**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(10) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(12) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(16)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(22) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(28) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(35) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(30) - 1405(38) - 1406(34) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(29)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(28) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(29) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(41) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(47)

2016 - 1601(33) - 1602(51) - 1603(41) - 1604(33) - 1605(33) - 1606(44) - 1607(21) - 1608(39) - 1609(47) - 1610(31) - 1611(47) - 1612(35)

2017 - 1701(13)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2332] **viXra:1701.0551 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-20 04:29:57*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Since 1905, when Einstein introduced the Special Relativity Theory, various researchers independently observed that his theory contains at least one more postulate besides the two postulates stated by him explicitly. Putting together all those observations about the different additional postulates, we will describe here how the Special Relativity Theory was unfortunately based on nineteen postulates, and how most of them were implied and used in Einstein's 1905 article, later in his article of 1910, and also further in his manuscript written between 1912 and 1914.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2331] **viXra:1701.0544 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-19 12:56:31*

**Authors:** Thomas Görnitz

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Based on the simplest possible quantum structures, that is, the abstract free-of-meaning quan-tum information (AQI) bits establishing the fundamental substance referred to as protyposis, it is shown, using just three plausible postulates, how a cosmological model can be derived that describes the observation data better than the „flat ΛCDM“ standard model. The postulates are the Planck relation, E = hc/λ, the existence of a distinguished velocity, i.e. the velocity of light in vacuum, and the first law of thermodynamics. Assumptions concerning inexplicable fictitious entities, such as „inflation“ or „dark energy“ can be dispensed with. The model solves „cosmolog-ical problems“.
Einstein’s equations result by requiring that the cosmic relation between the radius of curvature and the energy density can be transferred to local density variations within the cosmos. General Relativity is shown up as a classical approximation of the quantum cosmology. Therefore the relations are clarified in principle that happen between quantum theory and gravity theory.
The AQI concept allows for a simple derivation of black hole entropies and, moreover, establish-es a rationalization of the gauge groups associated with the three fundamental forces. Relati-vistic particles with and without rest mass can be constructed from the AQI bits, and, thus, all objects described in natural sciences. In living beings, the AQI can manifest both in the material body and in meaningful quantum information of the psyche, eventually closing the „explanatory gap“ between „body and mind“.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2330] **viXra:1701.0528 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-17 23:40:30*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Concerning the paradox of magnetic interaction between two parallel moving charged particle beams, there are a lot of discussions. Here in this paper, an experimental design is proposed, by which we can verify if there is really a magnetic interaction between the two charged particle beams.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2329] **viXra:1701.0503 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-15 10:10:27*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 32 Pages. Please contact Gene Barbee genebarbee@msn.com

Abstract:
The cosmic web is a filament like structure that connects galaxies. It has been imaged by gravitational lensing and is thought to be composed mainly of dark matter since it is not visible in the electromagnetic spectrum. There are computer simulations of the web showing that galaxies are often nodes for multiple branches. View the simulations at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ivymdduulFU. WMAP, PLANCK and other background radiation anisotropy teams have concluded that dark matter is 5 times more prevalent than normal matter. Scientists are trying to identify dark matter and the unexpected web like structure adds to the list of cosmology unknowns.
This document proposes that dark matter consists of neutron waves or neutrons (wave/particle duality) contained by a gravitational field. Dark matter density would be the same as normal matter density but neutron waves might have a radius of only 1.53e-15 meters (the wavelength of a neutron). This means it could be very elongated (e.g. 5e16 meters). It may coil into a small volume unless stretched by gravity. The neutron/waves location in the long filament is probabilistic but it contains 939 MeV/filament (1.675e-27 Kg). A diffuse structure and the absence of electromagnetic features will make it difficult to detect. Originally dark and normal matter is mixed and both fall into massive structures like galaxies over time. The residual dark matter probably forms aligned stretched filaments we see as the cosmic web. It would attract some normal matter and be gravitationally stretched between galaxies. Dark matter has only gravitational interactions. As it moves into galaxies it forms halos and explains anomalous galactic velocity observations.
The author will present a re-analysis of the baryon/photon ratio (critical to residual deuterium abundance data) and will review that WMAP data that lead scientists to conclude that dark matter was 5 times more prevalent than normal matter. A detailed model from matter equality to decoupling will be presented. The features of interest are the waves that cause temperature variations in the background radiation. A model that predicts the temperature of the hot spots will be presented. Based on re-analysis of limiting considerations it will be shown that half of all matter is baryons and the other half is dark matter.
Most scientists use a time ratio to predict expansion; i.e. R=R0*(time/time0)^(2/3). The author developed fundamental equations that allow expansion to be modeled with forces and energy. Surprisingly, very little energy is required to produce late stage expansion of free protons. A proposal for dark energy was proposed based on this understanding.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2328] **viXra:1701.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-13 09:07:07*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Mistakes are found in the theoretical derivation process, during which the magnetic force is explained to be the relativistic side effect of Coulomb force. As a result, some serious paradoxes will be inevitable if we accept the notion that Magnetism is a Relativistic side eﬀect of Electrostatics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2327] **viXra:1701.0472 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-12 07:47:17*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 15 Pages, 17 Figures, 3 Tables

This paper was presented at the 2016 SSE European conference in Sweden, and addresses two fundamental areas of physics and cosmology that involve a “universal consciousness”. (a) It shows where Einstein was incorrect: it is not only possible to communicate information faster than the speed of light, but this can be instantaneous. (b) The main challenge in physics today is unifying quantum theory with gravity: it is demonstrated that the extended mind is involved in solving this problem.
The author has spent over 30 years researching the mind’s interaction with the laws of physics, subtle fields, and the cosmos. This has been achieved by quantifying sensed data and discovering formulae and universal constants. A technique, developed by the author, involving a singularity is explained for noetically studying subtle fields and abstract geometry. This has produced some ground-breaking and fundamental findings, demonstrating that the mind is very sensitive to geometry and both local and astronomical forces.
The most exciting aspects are the quantified results and graphs that have been obtained from a specified subtle energy beam length (L) measured over the last eight years. For example, during the course of a day a sinusoidal curve is obtained with maxima at sunset and minima at sunrise, even if measurements are made in a darkened room on a cloudy day.
Another example is that the mind can detect a lower gravitational force on Earth, when the sun and moon’s gravity are pulling in opposite directions at full moon, resulting in a peak in L. Likewise, a higher gravitational force, when the sun and moon’s gravity are pulling in the same direction at new moon, results in counter-intuitive shorter lengths of L.
The mind also detects changes in the Newtonian gravitational force, Fg, as the earth orbits the sun. Over the course of a year, a plot of L produces an equation L=6E+105*Fg -δ which has a very high correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9745. The power index is Feigenbaum’s constant within 0.013% error. This is another example of the mind’s ability to interact with gravity and produce a universal constant, suggesting that consciousness is intimately connected to the fabric of the universe and chaos theory.
Any three objects in alignment, be they 3 grains of sand, three trees, 3 coins, 3 stones, three abstract circles drawn on paper, or even three objects in the solar system all form a strong subtle energy beam that experimentally has been perceived to extend endlessly. In particular, this beam has been measured during alignments across the solar system. These have included eclipses of the sun and moon, to a transit of Neptune by the moon. The data was analysed weeks after the events. In all cases L peaked before the predicted time of the occlusion. This time was always identical to the time it takes light to reach an observer on earth from the furthest of the 3 planets in alignment, on the day of the experiment This demonstrates that the mind can communicate not only faster than light, but instantaneously across the solar system, and the structure of the universe is such to enable this to happen. It also suggests that macro entanglement is possible.
The findings in this paper significantly impact cosmology, and in particular show that Inflation Theory just after the big bang is unnecessary to explain the current structure of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2326] **viXra:1701.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-08 16:08:20*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 70 Pages.

We propose a simple, axiom-free modification of Galileo-Newton's dynamics of moving bodies, termed Information Relativity theory. We claim that the theory is capable of unifying physics. The claimed unification is supported by the fact that the same derived set of simple and beautiful transformations, apply successfully to predicting and explaining many phenomena and findings in cosmology, quantum mechanics, and more. Our modification of classical physics is done simply by accounting for the time travel of information about a physical measurement, from the reference frame at which the measurement was taken, to an observer in another reference frame, which is in motion relative to the first frame. This minor modification of classical physics turns out to be sufficient for unifying all the dynamics of moving bodies, regardless of their size and mass. Since the theory's transformations and predictions are expressed only in terms of observable physical entities, its testing should be simple and straightforward.
For quantum mechanics the special version of the theory for translational inertial motion predicts and explains matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, entanglement, the diffraction of single particles in the double slit experiment, the quantum nature of the hydrogen atom. For cosmology, the theory constructs a relativistic quantum cosmology, which provides plausible and testable explanations of dark matter and dark energy, as well as predictions of the mass of the Higgs boson, the GZK cutoff phenomena, the Schwarzschild radius of black holes (without interior singularity), and the timeline of ionization of chemical elements along the history of the universe.
The general version of the theory for gravitational and electrostatic fields, also detailed in the paper, is shown to be successful in predicting and explaining the strong force, quantum confinement, and asymptotic freedom.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2325] **viXra:1701.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-07 04:17:29*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we look at the ultimate limits of a photon propulsion rocket. The maximum velocity for a photon propulsion rocket is just below the speed of light and is a function of the reduced Compton wavelength of the heaviest subatomic particles in the rocket. We are basically combining the relativistic rocket equation with Haug’s new insight in the maximum velocity for anything with rest mass; see [1, 2, 3].
An interesting new finding is that in order to accelerate any sub-atomic “fundamental” particle to its maximum velocity, the particle rocket basically needs two Planck masses of initial load. This might sound illogical until one understands that subatomic particles with different masses have different maximum velocities. This can be generalized to large rockets and gives us the maximum theoretical velocity of a fully-efficient and ideal rocket. Further, no additional fuel is needed to accelerate a Planck mass particle to its maximum velocity; this also might sound absurd, but it has a very simple and logical solution that is explained in this paper.
This paper is Classified!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2324] **viXra:1701.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-05 08:58:59*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper discusses the similarities between Einstein’s length contraction and the FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length contraction. The FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length contraction was originally derived for only the case of a frame moving relative to the ether frame, and not for two moving frames. When extending the FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length transformation to any two frames, we will clearly see that it is different than the Einstein length contraction. Under the FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length transformation we get both length contraction and length expansion, and non-reciprocality, while under Einstein’s special relativity theory we have only length contraction and reciprocality. However, we show that there is a mathematical and logical link between the two methods of measuring length.
This paper shows that the Einstein length contraction can be derived from assuming an anisotropic one-way speed of light. Further, we show that that the reciprocality for length contraction under special relativity is an apparent reciprocality due to Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronization. The Einstein length contraction is real in the sense that the predictions are correct when measured with Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronized clocks. Still we will claim that there likely is a deeper and more fundamental reality that is better described with the extended FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor framework, which, in the special case of using Einstein-Poincar ́e synchonized clocks gives Einstein’s length contraction. The extended FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length contraction is also about length expansion, and it is not recipro- cal between frames. Still, when using Einstein synchronized clocks the length contraction is apparently reciprocal. An enduring, open question concerns whether or not it is possible to measure the one-way speed of light without relying on Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronization or slow clock transportation synchronization, and if the one-way speed of light then is anisotropic or isotropic. Several experiments performed and published claim to have found an anisotropic one-way speed of light. These experiments have been ignored or ridiculed, but in our view they should be repeated and investigated further.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2323] **viXra:1701.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-04 20:44:19*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 53 Pages. relevant also to quantum mechanics

We propose a simple, axiom-free modification of Galileo-Newton's dynamics of moving bodies, termed Information Relativity theory. We claim that the theory is capable of unifying physics. The claimed unification is supported by the fact that the same derived set of simple and beautiful transformations, apply successfully to predicting and explaining many phenomena and findings in cosmology, quantum mechanics, and more. Our modification of classical physics is done simply by accounting for the time travel of information about a physical measurement, from the reference frame at which the measurement was taken, to an observer in another reference frame, which is in motion relative to the first frame. This minor modification of classical physics turns out to be sufficient for unifying all the dynamics of moving bodies, regardless of their size and mass. Since the theory's transformations and predictions are expressed only in terms of observable physical entities, its testing should be simple and straightforward. For quantum mechanics the theory predicts and explains matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, entanglement, the diffraction of single particles in the double slit experiment, the quantum nature of the hydrogen atom, the strong force, quantum confinement, and asymptotic freedom. For cosmology, the theory constructs a relativistic quantum cosmology, which provides plausible and testable explanations of dark matter and dark energy, as well as predictions of the mass of the Higgs boson, the GZK cutoff phenomena, the Schwarzschild radius of black holes (without interior singularity), and the timeline of ionization of chemical elements along the history of the universe. Extensions of the theory to accounting for the gravitational and electrostatic fields are briefly discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2322] **viXra:1701.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-05 01:09:15*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Space is a three-dimensional extent; matter also has three spatial dimensions. Time is the result of the action-reaction of space and matter.
Space is what matter uses as space. Space is not dependent on its texture; it can be made out of matter or non-matter. Time is one characteristic of the given space used by a given matter. Using this new approach called space-matter theory, we can find that there are different spaces in the tunneling, where the same matter has different velocities. These velocities can be greater than c; their value depends on the amount of information that the given space contains.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2321] **viXra:1701.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-04 08:37:24*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

From Einstein's theory of relativistic we obtain a formula relating the acceleration and the time derivative of the momentum. The formula includes the speed of light. The metric, according to general relativity, and changes in the gravitational field and with time. Since changing the metric, changing the way the distance measurement. Since changing a method of measuring distances in various small local areas, then in every such local area of the speed of light is negligible differs from the speed of light in a different local area, if this speed is measured in units of certain third local area (eg, the area with the observer). Therefore, the interaction will be different on the attraction and repulsion. From this is derived the inertia of a body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2320] **viXra:1701.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-03 21:17:15*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Galactic black holes were created during the Big Bang. As such, they were available for clustering in the early Universe. This paper describes the
role these clusters could play in explaining dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2319] **viXra:1612.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-28 23:59:57*

**Authors:** Mugur B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper shows that the variation of certain fundamental constants is practically impossible in a physical time frame of reference. We can have as many time frames of reference we want but when we transform them all into physical time frames of reference, with time as a measure of movement, physical equations retain their form and meaning and values of certain physical quantities and fundamental constants are the same. Therefore the question of variation of certain fundamental constants is only possible for those frames of reference other than physical time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2318] **viXra:1612.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-28 11:53:11*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Supermassive black holes were utilized in the early universe to eliminate redundant -H bosons after their use in transferring +mass fermions from the previous universe. The large initial masses of the holes later decreased as some of the +mass transferred was captured by the negative intrinsic mass H bosons, leaving previously active galaxies with smaller or no central black holes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2317] **viXra:1612.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-28 08:52:58*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Polarized Fermions (Nuclear Quarks) are supposed to be the origin of non accelerated motion through the resistive oscillating vacuum (Axion) Higgs field.
Recent observations in the LHC do support the idea of Fermion polarization into a constant specific space based direction, which could support the idea of a constant battle between a resistive vacuum and polarized spinning propeller shaped Fermions pushed forward by the same vacuum at the same time to compensate the resistance.
Even a so called Lorentz Fitzgerald contraction seem to be the logic result, which was described by John Bell in his essay: “How to Teach Special Relativity”

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2316] **viXra:1612.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-27 15:53:21*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here we will assume that there is a Planck length limit on the maximum length contraction that is related to the reduced Compton wavelength. Our focus will be on the maximum velocity of subatomic particles, which “have” what is known as a reduced Compton wavelength. We assume that the reduced Compton wavelength of a moving particle as measured from the laboratory frame (“rest” frame) cannot be shorter than the Planck length as measured with Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2315] **viXra:1612.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-26 16:23:43*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is currently accepted in Physics that General Relativity can explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing but Classical Physics cannot. The Newtonian calculation for the deflection angle of light, treating light as a gravitating mass, gives only half of the observed amount, whereas General Relativity gives the correct amount. However, in Energy Field Theory space is modelled as being an aether type field that determines the local speed of light and rate of time (due to both light and matter waves being slowed in the space around a mass) then this Classical Physics approach can fully explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing, in agreement with General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2314] **viXra:1612.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-25 14:29:00*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Motivated by the benefits of improving our knowledge of Newton's constant *G*, Feldman *et al* have recently proposed a new measurement involving a gravitational clock launched into deep space. The clock's mechanism is supposed to be the linear oscillation of a test mass falling back and forth along the length of a hole through the center of a spherical source mass. Similar devices — ones that would have remained in orbit around Earth — were proposed about 50 years ago for the same purpose. None of these proposals were ever carried out.

Further back, in 1632 Galileo proposed the thought experiment of a cannonball falling into a hole through the center of Earth. Curiously, *no one has yet observed the gravity-induced radial motion of a test object through the center of a massive body.* Also known as a *gravity-train*, not a one has yet reached its antipodal destination. From this kind of gravitational clock, humans have not yet recorded a single tick.

The well known reliability of Newton's and Einstein's theories of gravity may give confidence that the device will work as planned. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a less expensive apparatus — Small Low-Energy Non-Collider — ought to be built first, simply to prove that the operating principle is sound. Certain peculiar facts about Schwarzschild's interior solution are discussed here; and a novel way of interpreting gravitational effects will be presented in Part II, together adding support for the cautious advice to more thoroughly look before we leap to the outskirts of the Solar System.

[2313] **viXra:1612.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-24 13:05:30*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan

**Comments:** 88 Pages. Armenian Theory of General Relativity Is a New and Solid Mathematical Theory, Because it Satisfies the Conditions to be Called a New Theory.

In this new - second volume of the visual crash course of "Armenian Theory of Relativity", which is organic sequel of the first volume, we discuss the case (Case B) where observing coordinate systems moving against each other with arbitrary acceleration. We also used the most general considerations and only a pure mathematical approach, and in so doing, we build a theory of general relativity (kinematics) and received Armenian direct and inverse transformation equations for observed test particle coordinates differentials.
Our visual book, which is also made for broad audiences of physicists, does not generalize legacy theory of general relativity, but using totally new approach and without limitations, in one dimensional physical space, building more logical and correct theory of general relativity (for now kinematics only), which has one additional new universal constant (s).
Our received Armenian direct and inverse transformation equations for moving test particle coordinates differentials we can also obtain in a very easy way from the Armenian Theory of Special Relativity (Volume A) transformation equations, by just taking test particle coordinates two infinitesimal points, where reciprocal relative velocities between observing systems are instantaneous variable velocities.
But we prefer to go hard way to show the fact that Armenian Theory of Relativity is a solid mathematical theory. In this volume we also faced contradictions and our next volumes we will solve those "contradictions".
We also advise readers to be very cautious when comparing legacy theory relativity with the Armenian Theory of Relativity, especially when instead of trying to understand the new theory, they use their whole energy trying to find “mistakes” or “paradoxes” in Armenian Theory of Relativity. Please just try to remember that legacy theories of relativity are symmetric theories, but Armenian Theory of Relativity is asymmetric theory of relativity.
Proofs in this volume are also very brief and therefore readers need to put sufficient effort to prove all providing formulas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2312] **viXra:1612.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-24 12:51:08*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan

**Comments:** 80 Pages. This book is dedicated to the 25-th anniversary of independence of Armenia

In this visual book we showed that the «Armenian Theory of Special Relativity» is full of fine and difficult ideas to understand, which in many cases seems to conflict with our everyday experiences and legacy conceptions. This new crash course book is the simplified version for broad audiences. This book is not just generalizing transformation equations and all relativistic formulas; It is also without limitations and uses a pure mathematical approach to bring forth new revolutionary ideas in the theory of relativity. It also paves the way to build general theory of relativity and finally for the construction of the unified field theory – the ultimate dream of every truth seeking physicist.
Armenian Theory of Relativity is such a mathematically solid and perfect theory that it cannot be wrong. Therefore, our derived transformation equations and all relativistic formulas have the potential to not just replace legacy relativity formulas, but also rewrite all modern physics. Lorentz transformation equations and other relativistic formulas is a very special case of the Armenian Theory of Relativity when we put s = 0 and g = -1 .
The proofs in this book are very brief, therefore with just a little effort, the readers themselves can prove all the provided formulas in detail. You can find the more detailed proofs of the formulas in our main research book «Armenian Theory of Special Relativity», published in Armenia of June 2013.
In this visual book, you will set your eyes on many new and beautiful formulas which the world has never seen before, especially the crown jewel of the Armenian Theory of Relativity - Armenian energy and Armenian momentum formulas, which can change the future of the human species.
The time has come to reincarnate the ether as a universal reference medium which does not contradict relativity theory. Our theory explains all these facts and peacefully brings together followers of absolute ether theory, relativistic ether theory and dark matter theory. We just need to mention that the absolute ether medium has a very complex geometric character, which has never been seen before.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2311] **viXra:1612.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-24 06:06:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Physicists have found the strongest evidence yet for no violation of Lorentz symmetry, one of the fundamental symmetries of relativity. [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2310] **viXra:1612.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-23 09:41:20*

**Authors:** John Freidenfelds. PhD

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

It is well-known that, according to special relativity, there is an absolute “speed limit” on objects traveling in space-time: nothing can travel faster than light. It turns out that an object’s acceleration is also limited by the geometry of space-time, but in a more complex manner.
For objects viewed as points (negligible spatial extent), special relativity imposes no particular constraints on the magnitude of their acceleration. For objects that have spatial extent, however, it turns out that the geometry of space-time does impose limits.
The case we are considering here is what has been defined as “rigid motion” (Born [1], Franklin [2]). This is motion in which an object’s speed is changed in such a way that it is neither stretched nor compressed. All of our discussion is limited to a single spatial dimension plus time (a moving rod). We assume that acceleration is applied all along the rod’s length with no assumptions required about its rigidity. Nor do we include such dynamic physical effects as momentum or elasticity.
It turns out that speed changes cannot be uniform along the length of the rod if it is to remain in rigid motion. Franklin [2] derived a formula relating the required accelerations of various points along the rod. His derivation was for the special case in which acceleration is constant over time. Here we show that Franklin’s key formula (Equation 14 in [2]) applies to acceleration that is non-constant as well.
Franklin’s formula reveals an interesting property of space-time: If the rod’s acceleration exceeds a fixed, finite bound the rod must experience distortion -- stretching or compressing in the direction of the acceleration. Furthermore, if a rod is accelerated at this bound, in order to maintain rigid motion, its trailing end must accelerate instantaneously (infinite acceleration), while its leading end accelerates at a finite constant rate. The rod’s trailing end will acquire its new speed in zero time, while the leading end takes a finite time. That is, the leading end ages, during this acceleration, over the trailing end.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2309] **viXra:1612.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-22 14:16:00*

**Authors:** Gocho V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

To upload a manuscript to the e-print archive of Cornell University, you need endorsement (recommendation), which you will never get if the content of the manuscript contradicts the theory of relativity. Of course, physics journals with the highest impact factor in the world directly refuse the publication of evidence, which can discredit the theory of relativity. Nobody can assume that a professor of physics at world-renowned university does not know what a coordinate reference system means. It is unclear, why the physical society is not standing decidedly behind the strong evidence that the measured velocity of light is not the same in all frames of reference. This fact was proven not only in the past century, but also by the last experiments carried out by means of modern technologies. In fact, the only remaining argument of the dominant orthodox part of the scientific community for more than one century is that “if the theory of relativity is mathematically proven – then this theory is correct…”, but… “not everyone can understand the theory of relativity”. The inaccessibility distance is actually silently supported to all, who “do not understand” the theory of relativity. We all know the anecdote concerning Ludwik Silberstein and Arthur Eddington about – “who are the three men who actually understood the theory of relativity?”… Actually, the main reason for the fact that this theory is incomprehensible is not that the mathematical apparatus is complex, but that the people do not accept illusory claims. The real statement can always be explained in a simple and comprehensible way for everyone. That is why, the book “THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY = THE BIGGEST DELUSION IN PHYSICS FOR 20TH CENTURY” (in 3 parts) was published at Amazon. This book is understandable for everyone who studied mathematics in secondary school.
Note: At the end of this paper are listed the most famous physics journals and magazines in the world with a high impact factor, which have rejected without admission to the expert evaluation (peer review and discussion) manuscripts relating to the reality about “constancy” of the speed of light or the theory of relativity. In this regard, if there are worthy scientists belonging to the editorial boards of these journals - they can stand up for their scientific claims giving request for participation in a special event of the Annual International Conference on physics organized by ATINER in Athens, Greece, on 17-20 July 2017: “The last reading of the theory of relativity”. Thus, they will give their gratitude to universities and organizations, which have handed them diplomas, doctorates and awards. The most important is, however, the participation of all scientists, which care about the future of the physics science and wish to participate in the opening of the new page of physics (see: http://www.atiner.gr/phyrel).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2308] **viXra:1612.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-22 03:31:44*

**Authors:** Gou Nakano

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

When we consider the beginning of the universe, the Big Bang theory is currently the mainstream. And it is said that the universe was born out of nothing. Inflation started immediately after the start of the universe, the universe expanded at a speed exceeding the speed of light, the universe became huge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2307] **viXra:1612.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-21 02:06:26*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In Russian

Implications from Milankovitch cycles and changes of „torsion” field of the Earth to near Earth
object orbit prediction quality are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2306] **viXra:1612.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-19 18:15:08*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to Frontiers in Science

Several aspects of the dark matter proposal are discussed. It is shown that the existing baryonic mass in galaxies is sufficient for closing the Universe. It is concluded, then, that dark matter does not exist at all in the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2305] **viXra:1612.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-16 17:15:00*

**Authors:** H. J. Spencer

**Comments:** 198 Pages. This is a key paper in our new EM program as it replaces Maxwell's field forces.

This is the fifth report on a new research programme investigating the fundamental electromagnetic (EM) interaction. This paper completes the analysis of the interaction between two electrons described in the two previous papers. Each of these electron papers imposed a new, discrete restriction on the EM interaction. This paper now adds two new restrictions to the asynchronous interaction between two electrons. A pair-wise ray-like form of the EM impulse is proposed whose magnitude diminishes linearly with temporal separation to a finite, fixed value. Additionally, the discrete EM interaction is universalized by proposing a simple, new form for quantizing both the dynamical and kinematical activity between interacting pairs of electrons. This constrains both the linear momentum and kinetic energy of the two electrons to be exchanged across each interaction in fixed quanta. This dynamical exchange of quantized action (h/2) replaces Coulomb’s unproven spherical, continuous and instantaneous ‘law’ of electrostatics with a new, unified, discrete and dynamical basis for electromagnetism.
This fulfills Maxwell’s quest for extending Newtonian (particle) mechanics to the phenomena of electricity and magnetism but now for all relative distances and speeds: unifying both EM and classical and relativistic mechanics. This new EM model replaces Planck’s arbitrary (mathematical) quantum of action ‘rule’ (first injected mathematically into EM radiation theory and then later into atomic physics) and thereby providing a universal physical explanation for all atomic phenomena. This paper provides the first complete analytical solution of the isolated two-electron interaction – both attraction and repulsion.
The present theory shows that negative and positive electrons are two complementary manifestations of the same type of entity, phase-shifted from one another in the timing of their interactions. It is proposed that both forms of the electron execute a four-step transverse, cyclic trajectory across space (in opposite directions). This new physical and mathematical EM model provides a simple, discrete mechanical explanation for the foundational (but mysterious) two-valued quantum phenomenon of electron ‘spin’. Since this motion is sub-microscopic, this may be viewed as the ‘hidden quantum degree of freedom’ that characterizes this most mysterious behavior of the electron. The intrinsic (‘clicking’) motion of the electron is proposed here as the spatial component (where) of the fundamental interaction between pairs of electrons. The other new component is now intimately associated with when and how an electron interacts with other electrons. These ideas result in electrons stepping cyclically through four interaction states (the positron goes through the same four states but in the opposite sequence). This provides novel insights into Dirac’s Equation of the Relativistic Electron while avoiding all taint of negative energy states.
This new two-time theory unifies an asynchronous version of Newton’s physics of point particle motion (at all velocities) with all of the experimental phenomena of classical and quantum EM while avoiding use of single-time field theories and their necessary relativistic transformations of space and time. The new theory now forms the foundation for a new quantum theory of atoms, nuclei and elementary particles that is easier to visualize (geometric) while its finite algebraic basis (rather than continuous calculus) make it much easier to calculate and extend than prior continuum theories; the new results of these further extensive investigations will be presented in a series of subsequent papers.
* Surrey B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299spsi99@telus.net
© H. J. Spencer Version 1.250 16-12-2016 Begun 23-06-2008 (675 KB, 196pp)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2304] **viXra:1612.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-15 11:53:12*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibanez Fernandez

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Abstract
The paper presents a deep theoretical analysis of the special theory of relativity. Unfortunately, the special theory of relativity was violated the basic principle of relativity. According to this principle all the laws of nature are the same in all inertial motion systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2303] **viXra:1612.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-14 15:46:32*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This note discusses an absurdity that is rooted in the modern physics interpretation of Einstein’s relativistic mass formula when v is very close to c. Modern physics (and Einstein himself) claimed that the speed of a mass can never reach the speed of light. Yet at the same time they claim that it can approach the speed of light without any upper limit on how close it could get to that special speed. As we will see, this leads to some absurd predictions. Because even if a material system cannot reach the speed of light, an important question is then, How close can it get to the speed of light? Is there really no clear-cut bound on the exact speed limit for an electron, as an example?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2302] **viXra:1612.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-14 05:56:12*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Time meaning and particle mechanics

The starting point for the concept is the idea that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. Based on this idea, we can the define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is what I think is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock and it seems clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. Following this idea we can construct a whole theory closely following the empirical evidence we already have. Things seem to be coherent. This concept is only intended to be a starting point for a proper theory of space. It only contains few principles that are intended to give a better and more natural explanation how the universe works. It will not cover the observed quantum behaviour of particles. I will try to explain simple ideas about time, space and fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2301] **viXra:1612.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-12 13:17:54*

**Authors:** Silas Sacheli Santos

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Relativistics equations are derived using concepts of Newton, Lewis, Doppler and non-instantaneos forces. And the theory is in agreement with particle collision, mass variation, time dilation, transversal Doppler effect, kinetic energy, etc.
We propose a mass spectroscopy experiment to test the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2300] **viXra:1612.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-11 11:04:25*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Reitze lectured high school science teachers at a conference at UQ: http://www.staq.qld.edu.au/pd-events/steeagmm/?

On Tuesday the 6th of December 2016, professor David Reitze, the Director of LIGO, delivered a 'keynote' conference lecture to high school science teachers at the University of Queensland. He reiterated claims that the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration detected gravitational waves produced by two merging black holes some 1.3 billion light years from Earth. By and large the school teachers sat passively, thoughtlessly absorbing his claims without criticism. Big bang cosmology is now taught to students as young as twelve in Queensland, as a matter of official curriculum. Yet this cosmology is demonstrably false on many levels. When scientific facts were put to him professor Reitze retreated to 'hand waving'. That LIGO did not detect gravitational waves or black holes is easily proven. The letter herein was sent to professor Reitze, inviting his arguments in defence of LIGO.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2299] **viXra:1612.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 14:28:50*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: -H and -Z particles were plentiful in the very early universe in form of Briggs fermibosons with negative matter bosonic components. After these components did their job of transferring matter from the dying universe to the new universe, the redundant -H particles came together to quickly form super massive black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2298] **viXra:1612.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 09:11:56*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Public Lecture: The dark Side of the Universe, Professor Manfred Lindner: http://sydney.edu.au/sydney_ideas/lectures/2016/professor_manfred_lindner.shtml

On the evening of the 29th of November 2016, Professor Manfred Lindner from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, gave a public lecture at the University of Sydney, on dark matter and cosmology, and the Xenon1T project searching for dark matter particles by means of neutrino collisions and recoils in a 1 tonne vat of liquid xenon. At the conclusion of his lecture I questioned him on his presentation of an all-sky 'CMB' anisotropy map. He confirmed that the map was from the Planck satellite. The Planck satellite's 4 K 'blackbody' reference loads failed. This failing, ironically, proved that there is no monopole signal at L2, and hence no 'CMB'. Without its 'CMB', big bang cosmology is dead.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2297] **viXra:1612.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 09:21:28*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Based on classical electromagnetic theory and special theory of relativity, three thought experiments are conducted and analyzed here. In all these cases, the Lorenz force law clashes with special theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2296] **viXra:1612.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-08 06:41:02*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

Continuing the debate on whether the universe is fractal by nature: an experiment was undertaken on the ‘simple’ Koch Snowflake fractal to test whether it matches observations and conjectures. The snowflake was inverted to model observations from a static or ‘measured’ position – within an iterating fractal set. Converse to the classical fractal snowflake emergence, new triangles sizes were held constant and earlier triangles in the set expanded as the set iterated. Kinematic velocities and accelerations were calculated for both the area of the total fractal, and the distance between points within the fractal set. The inverted fractal was also tested for the Hubble's Law. It was discovered that the area(s) expanded exponentially; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. The model was consistent with the standard ΛCDM model of cosmology and demonstrated a singularity ‘Big Bang’ beginning; homogeneous isotropic expansion consistent with the CMB; Hubble's Law expansion – with a Hubble diagram and Hubble's constant; and accelerating expansion with a ‘cosmological’ constant an expansion rate consistent with, and capable of explaining the conjecture of early inflation epoch of the universe. The model predicts and matches current galaxy distribution observation – clustered nearby and smooth on large scales – and thus is inconsistence with the cosmological principle. The mechanism of expansion is consistent with quantum mechanical descriptions: the vacuum catastrophe is addressed. It was concluded that the universe behaves as a general as a fractal object, where we are observing inside it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2295] **viXra:1612.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-08 03:22:08*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A short time ago, I published an article about deceleration of the universe. It was especially based on entropy, and it explains how does matter work, produce free energy by using its own creation motion without external energy; also is about instant communication and jumping interstellar by imitating starting condition of matter called as big-bang as a side effect on itself that the same with faster than light expansion as creation motion and outer space motion are accepted together. In this work, it was performed some analysis of the some specific subjects such as deceleration, uncertainty, particle formation, black hole, gravitation, energy, mass and light speed for identical simulation computations of the entire universe as the most sensitive as possible being related that article. There are some informations about escaping from black holes, event horizon lengths, viscosity of free space, re-derivation of Planck constants and infrastructure of some basic laws of existence mathematically as matter is directly dependent of geometric rules. Also, some elements were given for the readers to solve some required constants as the most sensitive manner. As the constants are not enough in the name of engineering, also finally I found a working algorithm which reduces process number of the power series to process number of the quadratic equations like calculating a root of an integer as an irrational number by solving equation; so also it can be used to calculate trigonometric values in the best manner for simulations of the entire universe besides physical constants as irrational values. Also there are new informations about the pioneer anomaly, gamma ray burst and unobservational universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2294] **viXra:1612.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 14:21:42*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 84 pages

In this dissertation, we will describe the phenomenon of anti-gravity in the framework of general relativity, and we will give examples of its use, such as black holes and a new model of the universe. Gravity and anti-gravity has layer-like nature. Our Universe can be treated as a gigantic homogeneous black hole. It is isolated from the rest of universe by an area of spacetime where anti-gravity occurs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2293] **viXra:1612.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 08:39:43*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In order to prove if the magnetism is a relativistic side effect of the electrostatics, an experiment was designed and performed. The experimental result does not support the notion that the magnetism is a relativistic side effect of Electrostatics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2292] **viXra:1612.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 05:04:49*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, the slowdown mechanism of the moving mechanical clock is derived. The whole deductive process is based on velocity transformation and length contraction of the special relativity. The result shows that when in moving the mechanical clock runs slower in the exactly same proportion as the light clock does.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2291] **viXra:1612.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 06:05:58*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, a paradox resulted from the mass increasing with speed is presented. In this paradox, the same system appears two different conflict states. The system is stay in good order for an observer who is moving together with the system, but it is damaged for an observer who is at rest. To avoid this contradiction while leaving relativity intact, we have to introduce the assumption that the strength of a substance will increase with its speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2290] **viXra:1612.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-04 07:47:50*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Nowadays black holes in physics are considered real objects; supermassive black holes exist in the centers of most (all?) galaxies. The creation of black holes is a theory based on space-time. A new theory called space-matter theory has another explanation. The action-reaction phenomenon between space and matter causes that space waves. Masses decrease the energy of the space wave increasing its wavelengths. Lots of masses set up this effect causing very long waves. Black hole is made in a galaxy if the masses of celestial bodies are big "enough". Space regions can be depleted, where the density of the space wave is so small that space as space ceases to exist. This "lack of space" is replaced with space we don't know or with matter we can't find in our physics books.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2289] **viXra:1612.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-03 07:44:56*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. -

With the help of the general theory of relativity and the principle of least action, we get the formula of interaction of two charged particles. The strength of the interaction on the particle repulsion (Identically charged) is less than the force attracted exactly the same particles (Charged differently). The bodies are made up of such particles and, therefore, are always attracted, according to the theory of relativity and the principle of least action.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2288] **viXra:1612.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 14:59:01*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

How can interfering light waves transport particle characteristics? Up to now it was supposed that wave-particle duality was a quantum mechanical phenomenon which was not accessible to any classical explanation. The present article is disproving this assumption, by showing o n e single case which is entirely subject to a classical explanation: Photons in vacuum.
The suggested classical explanation of wave-particle duality is simple, and it is deriving directly from special relativity: The particle characteristics are transported directly from A to B, without any intermediate of spacetime, because the interval is zero. The observed wave is a sort of placeholder in our spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2287] **viXra:1612.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 18:07:05*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

It is commonly thought that the Michelson-Morley experiment from 1887 and Kennedy-Thorndike experiment from 1932 demonstrated that the ether does not exist and that the velocity of light in vacuum is absolutely constant. The analysis of this experiment led to the creation of the Special Theory of Relativity (STR).
In this article, a different transformation of time and position than the Lorentz transformation is derived on the basis of the geometric analysis of the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments. The transformation is derived based on the assumption that the universal frame of reference, called the ether, exists. Our concept states that the ether is not a substance with physical properties, as it was understood in the past, but a frame of reference in which the velocity of light is constant in every direction. In inertial frames of reference moving in the ether, the velocity of light may be different. The obtained transformations are transformations from the ether to the inertial frame and from the inertial frame to the ether.
The article explains why Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the ether.
Based on the new transformation, the Special Theory of Ether (STE) was created [3], [4], [5], [6].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2286] **viXra:1611.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-30 12:05:38*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Spanish.

This article presents the vector Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2285] **viXra:1611.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-28 01:23:10*

**Authors:** Dr Gautam Narayan Baruah

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

When a body say a toy car slides down an inclined plane with angle of inclination less than 45 degree the downward and forward motion of the toy car can be restricted by a thread or support perfectly parallel to the horizontal.It can mathematically proved based on the law of conservation of energy that a portion of the weight of the toy car is unsupported even at the position of rest and sinks down in the same relative space causing compression of spacetime below the toy car.This is a mathematical proof of a plane solid surface where an object can rest with part of it's weight not supported even at the position og rest enabling a novel warp drive and time travel mechanism that can work without causing any physical harm to human subjects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2284] **viXra:1611.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-27 05:34:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2283] **viXra:1611.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-25 05:24:15*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) is a new interpretation of absolute motion already proposed by this author. AST has been shown to easily explain many light speed experiments, including the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. AST has also been extended to govern the behavior of electrostatic fields. After I completed developing the major part of AST, I came across an idea that, if two oppositely charged spheres are fixed to the two ends of a rigid rod , and the system is set into absolute motion, according to AST, the charge-rod system will be subjected to a net electrostatic force and hence accelerate, implying free energy and reactionless thrust ! Obviously such a possibility would be very exciting, if it really existed. But I was also disappointed because, if free energy doesn’t really exist, this would imply that my theory (AST ) is wrong. I had never heard of such an effect before. Later I found in the internet that such an effect in fact exists and is known as the Biefeld-Brown effect and with unknown origin. Although AST neatly predicts this effect and can be a very compelling explanation, I feel that it still needs to be developed . The purpose of this paper is to invite and inspire theoretical and experimental researchers to work on the problem and advance AST. Exciting possibilities have been presented for this purpose. For example, according to AST, it is possible to produce by a small free energy device, made by stacking large number of capacitors, a net force that can lift an object as massive as an aircraft carrier. It is shown that the net force on the capacitor is directly proportional to the square of the electric field strength, directly proportional to the area of the capacitor plates, directly proportional to the third power of the relative permittivity of the dielectric material, and directly proportional to absolute velocity for absolute velocities much less than the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2282] **viXra:1611.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-25 00:58:51*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

New exact analytical solutions of Einstein and Qmoger (quantum modification of general relativity) equations are obtained in the context an alternative to the Big Bang theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2281] **viXra:1611.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-25 02:09:57*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Assert the dominance of SUPREME using quantum topology at the cosmological scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2280] **viXra:1611.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-24 10:12:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Through its measurements of Planck's constant, a quantity at the heart of quantum physics, the NIST-4 watt balance is contributing to an effort to define all base measurement units in terms of fundamental constants of nature. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2279] **viXra:1611.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-24 03:16:38*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper provides a method of visualising the rotation of a hypersphere (3-sphere or 4 ball) on the inside. As such, it may represent the actual behaviour of the universe and this paper gives figures which may apply to the universe and which await observational confirmation. As a hypersphere will ‘rotate’ in a more complex way than a simple ordinary sphere (2-sphere), we can refer to it as a vorticitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2278] **viXra:1611.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-22 22:02:10*

**Authors:** David F. Crawford

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is shown that the light curve widths of type Ia supernovae do not have time dilation and that their magnitudes are consistent
with a static universe. The standard analysis for type Ia supernovae uses a set of templates to overcome the intrinsic variation
of the supernova light curves with wavelength. The reference light curves derived from this set of templates contain an anomaly
in that at short wavelengths the width of the light curve is proportional to the emitted wavelength. Furthermore this anomaly is
exactly what would be produced if supernovae at different redshifts did not have time dilation and yet time dilation corrections
were applied. It is the specific nature of this anomaly that is evidence for a static universe. The lack of time dilation is confirmed
by direct analysis of the original observations. It is also found that the peak flux density of the light curves in the reference
templates had a strong dependence on wavelength that could be due to the use of an incorrect distance modulus. This dependence
is investigated by computing the peak absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae observations from the original observations using
a static cosmological model. The results support the hypothesis of a static universe. It is also argued that the photometric redshift
relation and spectroscopic ages are consistent with a static universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2277] **viXra:1611.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-22 12:19:30*

**Authors:** Ru-Jiao Zhang

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents a derivation of the theoretical value of the cosmological constant. The approach was based on Einstein’s gravitational field equations, Hubble’s law, and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model of the universe. The theoretical value of the cosmological constant Λ was found to be: Λ=(2Ho^2)/3 , here Ho is the Hubble constant. The theoretical value is very close to the observational value. Open space (k=-1) and closed space (k=+1) most likely coexist in our universe. The study implies that the expansion of the universe is an inherent property of vacuum space, not by dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2276] **viXra:1611.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-21 13:51:36*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 17 pages

In the special theory of relativity there is a time dilation between two reference frames moving relative to each other at a constant speed. The Lorentz transformation provides the magnitude of this time dilation. The present work focuses on the fact that the times observed on the ‘other’ system will depend on the location of the clocks used for time comparisons, and we refer to positional (location specific) time. The paper points to the various ‘observational principles’, i.e. the specification of which clocks to apply, and we present a unified framework for these principles. It is argued that the total picture of the observed time dilations is more informative than the usual approach of focusing on one specific expression for time dilation, apparently being based on a somewhat arbitrary definition of simultaneity. The motivation of the paper is to challenge the current narrative regarding time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2275] **viXra:1611.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-21 14:04:13*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Please contact genebarbee@msn.com with comments

Most of nature is not hard to understand using the right approach. Understanding involves correlating data in a different way. Information (N) is defined by the negative natural logarithm of probability (N= - ln P) but the key equation is a new relationship between energy and information. The equation is E=e0*exp(N) where e0 is an energy constant and exp(N) stands for the natural number 2.718 to the power N. N values are found from data gathered by high energy labs. This paper describes how nature originates from these values. Nature repeatedly uses an operation involving separation of some information from other information. But there are important properties that are maintained and thought to be initial conditions. One property is probability one and another is zero energy. Separation occurs between N for the mass and N for field energy in a neutron. This causes an individual neutron to very improbable. But probability one is maintained by the creation of a huge number of neutrons. A mass model of the neutron was developed using information values that represent its components. The model is based on information separation between components of the neutron. Zero net energy is maintained. Mass with kinetic energy is positive balanced by negative field energy. It will be shown that the model contains energy values that unify nature’s four fundamental interactions.
An information value associated with the electromagnetic field is of interest to biology. Combined with a quantum mechanical equation for light absorption multiples of this value can be used to model our human color vision system. This links internal observations with information and is a clue regarding signaling and response in our brain’s neural networks. Specifically the author proposes that there may be molecular level storage and interaction involved in perception. There are observations in physics that require explanation beyond physical networks. The dual slit experiment, instantaneous action at a distance (EPR) and collapse of a wave-function can be explained if perception is information gain occurring at the quantum level in a zero based system (zero energy and probability one).
Four types of time are involved. Frequency is associated with fundamental particles and field energy. Time that repeats around a quantum orbit is defined by mass with kinetic energy attracted to field energy. A third kind of time repeats and moves forward. It is related to an information operation that underlies gravitation and cosmological space and time. Nature positions particles in space by giving them kinetic energy to expand. The freedom to move is due to time dilation associated with kinetic energy. Expansion is another separation process. As particles expand, groups of particles form clusters, galaxies, stars and planets under the influence of gravity, then form chemicals under the influence of electromagnetic fields. Overall, separation leads to components that fit together, similar to a picture puzzle and its individual pieces.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2274] **viXra:1611.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-21 14:21:46*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: In our present E8 broken symmetry epoch we are limited to 248 particles and antiparticles; this limit has been reached seemingly without including any natural SUSY particles. However, 8-fold composite particles indicative of life have been included. This report also contains correction of an error.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2273] **viXra:1611.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 16:50:54*

**Authors:** Kathleen A. Rosser

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A static cosmological metric is derived that accounts for observed cosmic redshift without the requirement for an expanding universe. The metric is interpreted in such a way as to predict a universal potential that accounts the anomalous acceleration of outlying stars of spiral galaxies (the galactic rotation curve), obviating the need for dark matter or modifications to general relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2272] **viXra:1611.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 21:01:02*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 41 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong because the gravitational force experienced locally is caused by a negative energy, gravitons energy and the force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference is caused by a positive energy” Adrian Ferent
Because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong, Einstein’s gravitation theory is wrong.
What is the difference between time dilation in Special theory of relativity and Gravitational time dilatation?
Time dilation in Special theory of relativity is caused by positive energy.
“Gravitational time dilatation is caused by negative energy” Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2271] **viXra:1611.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 23:20:53*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 42 Pages. This article is the Author's invited contribution (a chapter) to a new book. No copyright limitations.

The mathematical theory of Relativity is riddled with violations of the rules of pure mathematics, logical contradictions, and conflict with a vast array of experiments. These flaws are reviewed herein in some detail. Claims for the discovery of black holes, Einstein's gravitational waves and the afterglow of the Big Bang, are demonstrably false. There are two conditions that any physical theory must satisfy: (a) logical consistency, (b) concordance with reality as determined by experiment and observation. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity fails on both counts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2270] **viXra:1611.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 05:38:10*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Discussing for the origin of fine-structure of the Universe’s space and the Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2269] **viXra:1611.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-19 12:30:20*

**Authors:** G. N. N. Martin

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In an earlier paper I showed that Newton's laws generalise to the theory of special relativity. In this paper I show that special relativity in turn implies general relativity.
I have two audiences in mind. I hope it will help those who, like me, left school decades ago but still like to understand today's physics and are dissatisfied with inexact analogies. The second target audience are those academic physicists who do not realise how readily relativity can be derived using only those assumptions that are implicit in Newton's laws.
The paper consists of a fairly short argument, followed by a number of appendices. Some of the appendices make supporting calculations, the rest explain ideas that will be obvious to some readers but not to others.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2268] **viXra:1611.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-16 05:17:13*

**Authors:** David Berkahn

**Comments:** 2 Pages. I had to add the letter "f" "i"

An approach to deriving tidal accelerations is presented using a modified solution approach based
on velocity dependence of acceleration for a weak feld. Further explorations of this approach are
investigated using general relativity to see how it might fit into its framework and whether any
modifications may need to be suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2267] **viXra:1611.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-14 21:32:00*

**Authors:** [Alik] Vitali Perakh

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to provide an alternate, strictly
geometric, interpretation for the observed phenomenon of time. This Geometric Model of Time (GMT) is consistent with both Theories of Relativity but goes beyond current explanations for the nature of and the apparent one-directness of time - the so-called Arrow of Time.
Key elements of the model are:
1. Our space (not space-time) is 4-dimensional. No separate time dimension exists either physically or as any necessary mathematical distinction. All dimensions are identical and symmetric. No one dimension can be singled out to be universally labeled as time.
2. All physical objects in our universe are endowed with an axiomatic vectorial property we call velocity. The scalar value of this property (speed) is invariable and identical for all objects and is labeled as c (speed of light).
3. The experience of time as we know it is an illusion resulting from the observer's motion through space at c. "Time" is the term given by each observer to their own individual direction of travel in our physical four-space.
This model is a better fit with observed phenomenon than current ones as well as being simpler and more elegant, elegance being defined as having symmetry (in the sense that it treats no dimension as being singular).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2266] **viXra:1611.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-13 20:51:33*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In Riemannian geometry there is a unique combination of the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor, Ricci tensor and Ricci scalar that defines a fourth-order Lagrangian for conformal gravity theory. This Lagrangian can be greatly simplified by eliminating the curvature tensor term, leaving a unique combination of just the Ricci tensor and scalar. The resulting formalism and the associated equations of motion provide a tantalizing alternative to Einstein-Hilbert gravity that may have application to the problems of dark matter and dark energy without the imposition of the cosmological constant or extraneous scalar, vector and spinor terms typically employed in attempts to generalize the Einstein-Hilbert formalism.
Gauss-Bonnet gravity specifies that the full Lagrangian hides an ordinary divergence (or surface term) that can be used to eliminate the curvature tensor term. In this paper we show that the overall formalism, outside of surface terms necessary for integration by parts, does not involve any such divergence. Instead, it is the Bianchi identi- ties that are hidden in the formalism, and it is this fact that allows for the simplification of the conformal Lagrangian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2265] **viXra:1611.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-13 03:36:14*

**Authors:** Nyambuya, G. G.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Published: Nyambuya, G. G. (2016), ‘On the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe and the Preponderance of Matter over Antimatter’, May PSTJ Article 15, 7 (8), pp.1223 − 1231.

The original Dirac equation is modified in the simplest imaginable and most trivial manner to include a universal all-pervading and all-permeating Cosmic Four Vector Field (CFVF). This CFVF leads to a modified Dirac equation that violates all the seven discrete symmetries i.e.: C, P, T, CP, CT, PT and CPT. The violation of the C-symmetry alone, is capable of explaining why the Universe appears to be made up chiefly of matter. By applying this CFVF to Einstein's original Field Equation, one is able to link this field with Einstein's cosmological constant term. Since Einstein's cosmological term is now sought in-order to explain the supposed accelerated expansion of the Universe, this means that the inclusion of the CFVF into the Dirac equation can be justified on this basis of the accelerated expansion of the Universe and hence the preponderance of matter over antimatter can be justified on the same basis of the of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In-conclusion, one can safely say that, the Einstein lambda-field (hence the CFVF) causing the acceleration of the the expansion of the Universe, this same field can be held responsible for the observed asymmetry in matter and antimatter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2264] **viXra:1611.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-11 06:53:26*

**Authors:** Jixueshi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Experiments show that Einstein's assumption is wrong

The relativistic derivation is based on Einstein's first and second hypotheses. These two hypotheses have no experimental basis. The two experiments in this paper can prove that these two assumptions do not hold. The coils with constant inertial motion in the magnetic field will generate electric current, and the stationary coil will not generate current. The Michelson-Morley Experiment with the Relative Motion to Earth is not a zero result, proving that Einstein's second hypothesis does not hold. The reliability of the experimental results need not be doubted. For those who have the knowledge of physics, as long as the thought experiment can determine the results of these two experiments is correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2263] **viXra:1611.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 09:01:36*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We can propose two models as an example for Zero Energy Universe Model. In this paper, we research that the total energy of the universe is zero, matters have a positive energy, and only gravitational potential energy is considered as a negative energy to offset this positive energy. In this model, to establish energy conservation law while the universe is expanding, energy needs to be increased, which increases R_gs or R_B of the universe. If a newly appeared energy has anti-gravity or negative pressure characteristics, it can be used as the model that can account for dark energy. There exists a zone that has a uniform energy density within R_gs due to the presence of gravitational potential energy with negative values. Base on this, I estimated the current size of the universe. And the model that I propose can solve some problems that the model "the universe is a black hole" had.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2262] **viXra:1611.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 09:57:55*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 54 Pages. Spanish

We make a compilation of attempts to derive the law of motion of a particle from the field equation of the theory unified asymmetric of Einstein. The equation of motion to first order must contain the law of gravitation of Newton and Coulomb's law. To derive the law of motion we use the method with which Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann solved the problem of motion in General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2261] **viXra:1611.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 03:42:36*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

PROBLEM: General and special relativity provide the formulations for how an observer in one frame of reference perceives motion in another. These cosmological principles arise from application of continuum mechanics, and are inaccessible to the particle perspective. PURPOSE: This paper derives the relativity formulations from a particle perspective, using a non-local hidden-variable solution (Cordus theory). APPROACH: The theory assumes a flux tube of discrete force emissions, and this property is exploited to derive the Lorentz transformation. Then this is generalised to a formalism for time dilation, and the relativistic Doppler relationship. FINDINGS: We show it is straightforward to derive the Lorentz and relativistic Doppler from a particle perspective. However the equations are found to contain an additional term relating to the difference in fabric density between situations. For a homogenous fabric - which is the assumption of general relativity - the conventional formulations are recovered. ORIGINALITY: Deriving the Lorentz and relativistic Doppler from a particle theory is novel. Also novel is the proposition that fabric density is a covert variable. The implication is that inertial frames of reference are only situationally equivalent if they also have the same fabric density, and this has further implications for interpreting cosmological redshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2260] **viXra:1611.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-09 05:36:17*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Let us study at first the representation of energy of ordinary bodies and of massive elementary particles into the domain space-time (3+1)D, then let us consider energy particles represented by photons and by energy quanta. It is known that kinetic energy presents a factor 1/2 for ordinary force fields, but we will demonstrate that factor is absent in determinate physical conditions through the use of the Dirac impulsive function and this consideration can be useful also for energy particles. Frequency shifts of energy particles can be interpreted in the light of new considerations on energy, that prove cosmological shift is the overall outcome of different physical effects due whether to redshift or to blueshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2259] **viXra:1611.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-09 03:52:57*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is based on two, in 1905 by Einstein proposed, presumptions: the first one, labelled by Einstein as the Principle of Relativity, the second one defining the supposed property of the speed of light in vacuum. This article shows how close Einstein, as well as Lorentz, has been to a solid solution of the problems physicists encountered a century ago, observing electro-magnetic phenomena. It also shows that Einstein’s PoR is a fundamentally restricted version of the “now-a-days-PoR”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2258] **viXra:1611.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-08 16:02:14*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Abbreviated version of the talk at the ICGTMP-31, June 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

An analog of the S=1/2 Feynman-Dyson propagator is presented in the framework of the S=1 Weinberg's theory.
The basis for this construction is the concept of the Weinberg field as a system of four field functions differing by parity and by dual transformations.
Next, we analyze the recent controversy in the definitions of the Feynman-Dyson propagator for the field operator containing the S=1/2 self/anti-self charge conjugate states in the papers by D. Ahluwalia et al. and by W. Rodrigues Jr. et al. The solution of this mathematical controversy is obvious. It is related to the necessary doubling of the Fock Space (as in the Barut and Ziino works), thus extending the corresponding Clifford Algebra. However, the logical interrelations of different mathematical foundations with the physical interpretations are not so obvious (Physics should choose only one correct formalism - it is not clear, why two correct mathematical formalisms (which are based on the same postulates) lead to different physical results?)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2257] **viXra:1611.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-08 02:08:21*

**Authors:** Mahesh Khati

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

This paper proves that special theory of relativity is wrong & give answer to following problems.
1) What is dark matter?
2) Dual nature of particles (Wave & particle)
3) Why antimatter is not present in world abundantly?
4) Total energy of photon is kinetic energy, still it is moving of electromagnetic
vibration & rest mass or energy of photon is zero & also, it has wave nature? How
all this is possible at one time?
5) How can photon disintegrate into electron & positron pair and electron, positron get
combine to form photon?
6) Why does charge less particles like photons & neutron have more velocity?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2256] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-06 21:44:08*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Comments welcome

The idea of hyperimaginary numbers is suggested as the first step toward the mathematical basis of res potentia (Plato), presented in the right-hand side of the evolution equation |w|2 = |m|2 + |mi|2. The real and imaginary (tachyonic) components in the right-hand side are always balanced, leading to |w|2 = 0 ― the physicalized world is made of positive mass-energy only, |m|2, which is always balanced (not “conserved”) by equal amount of |mi|2, once-at-a-time, ever since The Beginning (John 1:1). God is interpreted as mathematical (hyperimaginary) object residing “inside” the 4D instant here-and-now (Luke 17:21), and conceptual solutions to fundamental problems in point-set topology, set theory, and number theory are briefly described.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2255] **viXra:1611.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-06 14:21:58*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The H - Z boson particle mass difference has increased by 8.3% in the time interval since before the big bang. This finding indicates that these important type bosons (supersymmetric particle candidates) can be "fine-tuned" in mass to satisfy the needs of life.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2254] **viXra:1611.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-05 19:02:39*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Lorentz transformation of special relativity theory has been derived inductively based on the constancy of light velocity for every inertia systems. The equation predicts possible important results. But many people might feel it is hard to understand these intuitively.
The cause of it may be these have not been derived deductively from basic nature laws for over hundred years. This may mean we don’t know any basic nature laws for special relativity theory yet. Here we try to find these.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2253] **viXra:1611.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-05 12:35:36*

**Authors:** Amine Benachour

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We are examining the possible existence of new relativistic effect that might experimentally be detected in order to provide a rational explanation to thought experiments involving simultaneous events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2252] **viXra:1611.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-05 10:22:11*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. http://bolshoyforum.com/forum/index.php?action=felblog;sa=view;uid=17499

In the "General Theory of Relativity" power formula force. The decomposition of this force into components, interaction of the electric and magnetic forces. If a closer look at the possible expansion of this force, we can find the force that gives the accelerated expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2251] **viXra:1611.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-04 05:43:54*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

This article is a summary of the non-geometrical Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation (LIGT) (references and citations here allow to familiarize oneself with known results from the theory of gravitation in more detail). In the framework of the proposed theory the physical meaning of the metric tensor and square of interval in pseudo-Euclidian space was clarified, all the exact solutions of GR were obtained, the violation on the law of conservation of energy-momentum was eliminated, as well as other difficulties have been overcome. A characteristic feature of the proposed theory is that it is built on the basis of the quantum field theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2250] **viXra:1611.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-04 07:33:47*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The question of the “finely tuned Universe” will be answered by defining a new
dimensionless constant that is potentially fundamental for the future of physics. The constant will
be named the “de Broglie constant” in honor of Louis de Broglie, and it will be defined with a
symbol (Д). This is the constant that gives rise to the constant (α) known as the “fine structure constant” that defines the electromagnetic interaction but was mistakenly considered to be the constant that defines a “fine-tuned” Universe, it will be elaborated that it is the de Broglie constant that does so and that it arises from the fundamental law of mass-energy equivalence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2249] **viXra:1611.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-03 22:18:25*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 1 Page. Sent to Nature Authors on 21 Oct. 2016. Submitted to Nature on 4 Nov. 2016 for the purpose of publication as a Communication Arising.

Irwin et al recently reported on ultraluminous X-ray bursts in two ultracompact companions to nearby elliptical galaxies NGC 4697 and NGC 5128 (sources 1 and 2 respectively). Although they discuss a number of possibilities, they favour neutron stars and black holes as the likely sources: "the sources appear to be normal accreting neutron-star or black-hole X-ray binaries". However, there is no possibility for black holes to be associated with these X-ray sources because the mathematical theory of black holes contains a latent violation of the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2248] **viXra:1611.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-02 21:47:55*

**Authors:** G.H. Mickey Thompson

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Researchers are finding cosmic structures that are too large and too old to have been produced by the big bang. These suggest our big bang took place within an older and larger universe. Yet, the standard model assumes our big bang created the whole universe. That assumption has troubled scientists since the 1940s. The catch is that it makes them treat all evidence as though it was created by this one big bang. This seems to explain why the standard model has encountered so many anomalies.
This paper presents a cosmic model that negates the creation assumption. It describes a more logical paradigm; wherein big bangs are local events in a vastly larger universe. One with a natural means for generating big bangs. The standard model’s many anomalies make more sense when viewed in light of a big bang overrunning and overlaying components of an older universe.
This simple paradigm shift would be all it takes to transform our current model to one that’s more coherent, cohesive, and comprehensive. To make it comprehensive, the paper also includes unique speculations about dark matter, gravity, grand unification, and anthropic conditions.
Keywords: cosmology: theory, dark energy, dark matter, large-scale structure of the universe, galaxies: clusters: general, stars: black holes, quasars

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2247] **viXra:1611.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-03 02:09:05*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

The modern theory of gravity, which is called General Theory of Relativity (GTR or GR), was verified with sufficient accuracy and adopted as the basis for studying gravitational phenomena in modern physics. GR is the geometric theory of gravitation, in which the metric of Riemannian space-time plays the role of relativistic gravitational potential. Therefore it has certain features that make it impossible to connect it with others physics theories in which geometry plays only a supporting role. Another formal feature of general relativity is that the study and the use of its mathematical apparatus require much more time than the study of any of the branches of modern physics. This book is an attempt to build a non-geometrical version of the theory of gravitation, which is in the framework of the modern Lorentz-invariant field theory and would not cause difficulties when teaching students. A characteristic feature of the proposed theory is that it is built on the basis of the quantum field theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1457] **viXra:1701.0319 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-11 05:41:16*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we look at the ultimate limits of a photon propulsion rocket. The maximum velocity for a photon propulsion rocket is just below the speed of light and is a function of the reduced Compton wavelength of the heaviest subatomic particles in the rocket. We are basically combining the relativistic rocket equation with Haug’s new insight in the maximum velocity for anything with rest mass; see [1, 2, 3]. An interesting new finding is that in order to accelerate any sub-atomic “fundamental” particle to its maximum velocity, the particle rocket basically needs two Planck masses of initial load. This might sound illogical until one understands that subatomic particles with different masses have different maximum velocities. This can be generalized to large rockets and gives us the maximum theoretical velocity of a fully-efficient and ideal rocket. Further, no additional fuel is needed to accelerate a Planck mass particle to its maximum velocity; this also might sound absurd, but it has a very simple and logical solution that is explained in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1456] **viXra:1701.0319 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-10 17:28:19*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we look at the ultimate limits of a photon propulsion rocket. The maximum velocity for a photon propulsion rocket is just below the speed of light and is a function of the reduced Compton wavelength of the heaviest subatomic particles in the rocket. We are basically combining the relativistic rocket equation with Haug’s new insight in the maximum velocity for anything with rest mass; see [1, 2, 3]. An interesting new finding is that in order to accelerate any sub-atomic “fundamental” particle to its maximum velocity, the particle rocket basically needs two Planck masses of initial load. This might sound illogical until one understands that subatomic particles with different masses have different maximum velocities. This can be generalized to large rockets and gives us the maximum theoretical velocity of a fully-efficient and ideal rocket. Further, no additional fuel is needed to accelerate a Planck mass particle to its maximum velocity; this also might sound absurd, but it has a very simple and logical solution that is explained in this paper. This paper is Classified!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1455] **viXra:1701.0289 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-14 03:42:17*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Space is a three-dimensional extent; matter also has three spatial dimensions. Time is the
result of the action-reaction of space and matter.
Space is what matter uses as space. Space is not dependent on its texture; it can be made out
of matter or non-matter. Time is one characteristic of the given space used by a given matter.
Using this new approach called space-matter theory, we can find that there are different
spaces (cp. tunneling), where the same matter has different velocities. These velocities can be
greater than c; their value depends on the amount of information that the given space contains.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1454] **viXra:1612.0356 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-30 14:40:02*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is currently accepted in Physics that General Relativity can explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing but Classical Physics cannot. The Newtonian calculation for the deflection angle of light, treating light as a gravitating mass, gives only half of the observed amount, whereas General Relativity gives the correct amount. However, in Energy Field Theory space is modeled as being an aether type field that determines the local speed of light and rate of time (due to both light and matter waves being slowed in the space around a mass) so this Classical Physics approach can fully explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing, in agreement with General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1453] **viXra:1612.0356 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-27 16:50:15*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is currently accepted in Physics that General Relativity can explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing but Classical Physics cannot. The Newtonian calculation for the deflection angle of light, treating light as a gravitating mass, gives only half of the observed amount, whereas General Relativity gives the correct amount. However, in Energy Field Theory space is modeled as being an aether type field that determines the local speed of light and rate of time (due to both light and matter waves being slowed in the space around a mass) so this Classical Physics approach can fully explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing, in agreement with General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1452] **viXra:1612.0341 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-11 01:48:26*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** Typo fixed in penultimate paragraph of page 6. Os changed to phis in Uggerhoj's name.

Motivated by the benefits of improving our knowledge of Newton's constant G, Feldman et al have recently proposed a new measurement involving a gravitational clock launched into deep space. The clock's mechanism is supposed to be the linear oscillation of a test mass falling back and forth along the length of a hole through the center of a spherical source mass. Similar devices — ones that would have remained in orbit around Earth — were proposed about 50 years ago for the same purpose. None of these proposals were ever carried out.
Further back, in 1632 Galileo proposed the thought experiment of a cannonball falling into a hole through the center of Earth. Curiously, no one has yet observed the gravity-induced radial motion of a test object through the center of a massive body. Also known as a gravity-train, not a one has yet reached its antipodal destination. From this kind of gravitational clock, humans have not yet recorded a single tick.
The well known reliability of Newton's and Einstein's theories of gravity may give confidence that the device will work as planned. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a less expensive apparatus — Small Low-Energy Non-Collider — ought to be built first, simply to prove that the operating principle is sound. Certain peculiar facts about Schwarzschild's interior solution are discussed here; and a novel way of interpreting gravitational effects will be presented in Part II, together adding support for the cautious advice to more thoroughly look before we leap to the outskirts of the Solar System.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1451] **viXra:1612.0330 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-03 21:57:45*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article is prompted by realization that the demonstration of the vanishing of the GR d'Alembertian of the space-time coordinates when the contracted affine connection vanishes requires those coordinates to be treated as GR scalars; there is no such demonstration when the space-time coordinates are treated as a GR four-vector. That the "harmonic coordinate condition", namely the vanishing of the contracted affine connection, thus fails to live up to its "harmonic coordinate" appellation removes its qualification to be the description of the coordinates routinely used by observational/empirical physical scientists. It is suggested instead that the GR coordinate condition which corresponds to those coordinates is that a Lorentz-scalar attribute of the metric is fixed to its Minkowski-limit value; Lorentz-scalar attributes of the metric include its determinant and its contraction with the Minkowski tensor. Examination of the corresponding two Minkowski-limit GR coordinate conditions in the case of the Schwarzschild solution shows that Minkowski-limit fixing of the value of the metric's determinant permits the Schwarzschild radius to be made arbitrarily small but not zero, whereas Minkowski-limit fixing of the value of the metric's contraction with the Minkowski tensor permits the Schwarzschild radius to be made zero. The latter GR coordinate condition thus seems a viable hypothesis for the routinely used observational/empirical coordinates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1450] **viXra:1612.0320 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-03 04:39:02*

**Authors:** Gocho V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

To upload a manuscript to the e-print archive of Cornell University, you need endorsement (recommendation), which you will never get if the content of the manuscript contradicts the theory of relativity. Of course, physics journals with the highest impact factor in the world directly refuse the publication of evidence, which can discredit the theory of relativity. Nobody can assume that a professor of physics at world-renowned university does not know what a coordinate reference system means. It is unclear, why the physical society is not standing decidedly behind the strong evidence that the measured velocity of light is not the same in all frames of reference. This fact was proven not only in the past century, but also by the last experiments carried out by means of modern technologies. In fact, the only remaining argument of the dominant orthodox part of the scientific community for more than one century is that “if the theory of relativity is mathematically proven – then this theory is correct…”, but… “not everyone can understand the theory of relativity”. The inaccessibility distance is actually silently supported to all, who “do not understand” the theory of relativity. We all know the anecdote concerning Ludwik Silberstein and Arthur Eddington about – “who are the three men who actually understood the theory of relativity?”… Actually, the main reason for the fact that this theory is incomprehensible is not that the mathematical apparatus is complex, but that the people do not accept illusory claims. The real statement can always be explained in a simple and comprehensible way for everyone. That is why, the book “THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY = THE BIGGEST DELUSION IN PHYSICS FOR 20TH CENTURY” (in 3 parts) was published at Amazon. This book is understandable for everyone who studied mathematics in secondary school.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1449] **viXra:1612.0304 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-20 11:31:52*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 5 Pages. I only made a small correction without changing any significance.

Several aspects of the dark matter proposal are discussed. It is shown that the existing baryonic mass in galaxies is sufficient for closing the Universe. It is concluded, then, that dark matter does not exist at all in the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1448] **viXra:1612.0292 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-01 11:18:56*

**Authors:** Paolo Bolzoni

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

n this study we want to propose a heuristic model to compute and to interpret the dark energy content of our universe. To this purpose we include the mass-energy of the static gravitational field and compute its effect at very small distances. From its analysis, we obtain for the smallest surface scale for the empty space $\tau=2h\gamma/5c^3$. After that we show, how this result can be used to compute a natural energy cutoff $k_c$ for all quantum fields and study its utility in computing the dark energy density and its implications on the content of fermionic and bosonic elementary fields. Indeed for the vacuum equation of state w=p_{vac}/\rho_{vac} we obtain w=}-128\pi^2/(15\Delta N), where \Delta N\= N_f - N_b$ represents the difference between the number of species of fermions and bosons. Finally comparing our result with the measured cosmological parameters, we discus general constraints on the field content beyond the Standard Model of the elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1447] **viXra:1612.0292 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-19 07:16:24*

**Authors:** Paolo Bolzoni

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this study we want to propose a heuristic model to compute and to
interpret the dark energy content of our
universe.
To this purpose we include
the mass-energy of the static gravitational field and
compute its effect at very small
distances. From its analysis, we obtain for the smallest surface
scale for the empty space $\tau=2h\gamma/5c^3$.
After that we show, how this result can be used to compute a
natural energy cutoff $k_c$ for all quantum fields and
study its utility in computing the dark energy density and its
implications on the content of fermionic
and bosonic elementary fields. Indeed for the vacuum equation of
state w=p_{vac}/\rho_{vac} we obtain w=}-128\pi^2/15\Delta N and
\Omega_{vac}\approx 21\Delta N/256\pi^2, where
\Delta N\= N_f - N_b$ represents the difference between the number of
species of fermions and bosons.
Finally comparing our
result with the measured cosmological parameters,
we discus general constraints on the field content
beyond the Standard Model of the elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1446] **viXra:1612.0256 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-02 11:43:43*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibanez Fernandez

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Abstract
The paper presents a deep theoretical analysis of the special theory of relativity. Unfortunately, the special theory of relativity was violated the basic principle of relativity. According to this principle all the laws of nature are the same in all inertial motion systems

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1445] **viXra:1612.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-23 09:53:14*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This note discusses an absurdity that is rooted in the modern physics interpretation of Einstein’s relativistic mass formula when v is very close to c. Modern physics (and Einstein himself) claimed that the speed of a mass can never reach the speed of light. Yet at the same time they claim that it can approach the speed of light without any upper limit on how close it could get to that special speed. As we will see, this leads to some absurd predictions. Because even if a material system cannot reach the speed of light, an important question is then, “How close can it get to the speed of light?” Is there really no clear-cut bound on the exact speed limit for an electron, as an example?
Key words: Relativistic mass, maximum velocity of subatomic particles, boundary condition, Haug maximum velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1444] **viXra:1612.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-22 16:36:07*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This note discusses an absurdity that is rooted in the modern physics interpretation of Einstein's relativistic mass formula when v is very close to c. Modern physics (and Einstein himself) claimed that the speed of a mass can never reach the speed of light. Yet at the same time they claim that it can approach the speed of light without any upper limit on how close it could get to that special speed. As we will see, this leads to some absurd predictions. Because even if a material system cannot reach the speed of light, an important question is then, “How close can it get to the speed of light?” Is there really no clear-cut bound on the exact speed limit for an electron, as an example?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1443] **viXra:1612.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-07 09:29:19*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The starting point for the concept is the idea that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. Based on this idea, we can define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time, but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is what I think is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein's relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock, it becomes clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. Following this idea we can construct a whole theory closely following the empirical evidence we already have. This model suggests that space doesn't have a variable geometry, instead complex particles inner geometry changes what we call time and space.
This concept is only intended to be a starting point for a proper theory of space. It only contains few principles that are intended to give a better and more natural explanation how the universe works.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1442] **viXra:1612.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-05 08:29:56*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The starting point for the concept is the idea that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. Based on this idea, we can define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time, but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is what I think is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein's relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock, it becomes clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. Following this idea we can construct a whole theory closely following the empirical evidence we already have. This model suggests that space doesn't have a variable geometry, instead complex particles inner geometry changes what we call time and space. This concept is only intended to be a starting point for a proper theory of space.
Usually theories start from simple concepts. If the concept is wrong, then mathematics can't do anything to fix it, unless you accept the mathematical predictions are irrational. Mathematics can be used to further develop the theory and to make sophisticated predictions. My opinion is, both Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity theories, at some point, apparently make irrational predictions.
This paper, only contains few principles that are intended to give a better and more natural explanation how the universe works.
I will try to explain simple ideas about time, space and fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1441] **viXra:1612.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-17 06:18:01*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The starting point for the concept is the idea that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. Based on this idea, we can define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time, but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is what I think is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein's relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock, it becomes clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. Following this idea we can construct a whole theory closely following the empirical evidence we already have. This model suggests that space doesn't have a variable geometry, instead complex particles inner geometry changes what we call time and space. This concept is only intended to be a starting point for a proper theory of space. It only contains few principles that are intended to give a better and more natural explanation how the universe works. I will try to explain simple ideas about time, space and fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1440] **viXra:1612.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-19 11:16:09*

**Authors:** Silas Sacheli Santos

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Relativistics equations are derived using concepts of Newton, Lewis, Doppler and non-instantaneos forces. And the theory is in agreement with particle collision, mass variation, time dilation, transversal Doppler effect, kinetic energy, etc.
We propose a mass spectroscopy experiment to test the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1439] **viXra:1612.0128 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-10 09:12:33*

**Authors:** Blair D Macdonald

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

Continuing the debate on whether the universe is fractal by nature: an experiment was undertaken on the ‘simple’ Koch Snowflake fractal to test whether it matches observations and conjectures. The snowflake was inverted to model observations from a static or ‘measured’ position – within an iterating fractal set. Converse to the classical fractal snowflake emergence, new triangles sizes were held constant and earlier triangles in the set expanded as the set iterated. Kinematic velocities and accelerations were calculated for both the area of the total fractal, and the distance between points within the fractal set. The inverted fractal was also tested for the Hubble's Law. It was discovered that the area(s) expanded exponentially; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. The model was consistent with the standard ΛCDM model of cosmology and demonstrated a singularity ‘Big Bang’ beginning; homogeneous isotropic expansion consistent with the CMB; Hubble's Law expansion – with a Hubble diagram and Hubble's constant; and accelerating expansion with a ‘cosmological’ constant an expansion rate consistent with, and capable of explaining the conjecture of early inflation epoch of the universe. The model predicts and matches current galaxy distribution observation – clustered nearby and smooth on large scales – and thus is inconsistence with the cosmological principle. The mechanism of expansion is consistent with quantum mechanical descriptions: the vacuum catastrophe is addressed. It was concluded that the universe behaves as a general as a fractal object, where we are observing inside it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1438] **viXra:1612.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-08 04:52:05*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A short time ago, I published an article about deceleration of the universe. It was especially based on entropy, and it explains how does matter work, produce free energy by using its own creation motion without external energy; also is about instant communication and jumping interstellar by imitating starting condition of matter called as big-bang as a side effect on itself that the same with faster than light expansion as creation motion and outer space motion are accepted together. In this work, it was performed some analysis of the some specific subjects such as deceleration, uncertainty, particle formation, black hole, gravitation, energy, mass and light speed for identical simulation computations of the entire universe as the most sensitive as possible being related that article. There are some informations about escaping from black holes, event horizon lengths, viscosity of free space, re-derivation of Planck constants and infrastructure of some basic laws of existence mathematically as matter is directly dependent of geometric rules. Also, some elements were given for the readers to solve some required constants as the most sensitive manner. As the constants are not enough in the name of engineering, also finally I found a working algorithm which reduces process number of the power series to process number of the quadratic equations like calculating a root of an integer as an irrational number by solving equation; so also it can be used to calculate trigonometric values in the best manner for simulations of the entire universe besides physical constants as irrational values. Also there are new informations about the pioneer anomaly, gamma ray burst and non-observational universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1437] **viXra:1612.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-07 19:40:36*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, a paradox resulted from the mass increasing with speed is presented. In this paradox, the same system appears two conflict states. The system is stay in good order for an observer who is moving together with the system, but it is damaged for an observer who is at rest. To avoid this contradiction while leaving relativity intact, we have to introduce the assumption that the strength of a substance will increase with its speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1436] **viXra:1611.0406 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-09 06:26:50*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Version 3 in English.

This article presents the vector Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1435] **viXra:1611.0406 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-03 09:23:52*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Version 2 in English.

This article presents the vector Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1434] **viXra:1611.0344 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-05 23:38:02*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) is a new interpretation of absolute motion already proposed by this author. AST easily explains many light speed experiments, including the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. AST has also been extended to electrostatics, revealing a mysterious nature of electrostatic fields. After I completed developing the major part of AST, I came across an idea that, if two oppositely charged spheres are fixed to the two ends of a rigid rod , and the system is in absolute motion, according to AST, the charge-rod system will be subjected to a net electrostatic force and hence accelerate, implying free energy and reactionless thrust ! Obviously such a possibility would be very exciting, if it really existed. But I was also disappointed because, if free energy doesn’t really exist, this would imply that my theory (AST ) is wrong. I had never heard of such an effect before. Later I found in the internet that such an effect in fact exists and is known as the Biefeld-Brown effect and with unknown origin. Although AST neatly predicts this effect and can be a very compelling explanation, I feel that it still needs to be developed . The purpose of this paper is to invite and inspire theoretical and experimental researchers to work on this exciting technology. Exciting possibilities have been presented for this purpose. For example, according to AST, it is possible to produce by a small free energy device, made by stacking large number of capacitors, a net force that can lift an object as massive as an aircraft carrier. It is shown that the net force on the capacitor is directly proportional to the square of the applied voltage, inversely proportional to the square of plate separation distance, directly proportional to the area of the capacitor plates, directly proportional to the relative permittivity of the dielectric material, and directly proportional to absolute velocity for absolute velocities much less than the speed of light. That the net force is directly proportional to the square of the electric field strength implies that dielectric materials with the highest dielectric strength are vital to the realization of free energy devices. Diamond is the most promising material for this, with dielectric strength of 2000 MV/m.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1433] **viXra:1611.0344 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-28 01:36:40*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) is a new interpretation of absolute motion already proposed by this author. AST easily explains many light speed experiments, including the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. AST has also been extended to electrostatics, revealing a mysterious nature of electrostatic fields. After I completed developing the major part of AST, I came across an idea that, if two oppositely charged spheres are fixed to the two ends of a rigid rod , and the system is in absolute motion, according to AST, the charge-rod system will be subjected to a net electrostatic force and hence accelerate, implying free energy and reactionless thrust ! Obviously such a possibility would be very exciting, if it really existed. But I was also disappointed because, if free energy doesn’t really exist, this would imply that my theory (AST ) is wrong. I had never heard of such an effect before. Later I found in the internet that such an effect in fact exists and is known as the Biefeld-Brown effect and with unknown origin. Although AST neatly predicts this effect and can be a very compelling explanation, I feel that it still needs to be developed . The purpose of this paper is to invite and inspire theoretical and experimental researchers to work on this exciting technology. Exciting possibilities have been presented for this purpose. For example, according to AST, it is possible to produce by a small free energy device, made by stacking large number of capacitors, a net force that can lift an object as massive as an aircraft carrier. It is shown that the net force on the capacitor is directly proportional to the square of the applied voltage, inversely proportional to the square of plate separation distance, directly proportional to the area of the capacitor plates, directly proportional to the relative permittivity of the dielectric material, and directly proportional to absolute velocity for absolute velocities much less than the speed of light. That the net force is directly proportional to the square of the electric field strength implies that dielectric materials with the highest dielectric strength are vital to the realization of free energy devices. Diamond is the most promising material for this, with dielectric strength of 2000 MV/m.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1432] **viXra:1611.0310 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-25 14:43:38*

**Authors:** David F. Crawford

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Replacement to correct two references (Crawford 2009a & Crawford 2009b)

It is shown that the light curve widths of type Ia supernovae do not have time dilation and that their magnitudes are consistent with a static universe. The standard analysis for type Ia supernovae uses a set of templates to overcome the intrinsic variation of the supernova light curves with wavelength. The reference light curves derived from this set of templates contain an anomaly in that at short wavelengths the width of the light curve is proportional to the emitted wavelength. Furthermore this anomaly is exactly what would be produced if supernovae at different redshifts did not have time dilation and yet time dilation corrections were applied. It is the specific nature of this anomaly that is evidence for a static universe. The lack of time dilation is confirmed by direct analysis of the original observations. It is also found that the peak flux density of the light curves in the reference templates had a strong dependence on wavelength that could be due to the use of an incorrect distance modulus. This dependence is investigated by computing the peak absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae observations from the original observations using a static cosmological model. The results support the hypothesis of a static universe. It is also argued that the photometric redshift relation and spectroscopic ages are consistent with a static universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1431] **viXra:1611.0303 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-14 02:45:54*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 19 pages

The special theory of relativity (STR) describes the time dilation between two reference frames moving relative to each other at a constant speed. The Lorentz transformation provides the magnitude of this time dilation. The present work focuses on the fact that the time observed on the ‘other’ system will depend on the location of the clocks used for time comparisons, and we refer to positional (location specific) time. The paper points to the various ‘observational principles’, i.e. the specification of which clocks to apply, and we present a unified framework for these principles. It is argued that the total picture of the observed time dilations is more informative than the usual approach of focusing on one specific expression for time dilation, apparently based on a specific observational principle and a somewhat arbitrary definition of simultaneity. The motivation of the paper is to challenge the current narrative regarding time dilation occurring under the conditions of the STR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1430] **viXra:1611.0286 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-21 06:29:30*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Discussing for the origin of fine-structure of the Universe’s space and the Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1429] **viXra:1611.0286 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-21 03:08:43*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Discussing for the origin of fine-structure of the Universe’s space and the Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1428] **viXra:1611.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-16 02:56:59*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This is a short paper on the maximum possible momentum for subatomic particles, as well as on the relativistic energy-momentum relationship for a Planck mass. This paper builds significantly on the maximum velocity for subatomic particles introduced by [1, 2, 3] and I strongly recommend reading an earlier paper [1] before reading this paper.
It is important that we distinguish between Planck momentum and the momentum of a Planck mass. The Planck momentum can (almost) be reached for any subatomic particles with rest-mass lower than a Planck mass when accelerated to their maximum velocity, given by Haug. Just before the Planck momentum is reached, the mass will turn into a Planck mass. The Planck mass is surprisingly at rest for an instant, and then the mass will then burst into pure energy. This may sound illogical at first, but the Planck mass is the very turning point of the light particle (the indivisible particle) and it is the only mass that is at rest as observed from any reference frame.
That the Planck mass is at rest as observed from any reference frame could be as important as understanding that the speed of light is the same in every reference frame. The Planck mass seems to be as unique and special among masses (particles with mass) as the speed of light is among velocities. It is likely one of the big missing pieces towards a unified theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1427] **viXra:1611.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-13 19:15:34*

**Authors:** [Alik] Vitali Perakh

**Comments:** 29 Pages. new section added

The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative, strictly geometric, interpretation for the observed phenomenon of time. This Geometric Model
of Time (GMT) is consistent with both Theories of Relativity but goes beyond cur-
rent explanations for the nature of and the apparent one-directness of time - the
so-called Arrow of Time.
Key elements of the model are:
1. Our physical space (not space-time) is a 4-dimensional phenomenon.
The notion of a dimension of time that is distinct from space is not necessary
for a complete description of our universe. All dimensions are identical and
symmetrical. No one dimension can be singled out to be universally or uniquely
labeled as "time" or be otherwise unique.
2. All physical objects in our universe are endowed with an axiomatic vectorial
property we call velocity. The scalar value of this property (speed) is invariable
and identical for all objects and is labeled as c (speed of light).
3. The experience of time as we know it is an illusion resulting from the observer's
motion through space at c. "Time" is the term given by each observer to their
own individual direction of travel in our physical four-space.
This model is a better fit with observed phenomena than current ones as well as
being simpler and more elegant, elegance being defined as having symmetry (in the
sense that it treats no dimension as being singular).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1426] **viXra:1611.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-08 19:24:46*

**Authors:** [Alik] Vitali Perakh

**Comments:** 26 Pages. resubitting bad upload

The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative, strictly geometric,
interpretation for the observed phenomenon of time. This Geometric Model
of Time (GMT) is consistent with both Theories of Relativity but goes beyond current
explanations for the nature of and the apparent one-directness of time - the
so-called Arrow of Time.
Key elements of the model are:
1. Our physical space (not space-time) is a 4-dimensional phenomenon.
The notion of a dimension of time that is distinct from space is not necessary
for a complete description of our universe. All dimensions are identical and
symmetrical. No one dimension can be singled out to be universally or uniquely
labeled as ”time” or be otherwise unique.
2. All physical objects in our universe are endowed with an axiomatic vectorial
property we call velocity. The scalar value of this property (speed) is invariable
and identical for all objects and is labeled as c (speed of light).
3. The experience of time as we know it is an illusion resulting from the observer’s
motion through space at c. ”Time” is the term given by each observer to their
own individual direction of travel in our physical four-space.
This model is a better fit with observed phenomena than current ones as well as
being simpler and more elegant, elegance being defined as having symmetry (in the
sense that it treats no dimension as being singular).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1425] **viXra:1611.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-31 17:39:43*

**Authors:** [Alik] Vitali Perakh

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative, strictly geo-
metric, interpretation for the observed phenomenon of time. This Geometric Model
of Time (GMT) is consistent with both Theories of Relativity but goes beyond cur-
rent explanations for the nature of and the apparent one-directness of time - the
so-called Arrow of Time.
Key elements of the model are:
1. Our physical space (not space-time) is a 4-dimensional phenomenon.
The notion of a dimension of time that is distinct from space is not necessary
for a complete description of our universe. All dimensions are identical and
symmetrical. No one dimension can be singled out to be universally or uniquely
labeled as "time" or be otherwise unique.
2. All physical objects in our universe are endowed with an axiomatic vectorial
property we call velocity. The scalar value of this property (speed) is invariable
and identical for all objects and is labeled as c (speed of light).
3. The experience of time as we know it is an illusion resulting from the observer's
motion through space at c. "Time" is the term given by each observer to their
own individual direction of travel in our physical four-space.
This model is a better t with observed phenomena than current ones as well as
being simpler and more elegant, elegance being dened as having symmetry (in the
sense that it treats no dimension as being singular).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1424] **viXra:1611.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-30 02:18:17*

**Authors:** [Alik] Vitali Perakh

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Added more demonstrations of the simplification of the math via GMT

The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative, strictly geometric, interpretation for the observed phenomenon of time. This Geometric Model of Time (GMT) is consistent with both Theories of Relativity but goes beyond cur- rent explanations for the nature of and the apparent one-directness of time - the so-called Arrow of Time. Key elements of the model are: 1. Our physical space (not space-time) is 4-dimensional. No separate time dimension exists either physically or as any necessary mathematical distinction. All dimensions are identical and symmetric. No one dimension can be singled out to be universally labeled as time. 2. All physical objects in our universe are endowed with an axiomatic vectorial property we call velocity. The scalar value of this property (speed) is invariable and identical for all objects and is labeled as c (speed of light). 3. The experience of time as we know it is an illusion resulting from the observer's motion through space at c. "Time" is the term given by each observer to their own individual direction of travel in our physical four-space. This model is a better fit with observed phenomenon than current ones as well as being simpler and more elegant, elegance being defined as having symmetry (in the sense that it treats no dimension as being singular).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1423] **viXra:1611.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-29 02:52:34*

**Authors:** [Alik] Vitali Perakh

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative, strictly geometric, interpretation for the observed phenomenon of time. This Geometric Model
of Time (GMT) is consistent with both Theories of Relativity but goes beyond cur-
rent explanations for the nature of and the apparent one-directness of time - the
so-called Arrow of Time.
Key elements of the model are:
1. Our physical space (not space-time) is 4-dimensional.
No separate time dimension exists either physically or as any necessary mathematical distinction. All dimensions are identical and symmetric. No one
dimension can be singled out to be universally labeled as time.
2. All physical objects in our universe are endowed with an axiomatic vectorial
property we call velocity. The scalar value of this property (speed) is invariable
and identical for all objects and is labeled as c (speed of light).
3. The experience of time as we know it is an illusion resulting from the observer's
motion through space at c. "Time" is the term given by each observer to their
own individual direction of travel in our physical four-space.
This model is a better fit with observed phenomenon than current ones as well as
being simpler and more elegant, elegance being defined as having symmetry (in the
sense that it treats no dimension as being singular).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1422] **viXra:1611.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-17 02:19:08*

**Authors:** [Alik] Vitali Perakh

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative, strictly geometric, interpretation for the observed phenomenon of time. This Geometric Model
of Time (GMT) is consistent with both Theories of Relativity but goes beyond cur-
rent explanations for the nature of and the apparent one-directness of time - the
so-called Arrow of Time.
Key elements of the model are:
1. Our physical space (not space-time) is 4-dimensional.
No separate time dimension exists either physically or as any necessary
mathematical distinction. All dimensions are identical and symmetric. No one
dimension can be singled out to be universally labeled as time.
2. All physical objects in our universe are endowed with an axiomatic vectorial
property we call velocity. The scalar value of this property (speed) is invariable
and identical for all objects and is labeled as c (speed of light).
3. The experience of time as we know it is an illusion resulting from the observer's
motion through space at c. "Time" is the term given by each observer to their
own individual direction of travel in our physical four-space.
This model is a better fit with observed phenomenon than current ones as well as
being simpler and more elegant, elegance being defined as having symmetry (in the
sense that it treats no dimension as being singular).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1421] **viXra:1611.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-15 18:11:29*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Minor changes in v2

In Riemannian geometry there is a unique combination of the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor, Ricci tensor and Ricci scalar that defines a fourth-order Lagrangian for conformal gravity theory. This Lagrangian can be greatly simplified by eliminating the curvature tensor term, leaving a unique combination of just the Ricci tensor and scalar. The resulting formalism and the associated equations of motion provide a tantalizing alternative to Einstein-Hilbert gravity that may have application to the problems of dark matter and dark energy without the imposition of the cosmological constant or extraneous scalar, vector and spinor terms typically employed in attempts to generalize the Einstein-Hilbert formalism.
Gauss-Bonnet gravity specifies that the full Lagrangian hides an ordinary divergence (or surface term) that can be used to eliminate the curvature tensor term. In this paper we show that the overall formalism, outside of surface terms necessary for integration by parts, does not involve any such divergence. Instead, it is the Bianchi identities that are hidden in the formalism, and it is this fact that allows for the simplification of the conformal Lagrangian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1420] **viXra:1611.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-13 13:14:41*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., (2016), ‘On Sinusoidal Time Variation of the Newtonian Gravitational Constant’, PSTJ, Mar. 10, Vol. 7(3) Article 18, pp.650− 659. (ISBN: 1530633834 ; EAN13: 9781530633838)

In a recent publication [J. D. Anderson at al. (2015)', Europhys. Lett. 110, 10002] presented a strong correlation between the measured values of the Newtonian gravitational constant G and the 5.9 year oscillation of the length of day. Following this publication of Anderson at al. (2015)'s publication, S. Schlamminger at al. [Phys. Rev. D 91, 121101(R)] compiled a more complete set of published measurements of G made in the last 35 years where they performed a least-squares regression to a sinusoid with period 5.9 years and found this fit to still yields a reasonable fit to these data thus somewhat putting credence to this claim of Anderson at al. (2015). However, it is yet to be established as to whether or not this signal is gravitational in origin. In this brief communication, we point-out that -- in principle -- this sinusoidal signal has a place in the gravitomagnetic model that we currently working on.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1419] **viXra:1611.0189 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-13 13:10:57*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Published: Nyambuya, G. G. (2016), ‘A Prediction of Quantised Gravitational Deflection of Starlight’, PSTJ, Vol. 7(13), pp.1827 − 1833. (ISSN: 2153-8301)

In an earlier reading, it is argued that the pivotal, all-important, critical, crucial and supposedly watershed factor " 2 " emerging from Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GTR) and used in Solar eclipse measurements by Sir Arthur S. Eddington as the clearest indicator yet that Einstein's GTR is indeed a superior theory to Newton's theory of gravitation may not be adequate as an arbiter to decide the fate of Newtonian gravitational theory. In the present reading, using ideas from research that we have carried out over the years – research whose endeavour is to obtain a General Spin Dirac Equation in Curved Spacetime (GS-Dirac Equation); we present yet another " surprising " result, namely that – if the ideas leading to the GS-Dirac Equation and as-well those presented in the reading rendering the factor " 2 " as being inadequate as an arbiter to decide the fate of Newtonian gravitational theory, then, the gravitational deflection of a photon may very well depend on its spin in such a manner that if photons of different spins where to be observed undergoing gravitational deflection by a massive object such as the Sun, the resulting deflection may very well be seen exhibiting distinct deflection quantization as a result of the quantized spins.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1418] **viXra:1611.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-13 12:03:36*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We can propose two models as an example for Zero Energy Universe Model. In this paper, we research that the total energy of the universe is zero, matters have a positive energy, and only gravitational potential energy is considered as a negative energy to offset this positive energy. In this model, to establish energy conservation law while the universe is expanding, energy needs to be increased, which increases R_gs or R_B of the universe. If a newly appeared energy has antigravity or negative pressure characteristics, it can be used as the model that can account for dark energy. There exists a zone that has a uniform energy density within R_gs due to the presence of gravitational potential energy with negative values. Base on this, I estimated the current size of the universe. And the model that I propose can solve some problems that the model “the universe is a black hole” had.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1417] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-28 08:33:27*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The idea of hyperimaginary numbers is suggested as the first step toward the mathematical basis of res potentia (Plato), presented in the right-hand side of the evolution equation |w|2 = |m|2 + |mi|2. The real and imaginary (tachyonic) components in the right-hand side are always balanced, leading to |w|2 = 0 - the physicalized world is made of positive mass-energy only, |m|2, which is always balanced (not "conserved") by equal amount of |mi|2, once-at-a-time, ever since The Beginning (John 1:1). God is interpreted as mathematical (hyperimaginary) object residing "inside" the 4D instant here-and-now (Luke 17:21), and conceptual solutions to fundamental problems in point-set topology, set theory, and number theory are briefly described.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1416] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-07 08:37:28*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 20 Pages. One reference added and text expanded.

The idea of hyperimaginary numbers is suggested as the first step toward the mathematical basis of res potentia (Plato), presented in the right-hand side of the evolution equation |w|2 = |m|2 + |mi|2. The real and imaginary (tachyonic) components in the right-hand side are always balanced, leading to |w|2 = 0 - the physicalized world is made of positive mass-energy only, |m|2, which is always balanced (not "conserved") by equal amount of |mi|2, once-at-a-time, ever since The Beginning (John 1:1). God is interpreted as mathematical (hyperimaginary) object residing "inside" the 4D instant here-and-now (Luke 17:21), and conceptual solutions to fundamental problems in point-set topology, set theory, and number theory are briefly described.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1415] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-28 11:08:01*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Final version.

The idea of hyperimaginary numbers is suggested as the first step toward the mathematical basis of res potentia (Plato), presented in the right-hand side of the evolution equation |w|2 = |m|2 + |mi|2. The real and imaginary (tachyonic) components in the right-hand side are always balanced, leading to |w|2 = 0 - the physicalized world is made of positive mass-energy only, |m|2, which is always balanced (not "conserved") by equal amount of |mi|2, once-at-a-time, ever since The Beginning (John 1:1). God is interpreted as mathematical (hyperimaginary) object residing "inside" the 4D instant here-and-now (Luke 17:21), and conceptual solutions to fundamental problems in point-set topology, set theory, and number theory are briefly described.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1414] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-27 10:05:29*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Two references added and typos corrected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1413] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-24 05:58:10*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Comments and suggestions will be appreciated.

The idea of hyperimaginary numbers is suggested as the first step toward the mathematical basis of res potentia (Plato), presented in the right-hand side of the evolution equation |w|2 = |m|2 + |mi|2. The real and imaginary (tachyonic) components in the right-hand side are always balanced, leading to |w|2 = 0 - the physicalized world is made of positive mass-energy only, |m|2, which is always balanced (not "conserved") by equal amount of |mi|2, once-at-a-time, ever since The Beginning (John 1:1). God is interpreted as mathematical (hyperimaginary) object residing "inside" the 4D instant here-and-now (Luke 17:21), and conceptual solutions to fundamental problems in point-set topology, set theory, and number theory are briefly outlined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1412] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-21 05:14:18*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Comments and suggestions will be appreciated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1411] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-19 05:08:38*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. References added and text expanded

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1410] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-11 04:19:37*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Three references added, typos corrected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1409] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-07 19:16:22*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Two references added, text expanded

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1408] **viXra:1611.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-06 21:02:15*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 1 Page. Submitted to the editors of Nature on 4 Nov. 2016 for the purpose of publication.

Irwin et al recently reported on ultraluminous X-ray bursts in two ultracompact companions to nearby elliptical galaxies NGC 4697 and NGC 5128 (sources 1 and 2 respectively). Although they discuss a number of possibilities, they favour neutron stars and black holes as the likely sources: "the sources appear to be normal accreting neutron-star or black-hole X-ray binaries". However, there is no possibility for black holes to be associated with these X-ray sources because the mathematical theory of black holes contains a latent violation of the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1407] **viXra:1611.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-29 10:59:56*

**Authors:** G. H. Mickey Thompson

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The standard cosmological model is based on the unprovable assumption the big bang created the whole universe. Upon examining our big bang’s uneven and chunky appearance, one is more inclined to see it as overrunning artifacts of past big bangs.
This paper introduces a steady state model that abandons the creation assumption. It proposes a paradigm shift wherein ongoing big bangs are collisions of singularities the universe is always growing. The standard model’s anomalies make more sense when viewed in light of our big bang overlaying older big bangs.
This simple paradigm shift transforms our current model to one that’s more coherent, cohesive, and comprehensive. To make it comprehensive, the paper also includes unique speculations about dark matter, gravity, grand unification, and anthropic conditions.
Keywords: black holes, cosmology theory, dark energy, dark matter, galactic super clusters, large-scale structure of the universe, missing antimatter, quasars, singularities, stars

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology