**Previous months:**

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2015 - 1501(38) - 1502(26) - 1503(24) - 1504(26) - 1505(30) - 1506(32) - 1507(23) - 1508(33) - 1509(38) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

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2018 - 1801(34) - 1802(40) - 1803(44) - 1804(47) - 1805(35) - 1806(40) - 1807(46) - 1808(28) - 1809(21) - 1810(36) - 1811(49) - 1812(41)

2019 - 1901(36) - 1902(29) - 1903(34) - 1904(56) - 1905(42) - 1906(35) - 1907(39) - 1908(34) - 1909(41) - 1910(52) - 1911(28) - 1912(56)

2020 - 2001(29)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3650] **viXra:2001.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-20 12:32:50*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Two concomitant Whitehead's models are used to describe the gravitational interaction of two point-like particles. If the two masses are different, and they are at rest, Newton's laws are slightly modified and for some particular values of the two masses and the distance separating them the force is a repulsion. This suggests a nice interpretation of the so-called horizon of the single particle model as the surface where gravitation becomes a repulsive force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3649] **viXra:2001.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-20 14:48:07*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This manuscript provides a comparison of the Hypersphere World-Universe Model (WUM) with the prevailing Big Bang Model (BBM) of the Standard Cosmology. The performed analysis of BBM shows that the Four Pillars of the Standard Cosmology are model-dependent and not strong enough to support the model. The angular momentum problem is one of the most critical problem in BBM. Standard Cosmology cannot explain how Galaxies and Extra Solar systems obtained their substantial orbital and rotational angular momenta, and why the orbital momentum of Jupiter is considerably larger than the rotational momentum of the Sun. WUM is the only cosmological model in existence that is consistent with the Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum. To be consistent with this Fundamental Law, WUM discusses in detail the Beginning of the World. The Model introduces Dark Epoch (spanning from the Beginning of the World for 0.4 billion years) when only Dark Matter Particles (DMPs) existed, and Luminous Epoch (ever since for 13.8 billion years). Big Bang discussed in Standard Cosmology is, in our view, transition from Dark Epoch to Luminous Epoch due to Rotational Fission of Overspinning Dark Matter (DM) Supercluster’s Cores. WUM envisions Matter carried from the Universe into the World from the fourth spatial dimension by DMPs. Ordinary Matter is a byproduct of DM annihilation. WUM solves a number of physical problems in contemporary Cosmology and Astrophysics through DMPs and their interactions: Angular Momentum problem in birth and subsequent evolution of Galaxies and Extrasolar systems – how do they obtain it; Fermi Bubbles – two large structures in gamma-rays and X-rays above and below Galactic center; Diversity of Gravitationally-Rounded Objects in Solar system; some problems in Solar and Geophysics [1]. WUM reveals Inter-Connectivity of Primary Cosmological Parameters and calculates their values, which are in good agreement with the latest results of their measurements.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3648] **viXra:2001.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-20 01:56:39*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The paper examines the evolution of the concept of relativity from origins, in the 17th century, to this day. Doubtless the concept of relativity has undergone a substantial change that misrepresents the concept that instead expresses in its essence the fact that laws and equations of physics do not depend on the inertial reference frame and on the inertial observer. The principle of relativity hence is valid only for inertial reference frames and observers who move with constant relative motion. For all inertial observers the same laws of physics and the same equations are valid, it doesn’t mean nevertheless for them also the same mathematical solutions are valid when these solutions depend on inertial velocity of a second reference frame with respect to the reference frame supposed at rest.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3647] **viXra:2001.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-20 03:50:24*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is argued that transversal waves in the geometry of space-time, as postulated by General Relativity, violate translation symmetry within phase planes of a planar wave. Consequently, it is proposed that a corresponding test of transversality is performed, which should have become possible with the increasing number of registered events of gravitational waves. This would provide a independent, new, and essential test of General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3646] **viXra:2001.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-18 01:19:10*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

Biot-Savart law describes magnetic field due to the electric current in a conductive wire.
For a long straight wire,
the magnetic field is proportional to (I/r). The curl of magnetic field is proportional to
(dI/dr).
For a constant current, the curl of magnetic field is zero. Consequently, the
surface integral of the curl of magnetic field is zero but the line integral of the magnetic field is not.
Stokes' theorem can not be applied to the magnetic field vector generated by a constant electric current
because the magnetic field is not a differentiable vector.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3645] **viXra:2001.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-18 01:32:22*

**Authors:** Cameron Wong

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Theoretically, stellar aberration can be calculated with absolute precision other than "approximately".

It appears that the reasoning in calculating stellar aberration proposed by James Bradley cannot satisfy a big group of people, particularly those people who believe only special relativity can present such calculation that is accurate to the point. This means that, in case relativity happens to be invalid, the argument on the calculation about stellar aberration has not yet truly settled in the science world these days. The problem is that relativity does show evidence that it must lead itself to conclude speed of light c=0 and thus refutes itself. So, history still leaves open the opportunity for us to approach the calculation from a new angle

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3644] **viXra:2001.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-16 10:44:46*

**Authors:** JosÊnio Dos Anjos

**Comments:** 1 Page. Pus a mão no caldeirão de Deus e ainda O espiei apertar o interruptor de luz

Um carro da Teoria Geral da Relatividade viaja a 100km/h para percorrer 100km.
quando chega lá, verifica-se que ele percorreu 109km em 1h. Pergunta: de onde vem a energia extra para ter aumentado esse percurso? Problema pior, ele foi sem nenhum combustível no tanque.
Solução. foi a caminho que está se esticando. o carro esta estacionário. se der partida, sua ultima gota de gasolina explode. E como o caminho se esticou em ambos os lados em velocidade constante de 100km/h, a impressão que temos é que ele viajou uns kms extras.
Solucionado o mistério da Energia Escura e de tudo, absolutamente tudo.
As outras questões estão em outro artigo.
Qualquer teoria utilizando a equação aqui postulada, tem que ser expressamente autorizada pelo autor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3643] **viXra:2001.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-14 10:44:12*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A previous preon scenario based on unbroken global supersymmetry is developed further to provide a natural physical reason for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. A tentative mechanism for asymmetric genesis of matter in early cosmology is proposed. With global supersymmetry made local the scenario can be extended to supergravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3642] **viXra:2001.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-14 09:10:09*

**Authors:** Kajetan Młynarski

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Abstract
The work uses non-standard concepts and calculations based on the concept of identity (i.e. not based on set theory as a basic theory). This made it possible to obtain several potentially interesting results. For example: the number of dimensions of a space is not an assumption, it is determined by a theorem. Also a theorem indicates the existence of a maximum speed having properties analogous to c. According to the presented theory, there is only one fundamental interaction. Depending on the parameters (distance, rotation), it has properties similar to known fundamental interactions. In the final part I propose some experiments checking the obtained results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3641] **viXra:2001.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-13 11:54:12*

**Authors:** Manfred U.E.Pohl

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Turning a discarded (Descartes) Coordinate-System into a new (Newtonian) Coordinate-System - [pi / pi :=1 ; pi := c := Meter / Second] - Written to the FXQi Essay Contest on
„Undecidability, Uncomputability, and Unpredictability“

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3640] **viXra:2001.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-13 13:28:16*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

In special relativity theory, we discover the relation of inertial frames’ accelerations. In this theory, we can understand general state of the relation of inertial frames’ accelerations

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3639] **viXra:2001.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-13 00:48:44*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Twin Paradox solution (language German).
Das Zwillingsparadoxon Beweis und Lösung zum ersten Mal seit 110 Jahren.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3638] **viXra:2001.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-13 07:24:51*

**Authors:** Iain Smith

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Observations that the speed of electromagnetic waves are reliably measured to travel at the speed of light "c" relative to the observer and proved to be independent of the emitters relative speed have resulted in the theory of the dilation of time as a practical interpretation of the theory of special and general relativity. This papers alternative theory suggests background EM radiation provides the locality that EM waves latch onto and set their speed/wavelength mix relative to. As such back ground radiation will exist locally to all emitters and observers of EM waves this would explain the observations that currently force the time dilation theory. In turn, if time dilation does not exist then the correlation between extended atomic half lives and speed are in fact an observation of a transfer of energy to the atoms stores during accelerating events they have experienced rather than proof of the rate of time slowing down at speed. This theory is applied to the results of experiments bouncing laser pulses off a reflector on the moon as observational confirmation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3637] **viXra:2001.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-12 06:01:15*

**Authors:** JianFei Chen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

There are controversies on mass-velocity relation and charge of moving electrons, which are related with mass-energy equivalence. Author thought that mass-energy equivalence was expressing the energy relation of bodies and space as mass. In this paper author proposed relative kinetic energy $E_{rk}=mv^2$ to explain this relation. With relative kinetic energy theory, author inferred the equations for mass-energy equivalence and mass-velocity relation. While analyzing the electron acceleration movement, author found the reasons for the two unreal equation of mass-velocity relation, and determined the equations of mass-velocity relation and charge-velocity relation of electrons. These determinations are of important significance for relativity theory and electrodynamics, even for superconducting research.
[eastear@outlook.com, eastear@163.com]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3636] **viXra:2001.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-11 20:16:23*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan

**Comments:** 144 Pages. Dedicated to the 12-th Anniversary of Declaration Armenian Revolution in Science

The Armenian Revolution in Science Continues
We called this third volume of our research work "Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space", which best describes the very essence of our theory. The term "special" means that in this volume mainly discusses the case when observing systems are inertial systems (of course, with the Armenian interpretation). In addition, in this third volume, we have recognized that all observing and observed systems have the same "weight", that is in some sense, all systems are equivalent to each other. And what this means will become clear in the following volumes.
------------------------------------
By re-interpreting some very important concepts in the "Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space", such as “observed time” and “own time”, we were able to solve the nested crisis in the legacy theory of relativity, which been revealed in our second volume. We also outline the way to solve the problem of particle system movement as whole.
------------------------------------
We have also proved that "Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space" is rich in fine and difficult to grasp concepts, in many cases unexpected ideas and interpretations that are contrary to traditional physics perceptions and experiences. In our illustrated book, intended for wide circles, using only pure mathematical approach, we have been able to provide a new scientific breakthrough in the interpretation of the concepts of time and space, and have paved the way for the construction of the most general and unified theory.
------------------------------------
The "Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space" is mathematically so solid and perfect that it can't be wrong. Therefore, our derived Armenian Transformation Equations and all other Armenian Relativistic Formulas should not only replace Lorentz transformation equations or other legacy relativistic relations, but all modern theoretical physics must be rewritten again. Because the transformation equations and other formulas of legacy theory of relativity, are only a very special case of our derived formulas in Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space, when s = 0 and g = -1 .
------------------------------------
The many transformation equations and many other important relations contained in this volume are presented very briefly, with almost no strong proofs, and readers must make sufficient effort to verify for themselves the derivation of all our transformation equations and relativistic formulas.
------------------------------------
And finally, in this third volume of our research work, you will come across amazing interpretations and see new beautiful formulas that the World has never seen before and these mathematical formulas are capable of reforming the future of mankind by creating a new golden age of scientific breakthroughs, free from all types of spiritual, mental and physical leprosy.
------------------------------------
Long Live the Revival of Armenian Science!
Long Live the Armenian Revolution in Science!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3635] **viXra:2001.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-11 00:44:30*

**Authors:** Yansha Yu-sandstrom

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This version, "The three major complementary principles of 《The Principle of Natural Laws》", combined with mathematical natural numbers and their compounding and corresponding, positive and negative numbers, universe variation / invariant constant, universe constant variable set, physical weight and chemical fusing and reduction. to show and unfold it

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3634] **viXra:2001.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-09 20:32:33*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Length contraction and solution the ladder paradox (language German).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3633] **viXra:2001.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-09 15:25:30*

**Authors:** Martin Beecroft Roberts

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We discuss the equivalence principle and how this relates to the gravitational fields of large bodies. We derive formulas relating to time dilation and acceleration with respect to accelerating reference frames. We conclude with an assessment of the possibility of the existence of an astronomical body or ‘Black Hole’ capable of halting the velocity of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3632] **viXra:2001.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-08 16:37:16*

**Authors:** Patryk Woźniak

**Comments:** 5 pages in Polish language.

W niniejszej pracy podważa się opinię iż transformacja czasowa Galileusza jest podstawową transformacją dla układów w ruchu (oraz w spoczynku).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3631] **viXra:2001.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-08 01:41:26*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 19 Pages. 6 Figure; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

In my previous papers, I explored the idea that the Galactic Center may be a white hole. through specific calculations, it is shown that the assumption that the Galactic Center is a huge white hole can explain various phenomena in the Milky Way more effectively than the assumption of a huge black hole. However, the white hole theory in general relativity requires the assumption of time inversion, which contradicts the known laws of physics, such as the second law of thermodynamics. For this reason, this paper uses virtual space-time physics theory to analyze the structure of white and black holes. Using the concept of energy field, new models of white and black holes have been constructed. Of course, the assumption of huge white holes and existence of millions of solar-mass black holes in the center of the Milky Way is not contradictory. A large amount of mass ejected from white holes is still likely to form small and medium-sized black holes of a certain size.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3630] **viXra:2001.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-08 06:57:12*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Einstein's STR dynamics are contradictory

This paper presents the derivation of correct dynamics of the Special Theory of Relativity for all spatial dimensions. The derived dynamics has no flaws, which have other dynamics, also Einstein’s dynamics, i.e. the lack of parallelism of the force vector with the acceleration vector, the right angle lever paradox is unsolvable and the incompatibility of energy conservation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3629] **viXra:2001.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-07 15:55:40*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Planck’s constant h has dimensions of energy (ergs) × time (seconds) called “actions.” Action is a four-dimensional constant and is the same size for all observers in special relativity, even if those observers disagree as to the size of the energy and time components of that action. The various guessed at formalisms of non-relativistic quantum mechanics introduce h arbitrarily, empirically. But being inconsistent with special relativity would seem to render that ad hoc introduction out of context. In this brief article we shall generalise the Planck-Einstein relation to reveal a new mass-free paradigm of Relativity, leaving little of the classical physics which preceded it. Furthermore, we historically avoid the misguided advent of non-relativistic quantum mechanics altogether, to finally reveal the true significance of h. The maths employed here has been used in [1] and [2].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3628] **viXra:2001.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-07 02:24:25*

**Authors:** Yansha Yu-sandstrom

**Comments:** 70 Pages.

Human three major pillar type cognitions
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Olj9kZKyEI
The Tolerant and Completed Scientific Faith with its《The Principle of Natural Laws》
Be with Bible, The Theory of God
Be with Quran, The Trinity of Allah Star-Moon
Be with Sutra, The Trinity of Buddha Yab-Yum
Be with The Book of Change and Tao Te Ching,The Trinity of Tao Yin-Yang
Be with ….

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3627] **viXra:2001.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-06 18:55:00*

**Authors:** Pelobello, J. D.

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

This is a conclusive and speculative essay on the members and subsequent formation of the Solar System. All references are included as hyperlinks to the test. We have combined various theories and invented our own to come up with some unique conclusions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3626] **viXra:2001.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-06 19:12:40*

**Authors:** Pelobello, J. D.

**Comments:** 36 Pages. All references are included as hyperlinks in the relevant text.

Many people often look up at the skies and do not understand that there is an entire universe above their eyes. The universe contains many objects, most of which are very large and massive for a human to comprehend. Even the vastness of the universe was not known The difference in scale between an elementary particle and the observable universe is around 10^40. Even brown dwarfs are many millions of times larger than a human. But the universe's exact nature is still unknown. Is it infinite? Or does it bend in a way that the nebulae and galaxies that seem billions of light years away are in fact very near to our own?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3625] **viXra:2001.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-05 04:15:36*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

An Examination of the postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity via a thought experiment uses Michelson interferometer has been done. An inconsistency between the two postulates of the theory has been revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3624] **viXra:2001.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-05 05:59:48*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Formulae 18, Table 1

Escape velocity from the E.G. Haug has been checked. It is compared with orbital velocity formula for an ideal circular path. The formulas are simplified so that we have only one variable that contains the Planck values and the mass of the central body. In the case of an arbitrary star, the values of these velocities are determined during its compression to the black hole. Unlike the standard and relativistic formulas that are approximations for a weak gravitational field, Haug's formula is exact for a weak and strong gravitational field. The relationships between formulas showed the importance of the golden ratio near the black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3623] **viXra:2001.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-04 18:52:54*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Introduction to the atemporal Platonic world, called 'It'.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3622] **viXra:2001.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-01 15:10:01*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The results of the Michelson-Morley Experiment (MMX), allegedly showing that an aether medium for the propagation of light did not exist, were interpreted by Einstein under the constraint of a constant light speed. This led him to invent Special Relativity, not necessarily the simplest or most logical explanation, as would have been recommended by Occam’s Razor. MMX is revisualized here, relaxing these constraints to show what might have been the better conclusion, or at least dismissal of the MMX as a basis for inventing Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3621] **viXra:2001.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2020-01-01 15:11:19*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It has been known for nearly three centuries that, to view a clear image of a star through a telescope, it is necessary to tilt the telescope slightly forward in the direction of the earth’s motion, a phenomenon known as “stellar aberration.” Normally explained by mainstream physics without the presence of an aether medium for light transport and with relativistic corrections due to time dilation/length contraction via Lorentz transforms, this article examines stellar aberration from the perspective of an aether presence, including both a stationary and fully entrained aether, as well as the intermediate case of a partially entrained (“dragged”) aether. Comparison is made with the parallel cases without an aether, with the option to allow light to acquire its source velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3620] **viXra:1912.0541 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-31 14:53:59*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The “ladder paradox”, a decision, for the first time in 110 years. In the represented earlier by me Poincare’s theory of relativity, I said, what the converselength contraction are virtual (unrealistic) and are a consequence of the “virtual time” introduced by Poincare, which I called “local Poincare time.” Now we consider this in more detail, using the so-called "Ladder paradox" as an example

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3619] **viXra:1912.0535 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-31 16:55:36*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the article, was derived formulas for unidirectional speed of light in vacuum and
material medium. Unidirectional speed of light is one of the important elements that
distinguishes special theory of relativity from ether theory. The calculations are based
on space-time transformation of ether theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3618] **viXra:1912.0534 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-31 16:58:38*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol

**Comments:** 6 Pages. in Polish language

W artykule zostały wyprowadzone zależności na jednokierunkową prędkość światła w
próżni oraz ośrodku materialnym. Jednokierunkowa prędkość światła jest jednym z istotnych
elementem, który rozróżnia szczególną teorię względności od teorii eteru.
Przedstawione obliczenia oparte są na transformacji czasoprzestrzennej teorii eteru.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3617] **viXra:1912.0493 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-28 11:45:25*

**Authors:** James Carter

**Comments:** 15 Pages. An alternative to special and general relativity theories

Being ignorant of most of today’s modern experimental measurements, Einstein largely ignored experimental physics when he foolishly imagined his arbitrary unmeasured relativity theories to be true. He then went on to fool generations of theoretical physicists into believing in impossible things like infinite gravitational fields, massless photons, equivalent force and motion, non-local gravity, and the many metaphysical assumptions of the Big Bang creation myth. Einstein’s interpretations and definitions of Mass, Space, Time, and Gravity and their relationships of Momentum, Force, and Energy were often upside down, backwards, and inside out from their physical parameters.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3616] **viXra:1912.0487 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-28 02:20:37*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 36 Pages. 7 Figure; 1 table. Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version. The file is about 1MB.

The white hole hypothesis can explain various problems faced by spiral galaxies more than the black hole hypothesis. At present, the main problems still focus on the theoretical model of white holes. White hole solutions can also be obtained from general relativity. However, negative time must be used, and this article demonstrates very briefly that time inversion does not exist through the example of returning to youth age. This problem can be solved very well using virtual space-time physics. Under the framework of virtual space-time physics, a white hole model can be constructed without time inversion. In this paper, a white hole model is used for numerical calculations to obtain the trajectory of the solar system from the center of the Milky Way to the periphery of the Milky Way. Comparing the calculation results with the actual patterns of the Milky Way, it can be seen that the calculation results coincide well with the actual patterns. The calculation results show that the solar system orbit is an expanding elliptical spiral orbit. There is a clear demarcation point between the orbits in the center of the Milky Way and the orbits around the galaxy. This may be the reason for the bulge structure in the center of the Milky Way. The solar system has been in the center of the Milky Way for about 2.8 billion years. So far, the solar system has been running for about 1.8 billion years outside the center of the Milky Way, and about 600 to 700 million years have been far from the center of the Milky Way. This is basically consistent with the evolution of life on Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3615] **viXra:1912.0473 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-27 06:42:05*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** timinva@yandex.ru, 12 pages in Russian

This work is used as a General application for other works on the propagation of waves in Galile-an space. The main task of this work is to solve General issues related to the propagation of waves in Gali-lean space. When considering this question, it is assumed that the source of the wave is not a point ob-ject that propagates a spherical wave, but is the source of a monochromatic wave that fills the entire space. It is also assumed that the time of the wave source and the distance are synchronized with the time and distance of the GP. The word "Galileo"is very often used in the work. This word is perhaps the main one in this work. Galilean space, Galilean standard, Galilean metric. The practical physical model for the application (use) of these words and phrases is a fixed solid (air, liquid, solid) medium – an absolute reference sys-tem (ASO) in which the wave propagates, and where this "air" medium is located is an empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an absolute inertial frame of reference, it can nahzoditsya in a state of arbitrary motion in the GP. But for propagating waves as independent entities when em-bedded in Galilean space, this is the current Galilean ASO. A wave in a continuous medium (ASO) of Galilean space (GP) can only propagate at one specific speed – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its basis, forget about the existence of the material basis for its existence, leaving only the essen-tial points of this fact. They are the frequency and speed of wave propagation. In this case, the wave as an independent object itself determines the ASO. In addition to waves, there may be non-wave objects in it, the speed of movement of which is not limited to the speed of sound. But they are not considered in this work. The word "relativistic"is hardly used. This is the next level of abstraction of the independent exist-ence of the wave.
Эта работа используется как общее приложение для других работ, посвященных распространению волн в галилеевом пространстве.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3614] **viXra:1912.0471 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-27 08:44:22*

**Authors:** Zane Andrea Quintili

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Schwarzschild radius describes the radius of the event horizon within which no object can exit and which sees a singularity at its center.
The mathematical expression of this ray without resorting to the complex mathematical formalism of general relativity can be summarized as follows by simply using the kinetic energy and the gravitational potential energy of the body in question.
1/2 mc^2=G mM/d
Rs=(2G M)/c^2
At this point, however, nothing in the mathematical expression tells us if that "2" is linked to Newton's mass or gravitational constant so that we can also freely interpret "2" as twice the mass, or two masses.
This new interpretation completely reverses the information we have for the Schwarzschild radius which, using Planck's units, will become:
Rs=(G 2Mp)/c^2 =2Lp

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3613] **viXra:1912.0464 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-26 17:01:06*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

The absolute gravimeter measures the gravitational constant by dropping a corner cube retro-reflector in a vacuum.
The light reflected by the corner cube interferes with another light from the same emission.
The interference pattern can not be explained by the theory if the speed of light remains constant upon reflection.
Two research teams were obliged to propose new definition of acceleration to match their test data.
Neither team understands that the speed of light actually changes upon reflection by a moving mirror.
The definition of acceleration should remain intact.
The speed of reflected light should increase to match the observed fringe pattern from the gravimeter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3612] **viXra:1912.0459 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-26 03:57:49*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The theory of relativity is a mathematical and not a physical theory.

Begins of glorification [1]:
12 In 1919 it had carried an article [13 autor Alexander Moszkowski (1851-1934), 15 editor-in-chief was Arnold Berliner (1862-1942)] announcing the results of the British solar eclipse expedition that rose to laudatory hyperbole, not shying away from declaring that “a highest truth, beyond Galileo and Newton, beyond Kant” had been unveiled by “an oracular saying from the depth of the skies.”
16 on December 14, 1919, the front page of the Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung [17 This newspaper had been founded by Leopold Ullstein (1826-1899)] carried a large close-up portrait of Einstein whose caption read: “A new eminence in the history of the world: Albert Einstein, whose researches signify a complete revolution of our understanding of Nature and whose insights equal in importance those of a Copernicus, Kepler, and Newton.”
2 The huge public acclaim that was accorded Einstein. It also vexed conservative academics (e.g. the Nobel Laureate Philipp Lenard have felt that the theoretical physicist Einstein had captured too much of the limelight, while other, experimental physicists were not appreciated enough.)
For nearly 100 years ago have been Nobel Prize winners said:
"- The theory of relativity is a mathematical and not a physical theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3611] **viXra:1912.0453 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-25 14:00:12*

**Authors:** Cameron Wong

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Special relativity rejects its own 2nd postulate.

The key for the “successful” derivation of the special relativity lies on convincing people to believe the following two spherical equations representing only one sphere that is created by light propagation: x^2 + y^2 + z^2=(ct)^2, and x’^2 + y’^2 + z'^2=(ct’)^2. The reason that the readers have so easily believed such convincing for more than a century is because of the acceptance of the second postulate. Unfortunately, verification using relativity’s own rule regarding the relationship between length , time and speed must fail the second postulate. The 2nd postulate gone, relativity loses must end up self-refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3610] **viXra:1912.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-25 00:54:25*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

In following on from the preceding papers [1-13], this paper presents the case for the disparity between vacuum energy [14] and the associated cosmological constant [15] (when applied to calculated values of the redshift effect in regard to the metric expansion of space and associated energy requirements). A solution is provided to this problem while correctly deriving the value for the Lamb shift radiation as evidence for vacuum energy marrying up correctly with the large scale observed cosmological value, such in the context of a revised understanding of the redshift effect and associated scaling system for the Planck constant [13]. The process of proof presented here is by taking a close look at the theory behind the cosmological constant, those calculations, and any of those associated assumptions of theory and modelling of time and space in those calculations and observations that could lead to the problem, and thus determine in fact why the value for the observed energy of space is so great according to contemporary estimates and processes of theoretical modelling of space. Above all, this paper shall present proof for vacuum energy and cosmological constant being in parity, such by using the fundamental basis of the phi-quantum wave-function scaling system in deriving the temperature value of the CMBR and Boltzmann constant, and finally proof for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury which is demonstrated to be directed related to the vacuum energy of space and CMBR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3609] **viXra:1912.0445 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-24 10:20:41*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Mysterious numerical coincidences to be explained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3608] **viXra:1912.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-23 20:56:49*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Einstein's STR dynamics are contradictory (in Polish).

W artykule zostało przedstawione wyprowadzenie prawidłowej dynamiki Szczególnej Teorii Względności dla wszystkich wymiarów przestrzennych. Wyprowadzona dynamika nie posiada wad, które posiadają inne dynamiki, także dynamika Einsteina, czyli brak równoległości wektora siły z wektorem przyśpieszenia, nierozwiązywalność paradoksu dźwigni kątowej oraz niezgodność z prawem zachowania energii.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3607] **viXra:1912.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-23 14:17:30*

**Authors:** Cavași Ioan Abel

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We present the generalization of Einstein's principle of equivalence and highlight the consequences of this generalization regarding black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3606] **viXra:1912.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-23 15:00:02*

**Authors:** James Carter

**Comments:** 6 Pages. A new explanation of quasars

Ever since they were first discovered, the true nature of quasars has long been one of the most difficult paradoxes in cosmology and astrophysics. There is nothing in the initial assumptions of the Big Bang and Relativity theories that would lead to the creation of quasars. Also, the principles of relativity theories and quantum mechanics offer no solutions to the gigantic energies that quasars are purported to produce. The experimental observations of over two thousand quasars lead to the inescapable conclusion that all of these peculiar stars reside within the Milky Way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3605] **viXra:1912.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-22 08:19:40*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Comments welcome.

Three characteristics of the human mind are described, which cannot have material correlates. The question of how to bind mind to matter, posed in the initial paper from 15 January 1990, has been re-examined by scrutinizing the postulate of locality and the invariant speed of light in “vacuum”, after the Michelson-Morley experiment. It is shown that, in the so-called doctrine of trialism, the question of how to bind mind to matter depends on the underlying phenomenon of matter interacting with matter, by following the flow of Time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3604] **viXra:1912.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-21 16:01:16*

**Authors:** Toshiro Takami

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In quantum mechanics, whenever a red board comes out, the other always comes out blue, which is the spirit.
It still seems to be a mystery, but I wrote in my previous book (Thoughts Are Faster Than Light viXra: 1910.0131) to explain that we are living at the same time as another dimension .
As a psychiatrist, I have been focusing on research on hallucinations. Hallucinations suggest that we are living at the same time as another dimension.
The reason that two related colors always emit different colors (red and blue) is said to be tied, but it is unknowingly tied by human will.
The two are tied together by the deep unconsciousness of a person. It is tied to the deep unconsciousness of people who are difficult to understand with current science.
My previous work (Thoughts Are Faster Than Light
ViXra: 1910.0131) was written to explain it.
People live next to another dimension. The human brain is simply an organ that commands this movement, and it is common sense that we are thinking of a different dimension located behind the human occipital area (only I But you may think so.)
The brain doesn't think. The upper dimension behind the brain is thinking.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3603] **viXra:1912.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-21 10:41:19*

**Authors:** Giacomo Roccaforte

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This version is in Italian

In this research is highlight a situation in which the fact that the speed of light is constant in all
reference systems would imply that even the flow of the time should be the same in all reference
systems , a conclusion that is exactly and paradoxically opposed to the Theory Of Relativity
The first research about this matter has been published at http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0225 in a typical
Special Theory's scenario.
In this case, taking into consideration the so-called elevator experiment, used by Einstein for the
development of the General RelativityTheory.
In the same scenario and setting acceleration = 0, we refer back to Special Relativity Theory, taking
into consideration what happens inside the elevator, which in this case for greater clarity becomes
an airplane.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3602] **viXra:1912.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-20 14:21:41*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Despite E= mc² being a foundational equation of modern physics, it has not been experimentally verified. Though four eminent physicists claimed ‘A direct test of E=mc²’ (Nature 2006) giving verification accurate to 1:10⁶, the experiment was not any verification of E=mc², but rather an alternative experiment to deduce the mass of the neutron. Instead of the usual Deuteron interaction, they used the nuclear interaction involving sulfur S-32 and silicon Si-28. The claim of accuracy of 1:10⁶ is about the comparison of the new value with the accepted value of the mass of the neutron. This paper shows that a chemical analysis (with a good analytical balance) of the mass composition of oxygen and hydrogen in plain distilled water may show that the law of conservation of mass is universally valid without the need for the hypothesis of mass-energy equivalence; this would also imply an unequivocal refutation of the equation E=mc². Such an experiment could easily be carried out by any laboratory in today’s universities. The experiment should be simple and straightforward, yet its outcome may have enormous consequences for the world of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3601] **viXra:1912.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-20 21:46:03*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Presented evidence, that Black Hole is hole. Namely right behind the black surface (event horizon
for non-rotational BH) there are no space nor time. No spacetime. Just as it would be prior to the
Big Bang. First composite image of Black Hole from Event Horizon Telescope is another evidence
for that, with the resulting correction of the reported mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3600] **viXra:1912.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-19 03:14:38*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Due to his solution of Energy Localization problem in General Relativity, the author finds out, that tidal forces of Black Hole can compress the falling astronaut instead of ripping him into parts. Moreover, found necessity of inclusion mathematical correction made "by hand" into first order Deviation equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3599] **viXra:1912.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-17 06:33:12*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 3 Figure; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

Based on a model of a huge white hole in the Galactic Center, this article analyzes the orbit of the solar system in the Milky Way. It is pointed out that the motion of the solar system in the Milky Way can be divided into two parts. The first part lasts about three to four billion years. During this time, the solar system made elliptical movements in an elongated bar structure at the Galactic Center. A large number of galaxies perform elliptical motion around the Galactic Center, forming the elongated bar structure near the Galactic Center. When the solar system gradually moves away from the Galactic Center and reaches a certain distance, the solar system will be ejected from the elongated bar structure of the Galactic Center and enter the spiral orbit outside the Milky Way. Moving outside the Milky Way, the Solar System flies away from the Milky Way following a parabolic trajectory. For simplicity of calculation, this article uses a straight line instead of this parabola. Calculation shows that the solar system has been flying for at least 600 million years after flying away from the elongated bar structure of the Galactic Center. Comparing these 600 million years with the evolutionary process of life on Earth, it can be found that this period is the time when a large number of higher organisms on the earth evolved. Including the emergence of fish, the concentrated evolution of dinosaurs, and the emergence of humans. This article points out that this is related to the fact that the entire Earth's environment is more suitable for the growth of higher organisms after the solar system flies from the elongated bar structure of the Galactic Center. Since the earth has obtained biological prosperity and the development of human civilization in this way, it is believed that galaxies similar to the solar system are ubiquitous in the Milky Way. Therefore, there will also be extraterrestrial civilizations similar to Earth civilization on the periphery of the Milky Way. This article analyzes some areas in the spiral structure of the Milky Way that require attention, and points out that the development of civilization in these areas may exceed the development of human civilization on Earth by more than millions of years. If we can obtain important information about these civilized societies, it will help us better grasp the destiny of human civilization on earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3598] **viXra:1912.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-17 07:53:47*

**Authors:** Ayman Kassem

**Comments:** 196 Pages.

The mechanism of the universe’s inflation is variation of energy in
space and in time , the relationship between space and time
varying energy fields is governed by energy constraining inside
what was once a Planck scale entity : the quanton
as energy varies in space or in time, it creates associated fields
and through their interactions, inflationary momentum and the
fundamental forces are generated
this model comes in three parts : energy constraining , where the
evolution of the quanton and its different transitions are discussed
until the stable state is reached
the second part , electromagnetic waves in terms of space and
time varying energy fields and role of Maxwell equations in the
evolution of the quanton
the third part , energy fields and their interactions , while using
basic physics concepts , this model shows that the origin many of
the physical phenomena can be traced back to the quanton based
world

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3597] **viXra:1912.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-15 20:18:03*

**Authors:** Yuli Vladimirsky

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Abstract
In this essay we suggest that use of differential calculus of integer orders in description of physical processes is an approximation. We propose use of fractional calculus with orders very close to integers. Time is defined time axiomatically in terms of set theory, it is assumed to be partially ordered, can be continuous or discrete, homogeneous, and, in general, nonuniform. Use of fractional calculus predicts irreversible time, temporal indefinitism, and evolution of the Universe, as described by the Hubble Law of expansion. Dimensionless Hubble and Cosmological constants are associated numerically with deviations of first and second fractional derivatives from their corresponding integers. These deviations are extremely small and their ratio corresponds to the Universe expansion deceleration parameter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3596] **viXra:1912.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-15 22:25:37*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate two schemas of the thought experiment for the length of an object with zero velocity and with velocity greater than zero as equivalent to confirm the conjecture but without resorting to transit times of light. These results form a tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3595] **viXra:1912.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-15 12:57:05*

**Authors:** S. Kulas

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The model of the Big Bang implies that Something is created out of Nothing. Since the first moments of the Big Bang are still quite unknown, we make
implications which are based on rational conclusions and end up with a variable speed of light, which was nearly zero at the beginning of the universe and grew exponentially in the first moments. Then it represents an impetus for inflation. If a fraction of this process still goes on today, it could be a source for dark
matter and dark energy. We show a phenomenological approach to a simple model and the similarity to dark photons, which hopefully can be detected in
the near future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3594] **viXra:1912.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-15 14:20:02*

**Authors:** James Carter

**Comments:** 16 Pages. A new version of Big Bang theory without the metaphysical assumptions.

Abstract
The Living Cosmos is an alternative explanation to the Big Bang theories of cosmic creation and evolution. It differs from the Big Bang on two major points. First, the Big Bang began suddenly with a singularity containing an undetermined amount of “pure energy” that was not conserved as it spread out into the universe and eventually transformed into atoms and photons. The evolution of the Living Cosmos begins with a single, matter/antimatter duality containing equal and inseparable quantities of Energy and Mass E/M = CC that remain independently conserved throughout the entire evolutionary process. Second, Big Bang theories all begin with the often unstated metaphysical assumption that the electron/proton mass ratio of e/p = 1/1836 is a universal and eternal constant that has not changed since the beginning of time. The Living Cosmos creation process begins with an electron/proton mass ratio of e/p = 1.0/1.0 that has slowly evolved throughout cosmological time to its present value of e/p = 1/1836. This new cosmic model uses Big Bang’s astronomical observations and measurements to illustrate a cosmic reproduction process producing equal quantities of atomic matter and antimatter. Instead of a nearly instant inflation followed by slow gravitational collapse, the Living Cosmos was formed through evolutionary reproduction and separation processes lasting billions of years. The galaxies, stars and atoms reached their present structures and locations through first weak nuclear, then strong nuclear, and finally electromagnetic interactions. Gravity played only a minor role in this organizational process. Contrary to Big Bang models, this new cosmic model strictly adheres to the principles of the scientific method of experimental measurement as they apply to quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, and the laws of gravitational force and motion,. The Living Cosmos examines the basic values and events in cosmological history from perspectives that are sometimes upside down, backwards, and inside out from standard Big Bang ideas. In this non-linear synchronous creation, antineutrons reproduced first, then atoms formed as they emitted photons. Galaxies formed before stars and then stars were created before protons, electrons, and photons. The conclusions reached from the slowly evolving electron/proton mass ratio provide new explanations for matter/antimatter equality, Hubble red shifts, Dark Energy, the homogeneous 2.7 K temperature of the cosmic blackbody radiation, the enormous energy of cosmic rays, the constant energy output of the sun, plate tectonics, and even the very large size of dinosaur bones.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3593] **viXra:1912.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-15 18:15:00*

**Authors:** James Carter

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Definitive disproof that starlight is deflected by the sun.

The above photo of the Andromeda Galaxy is definitive proof there is absolutely no change in the momentum vectors of any photons when they pass through the extended gravitational fields of stars. If each photon in this picture was not lined up perfectly in Euclidian space and time with its emitting star, the photo would appear as a quite dim homogenous grey cloud. Any photons moving through a non-Euclidian curving gravitational spacetime would completely blur astronomical observations beyond recognition. There can be no gravitational deflection of any photon’s path through empty space without the ultimate destruction of astronomy. All photons, from gamma rays to radio waves, would be jumbled together and coming to us on trajectories far removed from their original emission vectors.
Actual physical measurements of the solar deflection of photons show the effect to be an optical illusion without any change in a photon’s actual path through Euclidian space. The apparent angle of curvature is measured as changes in the gravitational momentum of Earth and not by any gravitational effect of the sun. These measurements show conclusively that the downward pointing gravity of Einstein’s equivalent principle is false and verify that Earth falls up.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3592] **viXra:1912.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-10 08:49:25*

**Authors:** Donghui Wang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Scientists have explained the phenomenon of redshift in the universe by using the viewpoint of cosmic expansion, while the phenomenon of blueshift has perplexed academic circles for a long time. To solve this problem, the author conducted a thought experiment. The focus of the experiment was to let an elevator box at high altitude fall along a track and then compare the results observed by a person inside the box with the phenomena of redshift and blueshift observed by people on Earth. The results show that redshift and blueshift in the universe can be simulated above the Earth, indicating that cosmic space may have the features of a gravitational field. Thus, the author assumed that cosmic space is a gravitational field, analysed the movement pattern of celestial bodies in this context, and gave reasonable explanations for Earth’s rotation deceleration, Venus’s abnormal auto-rotation and global warming. Based on further association, the author argues that the continuous increase in the Earth’s gravity may be the cause for the largest animal on the Earth becoming progressively lighter, and this derivation can be verified by correlated detection.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3591] **viXra:1912.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-14 05:23:10*

**Authors:** Laszlo G Meszaros

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Opinions are welcome

In a thought experiment, in which transit-times of light signal propagation over given distances are measured, it is demonstrated that the length of an object in motion is independent of the object's (relative) velocity and, consequently, equals its resting length, i.e. its 'proper' length. Thereby, after discussing Einstein's two (essentially different) light speed postulates, the scientific merit of the Special Theory of Relativity (as well as that of the Lorentz transformations) is questioned.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3590] **viXra:1912.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-14 09:47:12*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 3 Figure; 1 Table

It has long been assumed that the Galactic Center is a huge black hole. However, from some existing data, if the Galactic Center is a black hole, the surrounding mass will move around the Galactic Center. This will cause the outer mass of the Milky Way to move faster than the mass of the inner Milky Way. But this is not consistent with observations over the years. Although it can be explained by the existence of dark matter, direct evidence for the existence of dark matter is still lacking. If there is dark matter around the earth that has a serious effect on gravitation, there should be many experimental results that violate the law of conservation of energy. However, various experiments conducted on the earth for more than 100 years have shown that energy is conserved. However, if the Galactic Center is a white hole, the white hole continuously ejects masses, and at the same time the white hole is still rotating at a high speed, the distribution of the surrounding mass is like a spiral firework, and it has a spiral shape. Combined with my previous works, I concluded that the scope of gravitation is limited at the cosmic scale. Therefore, the motion of the galaxy's peripheral mass around the Galactic Center can be simplified to a linear fluid motion, and its velocity is equal everywhere. This can be used to explain the observations of galactic rotation curves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3589] **viXra:1912.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-13 07:36:57*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Email:yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

An object at motion decreases in its mass and converts it into energy and vanishes when reaching the speed of light c, the kinetic energy in this case is the mass energy adding to it energy due to motion , the kinetic energy will travel with the speed of light as photon , the total energy of the rest mass is conserved , part of it change to energy and part of it still solid until it vanishes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3588] **viXra:1912.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-12 07:41:46*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** Pages.

‘Fractals are everywhere’; but for the large-scale galaxy distribution in the observable universe, by the 2012 WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, they were ruled out. They were, however, granted on small cosmic scales, as claimed by proponents, and notwithstanding the ensuing enigma of explaining the standard model of cosmology ‘very large’ cosmic structures (LQGs) have indeed – as predicted – have been observed in the large-scale universe since the WiggleZ survey. Can a (different) fractal model explain all these cosmological observations and conjectures, and if so, are we are modelling the fractal the universe incorrectly? An experiment was conducted on a ‘simple’ (Koch snowflake) fractal from the perspective of an observer within a growing/emergent fractal – ‘looking’ in iteration-time. The fractal was inverted – to show what the fractal looks like back to its origin; new triangle sizes were held constant allowing earlier triangles in the set to expand as the set iterated. Classical kinematic equations of velocities and accelerations were calculated for total area total and the distance between points. Hubble-Lemaitre's Law and other cosmological observations and conjectures were tested for. Results showed area(s) expanded exponentially from an arbitrary starting position; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. It was concluded that the fractal is a geometrical match to the cosmological problems. It explains Hubble-Lemaitre and accelerated expansion; inhomogeneous (and said fractal) galaxy distribution on small scale and large scales; and other problems – including the cosmological catastrophe and the early inflationary expansion epoch of the universe. Also, the fractal offers a direct mechanism to the cosmological problem and can further explain the quantum problem – unifying the two realities as being two aspects of the same geometry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3587] **viXra:1912.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-11 19:18:17*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We investigate the flat space time Friedmann Lemaitre Robertson Walker model of cosmology in the light of two metric signatures:(−,+,+,+) and (+,−,−,−). We arrive at the interesting fact that with the (+,−,−,−)signature both the Ricci scalar and the energy component of the stress energy tensor are negative for all points no cosmological time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3586] **viXra:1912.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-09 18:15:37*

**Authors:** Milan D. Nešić

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Aristotle, Ptolemy, and geocentrism. Copernicus, Kepler and heliocentrism. Newton, the real estate stars and the universe ether. Einstein, Lemaitre and the “big bang”—homocentrism, hidden geocentrism. One has to decide: either at once all the mass of the world was created and so large one, or the mass is variable and the measure of inertia is c2=const, whatever being energy from all over the universe. The article shows that today, when we know that there are quasars moving away from us at a speed and 95% of the speed of light, Einstein's energy E=mc2 should be considered as differential dE=c2dm. So since the corresponding binomial series for v→c is divergent, along with the solution of this differential equation goes an indefinite integration constant of infinite energy wherever we take the mass of rest m0 as coordinate origin. This is where the dark energy lies. And when Perlmutter writes that “it has long been assumed that there must be some underlying symmetry that precisely cancels the vacuum energy” at least 1055 times greater than required by astrophysical data, Maxwell Newton's postulate imposes by itself, while the unity of mass and vacuum could be shown by mathematical passage through the singularity of Planck's black body radiation, that is, of particles without mass, into Maxwell Boltzmann's distribution of velocities now of particles with mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3585] **viXra:1912.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-09 03:06:41*

**Authors:** Mahesh Khati

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

This paper proves that Newton’s inertial frame concept & Special theory of relativity of Einstein are both wrong & requires some improvement.
1)This theory solves the problem of dark energy & dark matter.
2)This can solve the problem of dual nature of particle.
3)This gives answer for mass less photon.
4)This gives answer to difference between space & vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3584] **viXra:1912.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-08 14:15:12*

**Authors:** Rayd majeed Al-Shammari

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

To explor the effect of the gravitational red shift of a gravity well on the electric permittivity of the free space then to expand this towards the collaboration between schwarzschild metric and lorentz transformation on electric permittivity of the free space under the unflonce of a moving gravity well .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3583] **viXra:1912.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-08 18:27:47*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The article considers a simple algebraic result to bring out an interesting mathematical property of the general relativity metric . This property creates limitation on its application in that it may not apply to all space time points.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3582] **viXra:1912.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-07 20:59:36*

**Authors:** Sam Nassiri

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article is first of our multi-part articles covering our Unified Theory of Quantivity, which addresses the non-classical theoretical physics concepts studied in Quantum Mechanics, Relativity, and String Theory. This article has comprehensive coverage of the vacuum mass/energy We postulate that Planck mass refers to the neutral (i.e., with no charge) positive vacuum mass. This is the large mass unit (before being shared based on a sharing scheme to be covered in our future articles). This mass is combination of mass from h and G constants, which are sources of small units of positive and negative mass, respectively. For the first time here, we are referring to G as the counterpart of h, as the smallest unit of negative energy. We will show, while the Planck constant h is the source of positive mass with negative charge, while G is the source of negative mass with positive charge. We postulate that G could be behind the Dark energy/mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3581] **viXra:1912.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-07 09:44:53*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 1 Figure; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

According to the liquid universe model, some of our existing ideas about extraterrestrial civilizations may need to be revised to some extent. Considering that the development of biological civilization needs to last for a relatively long time, for example, from the formation of protein on the earth to the age of dinosaurs, to the emergence of humans, it has continued for billions of years. And this time beginning was shortly after the birth of the planet. Therefore, the appearance of life on a planet is closely related to the life of the entire galaxy. Considering the liquid universe model, there are two cases. One is that the center of the galaxy is a black hole, which will continuously absorb the surrounding masses. The other is a white hole, which constantly throws masses to the outside. A common feature of both cases is that the outer masses of the galaxy exists for a long time, while the inner masses of the galaxy exists for a short time. Combining the time required for the evolution of living things, it can be judged that if advanced biological civilization is to be evolved in a galaxy, the more proliferating planets should be closer to the periphery of the galaxy, the longer the development time, the higher the civilization. According to such a conclusion, it means that at least in the Milky Way, the biological civilization on Earth should be in a very advanced position. This article also briefly discusses the various ways of detecting extraterrestrial civilizations, and gives some suggestions for the detection of extraterrestrial civilizations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3580] **viXra:1912.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-06 08:25:01*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism has to satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Specially solution of the unified theory is generally Kerr-Newman solution in vacuum. We finally found the revised Einstein gravity tensor
equation with new term (2 order contravariant metric tensor two times product and the constant matrix) is right in Kerr Newman solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3579] **viXra:1912.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-06 13:34:45*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Science fiction has always wondered if there is anti-gravity. If there is a positive and negative to elementary charge, why can’t there be positive and negative gravity. If the strong force and weak force are limited by distance, why not gravity. This paper proposes gravity is limited in its action distance. After this action distance is exceeded, then anti-gravity takes over. This is the force that causes universe to look like it is expanding. This paper will propose that the limitations of gravity is about 18.93 million light years in radius. Islands of approximately 18.93 million light years in radius will form within the universe and then be pushed apart by anti-gravity.
This paper’s purpose is to propose a size limit to action distance of gravity. Later papers will analyze redshift, galaxy luminosities, surface brightness, and size, and determine if this anti-gravity model correlates the information better than existing models. This model will also be used to try to model the non-linear Hubble Constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3578] **viXra:1912.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-06 05:00:30*

**Authors:** Ramses BOUNKEU SAFO

**Comments:** 20 pages in English. Corrected version of Disruptive Gravity (vixra:1905.0264)

Viewing gravity as a spacetime bending force instead of just a spacetime curvature, we come to the conclusion of rest mass relativity since it yields equivalent equations as General Relativity. A close analysis of the Schwarzschild metric leads us naturally to the Vacuum Apparent Energy Invariance principle from which we derive the metric equation. Applying this theory to cosmology, we can explain galaxies redshift as a delayed gravitational redshift which explains Hubble diagrams with no need for Dark Energy.
This theory has the same predictive power as General Relativity for every local experimental tests of the latter since it's based on a slight modification of the Schwarzchild metric.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3577] **viXra:1912.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-06 05:30:28*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 164 Pages.

Undulating Relativity + § 29 Yukawa Potential Energy “Continuation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3576] **viXra:1912.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-05 02:17:37*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** timinva@yandex.ru, 11 pages in Russian

The main task of this work is a formulaic description of the wave propagation process in Galilean
space (GP). The cases of isotropic wave propagation in an absolute reference system (ASO), the
equation of wave propagation in inertial-term reference frame (IDF), wave propagation from moving
source in its own ISO, ASO and ISO observer. Questions of Doppler effect and aberration are considered.
When considering these issues, it is assumed that the source of the wave is not a point object,
but is the source of a monochromatic wave that fills all space. It is also assumed that the wave
source time and distance are synchronized with the GP time and distance.
The word "Galileo"is often used in the work. It is this word – perhaps, the main thing in this
work. Galilean space, Galilean standard, Galilean metric. The practical physical model for the application
(use) of these words and phrases is a fixed continuous (air, liquid, solid) medium – ASO, in
which the wave propagates, and where this "air" medium is located is an empty absolute Galilean
space. In itself, this medium is not an absolute inertial frame of reference, it can nahzoditsya in a state
of arbitrary motion in the GP. But for propagating waves as independent entities when embedded in
Galilean space, this is the current Galilean ASO.
A wave in a continuous medium (ASO) of GP can propagate only with one certain speed – the
speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its
basis, to forget about the existence of the material basis for its existence, leaving only the essential
points of this fact. They are the frequency and speed of wave propagation. In this case, the wave as
an independent object itself determines the ASO. In addition to waves, there may be non-wave objects
in it, the speed of movement of which is not limited to the speed of sound. But in this work they
are not considered.
The word "relativistic"is hardly used. This is the next level of abstraction of the independent existence
of the wave.
Главной задачей этой работы является формульное описание процесса распространения волны в галилеевом пространстве (ГП). Рассмотрены случаи распространения изотропной волны в абсолютной системе отсчета (АСО), уравнение распространения волны в инерциальной системе отсчета (ИСО), распространения волны от движущегося источника в собственном ИСО, АСО и ИСО наблюдателя. Рассмотрены вопросы эффекта Доплера и аберрации. При рассмотрении данных вопросов предполагается, что источник волны не является точечным объектом, а является источником монохроматической, заполняющей все пространство, волны. Также предполагается, что время источника волны и расстояния синхронизированы с временем и расстоянием ГП. В работе очень часто используется слово "галилеево". Именно это слово – пожалуй, глав-ное в этой работе. Галилеево пространство, галилеев эталон, галилева метрика. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) этих слов и словосочетаний является неподвижная сплошная (воздушная, жидкая, твердая) среда – АСО, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "воздушная" среда, есть пустое абсолютное галилеево про-странство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, она может нахзодится в состоянии произвольного движения в ГП. Но для распространяющих-ся волн как самостоятельных сущностей при вложении в галилеево пространство это настоящее галилеево АСО. Волна в сплошной среде (АСО) ГП может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – скоростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать отдельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, оставив только существенные моменты этого факта. Ими являются частота и скорость распространения волны. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АСО. Кроме волн, в ней могут существовать и не волновые объекты, скорость движения которых не ограничена скоростью звука. Но в данной работе они не рассматриваются. Практически не используется слово "релятивистское". Это – следующий уровень абстрак-ции самостоятельного существования волны.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3575] **viXra:1912.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-04 08:57:53*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 464 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light. Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong
“Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“The gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“The electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right”
Adrian Ferent
You learned from Einstein, your professors that when v = c, mass and energy goes to infinity and that’s not physically possible.
In particle accelerators scientists try to accelerate electrons to the speed of light.
Because the scientists do not understand what the electron is, they do not understand what they do there.
In Ferent Quantum Gravity, FQG, during the electron – positron collision are created gamma rays and Dark Matter electrons.
I discovered that:
“The electron is a photon around Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron”
Adrian Ferent
“Between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons”
Adrian Ferent
“What the scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand?
When the electron is accelerated gains kinetic energy and when the electron – positron collide the kinetic energy is transferred to the photons and Dark Matter electrons”
Adrian Ferent
“In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created”
Adrian Ferent
The electron – positron pair is produced by a photon – photon interaction.
This means:
“The gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“The electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right”
Adrian Ferent
279. I am the first who discovered that Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light
280. I am the first who discovered that the gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light
281. I am the first who discovered because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong
282. I am the first who discovered because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong
283. I am the first who discovered that in electron – positron collision, gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong
284. I am the first who discovered that the electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3574] **viXra:1912.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-02 21:16:23*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 1 figure

It is generally believed that both gravitational and electromagnetic forces belong to macroscopic interactions. However, since the smallest unit of matter is impossible to be infinitely small, the gravity or electromagnetic force cannot be infinitely small too. When these two macroscopic interactions are less than a certain value, it can be considered that there is no longer any interaction. How to determine the interaction range of gravitation, this article mainly analyzes by using the Planck length as the smallest unit of spacetime. It is assumed that if the gravitational potential changes across spacetime of Planck length less than a certain energy value, it indicates that gravitational potential cannot cross the Planck length. The gravitation will disappear as a result. From this, it is inferred that the effective interaction range of the gravitational force is related to the size of the mass. According to the gravitational effective range of the sun, the gravitational effective range of the huge mass of the galaxy's center can be calculated, and then the diameter of the galaxy's core can be calculated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3573] **viXra:1912.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-03 03:15:13*

**Authors:** Vaggelis Talios

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The “big bang theory” was established at the end of the third decade of the past century, when astrophysicist Edwin Hubble made the very great discovery, that the Galaxies of the Universe do not have fixed positions, but they move and even move away, which means that the “Universe is expanding”. The theory of the big bang was in completely agreement with Hubble's discovery; so although it had many doubts, it was established as a cosmological theory, provided, of course, that over the time and the advancement of science, these doubts would be clarified. However, in the 1990s-2000s decade, something unexpected happened; two independent research teams, the Supernova Cosmology Project and the High Z Supernova Team, trying to study more thoroughly the expansion of the Universe, discovered that this expansion is accelerated, something that did not agree with the big bang theory, which provides for the opposite; that the expansion of the Universe is, a slowed down expansion. Since then, all of the scientific community has been in turmoil, because an overthrow of the theory of the big bang will overthrow and most of the newer theoretical physics too, which is related to the big bang theory. Unfortunately, science attempting to explain the accelerated expansion, through the controversial concepts of “dark matter” and “dark energy”, –defined as strange cosmic “some-things” and nothing more–, has failed and so far, not produced any positive result. Following these developments, I thought it necessary to get out of my office drawer and restore forward once again the “theory of the chain reaction”, which explains the accelerated expansion, describes with credibility and scientific consistency the creation and operation of the Cosmos and answers to almost all the questions that do not answer the big bang and the other cosmological theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3572] **viXra:1912.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-03 07:22:50*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-2 and Italian, pages 3-4

The observations show that the apparent brightness of the celestial objects with high redshift, is lower than that expected, that is calculated considering the cosmological redshift as an indicator of the expansion of space. Which shows, of course, that it cannot be this indicator. So, since Special Relativity is compatible with the cosmological redshift only if it indicates the expansion of space, the proof that it is not so, falsifies Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3571] **viXra:1912.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-02 02:09:15*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

Having dispatched multiple, significant confirmations of General Relativity, it’s time to find out what went wrong and, if possible, fix it. (Spoiler: It can’t be fixed.)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3570] **viXra:1912.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-01 16:22:06*

**Authors:** Sam Nassiri

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Quantivity covers the fundamental concepts due to high-energy being explored in Special Relativity(SR), General Relativity(GR) Quantum Mechanics (QM) as well as String Theory (ST), and eventually reconciles them. Through our unique reverse engineering approach, we have got the big picture, we have conceptually unraveled the glorious grand design of the Universe. Our theory strongly supports the Holographic model of the universe. We claim that all the objects measurements might be turned into dimensionless frequencies, referred by us as q (or q factor), by using relevant cosmological units. It is further postulated that nature uses the same approach for objects measurements, so these q factors are compatible with each other and are capable of seamlessly being mixed with each other in any desired equation. Additionally, we strongly confirm the existence of the hidden world as mentioned in the literature, which simultaneously communicates with our visible world. While SR and GR address our visible world, and QM addresses the hidden world, QUANTIVITY addresses both. We have a comprehensive set of findings that will be published in multiple articles. In this article, as the first article of series of our articles, we concentrate on showing that the Spacetime is quantized, by deriving its grain size, rigorously, employing the previously known constants, which then consequently reveals its inverse as the number of Spacetime grains. Going into deeper discussions, we will show that, this fixed expansion of Spacetime is due to a special built-in mechanism that inflated its size vertically, due to high builtin velocity (i.e., c) and small rest mass (i.e., vacuum pos/neg masses), causing the Spacetime excitation with high frequency (coined by us as qmax, see Fig. 1). Additionally, said Spacetime inflation has caused a series of resource shortages, making objects to obey a resource sharing scheme for resources including energy, mass, space, and time. This concept might be considered as the propagation of resources, in the (vertical) Time, additional to their propagation in the (horizontal) Space. The value of this intrinsic qmax with the value of its inverse partner (qmin, as a pair of dimensionless constants) is the glorious set of numbers: 10±38.6308177. This pair behaves similar to the parameters of a balloon, wherein the size of its inflated space competes with its thickness. Further, we show that this pair of constants are being used everywhere as ultimate sizes, as well as addressing the following issues: (1) the long being sought for Cosmological Constant, (2) the ratio between the Strong Force and the Gravitational Force, (3), and the reason behind the so-called Gravity leak and/or possibly the presence of Dark Matter/Energy. Additionally, in this and our future articles we make interesting conclusions, including a postulate stating that length and space (after redefinition of space) are inverses of each other, and the time dilation, as well as the space dilation (i.e., the length contraction), lead to extreme light motion traversing the whole Spacetime almost instantly, without violating the SR’s 2nd postulate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3569] **viXra:1912.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-01 17:34:29*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We derive in this article that the four dot product between two arbitrary velocities is less than the square of the speed of light in vacuum and the product of two four momenta is less than the product of the two masses involved and the square of the speed of light[in vacuuo].Based on these results we strive to show a contradiction. Flat spacetime has been considered.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3568] **viXra:1912.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-01 01:47:59*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

Applying the Natural Mechanics model (Taylor M 2019 Natural Mechanics http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0294) to describe the decay of Binary quasar systems - necessary to forge a consensus among astrophysicists

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3567] **viXra:1912.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-01 03:18:51*

**Authors:** John Lawrence Duval

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

If Relativity Theory is wrong, the error should be found at the very beginning of its derivation. This work does just that.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3566] **viXra:1911.0501 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-28 23:00:22*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

The problematic assumption associated with the observed precession of the perihelion of Mercury is Mercury formed as it appears today. If Mercury’s origins were different from its assumed origins, then the calculated estimate of its density and mass would be inaccurate and this minor discrepancy would account for the precession of Mercury’s perihelion. If these values are in error, then the observed precession of Mercury’s perihelion would also be erroneous.
Asserting a Relativistic solution would require all values to be accurate and the methodology to be sufficient. And would also require ignoring the actual formation of Mercury.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3565] **viXra:1911.0499 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-29 01:58:50*

**Authors:** Donghui Wang

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this study, a method of bending a fan ring-shaped copper sheet into a “3D arc” or a “ring” is introduced, and the physical mechanism and mathematical connections during bending process are analyzed. Then, the shape and formation principle of the “ring” and a water wave are analyzed and compared. It is concluded that a “ring” and a water wave have many similarities. The measure of how much the water body is bent is deduced by referring to the measure of how much the quadrant is bent. Then, the relationship between the shape evolution and physical quantity variation in the water wave is studied. A series of equivalent relations are obtained, and these relations are applied to the energy and momentum calculations of a water wave or a gravitational wave. Finally, it is concluded that in the future, people will be able to determine the distance from the interception point to the gravitational wave center, the energy of the gravitational wave, and the momentum as well as and the surface gravitational acceleration of the moving body by analyzing various data of the gravitational waves from other planets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3564] **viXra:1911.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-29 03:07:56*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies, Richard Lawrence Norman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Following recent announcements concerning the detection of gravitational waves and the accompanying claims that this offers further proof of the validity of the theory of general relativity, here some long forgotten work showing that the existence of such waves was predicted in the very early years of the last century and had been hinted at even before that is brought to light. Yet again the question of whether or not a piece of experimental work establishes the place of general relativity in modern physics is raised.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3563] **viXra:1911.0458 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-27 02:48:38*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 1 Page. Original work. All rights reserved.

This is the third paper in a series intended to breakdown the original paper, Natural Mechanics (http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0294).
This paper will build upon the previously discussed photonic discharge from the variations in the spatial field’s densities by adding in the next emergent layer, photonic entanglement. This discussion will lead in to the integration and evolution of particles in the microscopic world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3562] **viXra:1911.0448 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-26 01:49:16*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 1 Page. Original work. All rights reserved.

This is the first paper in what will be an extensive breakdown of my original paper "Natural Mechanics".
When we are considering the vastness of space, the evidence-based arguments in this paper draw the reasonable conclusion the default position should be space is infinite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3561] **viXra:1911.0442 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-26 06:16:26*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 1 Page. Original work. All rights reserved.

This is the second paper in a series intended to breakdown the original paper, Natural Mechanics (http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0294). In this paper we build upon infinite space by discussing empty space, the spatial field, variations in densities (charges) within the spatial field, charge-charge interactions and, finally, the discharge of Nature’s essential building blocks, photons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3560] **viXra:1911.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-26 07:17:01*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) suggests gravity emerges from magnetic effects of hods in matter structures. An experiment is performed to demonstrate the net magnetic field from hods in a body only attracts the hods from other masses to evolve into the gravity affect for distances greater than molecular sizes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3559] **viXra:1911.0439 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-26 07:23:59*

**Authors:** Midhun P Radhakrishnan

**Comments:** Pages.

It explains why light speed is independent of frame of references and describes gravitation and time in a different perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3558] **viXra:1911.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-23 10:20:08*

**Authors:** Ritesh Singh

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We refer to distance variation as the change in Lorentz contracted apparent distance of a body in motion relative to an observer, due to a change in the velocity of the observer. We show that distance variation can have a large contribution in the apparent velocities of distant bodies. We propose that this needs to be included in cosmological models. We also show that it can potentially explain some observed cosmological peculiarities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3557] **viXra:1911.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-23 18:40:56*

**Authors:** Raymond H Gallucci

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This work was inspired by Hughes’ book The Binary Universe, which proposes a unique theory about the nature of time and its dominance over phenomena since as gravity and electromagnetic radiation. While Hughes treats time as variable and time dilation as a real phenomenon, I divert while retaining much of Hughes’ proposals to speculate that time is immutable and equivalent to change, albeit progressing at a fixed rate analogous to the fastest proposed by Hughes – the Planck time interval.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3556] **viXra:1911.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-21 11:20:19*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 6 pages, 3 figures

Now the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is the cornerstone of contemporary physics. The comprehension of SRT is based on the presumption that all what one sees, hears, measures or in some other way perceives is reality. It leads to inexplicable paradoxes such as twin, Ehrenfest, spaceship and other paradoxes of relativity. The article discloses a different view, i.e., the measured values of physical items are apparent and the SRT allows to calculate real actual values. There are no paradoxes in this case.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3555] **viXra:1911.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-21 13:34:44*

**Authors:** R. Wayte.

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

This paper comprises extracts from previous articles showing how Einstein’s general relativity equations can describe different forces by substituting the associated constants. The articles depended upon a new solution of Einstein’s equations which is compatible with electromagnetic theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3554] **viXra:1911.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-19 18:26:19*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 25 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether.

The paper explains the time dilation phenomenon and the Lorentz-FitzGeralda contraction phenomenon on the basis of Special Theory of Ether. Presented explanations are based on the construction of innovative technical models of these phenomena, and not only on their classical description. Time dilation is a natural property of time measured by the light clock.
The paper shows that time dilation phenomenon is a proof of the existence of universal frame of reference, in which the electromagnetic interaction propagates.
It has been shown that there are no theoretical grounds to argue that the velocity of light in a vacuum is the maximum velocity. The adoption of such a doctrine in modern physics results from an overinterpretation of the mathematics on which Special Theory of Relativity is based.
The model presented here shows how the atomic clocks can be used to determine the motion relative to the universal frame of reference in which electromagnetic signals propagate. The presented model also shows how Michelson-Morley’s experiment can be modified to be able to detect movement with respect to ether.
The paper explains what time is in kinematics theories.
The entire article includes only original research conducted by its author.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3553] **viXra:1911.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-17 10:20:29*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Closer to the sun the relativistic dependence is violated. The gravitational field becomes stronger than calculated by the general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2540] **viXra:2001.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-15 17:36:18*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Comments welcome.

Introduction to the atemporal Platonic world, called 'It'.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2539] **viXra:2001.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-11 17:52:08*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Introduction to the atemporal Platonic world, called 'It'.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2538] **viXra:2001.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-08 18:25:05*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Comments welcome.

Introduction to the atemporal Platonic world, called 'It'.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2537] **viXra:2001.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-05 08:53:44*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Final version.

Introduction to the atemporal Platonic world, called 'It'.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2536] **viXra:1912.0464 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-27 15:37:23*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

The absolute gravimeter measures the gravitational constant by dropping a corner cube retro-reflector in a vacuum.
The light reflected by the corner cube interferes with another light from the same emission.
The interference pattern can not be explained by the theory if the speed of light remains constant upon reflection.
Two research teams were obliged to propose new definition of acceleration to match their test data.
Neither team understands that the speed of light actually changes upon reflection by a moving mirror.
The definition of acceleration should remain intact.
The speed of reflected light should increase to match the observed fringe pattern from the gravimeter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2535] **viXra:1912.0427 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-03 21:16:16*

**Authors:** James Carter

**Comments:** 7 Pages. New Experimental Principles of Mass, Space, Time, and Gravity

There is a great deal of confusion and contradiction in the standard model relativity theories of physics and the Big Bang. There is little consensus about the true experimental nature of Mass, Space, Time and Gravity and their mea- sured physical quantities of Momentum, Force, and Energy. Most theoretical physicists calculate and believe that mass, momentum, Force, and energy are stand along entities that can be physically separated from one another.
Einstein’s primary theoretical mistake was his metaphysical assumption of massless photons containing single and separate quantities of energy and mo- mentum. Physical measurements of photons calculate them to be eternal units of a yin yang dichotomy of Energy/Mass = cC. Big Bang’s initial assumption of a singularity of pure energy (e = mc2) has never been reconciled with the measured Energy/Mass (E/M = CC) contained in the electrons, protons, photons, atoms, and stars in today’s cosmos. The conservation of momentum as calculated by the Lorentz transformation is the primary parameter of all physical measurements. Energy is the secondary parameter used in calculating a change in momentum.
Einstein’s second theoretical mistake was his metaphysical assumption of the Equivalence Principle with its downward direction of accelerating gravitational motion and force. All measurements with clocks and accelerometers clearly show that measured upward deceleration of Earth’s gravitational momentum produces an upward gravitational force and a deceleration of time. The Force of gravity F = MS/T2 extends no further than the surface of each atom. Gravity is measured as changing momentum and then calculated as kinetic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2534] **viXra:1912.0398 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-15 06:26:04*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. One reference added and typos corrected.

Three characteristics of the human mind are described, which cannot have material correlates. The question of how to bind mind to matter, posed in the initial paper from 15 January 1990, has been reexamined by scrutinizing the postulate of locality and the invariant speed of light in “vacuum”, after the Michelson-Morley experiment. It is shown that, in the so-called doctrine of trialism, the question of how to bind mind to matter depends on the underlying phenomenon of matter interacting with matter, by following the Heraclitean flow of Time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2533] **viXra:1912.0398 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-02 06:29:07*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Added note on GW astronomy. Final version.

Three characteristics of the human mind are described, which cannot have material correlates. The question of how to bind mind to matter, posed in the initial paper from 15 January 1990, has been reexamined by scrutinizing the postulate of locality and the invariant speed of light in “vacuum”, after the Michelson-Morley experiment. It is shown that, in the so-called doctrine of trialism, the question of how to bind mind to matter depends on the underlying phenomenon of matter interacting with matter, by following the Heraclitean flow of Time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2532] **viXra:1912.0398 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-28 14:05:21*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Added note on GW astronomy. Comments welcome.

Three characteristics of the human mind are described, which cannot have material correlates. The question of how to bind mind to matter, posed in the initial paper from 15 January 1990, has been reexamined by scrutinizing the postulate of locality and the invariant speed of light in “vacuum”, after the Michelson-Morley experiment. It is shown that, in the so-called doctrine of trialism, the question of how to bind mind to matter depends on the underlying phenomenon of matter interacting with matter, by following the flow of Time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2531] **viXra:1912.0398 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-25 14:08:57*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Comments welcome.

Three characteristics of the human mind are described, which cannot have material correlates. The question of how to bind mind to matter, posed in the initial paper from 15 January 1990, has been reexamined by scrutinizing the postulate of locality and the invariant speed of light in “vacuum”, after the Michelson-Morley experiment. It is shown that, in the so-called doctrine of trialism, the question of how to bind mind to matter depends on the underlying phenomenon of matter interacting with matter, by following the flow of Time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2530] **viXra:1912.0398 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-23 08:06:07*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Typos corrected.

Three characteristics of the human mind are described, which cannot have material correlates. The question of how to bind mind to matter, posed in the initial paper from 15 January 1990, has been reexamined by scrutinizing the postulate of locality and the invariant speed of light in “vacuum”, after the Michelson-Morley experiment. It is shown that, in the so-called doctrine of trialism, the question of how to bind mind to matter depends on the underlying phenomenon of matter interacting with matter, by following the flow of Time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2529] **viXra:1912.0315 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-28 02:42:52*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Based on a model of a huge white hole in the Galactic Center, this article analyzes the orbit of the solar system in the Milky Way. It is pointed out that the motion of the solar system in the Milky Way can be divided into two parts. The first part lasts about three to four billion years. During this time, the solar system made elliptical movements in an elongated bar structure at the Galactic Center. A large number of galaxies perform elliptical motion around the Galactic Center, forming the elongated bar structure near the Galactic Center. When the solar system gradually moves away from the Galactic Center and reaches a certain distance, the solar system will be ejected from the elongated bar structure of the Galactic Center and enter the spiral orbit outside the Milky Way. Moving outside the Milky Way, the Solar System flies away from the Milky Way following a parabolic trajectory. For simplicity of calculation, this article uses a straight line instead of this parabola. Calculation shows that the solar system has been flying for at least 600 million years after flying far away from the elongated bar structure of the Galactic Center. Comparing these 600 million years with the evolutionary process of life on Earth, it can be found that this period is the time when a large number of higher organisms on the earth evolved. Including the emergence of fish, the concentrated evolution of dinosaurs, and the emergence of humans. This article points out that this is related to the fact that the entire Earth's environment is more suitable for the growth of higher organisms after the solar system flies from the elongated bar structure of the Galactic Center. Since the earth has obtained biological prosperity and the development of human civilization in this way, it is believed that galaxies similar to the solar system are ubiquitous in the Milky Way. Therefore, there will also be extraterrestrial civilizations similar to Earth civilization on the periphery of the Milky Way. This article analyzes some areas in the spiral structure of the Milky Way that require attention, and points out that the development of civilization in these areas may exceed the development of human civilization on Earth by more than millions of years. If we can obtain important information about these civilized societies, it will help us better grasp the destiny of human civilization on earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2528] **viXra:1912.0299 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-29 09:20:54*

**Authors:** Yuli Vladimirsky

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this essay we suggest that description of processes in classical physics based on differential calculus of integer order is an approximation. We propose use of fractional calculus with orders very close to integers to replace classical equations. We define time axiomatically in terms of set theory: time is partially ordered, can be continuous or discrete, homogeneous, and, generally, nonuniform. Use of fractional calculus predicts irreversible time, temporal indefinitism, and evolution of the Universe, as described by the Hubble's Law of expansion. Dimensionless Hubble and Cosmological constants are numerically equated to first and second fractional derivatives deviations from corresponding integers. The deviations are extremely small and their ratio corresponds to the Universe expansion deceleration parameter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2527] **viXra:1912.0276 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-10 11:12:51*

**Authors:** Donghui Wang

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Scientists have explained the phenomenon of redshift in the universe by using the viewpoint of cosmic expansion, while the phenomenon of blueshift has perplexed academic circles for a long time. To solve this problem, the author conducted a thought experiment. The focus of the experiment was to let an elevator box at high altitude fall along a track and then compare the results observed by a person inside the box with the phenomena of redshift and blueshift observed by people on Earth. The results show that redshift and blueshift in the universe can be simulated above the Earth, indicating that cosmic space may have the features of a gravitational field. Thus, the author assumed that cosmic space is a gravitational field, analysed the movement pattern of celestial bodies in this context, and gave reasonable explanations for Earth’s rotation deceleration, Venus’s abnormal auto-rotation and global warming. Based on further association, the author argues that the continuous increase in the Ground’s gravity may be the cause for the largest animal on the Earth becoming progressively lighter, and this derivation can be verified by correlated detection.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2526] **viXra:1912.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-16 23:16:55*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We investigate the flat space time Friedmann Lemaitre Robertson Walker model of cosmology in the light of two metric signatures:(-,+,+,+) and (+,-,-,-). We arrive at the interesting fact that with the (+,-,-,-)signature both the Ricci scalar and the energy component of the stress energy tensor are negative for all points of cosmological time. With this component we do have a positive pressure favoring the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2525] **viXra:1912.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-11 15:15:56*

**Authors:** Milan D. Nešić

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Aristotle, Ptolemy, and geocentrism. Copernicus, Kepler and heliocentrism. Newton, the real estate stars and the universe ether. Einstein, Lemaitre and the “big bang”—homocentrism, hidden geocentrism. One has to decide: either at once all the mass of the world was created and so large one, or the mass is variable and the measure of inertia is c2=const, whatever being energy from all over the universe. The article shows that today, when we know that there are quasars moving away from us at a speed and 95% of the speed of light, Einstein's energy E=mc2 should be considered as differential dE=c2dm. So since the corresponding binomial series for v→c is divergent, along with the solution of this differential equation goes an indefinite integration constant of infinite energy wherever we take the mass of rest m0 as coordinate origin. This is where the dark energy lies. And when Perlmutter writes that “it has long been assumed that there must be some underlying symmetry that precisely cancels the vacuum energy” at least 1055 times greater than required by astrophysical data, Maxwell Newton's postulate imposes by itself, while the unity of mass and vacuum could be shown by mathematical passage through the singularity of Planck's black body radiation, that is, of particles without mass, into Maxwell Boltzmann's distribution of velocities now of particles with mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2524] **viXra:1912.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-08 21:29:56*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Science fiction has always wondered if there is repulsive gravity. If there is a positive and negative to elementary charge, why can’t there be positive and negative gravity. If the strong force and weak force are limited by distance, why not gravity. This paper proposes gravity is limited in its action distance. After this action distance is exceeded, then repulsive gravity takes over. This is the force that causes universe to look like it is expanding. This paper will propose that the limitations of gravity is about 18.93 million light years in radius. Islands of approximately 18.93 million light years in radius will form within the universe and then be pushed apart by repulsive gravity.
This paper’s purpose is to propose a size limit to action distance of gravity. Later papers will analyze redshift, galaxy luminosities, surface brightness, and size, and determine if this repulsive gravity model correlates the information better than existing models. This model will also be used to try to model the non-linear Hubble Constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2523] **viXra:1912.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-25 18:41:21*

**Authors:** Kovalyov, Mikhail

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Of the 11 gravitational waves detections up to date, seven occurred within 43 hours of
New/Full Moon or perihelion and four within the two weeks between the 2017/8/7 and 2017/8/21
eclipses. Why do the gravitational waves coming from millions of light years away arrive to Earth
so close to these lunar events? The question is investigated in more detail.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2522] **viXra:1912.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-10 10:13:35*

**Authors:** Kovalyov, Mikhail

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Of the 11 gravitational waves detections up to date, seven occurred within 43 hours
of New/Full Moon or perihelion and four within a two-week period between the 2017/8/7 and
2017/8/21 eclipses. Why do the gravitational waves coming from millions of light years away
arrive to Earth so close to these lunar events? The question is investigated in this paper. Of the 11 gravitational waves detections up to date, seven occurred within 43 hours
of New/Full Moon or perihelion and four within a two-week period between the 2017/8/7 and
2017/8/21 eclipses. Why do the gravitational waves coming from millions of light years away
arrive to Earth so close to these lunar events? The question is investigated in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2521] **viXra:1912.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-17 10:09:48*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We derive in this article that the four dot product between two arbitrary velocities is less than the square of the speed of light in vacuum and the product of two four momenta is less than the product of the two masses involved and the square of the speed of light[in vacuuo].Based on these results we strive to show a contradiction. Flat spacetime has been considered.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2520] **viXra:1912.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-08 13:11:29*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** timinva@yandex.ru, 24 pages in Russian, A4

This work is devoted to the equations of propagation of harmonic waves in one of the ISOS of space–time, which can be taken as ASO for waves. The equations of wave propagation in the case of infinite, dimensionless spaces, cyclic and mixed spaces are derived. A practical physical model for the application (use) of the equations is a fixed continuous (air, liquid, three–dimensional) medium in which the wave propagates, and where this "continuous" me-dium is located can be taken as an empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an ab-solute inertial frame of reference, but for propagating waves as independent entities when embedded in Galilean space, it is a real Galilean AISO. A wave in a medium in Galilean space can propagate at only one particular speed – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its basis, to forget about the existence of the material basis for its exist-ence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. In this case, the wave as an independent object it-self determines the AISO. Galilean space with embedded AISO allows the determination of aIso pa-rameters using wave standards.
Данная работа посвящена уравнениям распространения гармонических волн в одном из ИСО пространства–времени, которое можно принять как АСО для волн. Выведены уравнения распространения волн в случае бесконечных, неограниченных размерами пространств, циклических (одно направление) и смешанных пространств. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) уравнений является неподвижная сплошная (воздушная, жидкая, трердая) среда, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "сплошная" среда, можно принять как пустое абсолютное галилеево пространство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, но для распространяющихся волн как самостоятельных сущностей при вложении в галилеево пространство это настоящее галилеево АИСО. Волна в среде в галилеевом пространстве может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – скоростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать отдельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, оставив только существенные моменты этого факта. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АИСО. Галилеево пространство с вложенной в нее АИСО допускает определение пара-метров АИСО с использованием волновых эталонов.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2519] **viXra:1912.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-03 18:41:09*

**Authors:** John Lawrence Duval

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

If Relativity Theory is wrong, the error should be found at the very beginning of its derivation. This work does just that.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2518] **viXra:1911.0501 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-05 00:35:43*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

The problematic assumption associated with the observed precession of the perihelion of Mercury is Mercury formed as it appears today. If Mercury’s origins were different from its assumed origins, then the calculated estimate of its density would be inaccurate and this minor discrepancy would account for the precession of Mercury’s perihelion. A minor increase in density wouldn't affect Mercury's mass or volume either. (See paper for details.) If Mercury's estimated density is in error, then the calculated precession of Mercury’s perihelion would also be erroneous. Asserting a Relativistic solution would require all values to be accurate and the methodology to be sufficient. And, such a solution would also require ignoring the actual formation of the planet Mercury.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2517] **viXra:1911.0499 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-17 06:30:09*

**Authors:** Donghui Wang

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this study, a method of bending a fan ring-shaped copper sheet into a “3D arc” or a “ring” is introduced, and the physical mechanism and mathematical connections during bending process are analyzed. Then, the shape and formation principle of the “ring” and a water wave are analyzed and compared. It is concluded that a “ring” and a water wave have many similarities. The measure of how much the water body is bent is deduced by referring to the measure of how much the quadrant is bent. Then, the relationship between the shape evolution and physical quantity variation in the water wave is studied. A series of equivalent relations are obtained, and these relations are applied to the energy calculations of a water wave or a gravitational wave. Finally, it is concluded that in the future, people will be able to determine the distance from the interception point to the gravitational wave center, the energy of the gravitational wave, and the momentum as well as and the surface gravitational acceleration of the moving body by analyzing various data of the gravitational waves from other planets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2516] **viXra:1911.0449 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-30 18:30:52*

**Authors:** F.M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 35 Pages. In French. A resume is submited to Astrophysics and Space Science

The Diophantine interpretation of the third Kepler law directly implies the single
electron cosmology and puts forward links between gravitation, quantum physics,
cosmology, particle physics and the cristallographic spaces with the superstring 10
and 11-dimensions. The critical condition is interpreted as an holographic
conservation that puts back the Planck wall by a factor 10^61, resolving the vacuum
energy dilema. Matter is a very rapid (10^103 Hz) oscillation matter-antimatter,
while dark matter is a quadrature oscillation. The Nambu mass and the DNA codon
mass play a central cosmic role, while the asymetry proton-electron explains the
baryon relative density 0.047. The observed matter density is compatible with the
trivial value 3/10, itself confirmed by the Eddington's large number. The holographic
two-step interaction defines the photon and graviton masses, and confirms the
Grandcosmos, which is, contrary to the non-scientific Multiverse, observable by its
trace, the Cosmic Microwave Background. The central role of the Atiyah constant is
confirmed in the Topological Axis which rehabilitates the bosonic string theory. The
forgotten Eddington's Proton-Tau symmetry is confirmed by the diophantine
prolongation of the Kepler law (Holic Principle). Connections reaching the ppb
precision are obtained with a prediction for G compatible with the BIPM value. The
mysterious numerical factors are interpretated as optimal computation bases in a
Cosmos-computer, the first step to understand Biology. The overwhelming
connections between physical constants, cosmical parameters and biologic ones
imply an uinersality of intelligent life,with an holographic coputing ADN. The errors
of the present scientific system are analyzed, resulting principally from the forgetting
of the Cosmos concept, meaning beauty and simplicity. It would be the reason why
extra-terrestrial civilisations dare not communicate with us.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2515] **viXra:1911.0448 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-05 01:09:20*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 1 Page. Original work. All rights reserved.

This is the first paper in what will be an extensive breakdown of my original paper "Natural Mechanics". When we are considering the vastness of space, the evidence-based arguments in this paper draw the reasonable conclusion the default position should be space is infinite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology