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2015 - 1501(43)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1544] **viXra:1501.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 21:42:43*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: the article presents the purpose of creation and the original principle of PI-Theory of fundamental physical constants.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1543] **viXra:1501.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 10:10:14*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. in the next version a necessary translation into English

We emphasize the need for more experiments to measure the variation of the speed of light in a gravitational field. Indicate an experimental procedure on the surface of the Earth that can provide a reasonable estimate of the true value of the speed of light in the absence of gravitational field. The speed of light in the absence of gravitational field is either infinite or very large (greater than we now know), and in the presence of gravitational field can vary throughout the day, like the Earth's surface, this according to General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1542] **viXra:1501.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-26 17:47:16*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Informally we explain the concept of space-time, we calculate the changes in space and time in a static gravitational field and with spherical symmetry (Schwarzschild solution) and, the most importantly, we obtained the corresponding variability of the speed of light in this field. Can be great the loss of speed of light in a gravitational field, which may explain the dark matter. More experiences with the speed of light must be made.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1541] **viXra:1501.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-25 04:34:01*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Submitted to EJP

The dependence of free fall acceleration on speed in the Schwarzschild space-time is obtained. It is confirmed that gravitation mass coincides with inertial mass

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1540] **viXra:1501.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-24 23:57:21*

**Authors:** Lutz Kayser

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The Einstein Postulates of Special Relativity (SR), namely the invariance of the speed of light c relative to the observer, the symmetry of relative velocities, and the Galilean Principle independent of velocity and gravitational potential are falsified. The replacement is Law 1: There exists an absolute universal velocity reference (Cosmic Velocity Reference, CVR) and Law 2: The speed of light c is invariant and isotropic only relative to absolute universal space CVR. Experimental evidence like Smoot’s anisotropy of the cosmic microwave radiation background CMB and the one-way measurements of the speed of light are given. From the new Laws it follows (in vector notation) c_rel = c - v_CVR This results in the elimination from physics the Minkovski four-vector spacetime symmetry, time dilation, length contraction, velocity and acceleration symmetrical Lorentz transformation, Einstein vector addition, covariance, invisible and unphysical net of monolithic worldlines, and other weird mathematical constructs without physical meaning resulting from Special Relativity SR and General Relativity GR. The mass increase of particles with speed by the so-called Lorentz Factor 〖ϒ=(1-v^2 /c^2 )〗^(-1/2) is so often cited by Relativists as empirical proof of SR. ϒ was fraudulently smuggled into SR without mathematical proof applying it to relative velocities which gives wrong results. We show that the Lorentz Factor is a simple part of the system of classical dynamic equations. But it is only valid with absolute cosmic velocity v_CVR . The increases of mass, momentum, and energy with an object’s velocity are correct but not part of or caused by SR. This is true also for the change of clock rate as a function of velocity and Newtonian gravity potential.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1539] **viXra:1501.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-24 11:19:26*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 9 pages. This paper is the French version of «MARS BLUE CLEARING AND ALLAIS EFFECT» on viXra.org/abs/1501.0219.

Une flambée de luminosité et des tempêtes se produisent sur Mars lorsque la Terre se trouve entre le Soleil et Mars. L’atmosphère et les nuages peuvent alors être vus et photographiés à la lumière bleue par des télescopes sur Terre équipés d’un filtre Wratten 47. Il arrive que l’écran bleu du filtre se mette soudain à disparaître et que la surface martienne devienne visible. Nous estimons que l’« effet Allais de syzygie » peut expliquer ce phénomène appelé « blue clearing ». L’opposition causerait une « tension gravito-électromagnétique ». Ce qui provoquerait des fluctuations dans le potentiel gravitationnel de Mars. En supposant que la gravité martienne diminue un tant soit peu, une diffusion Raman Stokes se manifesterait au niveau intramoléculaire de l’atmosphère martienne. Dès lors, ce sont surtout les ondes qui correspondent aux régions spectrales jaune, orange ou rouge qui sont diffusées, ce qui écarte les ondes courtes. On déduit que les dimensions des inhomogénéités résultant de l’animation thermique s’avèrent supérieures à la longueur des ondes lumineuses des régions violette ou bleue du spectre.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1538] **viXra:1501.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 16:21:09*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An outbreak of brightness and storms occur on Mars when the Earth is between the Sun and Mars. The atmosphere and clouds can then be seen and photographed at short wavelengths by Earth-based telescopes equipped with a Wratten 47 filter. It happens that the blue screen of the filter suddenly begins to disappear and that the Martian surface becomes visible. We believe that the "Allais syzygy effect" may explain this phenomenon known as "blue clearing". The opposition would generate a "gravito-electromagnetic tension", which would spawn fluctuations in the gravitational potential of Mars. Assuming that the Martian gravity decreased slightly, a Stokes Raman scattering would manifest at intramolecular level of the Martian. Therefore, it is mainly the waves corresponding to the spectral regions yellow, orange or red that are diffused, what eliminates short wavelengths. We deduce that the size of the inhomogeneities resulting from thermal excitation turns out to be greater than the length of the light waves of blue or purple regions of the spectrum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1537] **viXra:1501.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 16:18:10*

**Authors:** Emmanuel Kanambaye

**Comments:** 24 Pages. The document is in french

LM Theorem proposed in this paper is a new simple and elegant physical theorem ; it allows the invalidation of theories such as String Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity.
LM Theory is itself an extraordinarily simple theory; it rests on a single hypothesis can:
-To impose the wave-particle duality any moving mass; while eliminating the infinite that appear in a Quantum Field Theory.
-To introduce naturally a new field can explain the accelerating expansion of the universe, as well as inflation to its origins; and eliminating gravitational singularities in General Relativity etc....
So it is a Theory that provides a solution to most problems raised by the current theories and observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1536] **viXra:1501.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 17:20:04*

**Authors:** Timkov V. F., Timkov S.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Sources and physical nature of dark energy and dark matter can be explained, to find and to determine if it is assumed that after the Big Bang expanding spherical space of the Universe revolves around one of their central axes. Under this condition, loses its meaning and the concept of dark energy, and the imaginary phenomenon of divergence of the objects of the Universe, which is registered as a red shift based on the Doppler effect due to the increase of the linear velocity of these objects with increasing distances from the observer in a rotating spherical space of the Universe. The kinetic energy of the rotating Universe may be the source of dark matter. The energy of the accelerated expansion of the Universe by the pressure of the vacuum does not depend on the absolute value of the vacuum pressure, but it depends on the relative value. Relative value vacuum pressure is equal to the difference between the values of vacuum pressure at the boundary of the Universe to expand and beyond. Since this difference is equal to zero, then does not exist of dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1535] **viXra:1501.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 14:59:02*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of
a current. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern energy flow. Classical or quantum impedances, geometric or topological, scale invariant or scale dependent,
fermionic or bosonic, mechanical or electromagnetic or gravitational - impedance matching governs the flow of energy. This is a universal principle. As such, it is not surprising to find that quantized impedances provide an interesting sensibility when taken as a template for the Big Bang, presenting a detailed perspective on the first few zeptoseconds.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1534] **viXra:1501.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-20 14:52:58*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In portuguese

We examined the variations of space and time that occur under the influence of a gravitational field produced by a mass M, following the Foundations of General Relativity, by Einstein (1916). We conclude that when we use the conventional units for the speed of light resulting values are very different from those obtained by adopting the speed of light equal to 1, and that certainly could not be in agreement with the experimental values. The shortening of the rulers (scales) and slowness of the clocks would be much higher, as would no longer divided by the square of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1533] **viXra:1501.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-20 08:32:37*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Six page letter

Louis Marmet, in a paper titled: “On the Interpretation of Red-Shifts: A quantitative comparison of red-shift mechanisms-II” Dated 4th December 2014, [1] has briefly compiled around 59 candidate mechanisms, including the standard Big Bang Cosmology, attempting to explain the observation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’. This paper proposes some criteria for short-listing the most likely explanations; and adds some more explanations to the list. The need for considering alternative mechanisms arises because the Big Bang cosmology is based on the assumption of homogeneity and isotropy of space at 100 M pc scale, for the explanation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’, whereas linear Hubble law is observed even at 1 M pc distances, where distribution of matter and energy is clearly not homogeneous. And Big Bang Cosmology demands 95 % ‘dark-energy’ which is not yet found. Alternative explanations for ‘cosmological red-shift’ are rejected under a pre-text that they are not compatible with the observation of ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’; but a paper by Tank, titled “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic Length-contraction and Time-dilation of Super novae Light-curves” [2] has shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’, so every possible mechanism needs to be considered without any bias. The criteria for short-listing proposed here is: that the loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon is proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces ( G me mp / e^2), which suggests that the energy of inter-galactic photon seems to get branched-out into gravitational and electrostatic potential-energy parts, and gravitational potential-energy-part is getting subtracted from the energy of the photons. Then this paper proposes some new mechanisms adding to the list.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1532] **viXra:1501.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 09:29:03*

**Authors:** Tomer Shushi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Quantum field theory and general relativity are considered very successful theories that together describe the four fundamental forces in the universe. However, it is difficult to combine them into one unified theory. We propose a novel model, based on two postulates, which provides a new perspective on the fundamental forces using special and general relativity concepts. Many studies address the relations between the particles and the spacetime manifold, and the latter's physical structure, whether it is Continuous or Discrete. In the proposed model the properties of the particles are classical in the sense of general relativity, whereas their quantum properties arises due to the experiments, the differences of the inertial reference frames and energy values between the measurement device and the particles. We consider all of the discrete values of the particles to be constructed by an interference between fields. Under this approach we show that the model dismisses hidden variables. The model provides general field equations for the interactions of the particles, and their Lagrangian density, where the Lagrangian densities of Yang-Mills theory for SU(n), n=1,2,3,4, and of general relativity theory arises as a special cases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1531] **viXra:1501.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 09:46:47*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 3 pages

The relativistic Doppler shift formula is shown to be based on a contradictory equation, revealing the unviability of the Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1530] **viXra:1501.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 11:39:48*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 28 Pages. an original paper on dark matter origin

In the present work a different view is advanced on the origin of this new field at reheating, respectively, a primordial magnetic field. For its creation, it has been proposed that at the end of Inflation, a spectrum for blackbody radiation of temperature when photons creation as quanta takes place,. The opacity (equilibrium of following Thomson scattering) begins to be very thick ( ), that means not all the photons escape as radiation. Simultaneously, but following Breit-Wheeler photons pairs collisions it remain available only two photons pairs which transform in (quark) pair, from as were been produced. This pair generates an electrical field , that being of string type and supercritical , it captures the vacuum gluons-monopoles pairs, thus, generating the first primordial electromagnetic ( ) vortex called as , and by using a simple QCD analytical model are calculated their components and dimensions. Thus, the by Schwinger effect at the end of the reheating period of Hubble length , or when the symmetry between the weak and electromagnetic interactions breaks, it generates directly different kinds of particles but of a precise number as: fermions (quarks, electrons), gluons with structure of gluons-monopoles (abelian in extra-core and nonabelian in core), photons.
This process continues till the cosmological time at curvature radius , when , after that it ceases since .
Later, at CMB time and after, the PMF reactivates with creation of a new type of composed particle called polariton of very small mass , which, recently it was very much investigated experimentally in semiconductors. It is shown that the PMF construction permits the existence of Quantum Well (QW) as necessarily for polaritons production.
Also, it is demonstrated that the scaled at the CMB time, generates pattern of the same values as obtained in BICEP2 and Planck Mission, mostly probable due of the polarized photoluminescence (blueshift light!) of polaritons. Also, it will be shown, that in fact, the total mass of the created polaritons sustains the accelerated expansion of Universe, or in other words, these particles play the role of the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1529] **viXra:1501.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-17 11:23:46*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

I agree with the Hartranft's (see viXra 1501.0163) that a cosmological model based on + and - mass symmetry is entirely possible but only under unbroken E8 symmetry conditions. Unfortunately in the present epoch E8 symmetry is now broken by U(1) with the result that negative mass-energy can no longer be produced. Nevertheless its real effects in our epoch including the effects of dark energy and dark matter are observable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1528] **viXra:1501.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-16 17:24:18*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. History of submitting is presented

It is shown that the Einstein-Eddington-Tolman's concept of gravitation energy is wrong as a whole because their pseudotensor contributes a POSITIVE term to the total energy of an isolated system, and therefore this standard pseudotensor breaks the conservation law. The original result is the proving of the positiveness, which buries the Einstein-Eddington-Tolman's pseudotensor. So, no works using the pseudotensor can provide a well-defined notion of the gravitational energy no matter what conditions are considered. The Tolman's formulas are demonstrated in the paper as formulas containing arithmetic mistakes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1527] **viXra:1501.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-16 12:57:14*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, first, I derive the formulas for the phase velocity and group velocity as a function of the total relativistic energy and the momentum of a particle. Then, I derive similar formulas as a function of the de Broglie and the Compton wavelengths of the particle. Finally an additional meaning of the Compton wavelength is derived from the equation of the group velocity in terms of the de Broglie and the Compton wavelengths.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1526] **viXra:1501.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-16 08:43:46*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 14

Abstract
In this paper, it is proposed the phenomenon of contradiction of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Lorentz Transformations .This contradiction is resolved by new special theory of relativity viXra: 1501.0037. A new interpretation of experiment proposed. The paper gives a historical overview of the development of interpretation of this experiment. The contradiction is resolved by this new theory and this may lead to understanding clear its postulates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1525] **viXra:1501.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-15 15:06:05*

**Authors:** Robert M. Hartranft, Scott W. Hartranft

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Just as the universe contains balanced positive and negative electric charges and balanced north and south magnetic poles, so it also has balanced amounts of positive and negative mass-energy. Understanding this allows consistent and natural explanations for the birth, early behavior, growth, present appearance, and future of the universe. Cosmic inflation and dark energy, while intellectually clever, are unnecessary and non-existent in the real universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1524] **viXra:1501.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-14 18:16:03*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The limits of applicability of Planck's constant are brought into question in the context of the framework of quantum mechanics. The possibility is raised that gravitational quanta may be scaled by a more diminutive "action" whose detection requires sensitivities beyond the standard quantum limit. An experiment that could unequivocally test this possibility is suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1523] **viXra:1501.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-14 15:20:25*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Lorentz transformation will always remain only as an abstract mathematical transformation that cannot be successfully incorporated into any theory of physics. The reason being there is no natural principle that ensures real physical space positions and time be also mapped onto real positions and time. Under the projection, space would be contracted and time would be dilated; so the space and time co-ordinates cannot be associated with real physical quantities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1522] **viXra:1501.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-13 12:02:51*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article we analyze the second of the purely affine theories Schrödinger (Schrödinger-II), where he used a semi-symmetric connection and therefore with torsion, capable of accommodating the unification of the three fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1521] **viXra:1501.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-10 14:39:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star' - unlike anything we have seen. [4]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1520] **viXra:1501.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-08 15:44:02*

**Authors:** Pier Paolo Lisi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

the simplest model of universe, comprehending electromagnetic and gravity forces, entropy, space dimensions, blak/white holes (bidirectional between two timelines), singularities (monodirectional, faced to no spacetime: big bang/big crunch, 'external' holes); infinity and contraddiction remain out of the system, they are possible only in no spacetime

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1519] **viXra:1501.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-09 01:34:53*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that the spacetime has wave properties and wave equation while Lorentz transformations represent the Doppler effect for that wave, and also shows the derivation of the correct relativistic factor and shows its consequences. It also shows the refutation of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction and the refutation of the relativistic mass and how the relativistic factor becomes equal to the principle quantum number

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1518] **viXra:1501.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-08 06:48:51*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 3 pages

Analysis of the Einstein’s general formula for the relativistic Doppler shift, derived in his 1905 paper On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, revealed for the case of relative circular motions a critical contradiction with the relativistic time dilation prediction obtained in the same paper for reference frames in a relative rectilinear, uniform motion (i.e., relatively moving inertial frames). The time dilation under consideration was obtained for the traveling frame motion over an extremely small fraction (to the order of one light wavelength) of the circular path, so as the respective relative motion could be approximated with a rectilinear one.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1517] **viXra:1501.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-08 09:36:29*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Most of the experiments and phenomena on the speed of light can be explained either by the ether theory or the emission theory. The emission theory can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment. The ether theory can explain the Sagnac and Michelson-Gale experiments, moving source experiments, the Silvertooth experiment and Bradely Stellar Aberration. Therefore, it is highly likely that a single theory can be formulated which is a fusion of the emission theory and the ether theory. Neither does the ether exist, nor is the ballistic theory correct. The emission theory and the ether theory are not wrong but incomplete separately. This paper proposes a theory which seamlessly fuses the two into one. The speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. A consequence of this is that it is impossible to detect absolute motion by phase comparison using a single light source. The fallacy with the Michelson Morley experiment was that a single light source was used. Modern Michelson Morley experiments use two light sources but then compare frequencies (not phases) which will not change for co-moving source and observer[3]. All of the known light speed experiments agree with this theory. We call the new theory the Apparent Source Theory. A direct evidence of the two-source claim made above is Ronald de Witte’s experimental detection of absolute motion by comparing the phases of two independent Cesium clock stabilized signal sources.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1516] **viXra:1501.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-07 13:25:41*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory. Some years ago starting from $2012$ to $2014$ a set of
works appeared in the current scientific literature covering the
Natario warp drive with an equation intended to be the original
Natario equation however this equation do not obeys the original
$3+1$ Arnowitt-Dresner-Misner($ADM$) formalism and hence this
equation cannot be regarded as the original Natario warp drive
equation.However this new equation satisfies the Natario criteria
for a warp drive spacetime and as a matter of fact this equation
must be analyzed under a new and parallel $3+1$ $ADM$ formalism.
We compare both original and parallel $3+1$ $ADM$ formalisms using
the approach of Misner-Thorne-Wheeler($MTW$) and Alcubierre and
while in the $3+1$ spacetime the parallel equation differs
radically from the original one when we reduce both equations to a
$1+1$ spacetime both equations becomes equivalent.We discuss the
possibilities in General Relativity for this new equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1515] **viXra:1501.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-07 09:41:10*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Eight page letter

This letter begins with some questions which do not seem to have satisfactory explanations in the current Big-Bang Cosmology. Then it points out a paper [1] which shows that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves, so any alternative explanation of the cosmological red-shift’ is not incompatible with the observations of super-novae light-curves. Rather, non-observation of time-dilation in the case of some super-novae needs further works. Then, based on the coincidences noticed by Nobel laureate physicists, and authentic text-books, a derivation is presented showing that every piece of matter and energy is expected to feel the ‘cosmic gravitational force’. This derivation leads to a prediction that not only photons, but all other bodies are expected to feel this ‘cosmic gravitational force’ causing deceleration of their inertial-motion. It is shown that the so called ‘Pioneer-anomaly’ is very much expected based on this derivation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1514] **viXra:1501.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-07 07:39:38*

**Authors:** Martin Lopez-Corredoira

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Accepted to be published in Proceedings of Science (SISSA), talk in the conference "Frontiers of Fundamental Physics 14", 15-18 July 2014, Marseille (France)

Almost all cosmologists accept nowadays that the redshift of the galaxies is due to the expansion of the Universe (cosmological redshift), plus some Doppler effect of peculiar motions, but can we be sure of this fact by means of some other independent cosmological test? Here I will review
some recent tests: CMBR temperature versus redshift, time dilation, the Hubble diagram, the Tolman or surface brightness test, the angular size test, the UV surface brightness limit and the
Alcock–Paczýnski test. Some tests favour expansion and others favour a static Universe. Almost all the cosmological tests are susceptible to the evolution of galaxies and/or other effects. Tolman or angular size tests need to assume very strong evolution of galaxy sizes to fit the data with the standard cosmology, whereas the Alcock–Paczynski test, an evaluation of the ratio of observed angular size to radial/redshift size, is independent of it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1513] **viXra:1501.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-07 08:10:37*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 1 Page.

There have been many proposals to use alternative theories of gravity in lieu of the general theory of relativity (GR). In this paper [1], we propose something different: a new interpretation of the GR. We propose here to use the concept of the effective mass tensor to describe gravitational phenomena instead of usual metric tensor. This paper discusses the implications arising from the use of this concept.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1512] **viXra:1501.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-06 12:05:43*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** Pages.

We calculate the angle of the deflection suffered by the light passing near a large mass M, the Sun, using the asymptotic behavior of exact solution of the equation for the light movement according to the General Relativity (Schwarzschild space-time). The resulting angle is about equal to 5,93x10^-4 ’’, the double of inverse of Sun’s radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1511] **viXra:1501.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-05 20:18:43*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Reference: On the Evolving Black Holes and Black Hole Cosmology- Scale Independent Quantum Gravity Approach. Frontiers of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology, vol. 1, no. 1 (2014): 1-15.

By considering the Stoney scale and current cosmic back ground temperatures the authors proposed a unified model mechanism for understanding the cosmological light emission mechanism in cosmologically ‘strengthening hydrogen atom’. In this proposed model ‘gravitational potential energy of proton’ and ‘ (2n^2) states of electron’ both seem to play a major role. Throughout the cosmic evolution, Planck’s constant seems to be a constant whereas the currently believed ‘reduced Planck’s constant’ seems to be a cosmological decreasing variable. With this new proposal - Hubble’s redshift interpretation, Super novae dimming and currently believed cosmic acceleration can be reviewed at fundamental level and a correct model of cosmology can be developed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1510] **viXra:1501.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-05 23:16:42*

**Authors:** D.G. Taylor

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Copyright #1-2035274031

The current favorite in Cosmology for the formation of this Universe from a single “Big Bang” purports the idea that there was an object of Planck dimensions that exploded at a hyper-Relativistic velocity. It proposes that single body (call it the “Cosmic Egg”) was initially pure energy. Later in its expansion the energy of that Big Bang became disperse enough to form matter. Though the degree of that dispersion necessary for that formation is largely undefined. Even the proposals that offers/purports some definitions do not meet in logic.
This paper reasons from the Classic Relativity equations a mechanism for that formation and offers a source of the energy needed for that formation. While it makes a very specific presumption that our Space-Time reality is infinite, that is surely more reasonable than assigning it the limits modern science does. Assigning limits to our Universe – in Space and Time – have been proven incorrect for the entire history of Science. It is unreasonable to presume the limits of our observations now are the same limits we will have for the rest of eternity. We must always remember that the data we obtain is from whatever Local area can be observed with the current technology – it is never infinite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1509] **viXra:1501.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-05 14:19:26*

**Authors:** Lori Gardi

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Presented at SPIE, The Nature Of Light: What are Photons? San Diego, 2013

“There is always another way to say the same thing that doesn’t look at all like the way it was said before.” Richard Feynman. In this essay, a novel approach to cosmology is presented that mathematically models the Universe as an iterated function system (IFS) analogous to the famous Mandelbrot Set IFS (M): z=z2+c, where z and c are complex numbers. In theoretical physics, wavefunctions are functions of a complex space that are commonly used to model the dynamics of particles and waves. In the IFS framework presented herein, complex dynamical systems are generated via the iteration process, where the act of iteration corresponds to 1) a change in the state of the system and 2) a change to the wavefunction itself. In this manner, M can be considered a wavefunction generator. In this framework, all observables, including gravity and time, are thought to be generated by the iteration process. Feynman understood that there are many ways of looking at the Universe that are equivalent in nature but different psychologically. Understanding cosmology in terms of fractals and iterated function systems requires a paradigm shift in the way we approach cosmology. This is an evidence based dissertation and does not contradict the standard model; rather, it attempts to reconstruct it using the principles of the fractal paradigm as outlined in this essay. It is the contention of the author that in order to understand the true nature of light, the universe and everything, we must first understand the important role that fractal cosmology plays in the study of our complex dynamical universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1508] **viXra:1501.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-05 06:01:25*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. His investigation is based on the purely affine theory, which considers the affine connection as the main geometric element and the metric tensor as a derived quantity. In this paper we analyze the first Schrödinger theory. This is the first of a series of articles that expose the entire research Schrödinger in unitary field theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1507] **viXra:1501.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-04 11:24:27*

**Authors:** Andrew Wutke

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper discusses the most notorious paradox of Special Relativity. The reciprocity of Lorentz transformation applied to a one way scenario is demonstrated on the first leg of the journey, however the only reason of reciprocity is that two systems use two different sets of events resulting naturally from relative simultaneity caused by Lorentz transformation. The actual problem which twin ages less cannot be resolved within the Special Relativity. The relative simultaneity seems to be only an artificial effect of clock synchronisation convention. If it was for real, it would cause violation of causality in some cases, which is demonstrated. There seems to be a possibility that the absolute simultaneity and preferred inertial reference frame are valid concepts, but the Special Relativity still has predictive power without the need of finding them if at all possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1506] **viXra:1501.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-03 17:13:17*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The paper present the essence of the Michelson Experiment and give a historical overview of the development of treatments of this experiment wich affected all subsequent development of the special theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1505] **viXra:1501.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-02 06:57:24*

**Authors:** Udo E. Steinemann

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Many authors told that various solutions of nonlinear dynamical systems can change their stability-behavior as soon as certain system-parameters are modified appropriately. caused by tghese so called bifurcations very often the topology of the original solution-structures may be changed significantly. Similar effects in connection with linear structures could not be observed so far. But for specific space-time transformations similar phenomena will become existent too.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1504] **viXra:1501.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-01 14:54:32*

**Authors:** Tobias Richter

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

it is the explanation of the gravitational constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1503] **viXra:1412.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-31 19:44:21*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In 1803 the L'aigle meteor fall was studied by the physicist Baptiste Biot in France who concluded that it was of extraterrestrial origin but by 1930 meteorites were generally thought to be of terrestrial volcanic origin. Similarly, in the 1960's group theory and symmetry were thought to be of overriding importance in developing new physical theories but this has fallen out of favor and has resulted in the present-day disbelief that our universe existed before the big bang and could be governed by symmetry of any sort.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1502] **viXra:1412.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-30 09:50:23*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 8 pages

Analysis of the Einstein’s Special Relativity equations derivation, outlined from his 1905 paper "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies," revealed several contradictions. It imposed, through the speed of light principle, particular values on the space and time coordinates that, when used explicitly in Einstein’s own equation substitutions, led to fundamental contradictions. Furthermore, the space and time coordinates used in the derived transformation equations to obtain the time dilation and length contraction predictions were found to be incompatible with the method used in the derivation to perform the time calculations; no such predictions deemed feasible. The Special Relativity was hence found to be self-refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1501] **viXra:1412.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-30 11:16:34*

**Authors:** Steven L Coleman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper attempts to show that General Relativity (GR) is incomplete as a physical theory of the gravitational process due to the first law of thermodynamics. A theoretical modification to General Relativity is offered to correct for this deficit, and is based on the first principals of thermodynamics. This new theoretical framework allows GR to not only be compatible with Quantum Mechanics (QM), but it is now interdependent with both QM and Special Relativity. The new framework predicts most if not all of our cosmological observations which had previously necessitated the creation of both Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Several other previously unexplained gravitational phenomena are also discussed in this new theoretical context.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1500] **viXra:1412.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-29 10:23:07*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 15 pages, 41 references

World – Universe Model is based on three primary assumptions:
1) The World is finite and is expanding inside the Universe with speed equal to the electrodynamic constant c . The Universe serves as an unlimited source of energy that continuously enters into the World from the boundary.
2) Medium of the World, consisting of protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter particles, is an active agent in all physical phenomena in the World.
3) Two fundamental parameters in various rational exponents define all macro and micro features of the World: Fine-structure constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World.
In this paper, we introduce Cosmic Large Grains whose mass about equals to Planck mass, and their temperature is in the neighborhood of 29 K. These grains are Bose – Einstein condensates of cosmic dineutrinos, and are indeed responsible for the far-infrared background radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1499] **viXra:1412.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-27 22:23:35*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The linear field equations are solved for the metrical component $g_{00}$.
The solution is applied to the question of gravitational energy transport.
The Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar is treated in terms of
the new theory. Finally, the detection of gravitational waves is discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1498] **viXra:1412.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-28 00:13:01*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The phenomenon of quantum entanglement involving two particles has puzzled us for a long time. This article presents some possible solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1497] **viXra:1412.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-26 05:33:24*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Seven page paper

As soon as any author proposes alternative interpretation of the cosmological red-shift, it is opposed saying that tired-light explanations are not compatible with the observations of time-dilation of super novae light-curves. So this author had shown [1] that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. Still the alternative interpretations are not taken seriously. So this author is constrained to show some limitations of the current big-bang cosmology, like: (i) the general relativity theory predicts ‘expansion of space’ between the galaxies; but the space within the galaxy is not expanding, because galaxy is a gravitationally-bound-structure. The question raised here is: If so, then what happens at the edge of a galaxy whose external space is expanding but the space within is not expanding? Is there a smooth transition from expanding to non-expanding space? If expanding-space can stretch the wavelength of a cosmologically red-shifting photon, then less and less expanding space, at the boundary of the galaxy, should shrink the wavelength back to its original length, isn’t it? (ii) According to general relativity the planets, like the earth, orbit around the Sun, because the space around the Sun has got curved; and the planets are in inertial-motion traveling along the geodesic path. Now the question raised here is: Inertial-motion of a body can be at any speed. Can the planets travel along the geodesic-path at any speed they like? Can they take a coffee-brake and then proceed further? (iii) According to general relativity there is a radial-distance at which rate of expansion of space is equal to the speed of light, so the wave-front of light beyond this radius is not able to enter the sphere of observable universe. This means that the speed of light is the same, 3 x 108 meters per second. The question raised here is: Since the speed of light is the same in expanding as well as non-expanding space; and f . λ = c , i.e. the product of frequency (f) and wavelength (λ) is always equal to the speed of light (c); then the wavelength (λ) can increase only when frequency (f) gets reduced; and not because of expansion of space. Then a new ‘self-gravitational-acceleration based explanation for the cosmological red-shift is proposed. And it is shown that reduction in energy of ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’ matches strikingly with this new explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1496] **viXra:1412.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-24 20:31:38*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Happy Christmas 25 Dec 2014

During evolution, cosmic thermal energy density is always directly proportional to the critical mass-energy density. The product of cosmic ‘critical density’ and ‘critical Hubble volume’ can be called as the ‘critical mass’ of the evolving universe. With reference to Mach’s principle, cosmic ‘critical density’, ‘critical volume’ and ‘critical mass’ can be considered as the quantified back ground dynamic properties of the evolving universe. By considering the Planck mass as the critical mass connected with big bang, Planck scale Hubble constant and critical density can be defined. Observed redshift can be reinterpreted as a cosmological light emission phenomenon connected with cosmologically reinforcing or strengthening hydrogen atom. Super novae dimming can also be understood in this way. To understand the ground reality of cosmic rate of expansion, accuracy of the current methods of estimating the magnitudes of current Hubble’s constant and current CMBR temperature must be improved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1495] **viXra:1412.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-23 18:59:03*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

R136a1 is a monstrous-sized star 165,000 light years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud, one of our Milky Way’s satellite galaxies. It currently has 265 times the mass of the Sun and may have been 320 solar masses when it first formed. It’s the most massive and most luminous star ever found, being 10 million times brighter than the Sun. "Owing to the rarity of these monsters, I think it is unlikely that this new record will be broken any time soon," said (English astrophysicist Paul) Crowther.
The primary purpose of this article is not the description of R136a1, or of stellar mass. These are merely tools employed to clarify how the Unified Field permits a mathematical route from any idea conceived by the brain to that idea’s fulfilment in reality. In other words, to reconcile the anthropic principle with unified theories in physics. And to show a strong version of that principle - that a direct link exists between human existence and the actual form of the laws of nature. Incidentally, the article concludes that there cannot be a multiverse of many universes since the universe as a whole (not the observable cosmos) is infinite and eternal.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1494] **viXra:1412.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-23 06:43:07*

**Authors:** Ginés R.Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We study the movement of a test particle in a gravitational field in the context of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is found that, as long as the equivalence principle is respected, a relativistic mass-potential conservation law arises in a natural way. We compare this result with the prediction of General Relativity for the variation of the relativistic mass in the presence of a gravitational field, within the framework of a Schwarzschild spacetime. We show that the results are very close to those of GR in the weak-field regime. In addition, the conservation law obtained allows to derive some standard results, such as the formula of the gravitational redshift. However, the model can also provide some new aspects and predictions. In particular, it seems to implement the Mach principle in a natural way,a principle that is not included in the standard formulation of General Relativity. We also show that the escape velocity for an arbitrary particle at the Schwarzschild radius of a gravitational source is predicted to be lower than the speed of light, $V_{esc}\approx0,8c$.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1493] **viXra:1412.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-20 16:48:16*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Using frequency gauged clocks on a free fall grid we look at gravitational phenomena as they appear for observers on a stationary grid in a central field of gravity. With an approach based on Special Relativity, the Weak Equivalence Principle and Newton's gravitational potential we derive first order correct expressions for the gravitational red shift of stationary clocks and of satellites. We also derive first order correct expressions for the geodetic precession, the Shapiro delay basis and the gravitational index of refraction, so phenomena connected to the curvature of the metric. Our approach is pragmatic and inherently limited but, due to its simplicity, it might be useful as an intermediate in between SR and GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1492] **viXra:1412.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 16:55:20*

**Authors:** Bill Porter

**Comments:** Pages.

Some cosmological theories, such as many versions of eternal inflation and ΛCDM
involve creation processes which continue indefinitely with no defined termination.
Such processes can only occur in a temporally unbounded but finite universe. This requirement imposes serious constraints on many theories but the issue is often ignored.
I propose an eternal steady state cosmological model in which past- or future-incomplete processes with no defined beginning or end are not permitted.
Much well regarded theory is incompatible with this model; however there are viable alternatives.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1491] **viXra:1412.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 19:56:48*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the article, within the PI-Theory of fundamental physical constants, presents the theoretical basis and experimental confirmation of the author's perspective on the dynamics of evolution of the Universe and the criterion of existence of protein life on the planets of the solar system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1490] **viXra:1412.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 04:10:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.”
This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1489] **viXra:1412.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-18 08:26:11*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A six-page note

This paper raises some questions regarding general theory of relativity like: (i) the theory predicts ‘expansion of space’ between the galaxies; but the space within the galaxy is not expanding, because galaxy is a gravitationally-bound-structure. The question raised here is: If so, then what happens at the edge of a galaxy whose external space is expanding but the space within is not expanding? Is there a smooth transition from expanding to non-expanding space? And what happens to the cosmologically red-shifted inter-galactic-photons when they enter our milky-way galaxy from expanding outer-space to less-and-less expanding space within our galaxy? (ii) According to general relativity the planets, like the earth, orbit around the Sun, because the space around the Sun has got curved; and the planets are in inertial-motion travelling along the geodesic path. Now the question raised here is: Inertial-motion of a body can be at any speed. Can the planets travel along the geodesic-path at any speed they like? Can they take a coffee-brake and then proceed further? (iii) According to general relativity there is a distance at which rate of expansion of space is equal to the speed of light; and the speed of light is always the same, 3 x 108 meters per second. The question raised here is: Since the speed of light is the same in expanding as well as non-expanding space; and f . λ = c , i.e. the product of frequency (f) and wavelength (λ) is always equal to the speed of light (c); then the wavelength (λ) can increase only when frequency (f) gets reduced; and not because of expansion of space. Then in the second part of the paper it is shown that reduction in energy of ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’ is strikingly equal to (G me mp / e2) times the reduction in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1488] **viXra:1412.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 11:24:55*

**Authors:** Grzegorz Ileczko

**Comments:** 59 Pages. eBook (Part 1)

This book is composed of two parts. Both parts combine into a single theory, but for easier description of phenomena, they were presented as independent of each other. This book is an attempt to show the Theory of Relativity in “different” light. That is, so to speak, physics without relativism. Each experiment described in the book comprises visual, mathematical and numerical analyses. All possible cases of setting the light source on-board a very fast vehicle were analysed. The conclusions are indeed surprising.
Part_1
Two experiments, to find and precisely define absolute vehicle velocity, have been described. Establishment of total lack of contact of vehicle’s interior with the outside world is in both cases fulfilled. According to the Theory of Relativity such experiment does not exist and vehicle’s absolute velocity cannot be determined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1487] **viXra:1412.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 11:33:01*

**Authors:** Grzegorz Ileczko

**Comments:** 64 Pages. eBook (Part 2)

This book is composed of two parts. Both parts combine into a single theory, but for easier description of phenomena, they were presented as independent of each other. This book is an attempt to show the Theory of Relativity in “different” light. That is, so to speak, physics without relativism. Each experiment described in the book comprises visual, mathematical and numerical analyses. All possible cases of setting the light source on-board a very fast vehicle were analysed. The conclusions are indeed surprising.
Part_2
It is a modified version of a well-known experiment with light clock. The experiment has been improved in relation to the original. Optical clock was replaced with a laser. Laser beam may depart laser’s interior thus becoming observable (not just in theory). Experiment – L has been designed as a “broad” angular analysis. Various laser positions on-board the vehicle were thoroughly examined. One can literally say that laser’s beam is analysed in terms of every angle. As a result of the analyses performed, the “true” nature of time has been discovered. A mathematical proof that time has absolute nature has been presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1486] **viXra:1412.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-13 09:07:49*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 3 pages

An original thought experiment “interlinking” time between relatively moving frames through belt drive clocks offers concrete evidence on the unviability of the time dilation predicted by the Special Relativity. It also shows that the Special Relativity length contraction gives contradictory time results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1485] **viXra:1412.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-12 13:27:46*

**Authors:** Alfredo G. Oliveira

**Comments:** 25 pages, 10 figures

The first model of the past hot Earth’s climate consistently indicated by isotopic and biologic data is here established. This model, here named Evolving Climate Model (ECM), accurately matches a 3 Gy long compilation of isotope ^{18}O data. An important consequence of the model is the fast increase of oxygen atmospheric level between 2 and 1 Ga (Gy ago); this is a well-known but until now mysterious occurrence, the Great Oxygenation Event. A solution is presented for the two centuries old “dolomite problem” and new explanations arise for a number of long lasting problems, such as the origin of petroleum or of proto-continents. Differently from the usual climate scenarios, the ECM presents ideal conditions for the massive production of long organic molecules. Critical occurrences of life evolution, such as the Cambrian explosion, are explained and fitted by the ECM, exposing a previously unknown connection between the evolution of life and climate. The most likely cause for this hot past is the expansion of orbits; it is verified that this phenomenon can explain the ECM, the receding of the Moon and the water on early Mars for the same value of *H*_{0} = 48 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, which, if not a coincidence, is a non-negligible result.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1484] **viXra:1412.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 18:54:14*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The geometric interpretation of time dilation concludes that the geometric relation between moving objects is the cause of time dilation between the objects. The thesis of this paper is that the imposing edifice of the geometric interpretation rests on a flawed foundation. That foundation denies the existence of any fundamental (natural, physical, real) frame of reference for motion. Therefore the position, velocity and acceleration of an object may be reckoned to an arbitrary frame of reference. If space has no properties other than dimensionality, motion relative to that space is undefined and meaningless and can have no influence on any ongoing process. Accordingly I propose a model in which a field of particles occupies and permeates all of space, including the space of atoms. In this model the phenomenon of time dilation demands the existence of a field that supports the propagation of photons. I label this field the temporal-inertial field (TI field). Time dilation occurs when an ongoing process moves relative to space, relative to this TI field. The greater the velocity of the process relative to the TI field the greater is the time dilation experienced by that process. The rate at which a process is slowed or accelerated is intrinsic, absolute and depends solely on the velocity of the process relative to the TI field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1483] **viXra:1412.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 01:24:12*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I argue, that there is speciality at the horizon.
Why do we think that the equation of geodesic deviation gives us the tidal force (the right side)? I argue. Even if this is so, a more refined equation gives a speciality at the horizon (see very solid article of very serious prof. Risto Tammelo [Gen.~Rel.~Grav.~1997;29:997--1009]). 2) The deviation equation assumes that the time at different distances from the horizon is synchronized (clocks coincide). But we
know, what in terrestrial conditions it is not observed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[891] **viXra:1501.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-30 04:30:33*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We emphasize the need for more experiments to measure the variation of the speed of light in a gravitational field. Indicate an experimental procedure on the surface of the Earth that can provide a reasonable estimate of the true value of the speed of light in the absence of gravitational field. The speed of light in the absence of gravitational field is greater than we now know, and in the presence of gravitational field can vary throughout the day, like the Earth's surface, this according to General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[890] **viXra:1501.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-27 11:59:43*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Informally we explain the concept of space-time, we calculate the changes in space and time in a static gravitational field and with spherical symmetry (Schwarzschild solution) and, the most importantly, we obtained the corresponding variability of the speed of light in this field. Can be great the loss of speed of light in a gravitational field, which may explain the dark matter. More experiences with the speed of light must be made.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[889] **viXra:1501.0218 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-26 14:17:41*

**Authors:** Emmanuel Kanambaye

**Comments:** 27 Pages. The document is in french

LM Theorem proposed in this paper is a new simple and elegant physical theorem ; it allows the invalidation of theories such as String Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity.
LM Theory is itself an extraordinarily simple theory; it rests on a single hypothesis can:
-Impose the wave-particle duality any moving mass; while eliminating the infinite that appear in a Quantum Field Theory.
-Introduce naturally a new field can explain the accelerating expansion of the universe, as well as inflation to its origins; and eliminating gravitational singularities in General Relativity etc....
So it is a Theory that provides a solution to most problems raised by the current theories and observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[888] **viXra:1501.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-21 21:35:12*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We examined the variations of space and time that occur under the influence of a gravitational field produced by a mass M, following the Foundations of General Relativity, by Einstein (1916). We conclude that when we use the conventional units for the speed of light resulting values are very different from those obtained by adopting the speed of light equal to 1, and that certainly could not be in agreement with the experimental values. The shortening of the rulers (scales) and slowness of the clocks would be much higher, because would no longer divided by the square of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[887] **viXra:1501.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-20 21:25:50*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We examined the variations of space and time that occur under the influence of a gravitational field produced by a mass M, following the Foundations of General Relativity, by Einstein (1916). We conclude that when we use the conventional units for the speed of light resulting values are very different from those obtained by adopting the speed of light equal to 1, and that certainly could not be in agreement with the experimental values. The shortening of the rulers (scales) and slowness of the clocks would be much higher, as would no longer divided by the square of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[886] **viXra:1501.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-21 05:33:04*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Ten page paper

Louis Marmet, in a paper titled: “On the Interpretation of Red-Shifts: A quantitative comparison of red-shift mechanisms-II” Dated 4th December 2014, [1] has briefly compiled around 59 candidate mechanisms, including the standard Big Bang Cosmology, attempting to explain the observation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’. This paper proposes some criteria for short-listing the most likely explanations; and adds some more explanations to the list. The need for considering alternative mechanisms arises because the Big Bang cosmology is based on the assumption of homogeneity and isotropy of space at 100 M pc scale, for the explanation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’, whereas linear Hubble law is observed even at 1 M pc distances, where distribution of matter and energy is clearly not homogeneous. And Big Bang Cosmology demands 95 % ‘dark-energy’ which is not yet found. Alternative explanations for ‘cosmological red-shift’ are rejected under a pre-text that they are not compatible with the observation of ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’; but a paper by Tank, titled “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic Length-contraction and Time-dilation of Super novae Light-curves” [2] has shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’, so every possible mechanism needs to be considered without any bias. The criteria for short-listing proposed here is: that the loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon is proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces ( G me mp / e^2), which suggests that the energy of inter-galactic photon seems to get branched-out into gravitational and electrostatic potential-energy parts, and gravitational potential-energy-part is getting subtracted from the energy of the photons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[885] **viXra:1501.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-20 08:36:06*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages. [v2] added further contradictions emerging from the speed of light principle.

The relativistic Doppler shift formula is shown to be based on a contradictory equation, revealing the unviability of the Special Relativity. In addition, the light speed postulate is shown to result in contradictions with the Special Relativity equations, when expressed in terms of the light wave characteristics, with the relativistic Doppler shift formula being applied in the resulting expression. An absurd relation between the wave frequency and wave period would emerge to satisfy the Special Relativity time dilation. An actual time dilation factor emerging from the speed of light principle is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[884] **viXra:1501.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-20 07:52:36*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 28 Pages. I do some small corrections.

In the present work a different view is advanced on the origin of this new field at reheating, respectively, a primordial magnetic field. For its creation, it has been proposed that at the end of Inflation, a spectrum for blackbody radiation of temperature when photons creation as quanta takes place,. The opacity (equilibrium of following Thomson scattering) begins to be very thick ( ), that means not all the photons escape as radiation. Simultaneously, but following Breit-Wheeler photons pairs collisions it remain available only two photons pairs which transform in (quark) pair, from as were been produced. This pair generates an electrical field , that being of string type and supercritical , it captures the vacuum gluons-monopoles pairs, thus, generating the first primordial electromagnetic ( ) vortex called as , and by using a simple QCD analytical model are calculated their components and dimensions. Thus, the by Schwinger effect at the end of the reheating period of Hubble length , or when the symmetry between the weak and electromagnetic interactions breaks, it generates directly different kinds of particles but of a precise number as: fermions (quarks, electrons), gluons with structure of gluons-monopoles (abelian in extra-core and nonabelian in core), photons.
This process continues till the cosmological time at curvature radius , when , after that it ceases since .
Later, at CMB time and after, the PMF reactivates with creation of a new type of composed particle called polariton of very small mass , which, recently it was very much investigated experimentally in semiconductors. It is shown that the PMF construction inherently permits the existence of Quantum Well (QW) inside, as to be necessarily for polaritons production.
Also, it is demonstrated that the scaled at the CMB time, generates pattern of the same values as obtained in BICEP2 and Planck Mission, mostly probable due of the polarized photoluminescence (blueshift light!) of polaritons. Also, it will be shown, that in fact, the total mass of the created polaritons sustains the accelerated expansion of Universe, or in other words, these particles play the role of the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[883] **viXra:1501.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-22 10:45:33*

**Authors:** Emmanuel Kanambaye

**Comments:** 23 Pages. The document is in french, this is a corrected version

LM Theorem proposed in this paper is a new simple and elegant physical theorem ; it allows the invalidation of theories such as String Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity.
LM Theory is itself an extraordinarily simple theory; it rests on a single hypothesis can:
To impose the wave-particle duality any moving mass; while eliminating the infinite that appear in a Quantum Field Theory.
To introduce naturally a new field can explain the accelerating expansion of the universe, as well as inflation to its origins; and eliminating gravitational singularities in General Relativity etc....
So it is a Theory that provides a solution to most problems raised by the current theories and observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[882] **viXra:1501.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-26 09:59:18*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A replacement; derivation of time dilation added.

The Lorentz transformation will always remain only as an abstract mathematical transformation that cannot be successfully incorporated into any theory of physics. The reason being there is no natural principle that ensures real physical space positions and time be also mapped onto real positions and time. Under the projection, space would be contracted and time would be dilated; so the space and time co-ordinates cannot be associated with real physical quantities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[881] **viXra:1501.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-13 12:33:54*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article we analyze the second of the purely affine theories Schrödinger (Schrödinger-II), where he used a semi-symmetric connection and therefore with torsion, capable of accommodating the unification of the three fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[880] **viXra:1501.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-11 07:21:25*

**Authors:** Pier Paolo Lisi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

a simple solution of relationships between gravity and electromagnetism

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[879] **viXra:1501.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-10 17:36:35*

**Authors:** D. G. Taylor

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Copyright#: 1-1190626511

Presently, the decreasing frequency of Electromagnetic radiation from Galactic/Cluster objects as their distance from the Milky Way [MW] increases is taken as an absolute declaration of their motion away from the Solar system. An alternate explanation would be that the frequency reduction of the signal could be due to interfering effect of inter-Galactic gases. It makes mathematic and logic arguments against the invalid reasoning of the proposed hyper-Relativistic velocity of Universe expansion demanded by the current Big Bang theory. It offers a mathematical Relativity argument for how matter could come to be from nothing but free Boson energy. The formation of the “Big Bang” remains completely unexplained, and is simply regarded as an unchallengeable theory because that is the only possible explanation for the reality we know. That is an invalid scientific postulation, and current observed phenomenon could be argued to be part of the process of Boson transformation into matter.
EM frequency shifts downward are evidence of Dark Matter throughout the Universe. A simple parallel to the reddening of solar radiation as it travels through a greater thickness of the atmosphere during both Sunrise and sunset.
Support for this alternate supposition is that in current Hubble Theory, the M31 Galaxy and the NGC 300 Galaxy are at distances inconsistent with their recession velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[878] **viXra:1501.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-08 07:33:02*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Eight page paper

This letter begins with some questions which do not seem to have satisfactory explanations in the current Big-Bang Cosmology. Then it points out a paper [1] which shows that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves, so any alternative explanation of the cosmological red-shift’ is not incompatible with the observations of super-novae light-curves. Rather, non-observation of time-dilation in the case of some super-novae needs further works. Then, based on the coincidences noticed by Nobel laureate physicists, and authentic text-books, a derivation is presented showing that every piece of matter and energy is expected to feel the ‘cosmic gravitational force’. This derivation leads to a prediction that not only photons, but all other bodies are expected to feel this ‘cosmic gravitational force’ causing deceleration of their inertial-motion. It is shown that the so called ‘Pioneer-anomaly’ is very much expected based on this derivation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[877] **viXra:1501.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-15 12:25:51*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We calculate the angle of the deflection suffered by the light passing near a large mass M, the Sun, using the asymptotic behavior of exact solution of the equation for the light movement according to the General Relativity (Schwarzschild space-time). The resulting angle is practically constant of about 65°.4, minus the deflection obtained with Newtonian mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[876] **viXra:1501.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-11 13:15:11*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** Pages.

Unfortunately I am still not satisfied with this article. Equality contained in equation (18) between tg F and du / dF in u -> 0+ is not always valid, which affect the final calculation. This was a mistake, caused by not believe a simple solution, but it produces a much larger deflection. Anyway, also differs 1.75''. Publish new version today or tomorrow. This shows me that science is not only a continuous happiness, but also has its pain, shame and disappointment. "An error does not get to be a mistake until you refuse to correct it" (a wise, quoted by John F. Kennedy in his last speech)
---------------
Infelizmente ainda não estou satisfeito com este artigo... A igualdade que consta na equação (18) entre tg F e du/dF em u-->0+ não é válida sempre, o que prejudica o calculo final. Isto foi um equívoco, ocasionado por não crer numa solução mais simples, porém que produz uma deflexão bem maior. De qualquer forma, também é diferente de 1,75''. Publicarei nova versão ainda hoje ou amanhã... Isto me mostra que a Ciência não é só uma contínua felicidade, mas também tem suas dores, vergonhas e decepções. "Um erro não chega a ser um erro, até que você se recuse a corrigi-lo" (um sábio, citado por John F. Kennedy em seu último discurso)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[875] **viXra:1501.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-09 09:24:10*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** Pages.

There is an error here... and will be repaired soon. By some mistake it appears that calculated the reciprocal of the correct angle. Independentemente this, even with this error, there seems to be changing the default value of 1'',75 to be calculated correctly.
-------------
Há algum erro aqui... e será consertado em breve. Por algum equívoco parece que calculei o recíproco do ângulo correto. lndependentemente disto, mesmo com este engano, parece haver alteração no valor padrão de 1'',75 ao ser calculado corretamente.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[874] **viXra:1501.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-08 06:12:52*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We calculate the angle of the deflection suffered by the light passing near a large mass M, the Sun, using the asymptotic behavior of exact solution of the equation for the light movement according to the General Relativity (Schwarzschild space-time). The resulting angle is about equal to 5,93x10^-4 ’’, the double of inverse of Sun’s radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[873] **viXra:1501.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-05 06:41:40*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. His investigation is based on the purely affine theory, which considers the affine connection as the main geometric element and the metric tensor as a derived quantity. In this paper we analyze the first Schrödinger theory. This is the first of a series of articles that expose the entire research Schrödinger in unitary field theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[872] **viXra:1501.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-02 18:06:45*

**Authors:** Udo E. Steinemann

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Many outhors told that various solutions of nonlinear dynamical systems can change their stability-behavior as soon as certain system-parameters are modified appropriately. Caused by these so called bifurcations very often the topology of the original solution-structures will change significantly. Similar effects in connection with linear structures could not be observed so far. But for specific space-time transformations similar phenomena will become existent too.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[871] **viXra:1412.0280 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-01 15:59:47*

**Authors:** R. Garner-Tetlow

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The concept of vacuum energy challenges some basic assumptions of astronomy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[870] **viXra:1412.0270 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-22 15:03:37*

**Authors:** Steven L Coleman

**Comments:** 8 Pages. removed insitution

This paper attempts to show that General Relativity (GR) is incomplete as a physical theory of the gravitational process due to the first law of thermodynamics. A theoretical modification to General Relativity is offered to correct for this deficit, and is based on the first principals of thermodynamics. This new theoretical framework allows GR to not only be compatible with Quantum Mechanics (QM), but it is now interdependent with both QM and Special Relativity. The new framework predicts most if not all of our cosmological observations which had previously necessitated the creation of both Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Several other previously unexplained gravitational phenomena are also discussed in this new theoretical context.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[869] **viXra:1412.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-01 09:02:36*

**Authors:** Ginés R. Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this work we recover an abandoned line of research: the study of the gravitational interaction in the context of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is found that, as long as the equivalence principle is respected, a relativistic non-linear energy conservation theorem arises in a natural way. We interpret that this non-linear conservation law stresses the non-linear character of the gravitational interaction.The theorem naturally reproduces the energy conservation theorem of Newtonian mechanics in the corresponding low energy limit, but also allows to derive some standard results of General Relativity, such as the formula of the gravitational redshift. In addition, the model can also provide some new aspects and predictions. In particular, it seems to implement the Mach principle in a natural way,a principle that is not included in the standard formulation of General Relativity. We also show that the escape velocity for an arbitrary particle at the Schwarzschild radius of a gravitational source is predicted to be lower than the speed of light, $V_{esc}\approx0,8c$.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[868] **viXra:1412.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-31 18:19:26*

**Authors:** Ginés R.Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this work we recover an abandoned line of research: the study of the gravitational interaction in the context of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is found that, as long as the equivalence principle is respected, a relativistic non-linear energy conservation theorem arises in a natural way. We interpret that this non-linear conservation law stresses the non-linear character of the gravitational interaction.The theorem naturally reproduces the energy conservation theorem of Newtonian mechanics in the corresponding low energy limit, but also allows to derive some standard results of General Relativity, such as the formula of the gravitational redshift. In addition, the model can also provide some new aspects and predictions. In particular, it seems to implement the Mach principle in a natural way,a principle that is not included in the standard formulation of General Relativity. We also show that the escape velocity for an arbitrary particle at the Schwarzschild radius of a gravitational source is predicted to be lower than the speed of light, $V_{esc}\approx0,8c$.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[867] **viXra:1412.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-30 18:08:28*

**Authors:** Ginés R. Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this work we recover an abandoned line of research: the study of the gravitational interaction in the context of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is found that, as long as the equivalence principle is respected, a relativistic non-linear energy conservation theorem arises in a natural way. We interpret that this non-linear conservation law stresses the non-linear character of the gravitational interaction.The theorem naturally reproduces the energy conservation theorem of Newtonian mechanics in the corresponding low energy limit, but also allows to derive some standard results of General Relativity, such as the formula of the gravitational redshift. In addition, the model can also provide some new aspects and predictions. In particular, it seems to implement the Mach principle in a natural way,a principle that is not included in the standard formulation of General Relativity. We also show that the escape velocity for an arbitrary particle at the Schwarzschild radius of a gravitational source is predicted to be lower than the speed of light, $V_{esc}\approx0,8c$.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[866] **viXra:1412.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-30 11:40:43*

**Authors:** Ginés R. Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We study the movement of a test particle in a gravitational field in the context of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is found that, as long as the equivalence principle is respected, a relativistic mass-potential conservation law arises in a natural way. We compare this result with the prediction of General Relativity for the variation of the relativistic mass in the presence of a gravitational field, within the framework of a Schwarzschild spacetime. We show that the results are very close to those of GR in the weak-field regime. In addition, the conservation law obtained allows to derive some standard results, such as the formula of the gravitational redshift. However, the model can also provide some new aspects and predictions. In particular, it seems to implement the Mach principle in a natural way,a principle that is not included in the standard formulation of General Relativity. We also show that the escape velocity for an arbitrary particle at the Schwarzschild radius of a gravitational source is predicted to be lower than the speed of light, $V_{esc}\approx0,8c$.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[865] **viXra:1412.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-25 13:34:33*

**Authors:** Ginés R. Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 6 Pages. some typos corrected

We study the movement of a test particle in a gravitational field in the context of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is found that, as long as the equivalence principle is respected, a relativistic mass-potential conservation law arises in a natural way. We compare this result with the prediction of General Relativity for the variation of the relativistic mass in the presence of a gravitational field, within the framework of a Schwarzschild spacetime. We show that the results are very close to those of GR in the weak-field regime. In addition, the conservation law obtained allows to derive some standard results, such as the formula of the gravitational redshift. However, the model can also provide some new aspects and predictions. In particular, it seems to implement the Mach principle in a natural way,a principle that is not included in the standard formulation of General Relativity. We also show that the escape velocity for an arbitrary particle at the Schwarzschild radius of a gravitational source is predicted to be lower than the speed of light, $V_{esc}\approx0,8c$.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[864] **viXra:1412.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-24 08:18:30*

**Authors:** Ginés R.Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[863] **viXra:1412.0200 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-20 07:56:36*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A seven-page letter

This paper raises some questions regarding general theory of relativity like: (i) the theory predicts ‘expansion of space’ between the galaxies; but the space within the galaxy is not expanding, because galaxy is a gravitationally-bound-structure. The question raised here is: If so, then what happens at the edge of a galaxy whose external space is expanding but the space within is not expanding? Is there a smooth transition from expanding to non-expanding space? And what happens to the cosmologically red-shifted inter-galactic-photons when they enter our milky-way galaxy from expanding outer-space to less-and-less expanding space within our galaxy? (ii) According to general relativity the planets, like the earth, orbit around the Sun, because the space around the Sun has got curved; and the planets are in inertial-motion traveling along the geodesic path. Now the question raised here is: Inertial-motion of a body can be at any speed. Can the planets travel along the geodesic-path at any speed they like? Can they take a coffee-brake and then proceed further? (iii) According to general relativity there is a distance at which rate of expansion of space is equal to the speed of light; and the speed of light is always the same, 3 x 10^8 meters per second. The question raised here is: Since the speed of light is the same in expanding as well as non-expanding space; and f . λ = c , i.e. the product of frequency (f) and wavelength (λ) is always equal to the speed of light (c); then the wavelength (λ) can increase only when frequency (f) gets reduced; and not because of expansion of space. Then in the second part of the paper it is shown that reduction in energy of ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’ is strikingly equal to (G me mp / e^2) times the reduction in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[862] **viXra:1412.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-11 01:37:05*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I argue, that there is speciality at the horizon.
Why do we think that the equation of geodesic deviation gives us the tidal force (the right side)? I argue. Even if this is so, a more refined equation gives a speciality at the horizon (see very solid article of very serious prof. Risto Tammelo [Gen.~Rel.~Grav.~1997;29:997--1009]). 2) The deviation equation assumes that the time at different distances from the horizon is synchronized (clocks coincide). But we
know, what in terrestrial conditions it is not observed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology