразования, для которого преобразование Лоренца является лишь частным случаем. Если e(v) ≠ 0, тогда часы в инерциальных системах отсчета рассинхронизированы. Величины, например, однонаправленной скорости при использовании таких часов не дают реальных значений.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2519] viXra:1911.0176 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-13 00:38:23

Energy Analysis of a Null Electromagnetic Wave

Authors: ‪Moshe Segal‬‏
Comments: 23 Pages.

This article summarizes a research based on a thinking exercise relating to electric charges, electromagnetic traveling waves and energy, which results in surprising, new and important insights into the nature of electric charges, electromagnetic traveling waves, photons, and energy. This thinking exercise started with the attempt to provide an answer to the following question: is it possible to detect a Null electromagnetic traveling wave, which is a wave that does not contain any electric or magnetic fields? Analysis of the above question shows that any answer to that question provides surprising and important new insights. The article provides a description of how to implement such a Null electromagnetic wave, and it also provides a description of how to carry on a lab experiment which might provide answers to the above question. As already mentioned above, any answer to the above question results in providing surprising and new insights to issues such as: Photons, which are the particle manifestation of electromagnetic traveling waves, oscillate between two states, an oscillation that is synchronized to the oscillations of the electric and magnetic fields in the electromagnetic traveling wave which carries this photon. This also explains why the energy embedded in a photon is proportional to the frequency of oscillation of the electromagnetic traveling wave which carries this photon. Energies embedded in electric charges, electric or magnetic fields and photon, can, in certain circumstances, seem as annihilating each other, but actually exist together as potential Energy Pairs that only disable each other from operation, which only seemingly, or apparently, looks as annihilating each other. The Dark Energy might be consolidating electromagnetic waves which consolidate and continue to travel in the same direction. The Energy Pairs theory mentioned above provide an explanation to the charge disappearance mystery in electron positron collisions. Electric Charges are a form of energy as Mass is recognized being a form of energy. There is no such thing as Complete Emptiness. Complete Emptiness is actually a state containing Energy Pairs that disable each other, which only seem to be a state that does not contain any energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2518] viXra:1911.0090 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-07 01:28:45

Cherenkov Radiation of Gravitational Waves

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 7 Pages.

If the velocity of gravitational waves is less than the speed of light, the velocity of mass motion may exceed the velocity of gravitational waves. This will cause Cherenkov-like radiation similar to electromagnetic interaction. The Cherenkov-like radiation of gravitational waves will produce a relatively specific observable effect. Due to the concentrated release of energy, the easiest to observe is that a large number of photons are radiated from the Cherenkov-like radiation source to form optical effects of high intensity and relatively special shapes. The speed of gravitational waves is less than the speed of light, because the compression of space and time by very large masses causes the gravitational waves to travel less in the masses than the speed of light. The mass of the material itself is not affected by this space-time compression. Thus, under certain conditions, the velocity of the mass of matter exceeds the velocity of the gravitational wave, forming a Cherenkov-like effect. A typical example is the aura of special structures formed by the supernova explosion. Among them, the supernova 1987A has been in existence for more than 30 years. After several years of the explosion, through the observation of the high-resolution Hubble telescope, it was found that the supernova 1987A showed two distinct auras in its explosion direction. There are many explanations for how these halos are formed. This paper points out that the formation of the two halos of the supernova 1987A is related to the propagation of gravitational waves in the mass of matter. Due to the very high mass density of the supernova explosion area, the space-time compression effect is very obvious, which will cause the gravitational wave to have a wave speed less than the speed of light. The material ejected by the supernova after exploding is close to the speed of light, and it is easy to exceed the velocity of gravitational waves propagating in the cosmic fluid around the supernova explosion, which will form the shock wave effect of gravitational waves. The Cherenkov effect of gravitational waves can also be used to explain the origin of high-intensity photon radiation in some galaxy centers. When the black hole in the center of the galaxy attracts the outer mass, the closer it is to the central black hole, the faster it moves. In the right position, the mass moves faster than the gravitational wave. The Cherenkov-like radiation of gravitational waves will be product. In addition, if there is a white hole, the energy is continuously released from the source of the white hole, which will also cause the mass ejection speed to exceed the speed of the gravitational wave, and thus produces the Cherenkov-like effect. Since the dynamic mechanism of the black hole and the white hole are different, by observing the Cherenkov-like effect of the center of the galaxy, it can effectively distinguish whether the center of the galaxy is a white hole or a black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2517] viXra:1911.0090 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-06 20:28:04

Cherenkov Radiation of Gravitational Waves

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 7 Pages.

If the velocity of gravitational waves is less than the speed of light, the velocity of mass motion may exceed the velocity of gravitational waves. This will cause Cherenkov-like radiation similar to electromagnetic interaction. The Cherenkov-like radiation of gravitational waves will produce a relatively specific observable effect. Due to the concentrated release of energy, the easiest to observe is that a large number of photons are radiated from the Cherenkov-like radiation source to form optical effects of high intensity and relatively special shapes. The speed of gravitational waves is less than the speed of light, because the compression of space and time by very large masses causes the gravitational waves to travel less in the masses than the speed of light. The mass of the material itself is not affected by this space-time compression. Thus, under certain conditions, the velocity of the mass of matter exceeds the velocity of the gravitational wave, forming a Cherenkov-like effect. A typical example is the aura of special structures formed by the supernova explosion. Among them, the supernova 1987A has been in existence for more than 30 years. After several years of the explosion, through the observation of the high-resolution Hubble telescope, it was found that the supernova 1987A showed two distinct auras in its explosion direction. There are many explanations for how these halos are formed. This paper points out that the formation of the two halos of the supernova 1987A is related to the propagation of gravitational waves in the mass of matter. Due to the very high mass density of the supernova explosion area, the space-time compression effect is very obvious, which will cause the gravitational wave to have a wave speed less than the speed of light. The material ejected by the supernova after exploding is close to the speed of light, and it is easy to exceed the velocity of gravitational waves propagating in the cosmic fluid around the supernova explosion, which will form the shock wave effect of gravitational waves. The Cherenkov effect of gravitational waves can also be used to explain the origin of high-intensity photon radiation in some galaxy centers. When the black hole in the center of the galaxy attracts the outer mass, the closer it is to the central black hole, the faster it moves. In the right position, the mass moves faster than the gravitational wave. The Cherenkov-like radiation of gravitational waves will be product. In addition, if there is a white hole, the energy is continuously released from the source of the white hole, which will also cause the mass ejection speed to exceed the speed of the gravitational wave, and thus produces the Cherenkov-like effect. Since the dynamic mechanism of the black hole and the white hole are different, by observing the Cherenkov-like effect of the center of the galaxy, it can effectively distinguish whether the center of the galaxy is a white hole or a black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2516] viXra:1911.0090 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-05 19:16:04

Cherenkov Radiation of Gravitational Waves

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 13 Pages.

If the velocity of gravitational waves is less than the speed of light, the velocity of mass motion may exceed the velocity of gravitational waves. This will cause Cherenkov-like radiation similar to electromagnetic interaction. The Cherenkov-like radiation of gravitational waves will produce a relatively specific observable effect. Due to the concentrated release of energy, the easiest to observe is that a large number of photons are radiated from the Cherenkov-like radiation source to form optical effects of high intensity and relatively special shapes. The speed of gravitational waves is less than the speed of light, because the compression of space and time by very large masses causes the gravitational waves to travel less in the masses than the speed of light. The mass of the material itself is not affected by this space-time compression. Thus, under certain conditions, the velocity of the mass of matter exceeds the velocity of the gravitational wave, forming a Cherenkov-like effect. A typical example is the aura of special structures formed by the supernova explosion. Among them, the supernova 1987A has been in existence for more than 30 years. After several years of the explosion, through the observation of the high-resolution Hubble telescope, it was found that the supernova 1987A showed two distinct auras in its explosion direction. There are many explanations for how these halos are formed. This paper points out that the formation of the two halos of the supernova 1987A is related to the propagation of gravitational waves in the mass of matter. Due to the very high mass density of the supernova explosion area, the space-time compression effect is very obvious, which will cause the gravitational wave to have a wave speed less than the speed of light. The material ejected by the supernova after exploding is close to the speed of light, and it is easy to exceed the velocity of gravitational waves propagating in the cosmic fluid around the supernova explosion, which will form the shock wave effect of gravitational waves. The Cherenkov effect of gravitational waves can also be used to explain the origin of high-intensity photon radiation in some galaxy centers. When the black hole in the center of the galaxy attracts the outer mass, the closer it is to the central black hole, the faster it moves. In the right position, the mass moves faster than the gravitational wave. The Cherenkov-like radiation of gravitational waves will be product. In addition, if there is a white hole, the energy is continuously released from the source of the white hole, which will also cause the mass ejection speed to exceed the speed of the gravitational wave, and thus produces the Cherenkov-like effect. Since the dynamic mechanism of the black hole and the white hole are different, by observing the Cherenkov-like effect of the center of the galaxy, it can effectively distinguish whether the center of the galaxy is a white hole or a black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2515] viXra:1910.0641 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-22 15:17:06

A Revised and Improved MHCE8S Model of Physics

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: The dark heavy particle is included in this model. All masses are 4 digits or less, including the down neutron quark
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2514] viXra:1910.0640 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-01 12:56:39

Theory of Gamma-Ray Bursts

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Here, using the dynamics of the core of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain the origin of the rest frame peak energy versus isotropic energy for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). We present also how isotropic energy depends on mass of captured star by the most massive neutron star.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2513] viXra:1910.0640 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-01 05:30:46

Theory of Gamma-Ray Bursts

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Here, using the dynamics of the core of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain the origin of the rest frame peak energy versus isotropic energy for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). We present also how isotropic energy depends on mass of captured star by the most massive neutron star.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2512] viXra:1910.0562 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-02 05:40:34

Energy Pairs Resolve Energy Conservation Issues

Authors: Moshe Segal
Comments: 8 Pages.

In separate articles such as: "Energy Pairs Theory" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1910.0523 the Energy Pairs Theory was presented. This theory explained energy loss in a scenario described in several separate articles such as: "Consolidated Waves might create Dark Energy" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1909.0496 which described two one dimensional electromagnetic traveling waves, which collide and then continue to travel in the same direction, which manifested loss of the energy that these waves carried before that consolidation, and even full disappearace of these waves, which seemed to be a clear violation of the Energy Conservation Principle. In this article other energy conservation issues related to electric and magnetic fields are presented, and explained via this Energy Pairs Theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2511] viXra:1910.0523 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-02 04:12:30

Electric Charges as Energy Pairs

Authors: Moshe Segal
Comments: 8 Pages.

In a separate article named "Consolidating Waves create Dark Energy" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1910.0496 a scenario of two one dimensional electromagnetic traveling waves, which collide and then consolidate and continue to travel in the same direction, is described. In that article it was shown that in this scenario energy is lost such that it appears to violate the Energy Conservation Principle. In this article, the Energy Pairs theory is presented which explains this energy loss. And, the above described scenario is presented as a proof of this Energy Pairs Theory. The article also describes various possible combinations of Energy Pairs.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2510] viXra:1910.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-02 03:38:35

Consolidated Waves Might Create the Dark Energy

Authors: Moshe Segal
Comments: 15 Pages.

The issue of electromagnetic traveling waves interference was already presented and analyzed extensively. Examples of such scenarios might be counter propagating one dimensional two source waves, or a single source wave propagating in two or more dimensions via scattering one portion of the wave into another portion, such as a double slit experiment with a single source. Analysis of these scenarios show that in these cases, the interference between these waves conserve the wave energy. (Ref 3). However, the following scenario was not yet presented or analyzed, (according to the best knowledge of the writer of this article) : A scenario of very focused two source electromagnetic traveling waves, focused such that they can be considered as traveling only in one dimension, which are colliding, and following this collision, the waves consolidate, and continue to travel in the same direction. It was usually assumed, that two one dimensional waves, moving in the same direction, cannot arrive at the constellation that they collide, then consolidate and continue to move in the same direction. Because if both waves are one dimensional, in order, for the first wave, to colide with another one dimensional wave traveling in its same direction, another wave source must exist somewhere along the line the first wave is traveling on. Then, the first wave will collide with this wave source and not with the second wave. However, this scenario can happen. This article presents a description of how to arrange the above scenario, of two one dimensional waves, originating from two separate sources, which collide, then consolidate and continue to travel in the same direction. Analysis of this scenario clearly reveals that there is a loss of the energy that these waves carried before that consolidation, which is a clear violation of the Energy Conservation Principle. And if, following this consolidation, the waves have same energy and opposite amplitudes in their electric fields and also in their magnetic fields the waves actually disappear. In light of the above scenario, and because of the energy loss that is shown to occur when electromagnetic waves consolidate and become unified, and continue to travel together in the same direction, the article argues that such scenarios are the cause of the Dark Energy, which is a mystery that the science of Physics seeks a solution to it
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2509] viXra:1910.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-26 01:25:57

Consolidated Waves Might Create the Dark Energy

Authors: Moshe Segal
Comments: 15 Pages.

The issue of electromagnetic traveling waves interference was already presented and analyzed extensively. Examples of such scenarios might be counter propagating one dimensional two source waves, or a single source wave propagating in two or more dimensions via scattering one portion of the wave into another portion, such as a double slit experiment with a single source. Analysis of these scenarios show that in these cases, the interference between these waves conserve the wave energy. (Ref 3). However, the following scenario was not yet presented or analyzed, (according to the best knowledge of the writer of this article) : A scenario of very focused two source electromagnetic traveling waves, focused such that they can be considered as traveling only in one dimension, which are colliding, and following this collision, the waves consolidate, and continue to travel in the same direction. It was usually assumed, that two one dimensional waves, moving in the same direction, cannot arrive at the constellation that they collide, then consolidate and continue to move in the same direction. Because if both waves are one dimensional, in order, for the first wave, to collide with another one dimensional wave traveling in its same direction, another wave source must exist somewhere along the line the first wave is traveling on. Then, the first wave will collide with this wave source and not with the second wave. However, this scenario can happen. This article presents a description of how to arrange the above scenario, of two one dimensional waves, originating from two separate sources, which collide, then consolidate and continue to travel in the same direction. Analysis of this scenario reveals that there might be a loss of the energy that these waves carried before that consolidation, which might be a violation of the Energy Conservation Principle. And if, following this consolidation, the waves have same energy and opposite amplitudes in their electric fields and also in their magnetic fields the waves actually disappear. In light of the above scenario, and because of the energy loss that is shown to might occur when electromagnetic waves consolidate and become unified, and continue to travel together in the same direction, the article argues that such scenarios might be a cause of the Dark Energy, which is a mystery that the science of Physics seeks a solution to it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2508] viXra:1910.0480 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-29 13:02:39

Attempt at Self-Consistent Description of Gravity Wells and Energy Flows

Authors: Denis Nepveu
Comments: Revised October 29, 2019: corrected typos, revised abstract, added prediction at bottom of page 3, corrected pagination

If general relativity is true, then G should not be constant for all observers, and therefore gravitational redshift should be exhibited at large scales. The resulting effects would explain phenomena currently described by dark energy and dark matter, and would also reconcile the ages of the universe derived by CMB and supernova data. If the initial hot dense state of the universe is taken as maximum energy density over the current volume of the universe, then the Big Bang can be modeled as a purely thermodynamic process precipitated by random cooling that leads to a phase change, much like a soap bubble popping, which should immediately produce the cosmic web structure exhibited in the CMB. Gravity emerges from chaotic energy flows with a normal probability distribution, and time can be expressed as the average number of iterations it takes for chaotic flows to produce a given state. Observed gravitational wave phenomena are explained as an effect on the path of light due to energy flows. Assuming that not all forces are perfectly balanced, the underlying fields will tend to rotate around the axis of energy flow, creating vortices in spacetime that would tend to result in mutual attraction between immediately adjacent objects. The sum of the attractive forces thus generated can be equated with gravity in the far field and magnetism in the near field.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2507] viXra:1910.0415 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-29 21:24:04

Dark Matter and Relativity

Authors: Mohan Basnet
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is alternate explanation for the problem related with dark matter with out modifying gravity. Geometry of spacetime might work differently in large scale than we Think. just adding a simple term in the Einstein field equation, we can balance out the he problem related to dark matter and dark energy. Gravity is a long distance force and gets weaker on increase in distance but it never get ZERO. Curvature in the space-time can be add up and merge together to form a bigger curvature and it gets more smoother and stable. This model helps to visualize how curvature of the space-time works from the planets to galaxy. I do believe that this theory is the ultimate answer for the dark matter, but again just I believe in this theory, it does not necessary to be right, it has to be test and verify with different data.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2506] viXra:1910.0344 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-24 03:46:45

Nature of Dark side of our Universe

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Mohammadi
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper I have made a great discovery ,I realized there was space-time before the Big Bang, the universe was shrinking and dark energy was negative before big bang then the universe has been expanding after the Big Bang, Another prediction of this paper is that ordinary matter, which makes up 5 percent of the universe, was made before the big bang, and dark matter has been made after the big bang. The reason for these predictions is that I have put the essence of dark energy into Wilmore energy and made the dark matter equivalent to the Hawking mass. Dark matter has a mathematically imaginary nature whose physical interpretation can be that it can be in and out of space-time.An other discovery is Unveiling of fine-tuning problem[1].
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2505] viXra:1910.0344 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-05 06:02:40

Nature of Dark side of our Universe

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Mohammadi
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper I have made a great discovery that I realized there was space-time before the Big Bang, because the universe was shrinking because dark energy was negative and then the universe has been expanding after the Big Bang, Another prediction of this paper is that ordinary matter, which makes up 5 percent of the universe, was made before the big bang, and dark matter has been made after the big bang. The reason for these predictions is that I have put the essence of dark energy into Wilmore energy and made the dark matter equivalent to the Hawking mass. Dark matter has a mathematically imaginary nature whose physical interpretation can be that it can be in and out of space-time.An other discovery is Unveiling of fine-tuning problem[1]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2504] viXra:1910.0339 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-12 14:38:03

Wyjaśnienie Czym Jest Czas W Kinematykach Oraz Obalenie Mitów Rzekomo Wynikających ze Szczególnej Teorii Względności (In Polish)

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 25 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

W artykule wyjaśnione zostało na podstawie Szczególnej Teorii Eteru zjawisko dylatacji czasu oraz zjawisko skrócenia Lorentza-FitzGeralda. Przedstawione wyjaśnienia polegają na konstrukcji nowatorskich technicznych modeli tych zjawisk, a nie jedynie na ich klasycznym opisie. Dylatacja czasu jest naturalną własnością czasu mierzonego zegarem świetlnym. W artykule wykazano, że zjawisko dylatacji czasu jest dowodem istnienia uniwersalnego układu odniesienia, w którym propaguje oddziaływanie elektromagnetyczne. W artykule wykazane zostało, że nie ma teoretycznych podstaw, aby twierdzić, że prędkość światła w próżni jest prędkością maksymalną. Przyjęcie takiej doktryny we współczesnej fizyce wynika z nadinterpretacji matematyki, na której opiera się Szczególna Teoria Względności. Z przedstawionego modelu wynika to, w jaki sposób przy pomocy zegarów atomowych można wyznaczyć ruch względem uniwersalnego układu odniesienia, w którym propagują sygnały elektromagnetyczne. Z przedstawionego modelu wynika także, w jaki sposób można zmodyfikować eksperyment Michelsona-Morleya, aby być może był w stanie wykryć ruch względem eteru. W artykule zostało wyjaśnione co to jest czas w teoriach kinematyki. Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania prowadzone przez jego autora.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2503] viXra:1910.0339 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-26 20:38:08

Wyjaśnienie Czym Jest Czas W Kinematykach Oraz Obalenie Mitów Rzekomo Wynikających ze Szczególnej Teorii Względności (In Polish)

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 24 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

W artykule wyjaśnione zostało na podstawie Szczególnej Teorii Eteru zjawisko dylatacji czasu oraz zjawisko skrócenia Lorentza-FitzGeralda. Przedstawione wyjaśnienia polegają na konstrukcji nowatorskich technicznych modeli tych zjawisk, a nie jedynie na ich klasycznym opisie. Dylatacja czasu jest naturalną własnością czasu mierzonego zegarem świetlnym. W artykule wykazano, że zjawisko dylatacji czasu jest dowodem istnienia uniwersalnego układu odniesienia, w którym propaguje oddziaływanie elektromagnetyczne. W artykule wykazane zostało, że nie ma teoretycznych podstaw, aby twierdzić, że prędkość światła w próżni jest prędkością maksymalną. Przyjęcie takiej doktryny we współczesnej fizyce wynika z nadinterpretacji matematyki, na której opiera się Szczególna Teoria Względności. Z przedstawionego modelu wynika to, w jaki sposób przy pomocy zegarów atomowych można wyznaczyć ruch względem uniwersalnego układu odniesienia, w którym propagują sygnały elektromagnetyczne. Z przedstawionego modelu wynika także, w jaki sposób można zmodyfikować eksperyment Michelsona-Morleya, aby być może był w stanie wykryć ruch względem eteru. W artykule zostało wyjaśnione co to jest czas w teoriach kinematyki. Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania prowadzone przez jego autora.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology