**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(9) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(14) - 1108(4) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(34) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(37) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(39) - 1411(30) - 1412(30)

2015 - 1501(38) - 1502(26) - 1503(24) - 1504(26) - 1505(31) - 1506(32) - 1507(23) - 1508(33) - 1509(38) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(31) - 1602(45) - 1603(39) - 1604(32) - 1605(30) - 1606(43) - 1607(23) - 1608(38) - 1609(44) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(32)

2017 - 1701(27) - 1702(26) - 1703(43) - 1704(44) - 1705(31) - 1706(30) - 1707(27) - 1708(28) - 1709(41) - 1710(34) - 1711(40) - 1712(45)

2018 - 1801(34) - 1802(41) - 1803(45) - 1804(46) - 1805(37) - 1806(40) - 1807(47) - 1808(28) - 1809(21) - 1810(36) - 1811(50) - 1812(42)

2019 - 1901(36) - 1902(29) - 1903(34) - 1904(56) - 1905(46) - 1906(36) - 1907(39) - 1908(34) - 1909(41) - 1910(16)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3515] **viXra:1910.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-14 10:46:06*

**Authors:** Richard Palkovac

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Dark energy - very simple explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3514] **viXra:1910.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-12 11:19:35*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Please contact me at genebarbee@msn.com

Flat galaxy rotation curves are unexpected observations. Differences between expectations and observations allow us to learn. Most cosmologists today attribute the difference between observed flat and calculated declining Newtonian velocity curves to dark matter despite decades of failed efforts to identify it.
This paper examines data for five galaxies. Physics for flat galaxy velocity curves is proposed that preserves Newtonian gravitation and explains the flat velocity profiles. The proposal shows that a known quantum effect that physicists call spin actually scales to the galactic scale. The calculation procedure is straightforward and matches data. Data for planets in our solar system is discussed. Dark matter is not required in this approach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3513] **viXra:1910.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-10 11:10:21*

**Authors:** P.J.E. Peebles

**Comments:** 312 Pages. in Russian

The proposed book is devoted to modern ideas about the physical processes occurring in the Universe, from the early stages of cosmological expansion to the modern era. High scientific level is combined with simplicity and accessibility of presentation . The author avoids cumbersome mathematical calculations, focusing on the physics of the problem. The book summarizes the research on cosmology, carried out recently around the world including in the USSR.
The great achievements of observational and theoretical cosmology in recent times have a General recognition value. An extremely wide range of readers will find in the proposed book answers to questions that concern mankind since time immemorial.
The book is a valuable tool for physicists and astronomers, both students and professionals, especially beginners in science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3512] **viXra:1910.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-09 20:35:31*

**Authors:** Lei Wang, Xuetao Gan, Qinyue Tan, Jinghui Xu, Diyi Chen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Physical laws in spacetime are commonly represented by tensors. However, it is possible to give a vector form to them, where the vectors follow quite simple rules of sum, product and commutation. We present here a self-contained vector algebra for relativistic spacetime, which is a simplification and generalization of geometric (Clifford) and spacetime algebras, and apply it to electromagnetic theory. We emphasize that the vector algebra is convenient to use and flexible enough to accommodate Euclidean geometry and the symmetries of relativistic spacetime, providing an excellent mathematical framework for physics in spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3511] **viXra:1910.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-09 23:13:58*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre propulsion system in
which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while reducing the energy, by an arbitrary value

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3510] **viXra:1910.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-09 07:06:07*

**Authors:** Horacio useche losada

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The erros of Stephen Hawking in his PhD Thesis

We present to the international scientific community a series of misprint and some mathematical mistake found
in Stephen Hawking's doctoral thesis, titled \Properties of Expanding Universe". These errors have been found as a
result of my translation work into Spanish of the aforementioned thesis

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3509] **viXra:1910.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-08 22:37:24*

**Authors:** Toshiro Takami

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

When I read the probabilities of quantum mechanics and general relativity, I was wondering why physicists do not have the general Japanese philosophy that thoughts are transmitted to the entire universe in an instant.
Perhaps it was an idea that I had personally as I traveled across various religions.
In quantum mechanics, it is a thought that “at the time of observation, there is an inexact interaction between two substances”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3508] **viXra:1910.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-08 11:21:01*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 27 Pages. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 83, pp. 12-30 (2019). doi: 10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILCPA.83.12

Within the framework of the theory of relativistic vector fields, the covariant expressions are presented for the equations of motion of the matter and the field. These expressions can be written either in terms of the field tensors, that is, the fields’ strengths and solenoidal vectors, or in terms the four-potentials, that is, the fields’ scalar and vector potentials. This state of things is due to the fact that the Lagrange function initially implied the complementarity of description in terms of the strengths and the field potentials. It is shown that the equation for the fields, obtained by taking the covariant derivative in the equation for the metric, has a deeper meaning than the ordinary equation of motion of the matter, found with the help of the principle of least action. In particular, the above-mentioned equation for the fields leads to the generalized Poynting theorem, and after integration over the volume it allows us to introduce for consideration the integral vector as a measure of the energy and the fields’ energy fluxes, associated with a system of particles and fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3507] **viXra:1910.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-08 12:30:58*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Middle East Journal of Science, Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 46-62 (2019). doi: 10.23884/mejs.2019.5.1.06

The total energy, binding energy, energy of fields, pressure energy and the potential energy of the system consisting of particles and four fields is precisely calculated in the relativistic uniform model. These energies are compared with the kinetic energy of particles. The relations between the coefficients of the acceleration field and the pressure field independent of the system’s properties are found, which can be expressed in terms of each other and in terms of the gravitational constant and the vacuum permittivity. A noticeable difference is shown between the obtained results and the relations for simple systems in classical mechanics, in which the acceleration field and pressure field are not taken into account or the pressure is considered to be a simple scalar quantity. The conclusion is substantiated that as increasingly massive relativistic uniform systems are formed, the average density of these systems decreases as compared to the average density of the particles or bodies making up these systems. In this case the inertial mass of the massive system is less than the total inertial mass of the system’s parts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3506] **viXra:1910.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-08 14:07:01*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-3 and Italian, pages 4-6

The observations show that the apparent brightness of type Ia supernovae is about 25% lower than that expected. Which would shows that the speed of expansion of the Universe is accelerating.
But with this paper I will show that, instead, it shows that the formula is not correct, because it considers the cosmological redshift as a factor of expansion of space, while it is not.
And since the cosmological redshift is considered as the factor of expansion of the Universe, to respect what say the Special Relativity, the demonstration that it cannot be, does not prove that the theory is not compatible with the apparent brightness of distant celestial objects?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3505] **viXra:1910.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-07 21:11:27*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** Pages.

ABSTRACT
Unfortunately, this theory contradicts a theory of someone I greatly admire; Stephen Hawking. I emailed him a few questions in the past, that I thought only he could answer!
This theory assumes that:-
#1 Quantum tunnelling, negative energy, mass or particles does not exist when it comes to “particle emission” from “WITHIN a black hole”.
#2 Matter-energy cannot be created or destroyed.
#3 Matter-energy cannot be emitted from the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole.
#4 Electro-magnetic radiation cannot be emitted from the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole.
#5 Gravity cannot be created or destroyed.
#6 Gravity can be emitted from the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole.
#7 Information (from information theory) cannot be created or destroyed.
#8 Information (from information theory) can be emitted from the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole.
#9 Electrons & positrons are EMITTED from the energy just outside the event horizon of the black hole! (Only half of the “energy that is converted to mass” is EMITTED. The other half is ADDED TO THE MASS OF THE BLACK HOLE!)
#10 A black hole GAINS MASS from the energy just outside the event horizon, whilst “emitting” electrons & protons!
#11 The only “entropy energy” that is “allowed” to be emitted from the 3 space-dimensional event horizon of a black hole is gravitational energy!
#12 Black holes “emit gravitational energy”! This “emitted radiation” should reduce the mass of a black hole!
#13 To create an electron-positron pair there would be minimum values required for these values:- (a) amount of energy; (b) energy density; (c) energy density gradient.
#14 The matter spiralling in towards the black hole could continue inwards, through the event horizon, looking like a hurricane.
#15 The “eye of the storm” of the black hole could be “mostly mass free”.
#16 The “lumpiness” of matter just inside a galactic black hole’s event horizon could be measured by the “gravity probes” of changes in the orbital movements of its nearby stars.
#17 The “gravity probe analysis” of the masses moving within the black holes, would also reveal their angular momentum.
#18 Our universe could come from the collapse of a “super-super star” in a previous universe, transferring “our mass & energy”, through its event horizon, into our universe!
#19 The transfer would start quickly, proceed quickly, end quickly, when the “pre-universe’s star” ran out of matter- energy around its event horizon, or our universe expanded beyond the “pre-universe’s star’s” “energy-matter region” outside its event horizon! The “matter-energy” transferred would be very homogeneous , leading to the very even cosmic microwave background radiation!
#20 absolute measurements are where only “one measurement” is needed for “a measurement”
e. g. mass, charge, temperature.
#21 relative measurements are where “two measurements” are needed for “a measurement”; it needs a start & stop to create “a measurement”
#22 The pre-universe star’s universe properties – could have absolute measurements of matter-energy (& maybe 1 space dimension & 2 time dimensions that were “incompatible with our space & time dimensions)
#23 Our universe, before the merger, could have been balanced with 3 space dimensions & 3 time dimensions.
#24 The merger then ADDED 1 “different” space dimension (only evidence; gravity sidesteps the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole & our universe is expanding like a 4 dimensional sphere (all points see the same expansion!
#25 In the merger of the time dimensions, the two time dimensions from the “pre-universe star’s universe” cancelled out or destroyed two of our three dimensions of time!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3504] **viXra:1910.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-07 06:54:43*

**Authors:** ssor Vladimir Leonov

**Comments:** 7 Pages, 6 Figure.

In 1996, I introduced the quantum of space-time (quanton) into theoretical physics in the form of electromagnetic quadrupole. It was a particle unknown in science before. Quanton is a carrier of superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI). This is the fifth fundamental interaction in nature unknown before. SEI unites four fundamental interactions: gravitation, electromagnetism, nuclear and electroweak forces. Quanton and SIA are the basis of the fundamental theory of Superunification [2]. Quanton is a four-dimensional particle that forms the electromagnetic structure of Einstein’s four-dimensional space-time. SIA is a hidden form of the global energy field of the Universe, which is characterized by a gravitational potential equal to the square of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3503] **viXra:1910.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-06 13:28:48*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

The conservation of mass in inertial reference frame is a property of the conservation law of momentum.
The inelastic collision between two identical objects shows that the total momentum is zero in the COM frame (center of mass).
In another inertial reference frame, the rest frame of one object before collision,
the total momentum before the collision is equal to the total momentum
after the collision. This conservation of momentum shows that the mass of an object is also conserved in all inertial
reference frames. The mass of a moving object is independent of its velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3502] **viXra:1910.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-06 15:03:36*

**Authors:** Kathleen A. Rosser

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Interest in general relativistic treatments of thin matter shells has flourished over recent decades, most notably in connection with astrophysical and cosmological applications such as black hole matter accretion, spherical wormholes, bubble universes, and cosmic domain walls. In the present paper, an asymptotically exact solution to Einstein's field equations for static ultra-thin spherical shells is derived using a continuous matter density distribution ρ(r) defined over all space. The matter density is modeled as a product of surface density μ0 and a continuous or broadened spherical delta function. Continuity over the full domain 0<r<∞ ensures unambiguous determination of both the metric and coordinates across the shell wall, obviating the need to patch interior and exterior solutions using junction conditions. A unique change of variable allows integration with asymptotic precision. It is found that ultra-thin shells smaller than the Schwarzschild radius can be used to model supermassive black holes believed to lie at the centers of galaxies, possibly accounting for the flattening of the galactic rotation curve as described by Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). Concentric ultra-thin shells may also be used for discrete sampling of arbitrary spherical mass distributions with applications in cosmology. Ultra-thin shells are shown to exhibit constant interior time dilation. The exterior solution matches the Schwarzschild metric. General black shell horizons, and singularities are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3501] **viXra:1910.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-06 02:49:44*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Relativity claims that the simultaneity between two (or more) observers, each traveling in different Inertial Reference Frames (IRFs) is such that “Both observers consider the clock of the other as running slower”. This is shown on a Minkowski diagram in the section titled “Time dilation” on the Wikipedia page given in my Reference [2]. However, as I will explain, this interpretation leads to an inconsistency which cannot be true. I point out the error being made in the interpretation of Minkowski diagrams that leads to this inconsistency, and how the diagram should be interpreted to correct this error.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3500] **viXra:1910.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-02 09:29:11*

**Authors:** Vigneswaran Ramamoorthy

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

For the collided region of two gravitationally bound structures A and B, geodesic equation is derived using calculus of variations. With the help of geodesic equation derived for the collided region of A and B, a method to calculate any possible curvature of universe beyond observable flat universe is detailed. This relativistic method is used to describe a generic idea on the evolution of gravitationally bound structures and its effect on the evolution of universe. Using this idea, distribution of matter and antimatter in the universe, observed accelerating expansion of universe, cosmic inflation, and large-scale structure of present universe are explained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3499] **viXra:1909.0637 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-30 12:14:45*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: It is noticed that the mass of the top quark in MHCE8S theory is 171.7 GeV. NATURE Apparently uses the top quark mass to advertise the doubly great contribution of the B17 bomber to the end of WW2

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3498] **viXra:1909.0631 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-30 14:55:39*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan

**Comments:** 144 Pages. In Armenian

(In Armenian)
------------------------------------
"Foundation Armenian Special Theory of Time-Spacein One Physical Dimension by Pictures (Kinematics)"
------------------------------------
Third volume of our research we Dedicated to the 12-th Anniversary of Declaration Armenian Revolution in Science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3497] **viXra:1909.0622 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-28 10:44:52*

**Authors:** Bruno R Galeffi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This study considers the asymmetric self-division of a preexisting substance at zero-energy as the seeding and nucleation for the cosmic inflation driven by Friedmann equations. This split creates two unsymmetrical constituents that provide the potential energy required for activating the universe expansion and the emergence of three other vacuum ingredients. This expansion model corresponds to a vacuum containing five components, two with positive and three with negative energy densities, including a negative cosmological variable Λ(t). In this model dark energy and dark matter, as identified by the ΛCDM framework, seem to accurately fit the sum of two components.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3496] **viXra:1909.0621 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-28 11:51:48*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

We study the application of the laws of mechanics in inertial and non-inertial reference frames. We verify that in the usual formulation of mechanics, there are no centrifugal forces. We understand the force of inertia as a force that acts on everybody that is accelerated with respect to an inertial reference frame. The so-called fictitious forces are not considered as forces since other bodies do not produce them. We indicate the superiority of the principle of dynamic equilibrium or D’Alembert's law over the usual way of expressing the second law of mechanics. In the second part of this research, Mach's principle develops and it is shown that inertia is produced by the action of the gravitational induction forces of the whole Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3495] **viXra:1909.0609 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-29 09:45:02*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Radar guns seem to be a simple way to illustrate some of the biggest misunderstandings in science. Radar guns clearly demonstrate that light (and all electromagnetic energy) travels in the form of photons, not as waves. Radar guns also show that Wave Theory is both misleading and totally wrong.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3494] **viXra:1909.0581 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-26 08:08:14*

**Authors:** Z. Shafiei

**Comments:** 13 presentation pages

Einstein claimed that “If a unit electric point charge is in motion in an electromagnetic field, the force acting upon it is equal to the electric force which is present at the locality of the charge, and which we ascertain by transformation of the field to a system of co-ordinates at rest relatively to the electrical charge.”1
A few thought experiments have been suggested to corroborate this claim.One of these thought experiments is produced by Feynman.Feynman’s case and analysis is also adopted by Purcell and Morin. The example is generally being reproduced and taught in various universities.
However, the results do not agree with Einstein’s claim that the two methods produce the same answer for electromagnetic force acting on the charge.
This article presents and reviews Feynman’s analysis and calculation of electromagnetic forces in the two inertial reference frames as described by Einstein. It shows that Feynman’s analysis is just a deliberate attempt to produce similar, though eventually not equal, results. Correct analysis also does not support Einstein’s claim.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3493] **viXra:1909.0552 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-25 12:07:55*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Peluso

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

A new cosmological model is presented, which derives from a new physics within a theory of everything. It introduces, beyond radiation and baryonic matter, a unique and new ingredient, which is the substance of the universe, and which can be assimilated to the cold dark matter of the standard cosmology. The new model, although profoundly different from the ΛCDM model, exhibits the same metric and an almost identical distance scale. So it shares the same chronology and the same theory of nucleosynthesis, but solves the problem of the horizon, the fatness of space and the homogeneity of the distribution of matter in a natural way, without having to resort to an additional theory like that of inflation and without dark energy. Eventually it resolves the tension between the direct and the inverse cosmic distance ladder.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3492] **viXra:1909.0542 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 06:42:43*

**Authors:** Ralph B. Hill

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

NEG demonstrates proof that energy in gravitational action is generated at the expense of a buildup of negative energy. Gravitational potential energy does not represent a form of energy, failing tests under mass-energy equivalence and GR. Negative energy builds up in space, curves spacetime negatively, leading to antigravitational effects including observed ‘dark energy’. Discovery of energy generation by gravity in 0=-1+1 type fashion and realization of negative energy affecting space lead to sweeping consequences for cosmology. The emerging Dual Energy Cosmological model (DEC) naturally addresses current problems including initial singularity, dark energy, dark matter, Lambda, vacuum energy from quantum fluctuations, an ultimate source for energy in the universe. Negative energy changes underlying assumptions of large-scale cosmic dynamics and renders Lambda-CDM model obsolete. New insights on energy in gravitational waves are detailed. Call for new astronomical surveys to assess historic gravitational energy delivery, where Anti-de Sitter space and signatures of a holographic structure naturally emerge as partial components of physical reality. The new theory of energy opens door to dual energy physics beyond gravity and cosmology. It is further proposed that interactions with negative energy rather than a positive Higgs field give rise to the masses of elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3491] **viXra:1909.0541 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 06:50:16*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We derived the field equations of f (R) gravity using Euler-Poisson equation, which allows the boundary term to vanish in a natural way from the principle of Calculus of variation in contrary to the original theory of H. A. Buchdahl 1970, in which the boundary term was not treated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3490] **viXra:1909.0529 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 08:24:06*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We consider a static charged sphere in general relativity. We make a coordinate transformation of a specific form. The electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor in the transformed coordinates is shown to be zero contrary to what is expected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3489] **viXra:1909.0524 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 12:58:48*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Thank you for reading

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Hence, solutions of the unified theory is Reissner-Nodstrom solution in vacuum. We found in revised Einstein gravity tensor equation, the condition is satisfied by 2-order contravariant metric tensor two times product.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3488] **viXra:1909.0519 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 14:17:37*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The interference pattern of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is conserved in all inertial reference frames. Its constructive pattern
requires the wavelength to be proportional to the gap width of the interferometer. The length
contraction from Lorentz transformation assumes the gap of the interferometer to be contracted in the direction of the
relative motion.
The wavelength is also contracted as it is proportional to the gap width. For two observers moving at the same speed,
the contracted wavelength appears to be identical. If one of them moves in the opposite direction, they will observe an
identical wavelength
but two different frequencies due to the Doppler effect. Consequently, they observe two different speeds from the same light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3487] **viXra:1909.0516 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 16:58:04*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: It is noted that my ViXra publisher's father's name was "Ted". Therefore this connection between "ted" and "briggs" indicates that MHCE8S theory of the universe is as surprising (and important) as was the sinking of the battleship Hood.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3486] **viXra:1909.0502 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-23 08:43:39*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A fully relativistic encounter of two 35 solar masses point-like objects, somehow mimicking the binary merger GW150914 described by LIGO Scientific and VIRGO collaborations (Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 529 No 1-2)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3485] **viXra:1909.0478 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-22 14:30:26*

**Authors:** Royan Rosche

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I show you the fallacy of external logic based on accidental motion and guide you through various situations that show that there exists a power or force that resides inside all Matter as to cause its alterations, modifications, and movements within a defined sphere of activity and that this force within Matter does not impart its force or powers unto other bodies beyond itself or its sphere. I show by sound logical arguments that material motions caused by an external force is impossible insomuch as it pertains to the natural workings of Nature. I show you that all Winds, Waves, Orbits, Clouds and other natural motions and natural phenomena stem from a inward activity as opposed to a external activity that causes their alterations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3484] **viXra:1909.0472 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-23 02:16:47*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

I will try to invalidate the theory of relativity by presenting a compelling alternative theory. I hope that criticism of Einstein's theories will not be seen as offense.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3483] **viXra:1909.0437 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-20 13:45:29*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page. JW Gibbs was a very important man to my father especially.

Abstract: If you were, the answer to this question determines why I was able to publish my 105 short notes in ViXra without being ridiculed. Thank you very much.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3482] **viXra:1909.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-20 17:57:36*

**Authors:** Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is shown that the CMB actually refutes the Big Bang theory, since it is an absolute coordinate system, and this is impossible according to A. Einstein's STR. Moreover, a prediction is made about the change in the CMB map over time, since the CMB depends on the gravitational potential at a given point, and taking into account the movement of our galaxy in the Universe, it (potential) will change. Similarly, the concept of “nothing” is analyzed, which is used to explain the expansion of the Universe. The existence of “nothing” is also in insurmountable contradiction with Einstein's STR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3481] **viXra:1909.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-19 22:37:10*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 32 Pages. 4 Figure; 1 Table; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

According to the universe model based on virtual space-time physics, the universe has two states, liquid and gaseous. The current universe is in a state of liquid universe. This can be supported by some important observational evidence. The liquid universe theory predicts that microwave background radiation and cosmic rays are gases that the liquid universe naturally evaporates, the temperatures of the two should be equal. At present, there are many research results of hydroacoustic theories in related disciplines, so we can use some hydroacoustic theories to deal with the propagation of gravitational waves in the liquid universe, and we can get some inspiring conclusions. This provides a broader theoretical support for us to study and discuss some important laws of gravitational waves in more detail. This paper gives a rough estimate of the gravitational wave data generated by the huge mass of the center of the Milky Way. It is found that the radiation of the gravitational wave in the center of the Milky Way can be used to explain the periodic variation of sunspots.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3480] **viXra:1909.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-20 03:08:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 74 Pages.

Quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity form the bedrock of the current understanding of physics-yet the two theories don't seem to work together. [48] Physicists from Professor Johannes Fink's research group at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have found a way to use a mechanical oscillator to produce entangled radiation. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3479] **viXra:1909.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-17 11:07:43*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The cosmic time dependencies of $G$, $\alpha$, $h$ and of SM parameters like the Higgs vev and elementary particle masses are studied in the framework of a new dark energy interpretation. Due to the associated time variation of rulers, many effects turn out to be invisible. However, a rather large time dependence is claimed to arise in association with dark energy measurements, and smaller ones in connection with the SM.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3478] **viXra:1909.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-15 12:00:10*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The 44.6 mile distance between Middlebush NJ and the 2 sunken early type locomotives found 5 miles off the coast of NJ near Long Branch NJ indicate an important connection between Middlebush and the MHCE8S theory of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3477] **viXra:1909.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-12 09:25:47*

**Authors:** Ahmet Yalcin

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This is the first article of the "Field relative model of the Universe". This article will be followed by other articles including the mathematics and applications of theory.

Gravity is everywhere in our life but still the oldest unsolved phenomena scientists faced so far. This article gives an extremely simple explanation about it with an example from our daily life. The solution also defines what the tiniest element of entity in the universe should be. The work investigates, if this tiniest element contributes to the solutions of many of the other mysteries in Nature both in micro and macrocosms or creates additional new problems. The article almost uses no mathematics and the mathematics of the theory and many of the fundamental applications are subjects of other articles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3476] **viXra:1909.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-12 14:06:07*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

Hypersphere World-Universe Model (WUM) envisions Matter carried from Universe into World from fourth spatial dimension by Dark Matter Particles (DMPs). Luminous Matter is byproduct of Dark Matter (DM) annihilation. WUM introduces Dark Epoch (spanning from Beginning of World for 0.4 billion years) when only DMPs existed, and Luminous Epoch (ever since for 13.8 billion years). Big Bang discussed in standard cosmological model is, in our view, transition from Dark Epoch to Luminous Epoch due to Rotational Fission of Overspinning DM Supercluster’s Cores and annihilation of DMPs. WUM solves a number of physical problems in contemporary Cosmology and Astrophysics through DMPs and their interactions: Angular Momentum problem in birth and subsequent evolution of Galaxies and Extrasolar systems – how do they obtain it; Fermi Bubbles – two large structures in gamma-rays and X-rays above and below Galactic center; Mysterious Star KIC 8462852 with irregular dimmings; Coronal Heating problem in solar physics – temperature of Sun's corona exceeding that of photosphere by millions of degrees; Cores of Sun and Earth rotating faster than their surfaces; Diversity of Gravitationally-Rounded Objects in Solar system and their Internal Heat; Lightning Initiation problem – electric fields observed inside thunderstorms are not sufficient to initiate sparks; Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes – bursts of high energy X-rays and gamma rays emanating from Earth. Model makes predictions pertaining to Masses of DMPs, proposes New Types of their Interactions. WUM reveals Inter-Connectivity of Primary Cosmological Parameters and calculates their values, which are in good agreement with the latest results of their measurements.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3475] **viXra:1909.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-10 14:30:56*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Russian

The properties of the pre-relativistic space-time are completely determined by the properties of the propagation of the information signal, in particular-the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves. The speed of propagation of the information signal is constant and does not depend on the state of motion of the observer and the direction of propagation. The scale of the coordinate axes in pre-relativistic coordinate transformations does not change.The Galilean space is not a model of the physical space of classical mechanics, despite the fact that the space of classical mechanics is defined in it, but Newton's laws and conservation laws are formulated through ordinary tensors in pre-relativistic space. The domain of pre-relativistic mechanics is limited by very small (precisely - infi-nitely small) velocities with respect to the velocity of the information signal propagation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3474] **viXra:1909.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-10 14:40:29*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In developing the general theory of relativity, Albert Einstein assert:
My main purpose, is to develop this theory, so that the reader is aware that the way we set out, is psychologically the only natural one ( book title: La teoria della relatività, by Albert Einstein, Cap. 1 paragraph 4 ).
Then we can deduced, that any solution of a physical problem attributable to the general theory of relativity, is psychologically the only natural one.
After a brief introduction we solves the following problem:
What will be the effect of muon, when it is inside the proton of density Jp = Vp/Mp for an infinitely small time?
After to solve the problem we conclude that, experiments conducted with electrons and muon to measure the proton radius that will give the same result, come into contradiction with the general theory of relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3473] **viXra:1909.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-10 17:04:39*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Russian

Pre-relativistic vector transformations are transformations of 4-dimensional material vectors of classical mechanics
Formulas of transformations of contravariant and covariant vectors of pre – relativistic space-intermediate space between Galilean and relativistic (Minkowski) spaces are given. The domain of definition is the transformation of coordinates and vectors at infinitesimal velocities of material objects. Such vectors are spatial coordinates, velocities, accelerations and many other material 4-vector parameters – for example, 4-dimensional energy-momentum. The form of metric tensor of pre-relativistic space, scalar product, formula for conjugation of vectors is also given.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3472] **viXra:1909.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-10 17:07:58*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Russian

Pre-relativistic tensor transformations are transformations of 4-dimensional material tensors of classical mechanics
Formulas for transformations of contravariant, covariant, and mixed rank 2 tensors of a pre – relativistic space-the intermediate space between Galilean and relativistic (Minkowski) spaces-are given. The domain of definition is the transformation of coordinates and vectors at infinitesimal velocities of material objects. Such tensors are metric tensors of 4-dimensional space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3471] **viXra:1909.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-08 14:12:19*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

A standing wave can be formed in a microwave resonator if the length of the resonator is equal to one half of the wavelength
multiplied by an integer. Two observers moving at the same speed will observe the resonator of the same length.
They will also observe the same wavelength as the wavelength is proportional to the length of the
resonator. If one observer moves in the opposite direction, they will observe an identical wavelength but two different
frequencies due to the Doppler effect.
Therefore, the apparent speed of the microwave appears to be different for these two observers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3470] **viXra:1909.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-09 06:17:13*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 1 Page. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to present gravity expansions concept.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3469] **viXra:1909.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-08 01:21:21*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Energy Pairs Theory is related to the assumption presented in previous
articles, that charge might also be considered as a form of energy, as mass turned
to be. This assumption was based on important similarities between mass and
charge, and on analyzing the energy density equations of electric and magnetic
fields
And, since charge comes in two forms, a positive charge and a negative charge, the
energies embedded in charges, if this concept is found viable, and supported by
additional findings, also must have two forms which the article grouped as one
set of Energy Pair.
This Energy Pairs Theory was used to supply an explanation to the issue of charge
disappearance in electron positron collisions.
In this article the Energy Pairs Theory is used to explain Energy Conservation
Issues
related to Electric and Magnetic Fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3468] **viXra:1909.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-06 10:01:09*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 4 pages

Now the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is the cornerstone of contemporary physics. The proof of SRT is based on three basic experiments. The analysis of them shows that ordinary physics is sufficient for the interpretation of experimental results and there is no need for SRT. Therefore the above-mentioned experiments are not proof of SRT.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3467] **viXra:1909.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-06 19:29:06*

**Authors:** Tristan Anthony Dobrian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A modied version of the near horizon metric is introduced, that puts the near horizon metric in
the same form as one of the most commonly-used metric variants of Rindler space. The metric is
then used to calculate the Hawking temperature, using the WKB tunneling approximation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3466] **viXra:1909.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-06 01:56:51*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The kinetic energy of a moving mass is attributed to the mass increase because of its velocity. Thus, mass is recognized as a special form of energy.
As will be shown in this article, there are similarities between mass and
charge which might lead us to conclude that charge should also be considered
as a special form of energy.
Thus, this article does claim that Charge might also be recognized as another form of Energy, as mass turned to be. This claim, if found viable, and supported by additional findings, will make Energy as the only distinct entity (in addition to time and space), a simpler and cleaner view of nature.
Also, this article suggests the following:
1. Analogeous to the equation:
E = m c ^ 2 where E is energy, m is mass c is the speed of light
and ^ stands for power of.
derived by the special theory of relativity, which describes the relation between the
energy embedded in mass and mass magnitude, this article suggests the equation :
E = K q where K is a constant factor and q is the charge magnitude.
This equation might describe the relation between the energy and charge magnitude.
2. Since charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then the energy embedded in charge also comes in two energy types.
This might be one of the crucial reasons why it was difficult to recognize charge as another form of energy.
However, the article provides a logical explanation to this issue. The article also assigns these energy types to one set of Energy Pairs.
This Energy Pairs Theory is also used to explain why in the electron and
positron collisions the charges completely disappear.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3465] **viXra:1909.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-04 15:50:48*

**Authors:** Tom Fuchs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I show that gravitational time dilation is a twin paradox scenario that can be calculated using length contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3464] **viXra:1909.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-03 13:03:09*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 11 pages

The length and mass scales of cosmology and astrophysics are shown to derive from quantum scales. The Quantum/Classical connection maps the Bohr radius, the reduced Compton wavelength and the classical electron radius – three ‘quantum’ length scales that lie in geometric progression with common ratio α, the fine structure constant – onto three ‘classical’ length scales: the radius of the observable universe; the radius of the stellar halo of the geometric-mean-sized galaxy that is typified by the Milky Way; and the radius of the planetary system of the geometric-mean-sized star that is typified by the sun. By way of the Quantum/Classical connection, the three classical length scales lie in geometric progression with common ratio equal to alpha^5/2 (=4.55E-6). This observation has opened up a framework of multiplicative relationships between cosmological and astrophysical scales based on powers of alpha^5/2. The astrophysical scales of the model refer to the geometric mean values of distributions of scales. ‘Local’ scales take very nearly ideal (geometric mean) values. The baryonic mass of the Milky Way and the mass of the sun approximate very closely to the baryonic mass of the Hubble sphere multiplied by alpha^5 and alpha^10, respectively. The total mass of the Milky Way, the mass of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the centre of the Milky Way and the geometric mean mass of black hole-black hole gravitational wave event progenitors approximate very closely to the total mass/energy of the Hubble sphere multiplied by alpha^5, alpha^15/2 and alpha^10, respectively. The results indicate that the total mass/energy of the Hubble sphere increases with time and that black holes grow at Hubble rate. The Schwarzschild radius of the ‘ideal’ star equals the radius of the star multiplied by alpha^5/2. By way of the Quantum/Classical connection, the radius and mass of the ‘ideal’ star map onto the mass and atomic radius, respectively, of the stable nuclide iron-56. The nearly-ideal sun is the counterpart of the stable nuclide chromium-53.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3463] **viXra:1909.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-02 07:58:03*

**Authors:** Nick Markov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This research note hypothesizes new physics without dark energy, dark matter, extra dimensions, and deviation from proven mathematical models. The main idea is that matter expands proportionally with space, and that the proposed discrete step-expansion of elementary particles may provide a platform for unification of the four fundamental interactions. This note also proposes several ways to validate the hypothesis at the macro- and micro-scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3462] **viXra:1909.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-02 08:10:56*

**Authors:** Nick Markov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Correlation between relativistic time dilation and space-time curvature is presented aiming to explain the observed galactic rotational curves without introducing hidden parameters, such as dark matter. The relation is supported with measured data from five spiral galaxies of various sizes and rotational velocities. Correlations are also provided for a galaxy cluster and for the Solar System.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3461] **viXra:1909.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-01 13:34:31*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Hence, solutions of the unified theory is Reissner-Nodstrom solution in vacuum. We found revised Einstein gravity tensor equation is satisfied the condition by 2-order contra-invariant metric tensor two times product.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3460] **viXra:1909.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-01 14:18:42*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The interference pattern from a Fizeau interferometer is conserved in all inertial reference frames. Its constructive pattern
requires the wavelength to be proportional to the width of the interferometer at the point of interference. The length
contraction from Lorentz transformation assumes the interferometer to be contracted in the direction of the relative motion.
The wavelength is contracted as well. For two observers moving at the same speed, the contracted wavelength appears to
be identical for both of them. If one of them moves in the opposite direction, they will observe an identical wavelength
but two different frequencies due to the Doppler effect. Consequently, they observe two different speeds from the same light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3459] **viXra:1908.0629 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-31 15:27:47*

**Authors:** Tom Fuchs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I show that the traveling twin ages less because that twin's path is shorter. The reason typically given, that only the traveling twin accelerates, is superfluous.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3458] **viXra:1908.0623 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-30 09:22:17*

**Authors:** Dariusz Dudało

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Error of Einstein's thought experiment

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3457] **viXra:1908.0616 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-30 19:15:31*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** 20 pages

Based on the work of Jacobson [1] and Gibbons, [2] Christoph Schiller [3] has shown not only that a maximum force follows from general relativity, but that general relativity can be derived from the principle of maximum force. In the present paper an alternative derivation of maximum force is given. Inspired by the equivalence principle, the approach is based on a modification of the well known special relativity equation for the velocity acquired from uniform proper acceleration. Though in Schiller's derivation the existence of gravitational horizons plays a key role, in the present derivation this is not the case. In fact, though the kinematic equation that we start with does exhibit a horizon, it is not carried over to its gravitational counterpart. A few of the geometrical consequences and physical implications of this result are discussed.
The first page is an Annotation, which provides context with regard to motivation, and highlights correspondence with the IJTP reviewers, and with Christoph Schiller.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3456] **viXra:1908.0609 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-29 08:53:37*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

We find Reissner-Nodstrom solution hold by the energy-momentum density’s conservation law (Noether’s theorem) of electromagnetic field in general relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3455] **viXra:1908.0606 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-29 12:57:14*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 155 Pages.

Undulating Relativity + §28 Simplified Periellium Advance

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3454] **viXra:1908.0574 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-28 15:23:33*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment is devoted to the experimental measurement of the anisotropy of the speed of light propagation on the Earth's surface. Since at that time it was believed that space is filled with ether and light propagates in it, it was assumed possible to determine the speed of the Earth relative to the "ether" and the direction of motion of the Solar system in the space ASO.
Опыт Майкельсона-Морли посвящен экспериментальному измерению анизотропии скорости распространения света на поверхности Земли. Т.к. в то время считалось, что пространство заполнено эфиром и свет распространяется в ней, то предполагалось возможным определить скорость Земли относительно "эфира" и направления движения Солнечной системы в космическом АСО.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3453] **viXra:1908.0571 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-29 02:13:22*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 12 Pages. original article

The power spectral formula of the Cherenkov radiation of the system of two equal
charges is derived in the framework of the source theory. The distance between
charges is supposed to be relativistically contracted which manifests in the spectral
formula. The knowledge of the spectral formula then can be used to verify
of the Lorentz contraction of the relativistic length. A feasible experiment for the
verification of the Lorentz contraction is suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3452] **viXra:1908.0555 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-27 15:21:08*

**Authors:** A.V. Antipin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The paper presents general considerations, that show that the WARP devices will not be able to provide the expected superluminal velocity of moving objects. The actual speed of the moving objects using WARP will not exceed (c/2), i.e. HALF the speed of light.
The article is based on the materials of the report made on December 03, 2017.
Russian version of the article: http://vixra.org/abs/1711.0377
Версия на РУССКОМ языке: http://vixra.org/abs/1711.0377

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3451] **viXra:1908.0537 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-26 16:33:26*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Abstract. We present a graphical approach which illustrates a chain of events within the theory of special relativity (TSR). The graph represents an alternative to the ‘world line’, and presents the standard time & position–parameters. Further, the graph provides the so-called ‘proper time’, which we refer to as ‘internal time’. The object we follow has a velocity being piecewise constant; a condition that can be relaxed. The travelling twin provides an example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3450] **viXra:1908.0534 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-26 21:01:50*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Science theory is composed of definitions, logic and facts. Facts are real and not deniable. Logic could have multiple expressions. So we need to choose most appropriate expression. A composition from definitions, facts and logic to Special Relativity Theory is tried here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3449] **viXra:1908.0504 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-26 04:40:01*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the past century, abstract mathematical reference frames have become the universal way to formulate and understand the fundamental laws of physics. Galileo's principle of relativity and Einstein's special relativity theory states that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames. The subtly hidden assumption in this statement is that the laws of physics can be formulated correctly at least in one inertial reference frame, which is shown to be wrong. In the general theory of relativity (accelerating) reference frames can even affect the laws of physics. The true laws of physics became hidden by the very idea of using reference frames as the observers. In the reference frame concept, the laws of physics are formulated as seen by the third observer, i.e. reference frame. The mystery that has eluded physicists so far is that a third observer (reference frame) is irrelevant or cannot see the true nature of electromagnetic interaction between two charges, for example. Electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena are elusive in that they do not act in the classical way expected by the third observer (reference frame). The traditional concept of reference frames was based on classical, conventional thinking and experience, such as the motion of a ball or the propagation of classical waves as seen in two relatively moving inertial frames. Einstein's special relativity theory was built upon the fallacious Galileo's reference frames. Galileo's relativity is only approximately correct and applies only to ordinary, everyday experiences and is fundamentally wrong. According to the new theory proposed in this paper, the observer is fundamentally the body or particle directly experiencing electromagnetic or gravitational fields and waves. The observer is the atom, molecule, electron or proton directly detecting or experiencing electromagnetic and gravitational fields and waves, such as atoms in light detecting devices, the human eye or massive bodies experiencing gravitation of another body. Einstein (correctly) discovered his chasing a beam of light thought experiment. However, since physicists universally thought in terms of reference frames, this ( wrongly ) led him to the special theory of relativity. The principle of relativity should be discarded ; reference frames, whether inertial, accelerating or rotating , are irrelevant in the formulation of the fundamental laws of physics. The concept of reference frames must be abandoned altogether. The fundamental laws of physics cannot be correctly formulated in any reference frame, i.e. relative to the third 'observer' who is not directly experiencing electromagnetic or gravitational phenomena. A new way of formulating the laws of physics relative to (as seen by ) the direct observer is introduced. Newton's and Mach's views on inertia will be reconciled.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3448] **viXra:1908.0484 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-23 08:11:01*

**Authors:** Rolf Warnemünde

**Comments:** 35 Pages. c 2019 CC BY-NC-ND

It concerns the unification of Maxwell-Field and Gravitational-Field without
compromise consisting of:
1. A derivation of the general equations of continuously differentiable fluctuating
3-dimensional vector fields turning out to be generalized Maxwell-Equations
2. Identifying the Einstein-Space as the result of deforming an Euclidean Space,
3. Identifying the fluctuating hypersurface of the Einstein-Space as gravitational
wave propagating with the velocity of light seen from an observer space or rather
coordinate space,
This leads to
1. the quantitative unification of Maxwell-Field and Gravitational-Field,
2. the facilitation of quantizing gravitational fields,
3. considerations of general gravitational waves from a new perspective.
With the described unification electromagnetism is directly led back to the most
fundamental terms of physics, space and time.Last but not least the importance
of the Einstein-Equations for microphysics is proved

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3447] **viXra:1908.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-21 23:05:24*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

The present paper explains Foucault Pendulum experiment which leads to No-Shape Substance form of SQ Aether of Qi Ji. We also discuss some related phenomena. This paper can be viewed as a dialogue effort to find connection between the notion of aether by Western scientists in the past and No-Shape Substance by Qi Ji et al.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3446] **viXra:1908.0410 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-19 23:08:34*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

Wang, Zheng, and Yao carried out an experiment in 2004 to determine if the Sagnac effect can be applied to the inertial motion.
Their experiment showed that there was indeed phase difference between the two light beams passing through the same optical
fiber in inertial motion.
However, the focus of their experiment was on the rest frame of the light source. They did not realize that the time
difference from the phase difference should exist in all reference frames. The difference in the elapsed time taken by
two light beams to pass through the linear fiber segment
in the rest frame of the segment effectively corresponds to the speed difference between two light beams.
The Sagnac effect in inertial motion provides a precise experimental evidence that the speed of light is different in a
different reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3445] **viXra:1908.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-20 00:50:18*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new idea that the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation ( CMBR ) could be Doppler shifted light from receding superluminal distant galaxies. One immediate objection to this idea is that superluminal velocities do not exist in nature. However, we know that superluminal galaxies have already been observed. Moreover, in my recent paper entitled " Absolute Motion, Light Speed Limit, Superluminal Galaxies and Star Light Bending " , I have shown how absolute motion, light speed limit and superluminal galaxies can co-exist in the universe. Hubble's law also predicts superluminal galaxies at sufficiently large distances. A new exponential law of Doppler effect is introduced: λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e -V/c , where e is Euler's constant. Using the new law of Doppler effect, CMBR frequency and Hubble's law we estimate the distance and speed of the superluminal galaxies the CMBR radiation is mainly coming from.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3444] **viXra:1908.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-18 10:08:45*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Compton scattering cannot yet be said to have been verified beyond any doubt. The only verification experiment performed is still the original experiment of A.H.Compton from 1922. To date, there is not another experiment done to corroborate the 1922 findings. There are modern experiments done in the laboratories of today’s universities to verify Compton scattering with γ-ray sources from radionuclides where the energies of the rays are measured with NaI scintillation detectors or germanium detectors. Such experiments are shown to be invalid as the result that shows clear agreement with the theory is all due to the calibration of the detectors and nothing besides. Furthermore, a verification that the inverse of energy 1/E varying linearly with
(1 − cos θ) is insufficient as a verification of the full Compton scattering formula for wavelength changes. A proper verification requires verifying the wavelength formula where the wavelength is measured directly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3443] **viXra:1908.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-19 02:32:39*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we assert that absolute motion is not motion relative to the hypothetical ether. Absolute motion is fundamentally motion of a body relative to all matter in the universe. Hence absolute motion does exist but the ether doesn't exist. The ether has been disproved by the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Arago and the Airy star light refraction and aberration experiments. On the other hand, absolute motion has been detected in the Silvertooth, the CMBR anisotropy, the Marinov, the Roland De Witte and other experiments. We show how this view of absolute motion can also be compatible with the observed phenomena of light speed limit, superluminal galaxies. We show that star light deflection near the Sun doesn't exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3442] **viXra:1908.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-16 20:00:45*

**Authors:** Daniel Stedman

**Comments:** 2 Pages. From Medium.com

Wheeler's Anthropic Principle applied to marriage and co-habitation. Why do relationships experience disturbances? Because we are here!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2474] **viXra:1909.0524 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-25 08:30:33*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Hence, solutions of the unified theory is Reissner- Nodstrom solution in vacuum. We found in revised Einstein gravity tensor equation , the condition is
satisf ied by 2 order contravariant metric tensor two times product,the constant matrix.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2473] **viXra:1909.0472 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-30 02:01:20*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

I will try to invalidate the theory of relativity by presenting a compelling alternative theory. I hope that criticism of Einstein's theories will not be seen as offense.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2472] **viXra:1909.0338 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-21 21:39:21*

**Authors:** F.M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Wolf and Milankovich cycles, as well as a 725 years one, are shown to be tightly connected to the invariant Hubble-Sanchez horizon radius, via the Bohr radius, the background temperature and the Kotov length, implying a liaison between the Mattieu group, the superstring dimension 496 and the Higgs boson mass. The Mattieu group order factorisation 66 × 5! is implied, and leads to a relation implying the Monster Couple, characterising the Tau, Mu Leptons and Proton masses and confirming the Eddington's Proton-Tau symmetry. A cosmic connection with the weak bosons implies explicit ppb formula for the Millenarium Lepton masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2471] **viXra:1909.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-13 07:29:08*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

After the presentation of the Special Relativity Theory, Mass was discovered to be a
special form of Energy.
Thus, after the presentation of the Special Relativity Theory, the Electric Charge remained
the only distinct entity that is not Energy.
In a separate article the claim that electric charges might be considered also as a form
of energy was presented and discussed, from various angles.
However, this article focuses on the most potent argument, that the claim that Electric Charge
might be a form of Energy, might be a valid claim.
This argument is based on another claim, that if electric charges are a form of energy
they must belong to a set of Energy Pairs, and the reason for that is as follows:
Because charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then,
the energy embedded in charge must also come in two energy types, which are assigned to
one set of Energy Pairs.
Actually, the fact that charge comes in two types might be one of the crucial reasons why it
was difficult to recognize charge as another form of energy.
This article analyzes the energy embedded in electric and magnetic fields, and shows that
such energies, which rely on the existence of a force field (electric or magnetic) at any point
in space in order to exist in this point in space, can annihilate each other, in certain situations,
an annihilation that seems to violate the Energy Conservation Principle.
This article describes such a specific physical scenario which actually shows a situation in
which during a collision of two electromagnetic traveling waves transmissions that occur in a
specific constellation, the two waves, which each contain energy, disappear, which is a clear
violation of the Energy Conservation Principle.
Thus, this article assigns the energy embedded in electric fields generated by positive
charges, and energy embedded in electric fields generated by negative charges also to
one set of energy pairs.
And, this article assigns the energy embedded in magnetic fields generated by moving
positive charges, and energy embedded in magnetic fields generated by moving negative
charges to another set of energy pairs.
Then, this article uses the Energy Pairs Theory, to explain Energy Conservation issues
in electric and magnetic fields, by assuming that energies belonging to energy pairs of
equal intensities residing in the same space volume, might annihilate each other, in
certain conditions.
Thus, the above mentioned physical scenario actually proves the validity of the Energy Pairs
Theory.
This scenario can be converted, at least in principle, to a physical experiment which might
provide an additional validity to the Energy Pairs Theory. This article also describes how
such an experiment can be arranged.
Then, because energies in electric and magnetic fields are generated initially from electric
charges, the Energy Pairs Theory is also used to explain the issue of charge disappearance in
electron positron collisions.
This is done, by assuming that, as electric and magnetic energies are shown to annihilate each
other and disappear, in certain situations, positive and negative charge might also annihilate
each other in certain situations, such as, in electron positron collisions, which sterngthen the
claim that electric charges are also a form of energy.
Because, if electric charges are claimed to be energies, their embedded energy should be also
assigned to a set of Energy Pairs, and since the Energy Pairs Theory was already shown to be
a valid theory, and it also explains electric and magnetic energy disappearance in certain
conditions, analogous to that, it can explain the charge disappearance in electron positron
collisions.
Also, the above mentioned scenario might also show that Energy Pairs might turn into some
sort of Dark Energy, which is a mystery that the science of Physics seeks a solution to it.
Also, the mutual annihilation of energies belonging to energy pairs can be viewed not
only as mutual annihilation but also as mutual disabling.
This idea equates the complete emptiness with substance, assuming that complete
emptiness is a state in which energies of energy pairs exist and their mutual disabling
is actually seen as complete emptiness.
This idea also can be extended to assume that this state of complete emptiness, which
actually contains energy pairs, is the eternal state of existence.
And since complete emptiness is a state that do contain energies which disable each
other, this concept can be further extrapolated to assume that energy pairs can evolve
together from this complete emptiness, which discards the need for the concept of
creation.
Then, by combining the last two assumptions, the assumption that energies belonging
to energy pairs residing in the same space volume might disable each other in certain
conditions, and the assumption that energy pairs might evolve together from nothing
in certain conditions, the energy pairs can be seen as being able to turn into some sort
of the Dark Energy which might be also seen as the complete emptiness.
Because, the assumption that the complete emptiness actually contains energy pairs
that disable each other makes it containing energies that are untraceable, as the Dark
Energy is.
And, the assumption that energy pairs can emerge together from nothing (or complete
emptiness) might explain how this Dark Energy is able to enter into activity, at certain
conditions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2470] **viXra:1909.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-14 11:55:45*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

After the presentation of the Special Relativity Theory, Mass was discovered to be a
special form of Energy. Thus, after the presentation of the Special Relativity Theory, the
Electric Charge remained the only distinct entity that is not Energy.
This article claims that electric charges might be considered also as a form of energy.
This argument is based on another claim, that if electric charges are a form of energy
they must belong to a set of Energy Pairs, and the reason for that is as follows:
Because charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then,
the energy embedded in charge must also come in two energy types, which are assigned to
one set of Energy Pairs.
Actually, the fact that charge comes in two types might be one of the crucial reasons why it
was difficult to recognize charge as another form of energy.
This article starts by analyzing the energy embedded in electric and magnetic fields, and
shows that such energies, which are dependent on the existence of a force field (electric or
magnetic) in order to exist, can annihilate each other, in certain situations, an annihilation that
seems to violate the Energy Conservation Principle.
Actually, this article describes a specific physical scenario which shows a situation in which
during a collision of two electromagnetic traveling waves transmissions that occur in a
specific constellation, the two waves, which each contain energy, disappear, which is a clear
violation of the Energy Conservation Principle.
In light of the above described scenario, this article assigns the energy embedded in electric
fields generated by positive charges, and energy embedded in electric fields generated by
negative charges to one set of energy pairs. And, this article also assigns the energy
embedded in magnetic fields generated by moving positive charges, and energy embedded in
magnetic fields generated by moving negative charges to another set of energy pairs.
Then, this article presents the Energy Pairs Theory, that states that energies belonging to
energy pairs of equal intensities residing in the same space volume, might annihilate each
other, in certain conditions. And, this article uses the Energy Pairs Theory, to explain
Energy Conservation issues in electric or magnetic fields by the above mentioned
statement that energies belonging to energy pairs of equal intensities residing in the same
space volume, might annihilate each other, in certain conditions.
Then, since the above mentioned physical scenario does show that electric or magnetic
energy can be annihilated, or disappear in certain conditions, this provides a proof to the
validity of the Energy Pairs Theory.
Then, because energies in electric and magnetic fields are generated initially from electric
charges, the Energy Pairs Theory is also used to explain the issue of charge disappearance in
electron positron collisions.
When an electron and a positron collide they annihilate each other and gamma ray
photons are emitted, with energy equal to the sum of the energies embedded in the
masses of the electron and the positron. However, the charges of the electron and the
positron are not converted to any new substance (such as energy) and they simply
disappear without leaving any trace of their previous existence. This charge
disappearance seem to be an unusual, strange and unexpected mystery, although this
charge disappearance obey the charge conservation principle. This charge disappearance
is strange, because charge seem to be a basic element in physics, and such basic elements
should not disappear.
The Energy Pairs mentioned above provides a reasonable and logic explanation also
to this charge disappearance mystery. This is done by assuming that charge is energy and
energy embedded in positive charge and energy embedded in negative charge belong to
one set of Energy Pairs that might annihilate each other.
This also provides extra support to the assumption that charge is energy. Because, as electric
or magnetic energies are shown to annihilate each other and disappear, in certain situations,
positive and negative charge might also annihilate each other in certain situations, such as, in
electron positron collisions, which strengthen the claim that electric charges are also a form
of energy.
The above described scenario can be converted, at least in principle, to a physical experiment
which might provide an additional validity to the Energy Pairs Theory. This article also
describes how such an experiment can be arranged.
Also, the above mentioned scenario might also show that Energy Pairs might turn into some
sort of Dark Energy, which is a mystery that the science of Physics seeks a solution to it. This
is also presented in a separate article titled: "Energy Pairs might turn to some sort of Dark
Energy" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1909.0149.
Also, the mutual annihilation of energies belonging to energy pairs can be viewed not
only as mutual annihilation but also as mutual disabling. This idea equates the complete
emptiness with substance, assuming that complete emptiness is a state in which energies
of energy pairs exist and their mutual disabling is actually seen as complete emptiness.
This idea also can be extended to assume that this state of complete emptiness, which
actually contains energy pairs, is the eternal state of existence. And since complete
emptiness is a state that do contain energies which disable each other, this concept can be
further extrapolated to assume that energy pairs can evolve together from this complete
emptiness, which discards the need for the concept of creation.
Then, by combining the last two assumptions, the assumption that energies belonging
to energy pairs residing in the same space volume might disable each other in certain
conditions, and the assumption that energy pairs might evolve together from nothing
in certain conditions, the energy pairs can be seen as being able to turn into some sort
of the Dark Energy which might be also seen as the complete emptiness.
Because, the assumption that the complete emptiness actually contains energy pairs
that disable each other makes it containing energies that are untraceable, as the Dark
Energy is. And, the assumption that energy pairs can emerge together from nothing (or
complete emptiness) might explain how this Dark Energy is able to enter into activity, at
certain conditions.
In addition to using the above described coliding wave scenario, that proves the Energy
Pairs Theory, which is used to support the claim that electric charges might be energy,
the claim that electric charge might be energy is discussed in this article from additional
angles.
As will be shown in this article, there are similarities between mass and charge which
might lead us to conclude that charge should also be considered as a special form of
energy.
Thus, this article does claim that Charge might also be recognized as another form
of Energy, as mass turned to be. This claim, if found viable, and supported by
additional findings, will make Energy as the only distinct entity (in addition to time and
space), a simpler and cleaner view of nature.
Also, analogous to the equation: E = (m * C) ^ 2 where E is energy, m is mass
c is the speed of light, and ^ stands for power of
Derived by the special theory of relativity, which describes the relation between the energy
embedded in mass and mass magnitude, this article suggests several options of equations
that might describe the relation between the energy embedded in charge and charge
magnitude. These suggestions are based only on assumptions and must be supported by
additional findings.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2469] **viXra:1909.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-28 04:23:17*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The kinetic energy of a moving mass is attributed to the mass increase
because of its velocity. Thus, mass is recognized as a special form of energy.
As will be shown in this article, there are similarities between mass and
charge which might lead us to conclude that charge should also be considered
as a special form of energy.
Thus, this article does claim that Charge might also be recognized as
another form of Energy, as mass turned to be. This claim, if found viable,
and supported by additional findings, will make Energy as the only distinct
entity (in addition to time and space), a simpler and cleaner view of nature.
Also, this article suggests the following:
1. Analogeous to the equation:
E = m c ^ 2 where E is energy, m is mass c is the speed of light
and ^ stands for power of.
derived by the special theory of relativity, which describes the relation
between the
energy embedded in mass and mass magnitude, this article suggests several
options of equations that might describe the relation between the energy and
charge magnitude. These suggestions are based only on assumptions and
must be supported by additional findings.
2. Since charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then
the energy embedded in charge also comes in two energy types.
This might be one of the crucial reasons why it was difficult to recognize
charge as another form of energy.
However, the article provides a logical explanation to this issue. The article
also assigns these energy types to one set of Energy Pairs.
This Energy Pairs Theory is also used to explain why in the electron and
positron collisions the charges completely disappear.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2468] **viXra:1909.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-15 12:46:22*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The kinetic energy of a moving mass is attributed to the mass increase
because of its velocity. Thus, mass is recognized as a special form of energy.
As will be shown in this article, there are similarities between mass and
charge which might lead us to conclude that charge should also be considered
as a special form of energy.
Thus, this article does claim that Charge might also be recognized as
another form of Energy, as mass turned to be. This claim, if found viable,
and supported by additional findings, will make Energy as the only distinct
entity (in addition to time and space), a simpler and cleaner view of nature.
Also, this article suggests the following:
1. Analogeous to the equation:
E = m c ^ 2 where E is energy, m is mass c is the speed of light
and ^ stands for power of.
derived by the special theory of relativity, which describes the relation
between the
energy embedded in mass and mass magnitude, this article suggests several
options of equations that might describe the relation between the energy and
charge magnitude. These suggestions are based only on assumptions and
must be supported by additional findings.
2. Since charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then
the energy embedded in charge also comes in two energy types.
This might be one of the crucial reasons why it was difficult to recognize
charge as another form of energy.
However, the article provides a logical explanation to this issue. The article
also assigns these energy types to one set of Energy Pairs.
This Energy Pairs Theory is also used to explain why in the electron and
positron collisions the charges completely disappear.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2467] **viXra:1909.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-16 07:07:08*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Typos corrected

The length and mass scales of cosmology and astrophysics are shown to derive from quantum scales. The Quantum/Classical connection maps the Bohr radius, the reduced Compton wavelength and the classical electron radius – three ‘quantum’ length scales that lie in geometric progression with common ratio α, the fine structure constant – onto three ‘classical’ length scales: the radius of the observable universe; the radius of the stellar halo of the geometric-mean-sized galaxy that is typified by the Milky Way; and the radius of the planetary system of the geometric-mean-sized star that is typified by the sun. By way of the Quantum/Classical connection, the three classical length scales lie in geometric progression with common ratio equal to alpha^5/2 (=4.55E-6). This observation has opened up a framework of multiplicative relationships between cosmological and astrophysical scales based on powers of alpha^5/2. The astrophysical scales of the model refer to the geometric mean values of distributions of scales. ‘Local’ scales take very nearly ideal (geometric mean) values. The baryonic mass of the Milky Way and the mass of the sun approximate very closely to the baryonic mass of the Hubble sphere multiplied by alpha^5 and alpha^10, respectively. The total mass of the Milky Way, the mass of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the centre of the Milky Way and the geometric mean mass of black hole-black hole gravitational wave event progenitors approximate very closely to the total mass/energy of the Hubble sphere multiplied by alpha^5, alpha^15/2 and alpha^10, respectively. The results indicate that the total mass/energy of the Hubble sphere increases with time and that black holes grow at Hubble rate. The Schwarzschild radius of the ‘ideal’ star equals the radius of the star multiplied by alpha^5/2. By way of the Quantum/Classical connection, the radius and mass of the ‘ideal’ star map onto the mass and atomic radius, respectively, of the stable nuclide iron-56. The nearly-ideal sun is the counterpart of the stable nuclide chromium-53.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2466] **viXra:1909.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-24 07:44:43*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Hence, solutions of the unified theory is Reissner-Nodstrom solution in vacuum. We found revised Einstein gravity tensor equation is satisfied the condition by 2-order contra-invariant metric tensor two times product.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2465] **viXra:1909.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-03 01:23:22*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Hence, solutions of the unified theory is Reissner-Nodstrom solution in vacuum. We found revised Einstein gravity tensor equation is satisfied the condition by 2-order contra-invariant metric tensor two times product.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2464] **viXra:1908.0574 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-05 09:20:35*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** timinva@yandex.ru, 24 pages in Russian

The Michelson-Morley experiment is devoted to the experimental measurement of the anisotropy of the speed of light propagation on the Earth's surface. Since at that time it was believed that space is Galilean and it is filled with ether, and light propagates in it as in ASO in accordance with the additive law of addition of velocities in Galilean space, it was assumed possible to determine the speed of the Earth relative to the "ether" and the direction of motion of the Solar system in the cosmic ASO. But the result is known to be negative. Rose "ethereal wind" was isotropic, or rather-zero. Why didn't the theory match the experiment? In the orthonormal wave space Einstein's str the coordinates linked to each individual ISO to conditionally fit in space and time, the number of waves from resting in it a reference source. But whatever coordinate system is adopted, the number of waves on the trajectory will not depend on it. And phase of the returning route, the installation of MM-waves will coincide invariably in any wave ISO. But only with wave standards. Not Galilean absolute! If we had Galilean absolute standards, we would see the world differently. At least – if not eyes, ears, nose, tongue, hands (tactile) and other available feeling organs-at least in physical experiments. But we can not hope for this – all real standards are subject to electromagnetic and gravitational interaction with a finite, equal to the speed of light in a vacuum. And these are again the same waves. Опыт Майкельсона-Морли посвящен экспериментальному измерению анизотропии скорости распространения света на поверхности Земли. Т.к. в то время считалось, что пространство является галилеевым и оно заполнено эфиром, а свет распространяется в ней как в АСО в соответствии с аддитивным законом сложения скоростей в галилеевом пространстве, то предполагалось возможным определить скорость Земли относительно "эфира" и направление движения Солнечной системы в космическом АСО. Но результат, как известно, отрицательный. Роза "эфирного ветра" оказалась изотропной, точнее - нулевой. Почему теория не совпала с экспериментом? В ортонормированном волновом пространстве СТО Эйнштейна координаты привязаны в каждом отдельном ИСО к условно укладывающимся в пространстве и времени количествам волн от покоящегося в ней эталонного источника. Но какая бы ни была принята координатная система, количество волн на траектории не будет зависеть от нее. И фазы возвращающихся с маршрута установки ММ волн будут совпадать неизменно в любом волновом ИСО. Но только с волновыми эталонами. Не галилеевыми абсолютными! Если бы у нас имелись галилеевы абсолютные эталоны, мир мы увидели бы другим. По крайней мере – если не глазами, ушами, носом, языком, руками (тактильными) и другими доступными чувствующими органами – хотя бы в физических экспериментах. Но надеяться на это не приходится – все вещественные эталоны подчинены электромагнитному, слабому, сильному и гравитационному с конечной, равной скорости света в вакууме, взаимодействиям. А это – опять же те же самые волны.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2463] **viXra:1908.0574 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-28 17:41:47*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** 20 Pages. timinva@yandex.ru, p.20, russian

The Michelson-Morley experiment is devoted to the experimental measurement of the anisotropy of the speed of light propagation on the Earth's surface. Since at that time it was believed that space is Galilean and it is filled with ether, and light propagates in it as in ASO in accordance with the additive law of addition of velocities in Galilean space, it was assumed possible to determine the speed of the Earth relative to the "ether" and the direction of motion of the Solar system in the cosmic ASO. But the result is known to be negative. Rose "ethereal wind" was isotropic, or rather-zero. Why didn't the theory match the experiment? In the orthonormal wave space Einstein's str the coordinates linked to each individual ISO to conditionally fit in space and time, the number of waves from resting in it a reference source. But whatever coordinate system is adopted, the number of waves on the trajectory will not depend on it. And phase of the returning route, the installation of MM-waves will coincide invariably in any wave ISO. But only with wave standards. Not Galilean absolute! If we had Galilean absolute standards, we would see the world differently. At least – if not eyes, ears, nose, tongue, hands (tactile) and other available feeling organs-at least in physical experiments. But we can not hope for this – all real standards are subject to electromagnetic and gravitational interaction with a finite, equal to the speed of light in a vacuum. And these are again the same waves. Опыт Майкельсона-Морли посвящен экспериментальному измерению анизотропии скорости распространения света на поверхности Земли. Т.к. в то время считалось, что пространство является галилеевым и оно заполнено эфиром, а свет распространяется в ней как в АСО в соответствии с аддитивным законом сложения скоростей в галилеевом пространстве, то предполагалось возможным определить скорость Земли относительно "эфира" и направление движения Солнечной системы в космическом АСО. Но результат, как известно, отрицательный. Роза "эфирного ветра" оказалась изотропной, точнее - нулевой. Почему теория не совпала с экспериментом?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2462] **viXra:1908.0574 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-10 14:24:35*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** 12 Pages. timinva@yandex.ru, russian

The Michelson-Morley experiment is devoted to the experimental measurement of the anisotropy of the speed of light propagation on the Earth's surface. Since at that time it was believed that space is filled with ether and light propagates in it, it was assumed possible to determine the speed of the Earth relative to the "ether" and the direction of motion of the Solar system in the space ASO. But the result is known to be negative. Rose "ether wind" was isotropic, to be exact - zero. Why didn't the theory coincide with the experiment?
In the orthonormal wave space Einstein's str the coordinates linked to each individual ISO to conditionally fit in space and time, the number of waves from resting in it a reference source. But whatever coordinate system is adopted, the number of waves on the trajectory will not depend on it. And phase of the returning route, the installation of MM-waves will coincide invariably in any ISO. But only with wave standards. Not Galilean absolute! If we had Galilean absolute standards, we would see the world differently. At least – if not eyes, ears, nose, tongue, hands (tactile) and other available feeling organs-at least in physical experiments. But we can not hope for this – all real standards are subject to electromagnetic and gravitational interaction with a finite, equal to the speed of light in a vacuum. And these are again the same waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2461] **viXra:1908.0574 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-08 15:54:17*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment is devoted to the experimental measurement of the anisotropy of the speed of light propagation on the Earth's surface. Since at that time it was believed that space is filled with ether and light propagates in it, it was assumed possible to determine the speed of the Earth relative to the "ether" and the direction of motion of the Solar system in the space ASO. But the result is known to be negative. Rose "ether wind" was isotropic, to be exact - zero. Why didn't the theory coincide with the experiment? In the orthonormal wave space Einstein's str the coordinates linked to each individual ISO to conditionally fit in space and time, the number of waves from resting in it a reference source. But whatever coordinate system is adopted, the number of waves on the trajectory will not depend on it. And phase of the returning route, the installation of MM-waves will coincide invariably in any ISO. But only with wave standards. Not Galilean absolute! If we had Galilean absolute standards, we would see the world differently. At least – if not eyes, ears, nose, tongue, hands (tactile) and other available feeling organs-at least in physical experiments. But we can not hope for this – all real standards are subject to electromagnetic and gravitational interaction with a finite, equal to the speed of light in a vacuum. And these are again the same waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2460] **viXra:1908.0534 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-25 10:23:37*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Science theory is composed of definitions, logic and facts. Facts are real and not deniable. Logic could have multiple expressions. So we need to choose most appropriate expression. A composition from definitions, facts and logic to Special Relativity Theory is tried here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2459] **viXra:1908.0504 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-29 07:56:34*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In the past century, abstract mathematical reference frames have become the universal way to formulate and understand the fundamental laws of physics. Galileo's principle of relativity and Einstein's special relativity theory states that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames. The subtly hidden assumption in this statement is that the laws of physics can be formulated correctly at least in one inertial reference frame, which is shown to be wrong. In the general theory of relativity (accelerating) reference frames can even affect the laws of physics. The true laws of physics became hidden by the very idea of using reference frames as the observers. In the reference frame concept, the laws of physics are formulated as seen by the third observer, i.e. reference frame. The mystery that has eluded physicists so far is that a third observer (reference frame) is irrelevant or cannot see the true nature of electromagnetic interaction between two charges, for example. Electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena are elusive in that they do not act in the classical way expected by the third observer (reference frame). The traditional concept of reference frames was based on classical, conventional thinking and experience, such as the motion of a ball or the propagation of classical waves as seen in two relatively moving inertial frames. Einstein's special relativity theory was built upon the fallacious Galileo's reference frames. Galileo's relativity is only approximately correct and applies only to ordinary, everyday experiences and is fundamentally wrong. According to the new theory proposed in this paper, the observer is fundamentally the body or particle directly experiencing electromagnetic or gravitational fields and waves. The observer is the atom, molecule, electron or proton directly detecting or experiencing electromagnetic and gravitational fields and waves, such as the atoms in light detecting devices, the human eye or massive bodies experiencing gravitation of another body. Einstein (correctly) discovered his chasing a beam of light thought experiment. However, since physicists universally thought in terms of reference frames, this ( wrongly ) led him to the special theory of relativity. The principle of relativity should be discarded ; reference frames, whether inertial, accelerating or rotating , are irrelevant in the formulation of the fundamental laws of physics. The concept of reference frames must be abandoned altogether. The fundamental laws of physics cannot be correctly formulated in any reference frame, i.e. relative to the third 'observer' who is not directly experiencing electromagnetic or gravitational phenomena. A new way of formulating the laws of physics relative to (as seen by ) the direct observer is introduced. Newton's and Mach's views on inertia will be reconciled.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2458] **viXra:1908.0484 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-29 02:59:40*

**Authors:** Rolf Warnemünde

**Comments:** 35 Pages. corrected formula-typing-errors

It concerns the unification of Maxwell-Field and Gravitational-Field without
compromise consisting of:
1. A derivation of the general equations of continuously differentiable fluctuating
3-dimensional vector fields turning out to be generalized Maxwell-Equations
2. Identifying the Einstein-Space as the result of deforming an Euclidean Space,
3. Identifying the fluctuating hypersurface of the Einstein-Space as gravitational
wave propagating with the velocity of light seen from an observer space or rather
coordinate space,
This leads to
1. the quantitative unification of Maxwell-Field and Gravitational-Field,
2. the facilitation of quantizing gravitational fields,
3. considerations of general gravitational waves from a new perspective.
With the described unification electromagnetism is directly led back to the most
fundamental terms of physics, space and time.Last but not least the importance
of the Einstein-Equations for microphysics is proved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2457] **viXra:1908.0410 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-27 00:24:37*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

Wang, Zheng, and Yao carried out an experiment in 2004 to determine if the Sagnac effect can be applied to the inertial motion.
Their experiment showed that there was indeed phase difference between the two light beams passing through the same optical
fiber in inertial motion.
However, the focus of their experiment was on the rest frame of the light source. They did not realize that the time
difference from the phase difference should exist in all reference frames. The difference in the elapsed time taken by
two light beams to pass through the linear fiber segment
in the rest frame of the segment effectively corresponds to the speed difference between two light beams.
The Sagnac effect in inertial motion provides a precise experimental evidence that the speed of light is different in a
different reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2456] **viXra:1908.0409 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-22 09:34:08*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new idea that the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation ( CMBR ) could be Doppler shifted light from receding superluminal distant galaxies. One immediate objection to this idea is that superluminal velocities do not exist in nature. However, we know that superluminal galaxies have already been observed. Moreover, in my recent paper entitled " Absolute Motion, Light Speed Limit, Superluminal Galaxies and Star Light Bending " , I have shown how absolute motion, light speed limit and superluminal galaxies can co-exist in the universe. Hubble's law also predicts superluminal galaxies at sufficiently large distances. A new exponential law of Doppler effect is introduced: λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e -V/c , where e is Euler's constant. Using the new law of Doppler effect, CMBR frequency and Hubble's law we estimate the distance and speed of the superluminal galaxies the CMBR radiation is mainly coming from. The new theory (" Doppler shifted light from superluminal galaxies" ) can also explain the origin of apparently unrelated cosmic X ray background radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology