**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(20) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0710(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(10) - 1005(10) - 1006(12) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(10) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(13) - 1103(36) - 1104(10) - 1105(5) - 1106(12) - 1107(16) - 1108(5) - 1109(13) - 1110(19) - 1111(22) - 1112(16)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(23) - 1205(22) - 1206(14) - 1207(18) - 1208(31) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(30) - 1305(25) - 1306(29) - 1307(23) - 1308(28) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(23) - 1312(46)

2014 - 1401(36) - 1402(30) - 1403(33) - 1404(32) - 1405(39) - 1406(36) - 1407(47) - 1408(32)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1394] **viXra:1408.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 19:26:52*

**Authors:** Liu Taixiang

**Comments:** 12 Pages. e-mail:taixiang.l@126.com

The Theory of System Relativity is based on the premise of the assumption of the quantization of matter and introduces a brand new view of matter in terms of "monism and dualism". In view of the serious contradictions existing among the current different branches of physical theories, the author conducts a preliminary study from the perspective of the Theory of System Relativity and attempts to incorporate the different branches of physical theories into the theoretical framework of the Theory of System Relativity. Especially to the general relativity and the quantum theory, the author takes his unique view that the two different theories may achieve unity although the serous contradictions existing between them.
This book is a brand new way for matter principle. It can be used as a reference book for philosophy and fundamental physics research, and also be available for physics enthusiasts and relevant personnel.
e-mail:taixiang.l@126.com

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1393] **viXra:1408.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 23:51:55*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The crucial role of the Birkhoff theorem in Oppenheimer and Snyder's treatment of gravitationally contracting dust is psychologically difficult to reconcile with their exclusive utilization of position-independent dust energy density: on its face the latter excludes the existence any empty-space region whereas the Birkhoff theorem applies only to such regions. Their use of position-independent dust energy density was due to lack of known nonuniform-dust analytic solutions for spherically-symmetric "comoving coordinate systems". This article fills that gap for nonuniform dust which is initially momentarily stable, but in so doing reveals that its behavior in the "comoving coordinate system" always owes more to Newton than to Einstein: the metric periodically singularly contravenes the Principle of Equivalence due to its Newtonian-signature time cycloid component, and it manifests no trace of gravitational redshift. The now justifiable application of the Birkhoff theorem turns out to effect the physically correct inclusion of gravitational redshift; it singularly stretches the "comoving" dust system's time-cycloid first half-period to infinite time duration. The unfamiliar lesson here is that "comoving coordinate systems" are inherently bereft of crucial relativistic gravitational physics: this must be incorporated by a singular transformation to a physically more appropriate coordinate system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1392] **viXra:1408.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 13:42:28*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 10 pages. «Ondes de choc lumineuses cosmiques» is the French version of «Cosmic Luminous Shock Waves» on viXra.org/abs/1408.0232

Nous émettons l’hypothèse de l’existence d’ondes de choc lumineuses susceptibles de participer à la formation de nuages et d’événements atmosphériques sévères. Ces ondes auraient la particularité d’être créées et modulées par le choc des rayons cosmiques galactiques avec les particules de la couronne solaire : les particules énergétiques du rayonnement cosmique, en collision avec les atomes de l’atmosphère solaire, les disloquent, avec le résultat que la vitesse de l’électron ultra-relativiste dans le plasma solaire peut être supérieure à la vitesse de la lumière dans ce milieu. Ce qui produirait un rayonnement secondaire d’intensité supérieure analogue à celui des ondes rayonnantes dans les liquides par effet Tcherenkov. Leur existence pourrait être liée à un phénomène visuel appelé « expérience de flashes lumineux » auquel tous les astronautes sont confrontés.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1391] **viXra:1408.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 09:48:30*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We hypothesize the existence of cosmic luminous shock waves which might participate in the formation of clouds and severe weather events. These waves would have the peculiarity to be created and modulated by the shock of the galactic cosmic rays with the particles of the solar corona: the energetic particles of cosmic rays collide with atoms of the solar atmosphere, shatter them, with the result that the velocity of the ultra-relativistic electron in the solar plasma might be greater than the speed of light in this medium. What would produce a secondary radiation of higher intensity analogous to that of the shock waves radiating in liquids by Cherenkov effect. Their existence may be linked to a visual phenomenon called «experience of bright light flashes» with which all the astronauts are confronted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1390] **viXra:1408.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 08:58:22*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. Artigo em construção.

O movimento de 8’’,24 segundos de arco por século que mencionei como um novo valor para a anomalia de Mercúrio precisa ser melhor esclarecido, o que farei em próxima versão deste artigo.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1389] **viXra:1408.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 20:11:40*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is the French version of Note added to paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT», on viXra.org/abs/1408.0219

Depuis que nous avons présenté le papier « LA MISSION PHARAO/ACES ET L’EFFET ALLAIS » en 2012, dans lequel nous demandions aux autorités scientifiques du projet Pharao de tenir compte de l’effet d’éclipse Allais, une information appréciable a été communiquée par la direction de Pharao à un de nos correspondants internet.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1388] **viXra:1408.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 15:35:40*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is a Note added to paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT», org/abs/1301.0185 on viXra.

Since we submitted the paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT» in 2012, in which we asked to scientific authorities in charge of the Pharao project to consider the Allais eclipse effect, significant information concerning the Allais eclipse effect was provided to one of our Internet correspondents by the direction of the "Pharao project".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1387] **viXra:1408.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 02:09:06*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

After reading "Study challenges black hole theory" in Astronomy magazine's September 2014 issue, I sat down in front of my computer and spent the whole afternoon typing this reply. Most of the thoughts were initially addressed in previous contributions to viXra.org and, as the heading states, this article is "Clarifying Previous Points Regarding Dark Matter" (with cameos by imaginary numbers, time travel into the past, instant space-time travel, unifying fundamental forces with each other as well as matter/mass, string theory, black holes, and the cosmic DVD)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1386] **viXra:1408.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 04:31:37*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Usually, physicists propose the alternative theories of gravity to the General Relativity (GR). In this paper we propose something different – m(GR) theory. This theory is the modification of GR theory, where the metric tensor has been replaced by the effective mass tensor. The m(GR) theory is a new theory of gravitation, which describes the gravitational phenomena not as geometric properties of the space-time but as the dynamical properties of the bodies which, under the influence of the external gravitational field, behave like bodies with the effective mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1385] **viXra:1408.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 08:34:22*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 10 pages

The perception of events in two inertial reference frames in relative motion is analyzed from the perspective of the special relativity (SR) postulates. Straightforward contradictions disproving the SR predictions have been identified. The hoax used in the SR formulation to get around the identified contradictions and hide their cause is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1384] **viXra:1408.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 04:17:34*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan

**Comments:** 11 Pages In English, Copyrighted

The aim of this current article is to illustrate in detail Armenian relativistic formulas and compare them with Lorentz relativistic formulas so that readers can easily differentiate these two theories and visualize how general and rich our Armenian Theory of Special Relativity really is with a spectacular build in asymmetry.
Then we are going behind this comparison and illustrating that build in asymmetry inside Armenian Theory of Special Relativity is reincarnating the aether as a universal reference medium, which is not contrary to relativity theory. We mathematically prove the existence of aether and we show how to extract infinite energy from the time-space or sub-atomic aether medium. Our theory explains all these facts and peacefully brings together followers of absolute aether theory, relativistic aether theory or followers of dark matter theory. We also mention that the absolute aether medium has a very complex geometric character, which has never been seen before.
We are explaining why NASA’s earlier "BPP" and DARPA’s "Casimir Effect Enhancement" programs failed.
We are also stating that the time is right to reopen NASA’s BPP program and fuel the spacecrafts using the everywhere existing aether asymmetric momentum force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1383] **viXra:1408.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-24 17:14:29*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We show that the Planck relation is a geometric mean equation, supporting the idea that the universe is undergoing a geometric mean expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1382] **viXra:1408.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-24 01:18:50*

**Authors:** Silas Sacheli Santos

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

New equations for bodies motions are derived from non-instantaneous forces, some equations of special relativity (but derived from Newtonian Physics), the galilean transformations and a preferred frame (the cosmic microwave backgound).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1381] **viXra:1408.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-22 15:27:09*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: In a previous letter (see viXra 1408.0067) I have found that our universe has the broken symmetry E8 x U(1) and should contain exactly 248 types of quantum particles and that these have all been found. Included are 2-quark and 3-quark particles but no particle having 4 quarks or more. We do find one copious 4-quark particle and propose that it is a marker particle to alert us to the fact that the exalted 248 numeric goal has been attained. Studies by others indicate a 6-quark particle should be plentiful, but this has not materialized.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1380] **viXra:1408.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-22 08:31:10*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. In portuguese.

Far as we could tell, the calculated value of the general precession (5026.50'') are not contained in other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1379] **viXra:1408.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 07:00:33*

**Authors:** Jan Helm

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

We discuss the Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt (OSD) solution from a new perspective, introduce a completely new formulation of the problem exclusively in external Schwarzschild space-time (ESM) and present a new treatment of the singularities in this new formulation. We also give a new Newtonian approximation of the problem. Furthermore, we present new numerical solutions of the modified OSD-model and of the ball-to-ball-collapse with 4 different numerical methods.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1378] **viXra:1408.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 06:13:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In portuguese.

Give an example of how it is possible that a limitation in determining the value of daily precession of the perihelion of Mercury explain this when designed for a century.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1377] **viXra:1408.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 00:14:22*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Part two of a collection of articles published by the South Australian Astronomical Society, these from 2013 to 2014, along with an updated chart of nearby stars, some discussion concerning inertia and comments on the nature of complex time.
Support for Roger Shawyers work on the emdrive at Space Propulsion Research Ltd. is intended to encourage consideration of his results in the hope that they will be put to test and to use. The philosophical consequences of his findings are far reaching and will be invaluable to physics if they are properly understood. The practical application of his work may yet constitute a milestone in the evolution of humanity.
The articles are included as sent for consideration, the format being adjusted for consistency. Please enjoy the contradictions and forgive the inclusion of a little casual mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1376] **viXra:1408.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-15 06:09:06*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In portuguese.

Abandon the hypothesis of the solar wind and obtain a new value for the anomaly of the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury. The theoretical value of the total secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, according to the work of Le Verrier 1859, is only about 8'' unless the observed value quoted by Weinberg (in reference to Duncombe and Clemence). The hypothesis of the influence of the satellites in the calculation of precession, previously abandoned, should return, since 1'' is not so insignificant compared to 8''.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1375] **viXra:1408.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 08:48:18*

**Authors:** Ernst Fischer

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2014

According to general relativity the geometry of space depends on the distribution of matter or energy fields. The relation between the locally defined geometry parameters and the volume elements depends on curvature. Thus integration of local properties like energy density, defined in the Euclidean tangent space, does not lead to correct integral data like total energy. To obtain
integral conservation, a correction term must be added to account for the curvature of space. This correction term is the equivalent of potential energy in Newtonian gravitation. With this correction the formation of singularities by gravitational collapse does no longer occur and the so called dark energy finds its natural
explanation as potential energy of matter itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1374] **viXra:1408.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-13 01:11:05*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity fails to explain the cosmic muon decay phenomenon. The “dilated time” of special relativity has no physical interpretation as time as interpreted in physics; therefore, the extended lifetime of the muon, arrived at through the used of time dilation, cannot be used in the simple formula : distance=speed\times time. So far, no one seems to have pointed to this simple fact. An invalid argument has been repeated and propagated for decades that purportedly resolves the cosmic muon decay phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1373] **viXra:1408.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 15:39:22*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity falls by the Lorentz transformation, the very foundation on which the theory rests. The application of the Lorentz transformation does not naturally give rise to projections in spacetime where the space coordinates still retain any relevance to the usual physical real length; the dilated time too may have no relevance to real time. The conclusion is that the Special Theory of Relativity is just an abstract mathematical model and not a theory in physics; it has no relevance to our physical world. As such, all empirical and experimental evidence that purportedly validate the theory become void and meaningless.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1372] **viXra:1408.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 11:45:00*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In our epoch E8 symmetry exists and is the governing symmetry of the universe although it is a broken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) responsible for our feeble gravity. Studies of existing lepton, hadron, meson, and QCD particles indicate that there are 12 lepton, 100 baryon, 100 meson and 14 QCD species here at present, or 226 in all. Adding the 22 new particles required to implement E8 symmetry yields a total of 248 different particles and Antiparticles required for our universe to have E8 symmetry, and these have all been found.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1371] **viXra:1408.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 08:56:21*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. In portuguese.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar) e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1370] **viXra:1408.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-09 15:37:55*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is shown that by applying a simple and correct method of measurement of the circumference the space in rotating disk is flat.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1369] **viXra:1408.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-09 18:10:52*

**Authors:** R.A.Isasi

**Comments:** 19 pages;1 Figure; 1 Table

In the present manuscript, we consider the origin of the cosmological space, and the Cosmological Constant as a consequence of the annihilation of the matter - antimatter at the very beginning of the big bang. Since the cosmological expansion creates the space, the cosmological vacuum is considered as a very hegemonic entity which is the locus where all the objects create the events. Certainly, N units of masses in conjunct are required to produce an equilibrium between the gravitational phenomena of the matter in bulk and each coulombic interaction between protons and electrons within the nuclear and atomic contour in all astrophysical (e.g. stars) or consmological entities (e.g. galaxies). The "dark matter" is considered to be formed by highly excited H and HeI Rydberg`s atoms in equilibrium with the CMB radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1368] **viXra:1408.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-09 14:24:32*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 18 Pages. none

In this paper it is shown that the General Relativity Theory (GRT), which belongs to a class of metric theories of gravity, is based on a wrong assumption, contradicts the well-established laws of physics, and also its own maximum speed postulate. It is shown, based on simple arguments of geometry, that in the GRT the motion of a test body in an orbit around the centrally gravitating mass does not satisfy the conservation of angular momentum and that the equation describing the equivalence of acceleration with the force of gravity violates the contravariance principle. Finally, it is shown that the GRT also violates the Gauss law. The critique rests on a comparison of the Schwarzschild metric, which is derived from Einstein field equations, with the previously derived author's new metric from which the Schwarzschild metric follows as a first order approximation, but which is not derived from Einstein field equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1367] **viXra:1408.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-07 13:20:46*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. A spontaneous letter in Portuguese.

Beyond the question "Gravitational Mass = Inertial Mass?" should be the question "Mass Gravitational Planet X = Mass Gravitational Planet Y"?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1366] **viXra:1408.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 07:06:55*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Portuguese language.

Compares the current masses of Mercury to Saturn, with the values of Le Verrier and Newcomb and recalculates the value of the deviation obtained for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury with current masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1365] **viXra:1408.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 04:15:59*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 10 pages

We determine nonlinear transformations between coordinate systems which are mutually
in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion. The maximal acceleration limit follows from
the kinematical origin. Maximal acceleration is an analogue of the maximal velocity in
special relativity. We derive the dependence of mass, length, time, Doppler effect, Cherenkov
angle and transition radiation angle on acceleration as an analogue phenomena in special
theory of relativity. The derived addition theorem for acceleration can play crucial role in
modern particle physics and cosmology

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1364] **viXra:1408.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-04 00:55:28*

**Authors:** Arindam Sinha

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A simple and intuitive alternative theory of relativity based on Mach's Principle is proposed. At any location, total gravitational potential from the Universe's matter distribution is c^{2}. This Universal background potential constitutes unit rest energy of matter and provides its unit mass, which is the essence behind E=mc^{2}. The background gravity creates a local sidereal inertial frame at every location. A velocity increases gravitational potential through net blue-shift of Universe's background gravity, causing kinematic time dilation, which is a form of gravitational time dilation. Matter and energy follow different rules of motion, and speed of matter may exceed the speed of light. The theory is consistent with existing relativity experiments, and is falsifiable based on experiments whose predictions differ from General Relativity. The theory also explains why all the ICARUS and corrected OPERA experiments still show mean neutrino velocities slightly above speed of light (early arrival of neutrinos by 0.1-6.5ns), even after correcting the issues that had led to the original OPERA experiments to erroneously report faster than light neutrinos (early arrival by ~60ns).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1363] **viXra:1408.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-01 06:57:40*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The paper presents a relativistic extension of Newton’s mechanics, termed Newtonian Relativity, and utilizes it to infer the state of the observable universe. The theory is successful in making significant predictions regarding the accelerating nature of the universe, its composition of matter, dark matter, and dark energy, and the time line of the evolution of chemical elements. The theory yields simple expression for the dynamics of normal matter, dark matter, kinetic energy, and dark energy in their dependence on redshift. Strikingly, the theoretical distribution of the kinetic energy density in the universe is bell shaped and symmetrical around the famous Golden Ratio. Moreover, the theory predicts that normal matter and kinetic energy dominate the universe at z < 1/2 and that dark matter and dark energy dominate the universe at z > 1/2 . The theory yields simple expressions for the prediction of the amounts of matter and dark energy for any given redshift range, and compares the predicted cosmology with various observationally derived ΛCDM models.
With regard to the evolutionary time line of chemical elements, the theory predicts that the chemical elements may have been formed twice: first, in massive galaxy structures at the early universe, and second, in young galaxies in the recent history of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1362] **viXra:1407.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-31 11:24:23*

**Authors:** Mark Timothy Sheldrick

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Here a simple power series solution for the path of a photon in a static, stationary spherically symmetric gravitational field in a vacuum (described by the Schwarzschild solution) is derived in the form of a power series of the angular coordinate () of the photon around the axis in spherical coordinates (r,,). Standard results for photon trajectories under the influence of gravity are derived by this method. The series solution simplifies where there is a part of the trajectory with a zero first derivative (tangent) and simplifies in a different way when the trajectory crosses the r=3m radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1361] **viXra:1407.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-30 22:08:53*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is a cover for a book that has been published by LAP Publishing, Saarbrucken, Germany (http://www.lap-publishing.com). If you are interested in this book, you can contact me at email: victorchristianto@gmail.com, or skype: vic1043.

The author asks a number of questions, which touch fundamental subjects, and presents his discussions with many researchers mooting separate big problems starting from the behavior of an electron in an atom to a possible acceleration of the universe. For example, in the book it is treated: the fine structure constant and the Shannon entropy; Shpenkov’s interpretation on the classical wave equation leading to a shell-nodal model of atoms and molecules and the periodic table of elements close to the Mendeleyev’s table; 50 questions on the issue of astrophysics, cosmology and gravitational physics (some of them have been surveyed jointly with M. Peck), etc. Besides, the author considers some serious philosophical issues associated with physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1360] **viXra:1407.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-31 03:02:40*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

In this paper shown; on the one hand, as the tensor-scalar polarization modes B ratio, it is derived from the initial properties of the vacuum due to the unification of gravitation and electromagnetism. This ratio suggest that it is 2/Pi ^ 2 (0.20262423673), as an upper bound.
Secondly; demonstrates that it is not necessary to introduce any inflaton scalar field or similar ( ad-hoc fields ); If on the other hand, is the same structure of the vacuum and the quantization of gravity which perfectly explains this initial exponential expansion of the universe. In some respects exponential vacuum emptying has certain similarities with the emission of radiation of a black hole.
This quantization of gravity and its unification with electromagnetic field, shown in previous work; It allows deriving complete accurately the exponential factor of inflation; and therefore calculate accurately the Hubble constant, mass of the universe, matter density, the value of the vacuum energy density, the GUT mass scale ( bosons X,Y ), the gravitino mass and more.
The method of quantize gravity used in this work; It is based on dimensionless constants that must be enforced in accordance with general relativity.
We demonstrate the existence of quantum wormholes as the basic units of space-time energy, as an inseparable system.These quantum wormholes explain the instantaneous speed of propagation of entangled particles. Or what is the same: an infinite speed, with the condition of zero net energy.
Another consequence of the dimensionless quantization of gravity; is the existence of a constant gravitational acceleration that permeates all space. Its nature is quantum mechanical, and inseparable from the Hubble constant. This work is not mere speculation; since applying this vacuum gravitational acceleration; first allows us to explain and accurately calculate the anomaly of the orbital eccentricity of the Moon. This anomaly was detected and accurately measured with the laser ranging experiment. This same constant acceleration in vacuum (in all coordinate of space), which interacts with the masses; explains the almost constant rotation curves of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Therefore there is no dark matter.
Current interpretation of quantum mechanics is completely erroneous. We explain that; as the de Broglie–Bohm theory, also known as the pilot-wave theory; is a much more realistic and correct interpretation of quantum mechanics. The current assumption that there is reality no defined; until the act of observation does not occur; is an aberrant, illogical assertion false and derived from the obsolete current interpretation of quantum mechanics.
The age of the universe derived from the Hubble constant is a wrong estimate; due to absolute ignorance of the true nature of this constant and its physical implications. The universe acquired its current size in the very short period of time, a unit of Planck time.
We understand that this work is dense and completely revolutionary consequences. Experiments reflection of lasers; type of the laser ranging experiment; undoubtedly will confirm one of the main results: the existence of an intrinsic acceleration of vacuum of gravitational quantum mechanical nature, which explains the rotation curves of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; and which thus makes unnecessary the existence of dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1359] **viXra:1407.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-28 19:59:44*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We propose the normalization of some holographic dark energy (HDE) models. Applying the normalization method, we derive the general equation of normalization of initial HDE model and General HDE (GHDE) model; obtain that the coefficient w_de is inversely proportional to the square of the parameter c_L which is variable; get the normalized equations of initial HDE model, GHDE model, agegraphic dark energy (ADE) model and New HDE (NHDE) model; obtain n = 2.894 which is in good agreement with n = 〖2.886〗_(-0.163)^(+0.169) in ADE model and c_Ln= 3 which agrees well with 1.41 < c < 3.09 in NHDE model; and interpret the physical meaning of the ratio f_de and its average value by dimensional analysis. We suggest that the normalization of some HDE models is interesting and significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1358] **viXra:1407.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-27 03:35:43*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 12 Pages. slide presentation

This presentation explains in detail that when studying the effects of rotation on the motion of bodies or light, it is necessary to use the metric of a curved spacetime. Furthermore, it is shown that the relativistic addition of velocities in such systems is not valid and that the classical velocity addition must be used instead. It thus becomes clear that most of the Special Relativity Theory effects are nullified in such systems by the centripetal force of rotation and that the Special Relativity is thus strictly valid only in inertial systems. Finally it is confirmed that the inertial mass depends on velocity differently than the gravitational mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1357] **viXra:1407.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-26 02:24:42*

**Authors:** M. Sharif, M. Zaeem Ul Haq Bhatti

**Comments:** 09 Pages. Can. J. Phys. 90(2012)1233

We consider static cylindrically symmetric charged gravitating
object with perfect fluid and investigate the gravitational binding
energy. It is found that only the localized part of the mass
function provides the gravitational binding energy, whereas the
non-localized part generated by the electric coupling does not
contribute for such energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1356] **viXra:1407.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-26 02:35:06*

**Authors:** M. Sharif, Z. Yousaf

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Astrophys. Space Sci. 351(2014)351.

In this paper, we employ cut and paste scheme to construct
thin-shell wormhole of a charged black string with $f(R)$ terms. We
consider $f(R)$ model as an exotic matter source at
wormhole throat. The stability of the respective solutions are
analyzed under radial perturbations in the context of
$R+{\delta}R^2$ model. It is concluded that both stable as well as
unstable solutions do exist for different values of $\delta$. In the
limit $\delta{\rightarrow}0$, all our results reduce to general
relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1355] **viXra:1407.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-24 09:57:18*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Please contact Gene Barbee at genebarbee@msn.com with comments

The first law of thermodynamics is fairly straightforward. It states that energy can be
converted from one form into another but not created or destroyed. The author’s work on
the subject indicates that net energy is zero [6][7][13] but separated into two different
types of energy that balance one another. The second law is not as straightforward. A
quantity called entropy describes the probability of energy states for systems with many
particles. The second law states that more probable energy states become filled over time
and energy differences that can be used to carry out work become less available. How
everything achieved a high state that can continually “run down” has been somewhat of
an enigma.
There is a strange situation in fundamental physics regarding time. Well respected
physicists [Julian Barbour for example] point out that all quantum mechanical equations
are cyclical with time. Common sense tells us that time advances and tension exists
between fundamentals and what we observe. This situation extends to fundamentals of
space as well as fundamentals of time. Special relativity and curvature of space time is
known to be the source of gravity at the large scale but efforts to understand quantum
gravity encounter significant theoretical difficulties.
The author uses a cellular model that describes gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic
and potential energy at the quantum level [6][7]. Using cosmology as a platform, the
present paper explores time and the second law. It concludes that time advances because
expansion converts kinetic energy to potential energy. Further, the gravitational coupling
constant appears to convert quantum behavior to large scale behavior. Although pressure
expands the universe, gravitational accumulation begins to dominate locally. The
improbable expanded state and the many states available related to gravitational
accumulation explain how everything can “run down” as time progresses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1354] **viXra:1407.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-24 09:14:21*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** FIVE PAGES

A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measues both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car.
However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1353] **viXra:1407.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-23 13:34:50*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a Meta Law (Scale Principle or Scale Law) which describes a number of fundamental laws. This paper provides the derivation of the Lorentz transformations and shows that these transformations obey the Scale Law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1352] **viXra:1407.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-23 10:52:03*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu1

**Comments:** 22 Pages. -

In present work , is established a correlation with Inflation Dynamics, especially at the reheating era, when the Inflaton field is sufficiently strong, and the energy of the vacuum can be lowered, in order to create by Schwinger effect pairs, of quarks , gluons, bosons ( ), gluons (monopoles) , the magnetic monopoles themselves (of spin 1).
Also, in the work is calculated the Inflation Dynamics putting in evidence all the epochs (quarks, hadrons, leptons). That ours permitting to observe that the potential nears the end of reheating (at quarks epoch) is very much reduced, thus, at , the potential becomes ; when, the mass of monopoles off-diagonal nonabelian component (for ) ; and the quarks pairs created by Schwinger effect, which get string strength of , both remaining locked at theses values till confinement ( ; ) and today. Therefore, apparently, is not any trace of an external residual field like of Higgs field. In others words, the Inflation can not explains the Higgs field, only, if we consider that the top ( ) and antitop ( ) quarks pairs also, produced by Schwinger effect, they form a bound state, that is a composite Higgs boson field as in the frame of Topcolor model. This is a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the top quark and anti-top quark form a top quark condensate and act effectively like the Higgs boson. This is analogous to the phenomenon of superconductivity. These theories will ultimately be tested at the LHC in its Run-II commencing in 2015
In our present model, the things are similarly, an equivalence of my model with that of the Standard Model, is given in previously author’ works. Thus, in my model the Inflaton potential, by Schwinger effect during the reheating period, generates all kinds of particles: gluons , magnetic monopoles themselves, and fermions (quarks, top quarks). In the model, theses gluon-gluon interactions constrain color fields to string-like objects called "flux tubes", which exert constant force when stretched. The difference with Standard Model, is that it results a probability ( or a continuously production rates) for gluons, and a number of quarks. Finally, at all the gluons are being captured by all generated by quarks ( ) pairs, together forming nucleons of
an incredibly exactly number , which is the known number of particles in Universe. Since, the reheating potential continues to diminish, at approximately -that corresponding to confinement, the production of gluons (monopoles) quarks stops. But, a near field it was created inside nucleons , as was found in previously author’s works.
This field makes possible the beta decay of free neutrons, and later of isotopes. Also, this field creates a Lorenz force between quarks flux tube and gluons (in structures of gauge monopoles type current), that is found to explain the gravity of nucleons (mass).
Also, there are found the number and mass of top quarks pairs locked in Higgs field and its decay.
And more, is discovered the exact origin of primordial magnetic field ( ), namely, the electromagnetic fields ( ) generated by a primordial charged blackhole, which can B-imprints . A clear relationship it was established between and the Hubble length. Thus, at the end of time , all ( ) of magnetic monopoles pairs produced are already bounded in strings, and the light of type imprinted is due of residual , , either as itself, or by Faraday rotation as resulting of that gives , for a frequency of .
Therefore, the monopoles pairs suppression by bounding its in strings, that explains the magnetic monopoles absence mentioned in Iflation works. Also, the PMF easy “passes” the plasma period as to be formed by particles, , , till , in the same way as the gravitational field, which it is not affected by this plasma. The main conclusion of the work is that the energy density equally with magnetic flux ( ) from Einstein equations is the fundamental stone of Universe origin and its evolution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1351] **viXra:1407.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-22 19:30:34*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We calculate the parameter c_L on holographic dark energy (HDE) model and the series c_L (z_i) on generalized holographic dark energy (GHDE) model. Applying the normalization method, we find the normalized equation; get c_L= 0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; find the normalized equation of redshift z; obtain c_L (z_i) = 0.471 when Ω_de (z_i ) = 0.683 by the same method, which is in good agreement with c; have the same solution by the iteration method. We suggest that the HDE model and the GHDE model are competitive and promising.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1350] **viXra:1407.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-22 07:41:31*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 24 Pages. slide presentation

This presentation shows that there cannot be any Gravito-Electro-Magnetic (GEM) field contrary to a popular belief of its existence and contrary to many claims of its existence found in the reputable publications. This is shown using a simple thought experiment of two massive parallel plates that are moving in a direction parallel to the plates’ surfaces and in a direction perpendicular to the plates’ surfaces. It is found that the field energy is not conserved for these two directions if the GEM field existence is postulated as derived from the Einstein’s field equations for the weak gravitational field and as claimed that it has been detected by the Gravity Probe B.
In the second portion of the presentation the Gravity Probe B results are analyzed in a greater detail and it is found that this experiment does not prove the correctness of Einstein General Relativity Theory (GRT) as is enthusiastically claimed. It is clearly shown that an error exists in the GRT geodetic precession formula derivation and that the experiment actually proves the correctness of a different metric rather than the Schwarzschild metric of the celebrated GRT theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1349] **viXra:1407.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 15:57:04*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the epoch prior to the big bang E8 was an unbroken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) and both positive and negative intrinsic energy (mc^2) boson particles could be formed and combined with positive intrinsic energy leptons, hadrons and strong force particles to form zero intrinsic energy fermibosonic entities which could carry matter from the previous universe without violating flatness requirements. Two new gauge bosons were needed (along with a third to enable the big bang) and these gauge bosons could produce attractive forces much stronger than the weaker force of our broken symmetry force of gravity. The period of time that the universe had unbroken symmetry could thus be relatively short compared to our epoch of broken E8 symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1348] **viXra:1407.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 08:01:56*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Will be in Portuguese and English

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1347] **viXra:1407.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 20:21:51*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time-evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust-density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also execute a specifically time-cycloidal linear gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously scuppered their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1346] **viXra:1407.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 01:04:15*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Six page paper

Einstein’s Relativity-theories predict: length-contraction, time-dilation, transverse-Doppler-shift, gravitational-spectral-shifts, expansion-of-space, time-dilation-of-super-nova-light-curves...etc. This letter attempts to gain some insight into two of them in terms of wave-theory. For example, the observations of time-dilation of ‘super-nova-light-curves’ are currently considered as a confirmative-test of expansion-of-time; whereas it is shown here that the super-nova-light-curve can be viewed as a ‘gate-function’ in the ‘time-domain’; and it can be Fourier-transformed into frequency-domain; and it is this wide band of waves which travels in space and reaches us after millions of years. During its travel, when this wide-band of waves gets red-shifted due to any mechanism, including the tired-light-interpretation of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’, then its band-width shrinks in the frequency-domain; so when it is transformed back into time-domain we find that the duration of the curve has got increased. Thus, time-dilation of super-nova-light-curves is not an independent observation from the observations of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’ due to any mechanism. Similarly, the relativistic length-contraction with speed is also explained in terms of waves, with the help of Fourier-transform.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1345] **viXra:1407.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 09:54:35*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 41 Pages. slide presentation

The presentation deals with a discovery of errors in the Einstein’s General Relativity Theory (GRT). The presentation starts with the confirmation of the correctness of Special Relativity Theory (SRT), but derives justification for a different dependence of gravitational mass on velocity than the inertial mass dependence on velocity. This leads to finding that photons cannot have a gravitational mass and thus can escape form “Black Holes”. This finding contradicts the popular belief and the popular statements such as: “not even light can escape from Black Holes”. The presentation then introduces a new metric whose validity has been confirmed by the standard GRT tests and applies it to create a new model of the universe, which is not based on the Big Bang assumption. Finally, the new universe model predictions are compared with observations and an excellent agreement is obtained thus confirming the assumptions on which the model is built.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1344] **viXra:1407.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 11:27:33*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Conventionally, the phenomenon of light (stellar) aberration is understood as a phenomenon of source observer relative motion. In this paper, it is proposed that a phenomenon of aberration exists even if the source and the observer are at rest relative to each other, but co-moving absolutely in space. The contradiction between the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Sagnac effect is resolved by this theory and this may lead to understanding of many of the other experiments and observations on the speed of light. It discloses the mystery of inability to detect any dependence of the velocity of light on the velocity of its source. Special Relativity theory is rendered unnecessary. A new interpretation of absolute motion and the non-existence of the ether is proposed. A new kind of Michelson-Morley experiment capable of detecting absolute motion is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1343] **viXra:1407.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 05:55:24*

**Authors:** Kevin Nolan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In GR (general relativity) a static thin solid and uniform spherical matter shell is the source of an external SM (Schwarzschild metric) and interior flat MM (Minkowski metric), plus a shell wall transitional metric not needing consideration here. It will be shown in part 1 the above implies a physically absurd disappearing dependence on gravitational potential for just the radial spatial metric component, in crossing the shell wall.
In part 2 mathematical inconsistency is found. In the gravitationally small regime, treating each element of shell mass as an independent point source of SM and linearly summing over all such contributions ought to but manifestly does not yield an interior spatial metric consistent with the usual matching scheme of part 1.
A conformally flat exterior metric as necessary cure is discussed in part 3.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1342] **viXra:1407.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-17 12:11:50*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this short paper I present two experiments that can be easily done to test the validity of theory, "A relativistic theory based on the invariance of Newton's second law for motion and the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1341] **viXra:1407.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-17 08:13:18*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A new way of factorizing the Klein-Gordon equation is proposed, which applies to fields of any type. The spin one-half case leads essentially to the Dirac equation. However, a new interpretation is given, in which the occurrence of anti-particles is a consequence of the two-valuedness of the representations of the Lorentz group in Hilbert space. Boosts have in these representations an anti-unitary component which leads to a change of the norm of wave functions. Under a boost, a state originally at rest develops a positive-frequency component. While the mass of a wave packet is a conserved quantity, its energy transforms according to the law of special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1340] **viXra:1407.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-16 23:42:20*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I present, "The general law of conversion of matter and energy" which supercedes my previous paper on the law of conversion of matter and energy. I draw certain conclusions based upon this law, and one of which is that, the famous mass/energy equation by Einstein, which also describes the conversion of matter and energy, is only a special case of a more general law of conversion of matter and energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1339] **viXra:1407.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-16 03:37:46*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Physics – Uspekhi, 43 1267–1270 (2000) (including V.L. Ginzburg’s note and L.B. Okun’s Reply)

Does the mass of bodies depend on their velocity? Is the mass additive if separate bodies are joined together to form a composite system? Is the mass of an isolated system conserved? Different teachers of physics and specialists give different answers to these questions because there is no general agreement on the definition of mass. We shall show that the notion of the velocity-dependent relativistic mass should be given preference over that of the rest mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1338] **viXra:1407.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 15:28:04*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I give the final and complete formulation of the law that describes the conversion from matter to energy and from energy to matter. It is found that the conversion from energy to matter is not as given by the famous mass/energy equation by Einstein. However, the conversion from matter to energy is in accordance to the matter/energy equation by Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1337] **viXra:1407.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 08:54:57*

**Authors:** Peter B. Wilson

**Comments:** 6 pages; 3 figures; 1 table; references

A physical explanation for dark energy Λ is proposed by revisiting the subject of causality in cosmology, especially with regard to duality. Duality is the observation that local regions are contracting, even as the cosmos is expanding. “Local” means distances less than the center-to-center spacing of galaxy clusters, Ri; “non-local” means distances greater than Ri. It is argued that the Friedmann solution is causally incomplete by two parameters: Ri, denoting “inter-cluster” distance (twice the zero gravity radius RZG); and energy coupling η (0 < η < 1). Both factors--energy coupling and the distance across which it is coupled--are required to describe the duality of a gravitational system. Because Ri and η do not appear in the standard model, it is suggested that Λ may represent them in the relationship Λ = η/Ri^2. This requires η of the order of 0.0001%. It is concluded that modeling the universe gravitationally requires at least four causal parameters, two of which are missing in the Friedmann model. To clarify the situation, a solution is needed to Einstein’s field equations for general relativity that explicitly includes duality, i.e. a solution that includes Ri and η.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1336] **viXra:1407.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:04:03*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

English (traslation): Half of the stars in the universe are composed of ordinary matter, half antimatter. Each atomic particle has the same number of gravitons that half of the stars in the Universe. Links of gravitons with stars of one kind or another, determine the gravity and inertia. The blueshift phenomenon is explained and also shows how you can get energy from gravity, based on the above.
Spanish (original): La mitad de las estrellas del Universo están compuestas de materia ordinaria, la otra mitad de antimateria. Cada partícula atómica tiene el mismo número de gravitones que la mitad de las estrellas del Universo. Los enlaces de los gravitones con las estrellas, de uno u otro tipo, determinan la gravedad y la inercia. Se explica el fenómeno del blueshift y se muestra, asimismo, como se puede obtener energía a partir de la gravedad, basándose en lo anterior.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1335] **viXra:1407.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:20:11*

**Authors:** mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I draw more conclusions based on my theory on relativity presented earlier. Here I show, (1) a new expression for the relativistic mass, (2) a new expression for the relativistic kinetic energy of a relativistic mass, (3) the limitation for the equivalence of matter and energy as expressed by Einstein's famous mass/energy equation, (4) formulation of a new law of physics dealing with the conversion of energy into matter and vice versa and lastly, (5) give another example of the breakdown of the thinking based on non-relativistic events when applied to relativistic events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1334] **viXra:1407.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:14:26*

**Authors:** Branislav Pavlovic

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The following paper consists of two parts. The first one is the translation of the 21st chapter ”The Pioneer anomaly” of my book ” Aether theory with experimental verification”. I chose this particular chapter for the reason that the Pioneer anomaly is a very interesting issue to be discussed. The book is available for reading at viXra. There have been different interpretations of the Pioneer anomaly, but mine is from my aether theory. For the purpose of a more exhaustive explanation of this particular occurrence, the second part of this paper presents some fundamental results of the aether theory, which are closely related to the Doppler effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[756] **viXra:1408.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-28 08:12:58*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 10 pages. v2 - minor editing

The perception of events in two inertial reference frames in relative motion is analyzed from the perspective of the special relativity (SR) postulates. Straightforward contradictions disproving the SR predictions have been identified. The hoax used in the SR formulation to get around the identified contradictions and hide their cause is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[755] **viXra:1408.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-25 12:58:33*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As we could see, other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, are not contained in the value of the general Earth's precession calculated for Mercury (5026.50''), and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury. We should also add the variability of Earth’s precession, very well expressed in John N. Stockwell (and according to Mécanique Céleste).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[754] **viXra:1408.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-25 06:10:13*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As we could see, other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, are not contained in the value of the general precession Earth's calculated for Mercury (5026.50''), and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury. We should also add the variability of Earth’s precession, very well expressed in John N. Stockwell (and according to Mécanique Céleste).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[753] **viXra:1408.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-24 07:51:51*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

As we could see, the value of the general precession calculated for Mercury (5026.50'') are not contained in other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury. We should also add the variability of precession, very well expressed in John N. Stockwell (and according to Mécanique Céleste).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[752] **viXra:1408.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 06:00:47*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An example is given of how it is possible that a limitation in determining the value of daily precession of the perihelion of Mercury explain this precession when designed for a century.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[751] **viXra:1408.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 04:59:21*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abandon the hypothesis of the solar wind and obtain a new value for the anomaly of the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury. The theoretical value of the total secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, according to the work of Le Verrier 1859, is only about 8'' unless the observed value quoted by Weinberg (in reference to Duncombe and Clemence). The hypothesis of the influence of the satellites in the calculation of precession, previously abandoned, should return, since 1'' is not so insignificant compared to 8''.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[750] **viXra:1408.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-29 03:35:59*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 4 Pages. a replacement with a little extra note.

The Special Theory of Relativity does not explain the cosmic muon decay phenomenon; it is not evidence of time dilation. The “dilated time” of special relativity has no physical interpretation as time as interpreted in physics; therefore,
the extended lifetime of the muon, arrived at through the used of time dilation,cannot be used in the simple formula : distance = speed x time. So far, no one seems to have pointed to this simple fact. An invalid argument has been repeated and propagated for decades that purportedly resolves the cosmic muon decay phenomenon.
Furthermore, the best experiment by CERN [3] measured the average lifetime of muon as 64.368(29) μs, (γ = 29.33, v = 0.9994 c). The now accepted mean proper lifetime for μ − = 2.19489(10) μs is a value computed from the relativistic time dilation formula using the figure of 64.368(29) μs assuming the validity of Special Relativity Theory; it is not an empirical value from experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[749] **viXra:1408.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-12 10:54:48*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar), às imprecisões das massas dos planetas, em especial Mercúrio, e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[748] **viXra:1408.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-11 14:04:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In portuguese.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar), às imprecisões das massas dos planetas, em especial Mercúrio, e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[747] **viXra:1408.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-16 16:32:45*

**Authors:** Ramon Isasi

**Comments:** 19 pages;1 Figure; 1 Table

In the present manuscript, we consider the origin of the cosmological space, and the Cosmological Constant as a consequence of the annihilation of the matter - antimatter at the very beginning of the big bang. Since the cosmological expansion creates the space, the cosmological vacuum is considered as a very hegemonic entity which is the locus where all the objects create the events. Certainly, N units of masses in conjunct are required to produce an equilibrium between the gravitational phenomena of the matter in bulk and each coulombic interaction between protons and electrons within the nuclear and atomic contour in all astrophysical (e.g. stars) or cosmological entities (e.g. galaxies). The "dark matter" is considered to be formed by highly excited H and HeI Rydberg`s atoms in equilibrium with the CMB radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[746] **viXra:1408.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-08 05:30:28*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. A spontaneous letter in portuguese

Beyond the question "Gravitational Mass = Inertial Mass?" should be the question "Gravitational Mass Planet X = Gravitational Mass Planet Y"?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[745] **viXra:1408.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-30 08:47:09*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Compares the current masses of Mercury to Saturn, with the values of Le Verrier and Newcomb and recalculates the value of the deviation obtained for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury with current masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[744] **viXra:1408.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-11 05:15:26*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Compares the current masses of Mercury to Saturn, with the values of Le Verrier and Newcomb and recalculates the value of the deviation obtained for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury with current masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[743] **viXra:1408.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-25 21:35:49*

**Authors:** Arindam Sinha

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A simple and intuitive alternative theory of gravity based on Mach's Principle is proposed. At any location, total gravitational potential from the Universe's matter distribution is c^{2}. This Universal background potential constitutes unit rest energy of matter and provides its unit mass, which is the essence behind E=mc^{2}. The background gravity creates a local sidereal inertial frame at every location. A velocity increases gravitational potential through net blue-shift of Universe's background gravity, causing kinematic time dilation, which is a form of gravitational time dilation. Matter and energy follow different rules of motion, and speed of matter may exceed the speed of light. The theory is consistent with existing relativity experiments, and is falsifiable based on experiments whose predictions differ from General Relativity. The theory also explains why all the ICARUS and corrected OPERA experiments still show mean neutrino velocities slightly above speed of light (early arrival of neutrinos by 0.1-6.5ns), even after correcting the issues that had led to the original OPERA experiments to erroneously report faster than light neutrinos (early arrival by ~60ns).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[742] **viXra:1408.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-03 17:28:46*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The paper presents a relativistic extension of Newton’s mechanics, termed Newtonian Relativity, and utilizes it to infer the state of the observable universe. The theory is successful in making significant predictions regarding the accelerating nature of the universe, its composition of matter, dark matter and dark energy, and regarding the time-line of the evolution of chemical elements. The theory yields simple expressions for the dynamics of normal matter, dark matter, kinetic energy and dark energy, in their dependence on redshift. It also yields simple expressions for the prediction of Ω_matter and Ω_Λ for any given redshift range. Predictions from these expressions are compared with observations based ΛCDM cosmologies. Strikingly, the theoretical distribution of the kinetic energy density in the universe is bell shaped and symmetrical around the famous Golden Ratio. With regard to the evolutionary time-line of chemical elements, the theory predicts that the chemical elements may have been formed twice: first, in massive galaxy structures at the early universe, and second, in young galaxies in the recent history of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[741] **viXra:1408.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-03 15:04:43*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The paper presents a relativistic extension of Newton’s mechanics, termed Newtonian Relativity, and utilizes it to infer the state of the observable universe. The theory is successful in making significant predictions regarding the accelerating nature of the universe, its composition of matter, dark matter and dark energy, and regarding the time-line of the evolution of chemical elements. The theory yields simple expressions for the dynamics of normal matter, dark matter, kinetic energy and dark energy, in their dependence on redshift. It also yields simple expressions for the prediction of Ω_matter and Ω_Λ for any given redshift range. Predictions from these expressions are compared with observations based ΛCDM cosmologies. Strikingly, the theoretical distribution of the kinetic energy density in the universe is bell shaped and symmetrical around the famous Golden Ratio. With regard to the evolutionary time-line of chemical elements, the theory predicts that the chemical elements may have been formed twice: first, in massive galaxy structures at the early universe, and second, in young galaxies in the recent history of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[740] **viXra:1408.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-02 07:32:06*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The paper presents a relativistic extension of Newton’s mechanics, termed Newtonian Relativity, and utilizes it to infer the state of the observable universe. The theory is successful in making significant predictions regarding the accelerating nature of the universe, its composition of matter, dark matter and dark energy, and regarding the time-line of the evolution of chemical elements. The theory yields simple expressions for the dynamics of normal matter, dark matter, kinetic energy and dark energy, in their dependence on redshift. It also yields simple expressions for the prediction of Ω_matter and Ω_Λ for any given redshift range. Predictions from these expressions are compared with observations based ΛCDM cosmologies. Strikingly, the theoretical distribution of the kinetic energy density in the universe is bell shaped and symmetrical around the famous Golden Ratio. With regard to the evolutionary time-line of chemical elements, the theory predicts that the chemical elements may have been formed twice: first, in massive galaxy structures at the early universe, and second, in young galaxies in the recent history of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[739] **viXra:1408.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-01 14:47:35*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The paper presents a relativistic extension of Newton’s mechanics, termed Newtonian Relativity, and utilizes it to infer the state of the observable universe. The theory is successful in making significant predictions regarding the accelerating nature of the universe, its composition of matter, dark matter and dark energy, and regarding the time line of the evolution of chemical elements. The theory yields simple expressions for the dynamics of normal matter, dark matter, kinetic energy, and dark energy in their dependence on redshift. It also yields simple expressions for the prediction of Ω_matter and Ω_Λ for any given redshift range. Predictions from these expressions are compared observationally derived ΛCDM cosmologies. Strikingly, the theoretical distribution of the kinetic energy density in the universe is bell shaped and symmetrical around the famous Golden Ratio. With regard to the evolutionary time-line of chemical elements, the theory predicts that the chemical elements may have been formed twice: first, in massive galaxy structures at the early universe, and second, in young galaxies in the recent history of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[738] **viXra:1407.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-31 19:22:05*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We propose the normalization of some holographic dark energy (HDE) models. Applying the normalization method, we derive the general equation of normalization of initial HDE model and General HDE (GHDE) model; obtain that the coefficient w_de is inversely proportional to the square of the parameter c_L which is variable; get the normalized equations of initial HDE model, GHDE model, agegraphic dark energy (ADE) model and New HDE (NHDE) model; obtain n = 2.894 which is in good agreement with n = 〖2.886〗_(-0.163)^(+0.169) in ADE model and c_Ln= 3 which agrees well with 1.41 < c < 3.09 in NHDE model; and interpret the physical meaning of the ratio f_de and its average value by dimensional analysis. We suggest that the normalization of some HDE models is interesting and significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[737] **viXra:1407.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-30 12:54:25*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Please contact genebarbee@msn.com with comments.

The first law of thermodynamics is straightforward. It states that energy can be
converted from one form into another but not created or destroyed. The author’s work on
the subject indicates that net energy is zero [6][7][13] but separated into two different
types of energy that balance one another. The second law is not as straightforward. A
quantity called entropy describes the probability of energy states for systems with many
particles. The second law states that more probable energy states become filled over time
and energy differences that can be used to carry out work become less available. The
source of a high original state that can continually “run down” has been difficult to identify.
There is a strange situation in fundamental physics regarding time. Well respected
physicists [Julian Barbour for example] point out that all quantum mechanical equations
are cyclical with time. Common sense tells us that time advances and tension exists
between fundamentals and what we observe. This situation extends to fundamentals of
space as well as fundamentals of time. Special relativity and curvature of space time is
known to be the source of gravity at the large scale but the author’s approach to quantum
gravity is not generally known [7]. Further, the concept that velocity is relative seems to
be accepted but velocity is related to kinetic energy that is conserved.
The author uses a cellular model that describes gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic
and potential energy at the quantum level [6][7]. Using cosmology as a platform, the
present paper explores time and the thermodynamic laws. It concludes that time
advances because expansion converts kinetic energy to potential energy. Further, the
gravitational coupling constant converts quantum behavior to large scale behavior.
Although pressure expands the universe, gravitational accumulation begins to dominate
locally. The expanded state and the many available thermodynamic states available as
particles fall related to gravitational accumulation explain how everything can “run down”
as time progresses.
Cellular cosmology allows us to track the behavior of cell kinetic and potential energy as
they fall due to gravitational accumulation. Study of a model galaxy with the same mass
and position of the sun allows us to compare how much heat related energy is generated
by collisions compared to the ideal kinetic energy of orbits.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[736] **viXra:1407.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-26 09:43:28*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** FIVE PAGES

A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measures both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car.
However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[735] **viXra:1407.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-26 08:08:02*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** FIVE PAGES

A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measures both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car.
However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[734] **viXra:1407.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-16 11:39:08*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 24 Pages. a new version

In present work , is established a correlation with Inflation Dynamics, especially at the reheating era, when is found that the Inflaton field is a primordial magnetic field ( ) due of a primordial charged black(white)hole. This field is sufficiently strong, that, the energy of the vacuum can be lowered, in order to create by Schwinger effect pairs, of quarks , of gluons, of bosons ( ), of gluons (monopoles) , and of the magnetic monopoles themselves (of spin 1).
Thus, in the work is calculated the Inflation Dynamics by putting in evidence all the epochs (quarks, hadrons, leptons). That, it ours permitting to observe that the potential nears the end of reheating (at quarks epoch) is very much reduced, and thus, at Hubble length , the potential becomes ; when, the mass of monopoles off-diagonal nonabelian component is (for ) ; and the quarks pairs created by Schwinger effect, its get string strength of , both remaining locked at theses values till confinement in nucleons ( ; ) and today. Therefore, apparently, is not any trace of an external residual field like of Higgs field. In others words, the Inflation can not explains the Higgs field, only, if we consider that the top ( ) and antitop ( ) quarks pairs, also, as been produced by Schwinger effect, they form a bound state, that is a composite Higgs boson field as in the frame of Topcolor model. This is a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the top quark and anti-top quark form a top quark condensate and act effectively like the Higgs boson. This is analogous to the phenomenon of superconductivity. These theories will ultimately be tested at the LHC in its Run-II commencing in 2015
In our present model, the things are similarly, an equivalence of my model with that of the Standard Model, is given in previously author’ works. Supplementary, in the present model the Inflaton potential is viewed as a due of charged black(white)hole, and by Schwinger effect during the reheating period, there are generated all kinds of particles: gluons , magnetic monopoles themselves, and fermions (quarks, top quarks). In my previously model, theses gluon-gluon interactions constrain color fields to string-like objects called "flux tubes", which exert constant force when are stretched.
Also, it results a probability ( or a continuously production rates) for gluons(monopoles), and quarks, both with a number of quarks. Finally, all the gluons are being captured by all generated by quarks ( ) pairs, together forming nucleons of an incredibly exactly number , which is the known number of particles in Universe. Since, the reheating potential continues to diminish, at approximately -that corresponding to confinement, the production of gluons (monopoles) quarks stops. But, a near field it was (also) created inside nucleons , as was shown in previously author’s works.
This field makes possible the beta decay of free neutrons, and later of isotopes. Also, this field creates a Lorenz force between quarks flux tube and gluons (in structures of gauge monopoles type current), that, it is found to explain the gravity of nucleons (mass).
Also, there are found the number and mass of top quarks pairs ( ) locked in Higgs field and its decay.
And more, is discovered the exact origin of primordial magnetic field ( ), namely, the electromagnetic fields ( ) generated by a primordial charged black(white)hole, which is the external source to polarize (ignition) the vacuum for pairs production and, later can B-imprint . A clear relationship it was established between and the Hubble length. Thus, at the end of time , all ( ) of magnetic monopoles pairs produced are already bounded , and the light of type imprinted is due of residual , of value , either as itself, or by Faraday rotation as resulting of that gives , for a frequency of .
Therefore, the monopoles pairs suppression is by bounding its in strings (dumbbells) and in nucleons as gluons(monopoles), that, it explains the magnetic monopoles absence as it was mentioned in the classical Iflation works. Also, the PMF, easy “passes” the plasma period as to be formed by particles, till . The main conclusion of the work, it is that the energy density corresponds to a charged black(white)hole, it is equally with the magnetic flux ( ) from Einstein equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[733] **viXra:1407.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-15 19:32:04*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We calculate the parameter c_L in holographic dark energy (HDE) model and the series c_L (z_i) in generalized holographic dark energy (GHDE) model. Applying the normalization method, we find the normalized equation; get c_L= 0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; find the normalized equation of redshift z; obtain c_L (z_i) = 0.471 when Ω_de (z_i ) = 0.683 by the same method, which is in good agreement with c; have the same solution by the iteration method. We suggest that the HDE model and the GHDE model are competitive and promising.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[732] **viXra:1407.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-27 02:05:09*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We calculate the parameter c_L in holographic dark energy (HDE) model and the series c_L (z_i) in generalized holographic dark energy (GHDE) model. Applying the normalization method, we find the normalized equation; get c_L= 0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; find the normalized equation of redshift z; obtain c_L (z_i) = 0.471 when Ω_de (z_i ) = 0.683 by the same method, which is in good agreement with c; have the same solution by the iteration method. We suggest that the HDE model and the GHDE model are competitive and promising.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[731] **viXra:1407.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-28 06:17:08*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[730] **viXra:1407.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-23 12:12:28*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[729] **viXra:1407.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-23 06:11:33*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[728] **viXra:1407.0155 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-28 19:37:53*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally-interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also executes a specifically time-cycloidal degenerate gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously disrupted their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent energy density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem. Oppenheimer-Snyder dust of position-independent energy density is furthermore highly unphysical: its infinite dust energy causes the Oppenheimer-Snyder metric to violate the Principle of Equivalence. So for spatially localized dust only numerical computations are inherently credible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[727] **viXra:1407.0155 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-22 20:48:27*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally-interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also execute a specifically time-cycloidal linear gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously scuppered their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[726] **viXra:1407.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-29 08:11:19*

**Authors:** Kevin E Nolan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. v3 adds comments in part 1 addressing misunderstandings encountered. Relation between standard and isotropic form of Schwarzschild metric elaborated in part 3. Other minor edits made throughout.

In GR (general relativity) a static thin solid and uniform spherical matter shell is the source of an external SM (Schwarzschild metric), interior flat MM (Minkowski metric), plus a shell wall metric not of interest here. In part 1 the above is shown to imply an illogical break in dependence on gravitational potential for the radial spatial metric component, exterior vs hollow interior regions, not shared by clocks. In part 2 further anomaly is found. In the gravitationally small regime, any infinitesimal element of shell mass is reasonably treated as an independent point source of SM. To within a tiny fractional error, linearly summing over the shell should but does not yield an interior metric consistent with the usual matching scheme of part 1. Conformally flat exterior metric as necessary cure is discussed in part 3. A tie-in to Mach’s principle is discussed in part 4.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[725] **viXra:1407.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-21 08:25:42*

**Authors:** Kevin E Nolan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Minor textual edits to parts 1, 2, 3, passage tying topic to Mach's principle added in part 4.

In GR (general relativity) a static thin solid and uniform spherical matter shell is the source of an external SM (Schwarzschild metric) and interior flat MM (Minkowski metric), plus a shell wall transitional metric not needing consideration here. It will be shown in part 1 the above implies a physically absurd disappearing dependence on gravitational potential for just the radial spatial metric component, in crossing the shell wall. In part 2 mathematical inconsistency is found. In the gravitationally small regime, treating each element of shell mass as an independent point source of SM and linearly summing over all such contributions ought to but manifestly does not yield an interior spatial metric consistent with the usual matching scheme of part 1. A conformally flat exterior metric as necessary cure is discussed in part 3.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[724] **viXra:1407.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-17 13:04:45*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this short paper I present two experiments that can be easily done to test the validity of theory, "A relativistic theory based on the invariance of Newton's second law for motion and the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology