**Previous months:**

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2014 - 1401(36) - 1402(30) - 1403(33) - 1404(32) - 1405(39) - 1406(36) - 1407(46) - 1408(32) - 1409(16)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1406] **viXra:1409.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-18 22:22:20*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper has been published by Bulletin of Society of Mathematical Services and Standards (www.ijmsea.com)

As we know there are two main paradigms concerning the origin of the Universe: the first is Big-Bang Theory, and the other is Creation paradigm. But those two main paradigms each have their problems, for instance Big Bang Theory assumes that the first explosion was triggered by chance alone, therefore it says that everything emerged out of vacuum fluctuation caused by pure statistical chance. By doing so, its proponents want to avoid the role of the Prime Mover (God). Of course there are also other propositions such as the Steady State theory or Cyclical universe, but they do not form the majority of people in the world.
On the other side, Creation Theory says that the Universe was created by God in 6x24 hours according to Genesis chapter 1, although a variation of this theory says that it is possible that God created the Universe in longer period of thousands of years or even billions of years. But such a proposition seems not supported by Biblical texts.
To overcome the weaknesses of those main paradigms, I will outline here another choice, namely that the Universe was created by Logos (Christ in His pre-existence). This is in accordance with the Prolegomena of the Gospel of John, which says that the Logos was there in the beginning (John 1:1).
I describe 3 applications of the classical wave equation according to Shpenkov, i.e. hydrogen energy states, periodic table of elements, and planetary orbit distances. For sure, Shpenkov derived many more results beside these 3 phenomena as discussed in his 3 volume books and many papers, but these 3 phenomena are selected to give clear examples of what can be done with the classical wave equation. And then I extend further the classical wave equation to fractal vibrating string.
While of course this outline is not complete, this article is written to stimulate further investigations in this direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1405] **viXra:1409.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 13:05:54*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This paper relates to http://vixra.org/abs/1409.0072

Professor Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate in Physics, Editor-in-Chief of the journal Foundations of Physics, has again brought attention to my work on black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and General Relativity, by means of his personal website, providing me thereby with the opportunity to address his most recent comments, particularly on black holes. Black hole universes are either asymptotically flat or asymptotically curved, by definition, and so there can be no universe containing multiple black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1404] **viXra:1409.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 05:48:32*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The vacuum field equations for the modified Higgs field are the most fundamental equations. The Kasner solution leads to virtual Higgs cyclones and virtual loops with toroidal and poloidal motions. Additional conditions lead to phase transitions of the modified Higgs field and quantization of the virtual Higgs cyclones which are free or overlap with the new structures. Due to the four succeeding phase transitions (their number is limited by the size of our Cosmos), there are in existence the four scales i.e. the superluminal-quantum-entanglement scale, luminal Planck scale concerning the Einstein-spacetime components, observed-particles scale and cosmological scale. Due to the quantum entanglement, there as well appear virtual cyclones and virtual loops in the Einstein spacetime. The negative pressure and characteristic motions (and the quantum entanglement) in the virtual structures cause that there appears the advection that rules the motions of matter. It leads to the “dark-matter” motions i.e. to the spin speeds of normal cold matter in galaxies almost independent from distances from the centers of galaxies. The dark energy consists of the additional Einstein-spacetime components which appeared due to the phenomena associated with the cosmological scale. The Feigenbaum constant delta follows from the internal structure of proton so this structure leads to the chaos theory. We can see the sequence: from vacuum field equations, via Kasner solution, to the virtual Higgs cyclones and loops, to phase transitions of the modified Higgs field, to quantum entanglement which via the virtual structures in the Einstein spacetime leads to the “dark-matter” motions. The chaos theory concerns particle physics and cosmology. The quantum physics appears on higher level of Nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1403] **viXra:1409.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-16 15:29:21*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I explain the elementary differences between energy and mass. When we consider the famous Einstein's formula E = mc2 these two concepts might look the same with the only differnce of a proportionalyty constant, c2 , between them. However when we explore these two concepts more meticouslosly we discover that they differ in several aspects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1402] **viXra:1409.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-15 09:35:28*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 174 Pages. Spanish

El libro "Teoría de campo relativista" expone de forma clara las técnicas físico-matamáticas usadas en el estudio de los campos clásicos relativistas.
Este libro cumple una función pedagógica, estando dirigido a aquellos, que teniendo un conocimiento básico de electromagnetismo y relatividad, quieran profundizar en los aspectos formales de la teoría de campo.
Índice
Introducción
1.- Geometría diferencial
2.- Formulación lagrangiana de la teoría de campos
3.- Campo electromagnético
4.- Campo gravitatorio
5.- Teoría de campo unificado de Weyl
Apéndice 1
Apéndice 2

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1401] **viXra:1409.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 12:42:17*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Along with presently the believed black holes that are expected to be formed by gravitational collapse of a massive star, there may exist primordial evolving black holes. By absorbing the hidden vacuum energy primordial evolving black holes become massive. Planck mass can be considered as the basic mass of any black hole and can be called as the baby Planckion. Very high temperature of the baby Planckion is the heat source for the evolving black hole’s or evolving Planckion’s decreasing temperature. Considering the current cosmic microwave back ground temperature as a quantum gravitational effect of the evolving primordial cosmic black hole, general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics can be combined into a ‘scale independent’ true unified model of quantum gravity. Considering cosmic black hole’s light speed rotation and galactic revolution, observed galactic rotational curves can be understood. In the past, decreasing high cosmic black hole temperature forced hydrogen atom to emit increasing photon energy resulting in the observed redshift. Aged super novae dimming may be due to the effect of past high cosmic black hole temperature. As cosmic time passes, decreasing current cosmic black hole temperature makes hydrogen atom to emit increased quanta of energy causing the future redshift. In future, with reference to laboratory hydrogen atom, decreasing current cosmic temperature and measured rate of increase in emitted photon energy - true rate of future cosmic expansion can be understood. With reference to the decreasing current Hubble constant and decreasing current cosmic black hole temperature, true rate of future cosmic expansion can also be understood. Foundations of Quantum mechanics and General theory of relativity may be reviewed in this unified way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1400] **viXra:1409.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 06:18:51*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Relationship for kinetic energy derived from the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge. To derive it we do not need Lorentz's transformations equations, we do not need SPACE-TIME.
We do not need local time, or covariant equations or physical simultaneity definition or invariant interval. In other words, in physics we do not need Einstein's theory of relativity. From the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge we can derive Gauss law, Faraday's law and derive the 4th Maxwell's equation ( fictional by Maxwell and up to now was not derived).Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: in direction of motion as own kinetic energy of charge and against direction of motion of charge represents the wave energy, which charge creates in transmision medium.
Kaufmann's experiment, Fizeau's experiment, Harres's Experiment, Kirchner, Perry, Chaffee experiments are reviewed.
Three objections to modern physics:
1. Form of the interference field is non-linear,
2.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field is asymmetrical,
3. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values:
Kinetic energy of electron , (proton)
Tkin id =mc2 [ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c) / (1-v/c) ] in direction of motion of electron, (proton)
where v is velocity of electron, (proton).
Kinetic energy of electron , (proton)
Tkin ad = mc2 [ln |1+v/c|- (v/c) / (1+v/c) ] against direction of motion of electron, (proton)
where v is velocity of electron, (proton).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1399] **viXra:1409.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 05:56:15*

**Authors:** Ángel Blanco Nápoles

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Language is not english. Refers to John A. Gowan.

Where we from, where we go? or how we are travel back to future looking only to past. New theory of everything. Gravity is the most powerful and unique "force" in the Universe. New dimension in our present virtual reality and new dimension in our actual present. Origin of all electromagnetics forces. Quantum theory. Geometry of Space-time in our present past. Big-Crunch. New entity named alpha, origin of everything. New vectors for Physic, new velocity and acceleration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1398] **viXra:1409.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-10 22:52:17*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 40 pages of text. 60 pages of mathematical appendices and references. The text is comprehensible alone.

I extend my thanks to Professor Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate in Physics, for making more widely known my work on black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, by means of his personal website, and for providing me thereby with the opportunity to address the subject matter - supported by extensive references to primary sources for further information - in relation to his many comments, by means of this dedicated paper. The extensive mathematical appendices herein are not prerequisite to understanding the text.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1397] **viXra:1409.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-09 04:22:54*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We determine nonlinear transformations between coordinate systems which are mutually
in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion. The maximal acceleration limit follows from
the kinematical origin and it is an analogue of the maximal velocity in special relativity. We
derive the dependence of mass, length, time, Doppler effect, Cherenkov effect and transition
radiation angle on acceleration as an analogue phenomena in special theory of relativity. The
last application of our method is the Thomas precession by uniform acceleration which can
play the crucial role in modern particle physics and cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1396] **viXra:1409.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-07 15:17:09*

**Authors:** Serge Miatovich

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Physical matter has certain apparent information content. We explore here the amount and the role of this information content. The method of doing so will minimize the role of presently known laws of physics, in order to explore the effects of information content alone, and thus avoid potentially isomorphic conclusions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1395] **viXra:1409.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 14:07:24*

**Authors:** Victor Vaguine

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is recognized that foundational science is the key for the development of applied science and technology. In the final analysis, foundational science is the driving force for the progress and transformation of mankind. As a "compass", four Pointers are proposed to validate any particular direction in foundational science research. The Pointers are: P1 (Philosophy and Mindset), P2 (Mankind as an Emerging Intelligence), P3 (The Principle of Fine Tuning), and P4 (The General Copernican Principle). The Pointers are subjected to a verification test in four specific foundational situations: fundamental nature of quantum laws, unification of fundamental forces, the string theory, and the multiverse theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1394] **viXra:1409.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-04 04:36:31*

**Authors:** Jacky Jerome, Paul Amoros, Al Bacconnier

**Comments:** Main article = 9 pages, mathematical demonstration = 73 pages

Eintein’s General Relativity does not explain recent enigmas of astrophysics such as dark
energy or accelerating universe. A thorough examination of the Einstein Field Equations (EFE)
highlights four inconsistencies. Solving these inconsistencies and bringing closer the EFE to
the Higgs mechanism fully explains the mass and gravity phenomena. The main interest of this
study is to propose a formula of mass in 4D, m=f(x,y,z,t), that solves several basic enigmas
fully demonstrated with mathematics but still not explained with logic and good sense, such as
“How spacetime can be curved by mass?”, or ‘What is the nature of the gravitational force?”, or
“What is the mechanism of conversion of mass into energy (E =mc2)?”. This paper also solves
the main enigmas of astrophysics and leads to interesting explanations of quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1393] **viXra:1409.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-02 06:49:37*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan

**Comments:** Short Communication Article in English and 4 pages

By using the principle of relativity (first postulate), together with new defined nature of the universal speed (our second postulate) and homogeneity of time-space (our third postulate), we derive the most general transformation equation of relativity in one dimensional space. According to our new second postulate, the universal (not limited) speed c in Armenian Special Theory of Relativity is not the actual speed of light but it is the speed of time which is the same in all inertial systems. Our third postulate: the homogeneity of time-space is necessary to furnish linear transformation equations. We also state that there is no need to postulate the isotropy of space. Our article is the accumulation of all efforts from physicists to fix the Lorentz transformation equations and build correct and more general transformation equations of relativity, which obey the rules of logic and fundamental group laws, without internal philosophical and physical inconsistencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1392] **viXra:1409.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-02 04:18:54*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The physical behavior of elementary particles, massive and energetic, in force fields is studied in this paper. In particular let us consider the gravitational field and the electrostatic field and relative to the electrostatic field, as already it was done for the gravitational field, we demonstrate the theoretical validity of an electrostatic perturbation due to the motion of an electric charge into the electrostatic field generated by a pole charge. This electrostatic perturbation, on a pair with the gravitational perturbation, has characteristics of continuity differently from electromagnetic radiation, emitted by accelerated charges, free or constrained in complex structures, that instead has quantum characteristics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1391] **viXra:1408.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 19:26:52*

**Authors:** Liu Taixiang

**Comments:** 12 Pages. e-mail:taixiang.l@126.com

The Theory of System Relativity is based on the premise of the assumption of the quantization of matter and introduces a brand new view of matter in terms of "monism and dualism". In view of the serious contradictions existing among the current different branches of physical theories, the author conducts a preliminary study from the perspective of the Theory of System Relativity and attempts to incorporate the different branches of physical theories into the theoretical framework of the Theory of System Relativity. Especially to the general relativity and the quantum theory, the author takes his unique view that the two different theories may achieve unity although the serous contradictions existing between them.
This book is a brand new way for matter principle. It can be used as a reference book for philosophy and fundamental physics research, and also be available for physics enthusiasts and relevant personnel.
e-mail:taixiang.l@126.com

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1390] **viXra:1408.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 23:51:55*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The crucial role of the Birkhoff theorem in Oppenheimer and Snyder's treatment of gravitationally contracting dust is psychologically difficult to reconcile with their exclusive utilization of position-independent dust energy density: on its face the latter excludes the existence any empty-space region whereas the Birkhoff theorem applies only to such regions. Their use of position-independent dust energy density was due to lack of known nonuniform-dust analytic solutions for spherically-symmetric "comoving coordinate systems". This article fills that gap for nonuniform dust which is initially momentarily stable, but in so doing reveals that its behavior in the "comoving coordinate system" always owes more to Newton than to Einstein: the metric periodically singularly contravenes the Principle of Equivalence due to its Newtonian-signature time cycloid component, and it manifests no trace of gravitational redshift. The now justifiable application of the Birkhoff theorem turns out to effect the physically correct inclusion of gravitational redshift; it singularly stretches the "comoving" dust system's time-cycloid first half-period to infinite time duration. The unfamiliar lesson here is that "comoving coordinate systems" are inherently bereft of crucial relativistic gravitational physics: this must be incorporated by a singular transformation to a physically more appropriate coordinate system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1389] **viXra:1408.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 13:42:28*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 10 pages. «Ondes de choc lumineuses cosmiques» is the French version of «Cosmic Luminous Shock Waves» on viXra.org/abs/1408.0232

Nous émettons l’hypothèse de l’existence d’ondes de choc lumineuses susceptibles de participer à la formation de nuages et d’événements atmosphériques sévères. Ces ondes auraient la particularité d’être créées et modulées par le choc des rayons cosmiques galactiques avec les particules de la couronne solaire : les particules énergétiques du rayonnement cosmique, en collision avec les atomes de l’atmosphère solaire, les disloquent, avec le résultat que la vitesse de l’électron ultra-relativiste dans le plasma solaire peut être supérieure à la vitesse de la lumière dans ce milieu. Ce qui produirait un rayonnement secondaire d’intensité supérieure analogue à celui des ondes rayonnantes dans les liquides par effet Tcherenkov. Leur existence pourrait être liée à un phénomène visuel appelé « expérience de flashes lumineux » auquel tous les astronautes sont confrontés.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1388] **viXra:1408.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 09:48:30*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We hypothesize the existence of cosmic luminous shock waves which might participate in the formation of clouds and severe weather events. These waves would have the peculiarity to be created and modulated by the shock of the galactic cosmic rays with the particles of the solar corona: the energetic particles of cosmic rays collide with atoms of the solar atmosphere, shatter them, with the result that the velocity of the ultra-relativistic electron in the solar plasma might be greater than the speed of light in this medium. What would produce a secondary radiation of higher intensity analogous to that of the shock waves radiating in liquids by Cherenkov effect. Their existence may be linked to a visual phenomenon called «experience of bright light flashes» with which all the astronauts are confronted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1387] **viXra:1408.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 08:58:22*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. Artigo em construção.

O movimento de 8’’,24 segundos de arco por século que mencionei como um novo valor para a anomalia de Mercúrio precisa ser melhor esclarecido, o que farei em próxima versão deste artigo.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1386] **viXra:1408.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 20:11:40*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is the French version of Note added to paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT», on viXra.org/abs/1408.0219

Depuis que nous avons présenté le papier « LA MISSION PHARAO/ACES ET L’EFFET ALLAIS » en 2012, dans lequel nous demandions aux autorités scientifiques du projet Pharao de tenir compte de l’effet d’éclipse Allais, une information appréciable a été communiquée par la direction de Pharao à un de nos correspondants internet.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1385] **viXra:1408.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 15:35:40*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is a Note added to paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT», org/abs/1301.0185 on viXra.

Since we submitted the paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT» in 2012, in which we asked to scientific authorities in charge of the Pharao project to consider the Allais eclipse effect, significant information concerning the Allais eclipse effect was provided to one of our Internet correspondents by the direction of the "Pharao project".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1384] **viXra:1408.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 02:09:06*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

After reading "Study challenges black hole theory" in Astronomy magazine's September 2014 issue, I sat down in front of my computer and spent the whole afternoon typing this reply. Most of the thoughts were initially addressed in previous contributions to viXra.org and, as the heading states, this article is "Clarifying Previous Points Regarding Dark Matter" (with cameos by imaginary numbers, time travel into the past, instant space-time travel, unifying fundamental forces with each other as well as matter/mass, string theory, black holes, and the cosmic DVD)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1383] **viXra:1408.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 04:31:37*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Usually, physicists propose the alternative theories of gravity to the General Relativity (GR). In this paper we propose something different – m(GR) theory. This theory is the modification of GR theory, where the metric tensor has been replaced by the effective mass tensor. The m(GR) theory is a new theory of gravitation, which describes the gravitational phenomena not as geometric properties of the space-time but as the dynamical properties of the bodies which, under the influence of the external gravitational field, behave like bodies with the effective mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1382] **viXra:1408.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 08:34:22*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 10 pages

The perception of events in two inertial reference frames in relative motion is analyzed from the perspective of the special relativity (SR) postulates. Straightforward contradictions disproving the SR predictions have been identified. The hoax used in the SR formulation to get around the identified contradictions and hide their cause is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1381] **viXra:1408.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 04:17:34*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan

**Comments:** 11 Pages In English, Copyrighted

The aim of this current article is to illustrate in detail Armenian relativistic formulas and compare them with Lorentz relativistic formulas so that readers can easily differentiate these two theories and visualize how general and rich our Armenian Theory of Special Relativity really is with a spectacular build in asymmetry.
Then we are going behind this comparison and illustrating that build in asymmetry inside Armenian Theory of Special Relativity is reincarnating the aether as a universal reference medium, which is not contrary to relativity theory. We mathematically prove the existence of aether and we show how to extract infinite energy from the time-space or sub-atomic aether medium. Our theory explains all these facts and peacefully brings together followers of absolute aether theory, relativistic aether theory or followers of dark matter theory. We also mention that the absolute aether medium has a very complex geometric character, which has never been seen before.
We are explaining why NASA’s earlier "BPP" and DARPA’s "Casimir Effect Enhancement" programs failed.
We are also stating that the time is right to reopen NASA’s BPP program and fuel the spacecrafts using the everywhere existing aether asymmetric momentum force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1380] **viXra:1408.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-24 17:14:29*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We show that the Planck relation is a geometric mean equation, supporting the idea that the universe is undergoing a geometric mean expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1379] **viXra:1408.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-24 01:18:50*

**Authors:** Silas Sacheli Santos

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

New equations for bodies motions are derived from non-instantaneous forces, some equations of special relativity (but derived from Newtonian Physics), the galilean transformations and a preferred frame (the cosmic microwave backgound).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1378] **viXra:1408.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-22 15:27:09*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: In a previous letter (see viXra 1408.0067) I have found that our universe has the broken symmetry E8 x U(1) and should contain exactly 248 types of quantum particles and that these have all been found. Included are 2-quark and 3-quark particles but no particle having 4 quarks or more. We do find one copious 4-quark particle and propose that it is a marker particle to alert us to the fact that the exalted 248 numeric goal has been attained. Studies by others indicate a 6-quark particle should be plentiful, but this has not materialized.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1377] **viXra:1408.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-22 08:31:10*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. In portuguese.

Far as we could tell, the calculated value of the general precession (5026.50'') are not contained in other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1376] **viXra:1408.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 07:00:33*

**Authors:** Jan Helm

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

We discuss the Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt (OSD) solution from a new perspective, introduce a completely new formulation of the problem exclusively in external Schwarzschild space-time (ESM) and present a new treatment of the singularities in this new formulation. We also give a new Newtonian approximation of the problem. Furthermore, we present new numerical solutions of the modified OSD-model and of the ball-to-ball-collapse with 4 different numerical methods.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1375] **viXra:1408.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 06:13:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In portuguese.

Give an example of how it is possible that a limitation in determining the value of daily precession of the perihelion of Mercury explain this when designed for a century.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1374] **viXra:1408.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 00:14:22*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Part two of a collection of articles published by the South Australian Astronomical Society, these from 2013 to 2014, along with an updated chart of nearby stars, some discussion concerning inertia and comments on the nature of complex time.
Support for Roger Shawyers work on the emdrive at Space Propulsion Research Ltd. is intended to encourage consideration of his results in the hope that they will be put to test and to use. The philosophical consequences of his findings are far reaching and will be invaluable to physics if they are properly understood. The practical application of his work may yet constitute a milestone in the evolution of humanity.
The articles are included as sent for consideration, the format being adjusted for consistency. Please enjoy the contradictions and forgive the inclusion of a little casual mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1373] **viXra:1408.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-15 06:09:06*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In portuguese.

Abandon the hypothesis of the solar wind and obtain a new value for the anomaly of the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury. The theoretical value of the total secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, according to the work of Le Verrier 1859, is only about 8'' unless the observed value quoted by Weinberg (in reference to Duncombe and Clemence). The hypothesis of the influence of the satellites in the calculation of precession, previously abandoned, should return, since 1'' is not so insignificant compared to 8''.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1372] **viXra:1408.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 08:48:18*

**Authors:** Ernst Fischer

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2014

According to general relativity the geometry of space depends on the distribution of matter or energy fields. The relation between the locally defined geometry parameters and the volume elements depends on curvature. Thus integration of local properties like energy density, defined in the Euclidean tangent space, does not lead to correct integral data like total energy. To obtain
integral conservation, a correction term must be added to account for the curvature of space. This correction term is the equivalent of potential energy in Newtonian gravitation. With this correction the formation of singularities by gravitational collapse does no longer occur and the so called dark energy finds its natural
explanation as potential energy of matter itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1371] **viXra:1408.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-13 01:11:05*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity fails to explain the cosmic muon decay phenomenon. The “dilated time” of special relativity has no physical interpretation as time as interpreted in physics; therefore, the extended lifetime of the muon, arrived at through the used of time dilation, cannot be used in the simple formula : distance=speed\times time. So far, no one seems to have pointed to this simple fact. An invalid argument has been repeated and propagated for decades that purportedly resolves the cosmic muon decay phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1370] **viXra:1408.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 15:39:22*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity falls by the Lorentz transformation, the very foundation on which the theory rests. The application of the Lorentz transformation does not naturally give rise to projections in spacetime where the space coordinates still retain any relevance to the usual physical real length; the dilated time too may have no relevance to real time. The conclusion is that the Special Theory of Relativity is just an abstract mathematical model and not a theory in physics; it has no relevance to our physical world. As such, all empirical and experimental evidence that purportedly validate the theory become void and meaningless.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1369] **viXra:1408.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 11:45:00*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In our epoch E8 symmetry exists and is the governing symmetry of the universe although it is a broken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) responsible for our feeble gravity. Studies of existing lepton, hadron, meson, and QCD particles indicate that there are 12 lepton, 100 baryon, 100 meson and 14 QCD species here at present, or 226 in all. Adding the 22 new particles required to implement E8 symmetry yields a total of 248 different particles and Antiparticles required for our universe to have E8 symmetry, and these have all been found.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1368] **viXra:1408.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 08:56:21*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. In portuguese.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar) e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1367] **viXra:1408.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-09 15:37:55*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is shown that by applying a simple and correct method of measurement of the circumference the space in rotating disk is flat.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1366] **viXra:1408.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-09 18:10:52*

**Authors:** R.A.Isasi

**Comments:** 19 pages;1 Figure; 1 Table

In the present manuscript, we consider the origin of the cosmological space, and the Cosmological Constant as a consequence of the annihilation of the matter - antimatter at the very beginning of the big bang. Since the cosmological expansion creates the space, the cosmological vacuum is considered as a very hegemonic entity which is the locus where all the objects create the events. Certainly, N units of masses in conjunct are required to produce an equilibrium between the gravitational phenomena of the matter in bulk and each coulombic interaction between protons and electrons within the nuclear and atomic contour in all astrophysical (e.g. stars) or consmological entities (e.g. galaxies). The "dark matter" is considered to be formed by highly excited H and HeI Rydberg`s atoms in equilibrium with the CMB radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1365] **viXra:1408.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-09 14:24:32*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 18 Pages. none

In this paper it is shown that the General Relativity Theory (GRT), which belongs to a class of metric theories of gravity, is based on a wrong assumption, contradicts the well-established laws of physics, and also its own maximum speed postulate. It is shown, based on simple arguments of geometry, that in the GRT the motion of a test body in an orbit around the centrally gravitating mass does not satisfy the conservation of angular momentum and that the equation describing the equivalence of acceleration with the force of gravity violates the contravariance principle. Finally, it is shown that the GRT also violates the Gauss law. The critique rests on a comparison of the Schwarzschild metric, which is derived from Einstein field equations, with the previously derived author's new metric from which the Schwarzschild metric follows as a first order approximation, but which is not derived from Einstein field equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1364] **viXra:1408.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-07 13:20:46*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. A spontaneous letter in Portuguese.

Beyond the question "Gravitational Mass = Inertial Mass?" should be the question "Mass Gravitational Planet X = Mass Gravitational Planet Y"?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[774] **viXra:1409.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 06:36:56*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This paper pertains to: http://viXra.org/abs/1409.0072

Professor Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate in Physics, Editor-in-Chief of the journal Foundations of Physics, has again brought attention to my work on black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and General Relativity, by means of his personal website, providing me thereby with the opportunity to address his most recent comments, particularly on black holes. Black hole universes are either asymptotically flat or asymptotically curved, by definition, and so there can be no universe containing multiple black holes. All alleged big bang universes are not asymptotically anything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[773] **viXra:1409.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-16 02:16:49*

**Authors:** Ángel Blanco Nápoles

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Language is not English. Refers to works of John A. Gowan

Where we from, where we go? or how we are travel back to future looking only to past. New Theory of everything or Super Relativity, Final Theory. Gravity is the most powerful force in the Universe. New dimensions in our present past virtual reality and new dimensions in our Universe. Real Origin of all "electromagnetics forces". Quantum theory. Real Geometry of Space-time in our Universe. There is not Big-Bang and/or Big-Crunch, only Black Holes. What is Black Hole? What is the function of Black Holes? New entities named alpha and beta, origin of everything. New vectors for Physic, new velocities and accelerations. Final Model: two entities and one Force. Our Universe is 12-D: 8 spatial dimensions and 4 time. The most important 2 time dimensions. Antigravity is possible. Inertial and gravitational mass is the same. Origin of mass. Travels to Star is possible. Travel in Time is Theoretical possible. Parallel Universes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[772] **viXra:1409.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-11 13:07:35*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 40 pages of text. 60 pages of mathematical appendices and references. Version 2 corrects some typos.

I extend my thanks to Professor Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate in Physics, for making more widely known my work on black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, by means of his personal website, and for providing me thereby with the opportunity to address the subject matter - supported by extensive references to primary sources for further information - in relation to his many comments, by means of this dedicated paper. The extensive mathematical appendices herein are not prerequisite to understanding the text.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[771] **viXra:1409.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-12 13:50:42*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper , a new and very simple cosmological model is introduced . It is shown how the model can explain some observations including Habble's law and dark energy and affect our understanding of some concepts .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[770] **viXra:1408.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-12 03:14:18*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The crucial role of the Birkhoff theorem in Oppenheimer and Snyder's treatment of gravitationally contracting dust is psychologically difficult to reconcile with their exclusive utilization of position-independent dust energy density: on its face the latter excludes the existence any empty-space region whereas the Birkhoff theorem applies only to such regions. Their use of position-independent dust energy density was due to lack of known nonuniform-dust analytic solutions for spherically-symmetric "comoving coordinate systems". This article fills that gap for nonuniform dust which is initially momentarily stable, but in so doing reveals that its behavior in the "comoving coordinate system" always owes more to Newton than to Einstein: the metric periodically singularly contravenes the Principle of Equivalence due to its Newtonian-signature time cycloid component, and it manifests no trace of gravitational redshift. The now justifiable application of the Birkhoff theorem turns out to effect the physically correct inclusion of gravitational redshift; it singularly stretches the "comoving" dust system's time-cycloid first half-period to infinite time duration. The unfamiliar lesson here is that "comoving coordinate systems" are inherently bereft of crucial relativistic gravitational physics: this must be incorporated by a singular transformation to a physically more appropriate coordinate system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[769] **viXra:1408.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-14 18:22:58*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

(=> Artigo em Construção <=)
Procuramos esclarecer que o movimento do periélio dos planetas não é algo que possa ser observado diretamente. Embora seja um importante elemento orbital, o periélio é um conceito teórico, que varia no tempo sob a influência de perturbações e não acompanha o movimento do planeta. Há de se ter um encontro periódico entre o planeta e seu periélio, uma igualdade entre a longitude da posição do planeta e a longitude do seu periélio, mas estes momentos também não são evidentes, nem possíveis de serem observados em todas as ocorrências e sem dúvida alguma. Se observamos o trânsito de Mercúrio pelo disco do Sol não conseguiremos discernir se ele se aproxima ou se afasta do Sol, apenas saberemos que ele percorre uma linha aproximadamente reta sobre o Sol, segundo determinado ângulo e em determinado intervalo de tempo. Além deste fato, que pode ser óbvio para uns e uma revelação para outros, também apresentaremos um resumo das teorias de Le Verrier e Stockwell, comentários de Newcomb e a maneira como foram obtidos os dados observados por Clemence, referência importante citada por Weinberg. Chega a ser dolorosa a leitura de Le Verrier, um trabalho que me faz sentir um arqueólogo, lidando com documentos num idioma já abandonado, objetos antigos e fragmentados, sujeitos a erros de interpretação, mas confiante de que está no caminho certo e de que o que ele faz é importante. São também mostradas mais algumas hipóteses para a precessão do periélio de Mercúrio, como uma diminuição na massa do Sol, ao invés de um acréscimo na massa dos planetas, parecido com o que já se fez com a hipótese do vento solar. Um valor teórico exato obtido classicamente também será mostrado durante o desenvolvimento deste artigo.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[768] **viXra:1408.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-02 01:46:58*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Reason for replacement - to address this statement from the new version: "If a quadrupole gravitational wave becomes a dipole electromagnetic wave, it not only has to change its strength in the way described above but it also has to change its shape."
After reading "Study challenges black hole theory" in Astronomy magazine's September 2014 issue, I sat down in front of my computer and spent the whole afternoon typing this reply. Most of the thoughts were initially addressed in previous contributions to viXra.org and, as the heading states, this article is "Clarifying Previous Points Regarding Dark Matter" (with cameos by imaginary numbers, time travel into the past, instant space-time travel, unifying fundamental forces with each other as well as matter/mass, string theory, black holes, and the cosmic DVD).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[767] **viXra:1408.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-12 02:02:09*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 13 pages. v3: new edition

The perception of events in two inertial reference frames in relative motion is analyzed from the perspective of the special relativity (SR) postulates. Straightforward inconsistencies have been identified, and subsequent mathematical contradictions disproving the SR predictions have been determined. The approach used in the SR formulation to get around the identified contradictions is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[766] **viXra:1408.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-28 08:12:58*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 10 pages. v2 - minor editing

The perception of events in two inertial reference frames in relative motion is analyzed from the perspective of the special relativity (SR) postulates. Straightforward contradictions disproving the SR predictions have been identified. The hoax used in the SR formulation to get around the identified contradictions and hide their cause is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[765] **viXra:1408.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-14 14:13:22*

**Authors:** Silas Sacheli Santos

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

New equations for the motions of bodies are derived from non-instantaneous forces, some equations of special relativity (but derived from Newtonian Physics), Galilean transformations and a preferred frame (the cosmic microwave background).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[764] **viXra:1408.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-10 13:33:24*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As we could see, other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, are not contained in the value of the general Earth's precession calculated for Mercury (5026.50''), and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury. We should also add the variability of Earth’s precession, very well expressed in John N. Stockwell (and according to Mécanique Céleste).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[763] **viXra:1408.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-25 12:58:33*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As we could see, other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, are not contained in the value of the general Earth's precession calculated for Mercury (5026.50''), and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury. We should also add the variability of Earth’s precession, very well expressed in John N. Stockwell (and according to Mécanique Céleste).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[762] **viXra:1408.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-25 06:10:13*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As we could see, other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, are not contained in the value of the general precession Earth's calculated for Mercury (5026.50''), and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury. We should also add the variability of Earth’s precession, very well expressed in John N. Stockwell (and according to Mécanique Céleste).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[761] **viXra:1408.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-24 07:51:51*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

As we could see, the value of the general precession calculated for Mercury (5026.50'') are not contained in other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury. We should also add the variability of precession, very well expressed in John N. Stockwell (and according to Mécanique Céleste).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[760] **viXra:1408.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-07 13:04:33*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

An example is given of how it is possible that a limitation in determining the value of daily precession of the perihelion of Mercury explain this precession when designed for a century.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[759] **viXra:1408.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 06:00:47*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An example is given of how it is possible that a limitation in determining the value of daily precession of the perihelion of Mercury explain this precession when designed for a century.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[758] **viXra:1408.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-03 18:51:38*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abandon the hypothesis of the solar wind and obtain a new value for the anomaly of the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury. The theoretical value of the total secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, according to the work of Le Verrier 1859, is only about 8'' unless the observed value quoted by Weinberg (in reference to Duncombe and Clemence). The hypothesis of the influence of the satellites in the calculation of precession, previously abandoned, should return, since 1'' is not so insignificant compared to 8''.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[757] **viXra:1408.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-03 06:20:42*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abandon the hypothesis of the solar wind and obtain a new value for the anomaly of the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury. The theoretical value of the total secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, according to the work of Le Verrier 1859, is only about 8'' unless the observed value quoted by Weinberg (in reference to Duncombe and Clemence). The hypothesis of the influence of the satellites in the calculation of precession, previously abandoned, should return, since 1'' is not so insignificant compared to 8''.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[756] **viXra:1408.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 04:59:21*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[755] **viXra:1408.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-29 03:35:59*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 4 Pages. a replacement with a little extra note.

The Special Theory of Relativity does not explain the cosmic muon decay phenomenon; it is not evidence of time dilation. The “dilated time” of special relativity has no physical interpretation as time as interpreted in physics; therefore,
the extended lifetime of the muon, arrived at through the used of time dilation,cannot be used in the simple formula : distance = speed x time. So far, no one seems to have pointed to this simple fact. An invalid argument has been repeated and propagated for decades that purportedly resolves the cosmic muon decay phenomenon.
Furthermore, the best experiment by CERN [3] measured the average lifetime of muon as 64.368(29) μs, (γ = 29.33, v = 0.9994 c). The now accepted mean proper lifetime for μ − = 2.19489(10) μs is a value computed from the relativistic time dilation formula using the figure of 64.368(29) μs assuming the validity of Special Relativity Theory; it is not an empirical value from experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[754] **viXra:1408.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-03 17:53:21*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar), às imprecisões das massas dos planetas, em especial Mercúrio, e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[753] **viXra:1408.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-01 19:17:26*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar), às imprecisões das massas dos planetas, em especial Mercúrio, e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[752] **viXra:1408.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-12 10:54:48*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar), às imprecisões das massas dos planetas, em especial Mercúrio, e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[751] **viXra:1408.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-11 14:04:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In portuguese.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[750] **viXra:1408.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-16 16:32:45*

**Authors:** Ramon Isasi

**Comments:** 19 pages;1 Figure; 1 Table

In the present manuscript, we consider the origin of the cosmological space, and the Cosmological Constant as a consequence of the annihilation of the matter - antimatter at the very beginning of the big bang. Since the cosmological expansion creates the space, the cosmological vacuum is considered as a very hegemonic entity which is the locus where all the objects create the events. Certainly, N units of masses in conjunct are required to produce an equilibrium between the gravitational phenomena of the matter in bulk and each coulombic interaction between protons and electrons within the nuclear and atomic contour in all astrophysical (e.g. stars) or cosmological entities (e.g. galaxies). The "dark matter" is considered to be formed by highly excited H and HeI Rydberg`s atoms in equilibrium with the CMB radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[749] **viXra:1408.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-08 05:30:28*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. A spontaneous letter in portuguese

Beyond the question "Gravitational Mass = Inertial Mass?" should be the question "Gravitational Mass Planet X = Gravitational Mass Planet Y"?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology