Relativity and Cosmology

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[1385] viXra:1408.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-26 08:34:22

The Critical Error (hoax?) in the Formulation of the Special Relativity

Authors: Radwan M. Kassir
Comments: 10 pages

The perception of events in two inertial reference frames in relative motion is analyzed from the perspective of the special relativity (SR) postulates. Straightforward contradictions disproving the SR predictions have been identified. The hoax used in the SR formulation to get around the identified contradictions and hide their cause is revealed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1384] viXra:1408.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-26 04:17:34

Armenian Theory of Special Relativity Illustrated

Authors: Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan
Comments: 11 Pages In English, Copyrighted

The aim of this current article is to illustrate in detail Armenian relativistic formulas and compare them with Lorentz relativistic formulas so that readers can easily differentiate these two theories and visualize how general and rich our Armenian Theory of Special Relativity really is with a spectacular build in asymmetry. Then we are going behind this comparison and illustrating that build in asymmetry inside Armenian Theory of Special Relativity is reincarnating the aether as a universal reference medium, which is not contrary to relativity theory. We mathematically prove the existence of aether and we show how to extract infinite energy from the time-space or sub-atomic aether medium. Our theory explains all these facts and peacefully brings together followers of absolute aether theory, relativistic aether theory or followers of dark matter theory. We also mention that the absolute aether medium has a very complex geometric character, which has never been seen before. We are explaining why NASA’s earlier "BPP" and DARPA’s "Casimir Effect Enhancement" programs failed. We are also stating that the time is right to reopen NASA’s BPP program and fuel the spacecrafts using the everywhere existing aether asymmetric momentum force.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1383] viXra:1408.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-24 17:14:29

The Planck Relation is a Geometric Mean Equation

Authors: James A. Tassano
Comments: 3 Pages.

We show that the Planck relation is a geometric mean equation, supporting the idea that the universe is undergoing a geometric mean expansion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1382] viXra:1408.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-24 01:18:50

New Equations for Bodies Motions

Authors: Silas Sacheli Santos
Comments: 15 Pages.

New equations for bodies motions are derived from non-instantaneous forces, some equations of special relativity (but derived from Newtonian Physics), the galilean transformations and a preferred frame (the cosmic microwave backgound).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1381] viXra:1408.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-22 15:27:09

Copious Tetraquarks: No True Hexaquarks - Indicators of E8 Symmetry in the Universe?

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: In a previous letter (see viXra 1408.0067) I have found that our universe has the broken symmetry E8 x U(1) and should contain exactly 248 types of quantum particles and that these have all been found. Included are 2-quark and 3-quark particles but no particle having 4 quarks or more. We do find one copious 4-quark particle and propose that it is a marker particle to alert us to the fact that the exalted 248 numeric goal has been attained. Studies by others indicate a 6-quark particle should be plentiful, but this has not materialized.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1380] viXra:1408.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-22 08:31:10

The Earth's Rotation Perhaps May Explain the Anomaly of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 1 Page. In portuguese.

Far as we could tell, the calculated value of the general precession (5026.50'') are not contained in other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1379] viXra:1408.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-18 07:00:33

New Solutions of Gravitational Collapse in General Relativity and in the Newtonian Limit

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 24 Pages.

We discuss the Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt (OSD) solution from a new perspective, introduce a completely new formulation of the problem exclusively in external Schwarzschild space-time (ESM) and present a new treatment of the singularities in this new formulation. We also give a new Newtonian approximation of the problem. Furthermore, we present new numerical solutions of the modified OSD-model and of the ball-to-ball-collapse with 4 different numerical methods.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1378] viXra:1408.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-18 06:13:57

An Example of Numerical Limitation as the Cause of the Anomaly of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 3 Pages. In portuguese.

Give an example of how it is possible that a limitation in determining the value of daily precession of the perihelion of Mercury explain this when designed for a century.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1377] viXra:1408.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-17 00:14:22

Gravity, an Amateur Perspective - Part 2

Authors: John Malcolm Newell
Comments: 33 Pages.

Part two of a collection of articles published by the South Australian Astronomical Society, these from 2013 to 2014, along with an updated chart of nearby stars, some discussion concerning inertia and comments on the nature of complex time. Support for Roger Shawyers work on the emdrive at Space Propulsion Research Ltd. is intended to encourage consideration of his results in the hope that they will be put to test and to use. The philosophical consequences of his findings are far reaching and will be invaluable to physics if they are properly understood. The practical application of his work may yet constitute a milestone in the evolution of humanity. The articles are included as sent for consideration, the format being adjusted for consistency. Please enjoy the contradictions and forgive the inclusion of a little casual mathematics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1376] viXra:1408.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-15 06:09:06

A New Value for the Anomaly of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 8 Pages. In portuguese.

Abandon the hypothesis of the solar wind and obtain a new value for the anomaly of the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury. The theoretical value of the total secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, according to the work of Le Verrier 1859, is only about 8'' unless the observed value quoted by Weinberg (in reference to Duncombe and Clemence). The hypothesis of the influence of the satellites in the calculation of precession, previously abandoned, should return, since 1'' is not so insignificant compared to 8''.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1375] viXra:1408.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-14 08:48:18

The Definition of Density in General Relativity

Authors: Ernst Fischer
Comments: 6 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2014

According to general relativity the geometry of space depends on the distribution of matter or energy fields. The relation between the locally defined geometry parameters and the volume elements depends on curvature. Thus integration of local properties like energy density, defined in the Euclidean tangent space, does not lead to correct integral data like total energy. To obtain integral conservation, a correction term must be added to account for the curvature of space. This correction term is the equivalent of potential energy in Newtonian gravitation. With this correction the formation of singularities by gravitational collapse does no longer occur and the so called dark energy finds its natural explanation as potential energy of matter itself.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1374] viXra:1408.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-13 01:11:05

Special Relativity Fails to Resolve Cosmic Muon Decay

Authors: Rasjid Chan Kah Chew
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity fails to explain the cosmic muon decay phenomenon. The “dilated time” of special relativity has no physical interpretation as time as interpreted in physics; therefore, the extended lifetime of the muon, arrived at through the used of time dilation, cannot be used in the simple formula : distance=speed\times time. So far, no one seems to have pointed to this simple fact. An invalid argument has been repeated and propagated for decades that purportedly resolves the cosmic muon decay phenomenon.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1373] viXra:1408.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-12 15:39:22

The Lorentz Transformation Fails Special Relativity

Authors: Rasjid Chan Kah Chew
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity falls by the Lorentz transformation, the very foundation on which the theory rests. The application of the Lorentz transformation does not naturally give rise to projections in spacetime where the space coordinates still retain any relevance to the usual physical real length; the dilated time too may have no relevance to real time. The conclusion is that the Special Theory of Relativity is just an abstract mathematical model and not a theory in physics; it has no relevance to our physical world. As such, all empirical and experimental evidence that purportedly validate the theory become void and meaningless.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1372] viXra:1408.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-11 11:45:00

Our Universe With the Broken Symmetry E8 x U(1) Must Contain Exactly 248 Different Kinds of Symmetry Representation Particles and Antiparticles: All Have Been Found

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

In our epoch E8 symmetry exists and is the governing symmetry of the universe although it is a broken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) responsible for our feeble gravity. Studies of existing lepton, hadron, meson, and QCD particles indicate that there are 12 lepton, 100 baryon, 100 meson and 14 QCD species here at present, or 226 in all. Adding the 22 new particles required to implement E8 symmetry yields a total of 248 different particles and Antiparticles required for our universe to have E8 symmetry, and these have all been found.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1371] viXra:1408.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-11 08:56:21

Finding in le Verrier, Theoretically, the 5600’’observed Weinberg

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 1 Page. In portuguese.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar) e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1370] viXra:1408.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-09 15:37:55

Einstein's Rotating Disk The Wrong Approach to The Right Theory

Authors: Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen
Comments: 1 Page.

It is shown that by applying a simple and correct method of measurement of the circumference the space in rotating disk is flat.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1369] viXra:1408.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-09 18:10:52

On the Origin and Physical Nature of the Cosmological Vacuum

Authors: R.A.Isasi
Comments: 19 pages;1 Figure; 1 Table

In the present manuscript, we consider the origin of the cosmological space, and the Cosmological Constant as a consequence of the annihilation of the matter - antimatter at the very beginning of the big bang. Since the cosmological expansion creates the space, the cosmological vacuum is considered as a very hegemonic entity which is the locus where all the objects create the events. Certainly, N units of masses in conjunct are required to produce an equilibrium between the gravitational phenomena of the matter in bulk and each coulombic interaction between protons and electrons within the nuclear and atomic contour in all astrophysical (e.g. stars) or consmological entities (e.g. galaxies). The "dark matter" is considered to be formed by highly excited H and HeI Rydberg`s atoms in equilibrium with the CMB radiation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1368] viXra:1408.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-09 14:24:32

Can the Geometry Prove the General Relativity Incorrect?

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 18 Pages. none

In this paper it is shown that the General Relativity Theory (GRT), which belongs to a class of metric theories of gravity, is based on a wrong assumption, contradicts the well-established laws of physics, and also its own maximum speed postulate. It is shown, based on simple arguments of geometry, that in the GRT the motion of a test body in an orbit around the centrally gravitating mass does not satisfy the conservation of angular momentum and that the equation describing the equivalence of acceleration with the force of gravity violates the contravariance principle. Finally, it is shown that the GRT also violates the Gauss law. The critique rests on a comparison of the Schwarzschild metric, which is derived from Einstein field equations, with the previously derived author's new metric from which the Schwarzschild metric follows as a first order approximation, but which is not derived from Einstein field equations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1367] viXra:1408.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-07 13:20:46

A Comment on the Mass of the Planets

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 1 Page. A spontaneous letter in Portuguese.

Beyond the question "Gravitational Mass = Inertial Mass?" should be the question "Mass Gravitational Planet X = Mass Gravitational Planet Y"?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1366] viXra:1408.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-06 07:06:55

The Masses of the Solar System´s Planets

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 6 Pages. Portuguese language.

Compares the current masses of Mercury to Saturn, with the values of Le Verrier and Newcomb and recalculates the value of the deviation obtained for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury with current masses.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1365] viXra:1408.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-06 04:15:59

Maximal Acceleration Perspective Problems.

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 10 pages

We determine nonlinear transformations between coordinate systems which are mutually in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion. The maximal acceleration limit follows from the kinematical origin. Maximal acceleration is an analogue of the maximal velocity in special relativity. We derive the dependence of mass, length, time, Doppler effect, Cherenkov angle and transition radiation angle on acceleration as an analogue phenomena in special theory of relativity. The derived addition theorem for acceleration can play crucial role in modern particle physics and cosmology
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1364] viXra:1408.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-04 00:55:28

A Simple Theory of Relativity Based on Mach's Principle

Authors: Arindam Sinha
Comments: 20 Pages.

A simple and intuitive alternative theory of relativity based on Mach's Principle is proposed. At any location, total gravitational potential from the Universe's matter distribution is c2. This Universal background potential constitutes unit rest energy of matter and provides its unit mass, which is the essence behind E=mc2. The background gravity creates a local sidereal inertial frame at every location. A velocity increases gravitational potential through net blue-shift of Universe's background gravity, causing kinematic time dilation, which is a form of gravitational time dilation. Matter and energy follow different rules of motion, and speed of matter may exceed the speed of light. The theory is consistent with existing relativity experiments, and is falsifiable based on experiments whose predictions differ from General Relativity. The theory also explains why all the ICARUS and corrected OPERA experiments still show mean neutrino velocities slightly above speed of light (early arrival of neutrinos by 0.1-6.5ns), even after correcting the issues that had led to the original OPERA experiments to erroneously report faster than light neutrinos (early arrival by ~60ns).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1363] viXra:1408.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-01 06:57:40

A Simple Relativistic Cosmology of the Universe

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 28 Pages.

The paper presents a relativistic extension of Newton’s mechanics, termed Newtonian Relativity, and utilizes it to infer the state of the observable universe. The theory is successful in making significant predictions regarding the accelerating nature of the universe, its composition of matter, dark matter, and dark energy, and the time line of the evolution of chemical elements. The theory yields simple expression for the dynamics of normal matter, dark matter, kinetic energy, and dark energy in their dependence on redshift. Strikingly, the theoretical distribution of the kinetic energy density in the universe is bell shaped and symmetrical around the famous Golden Ratio. Moreover, the theory predicts that normal matter and kinetic energy dominate the universe at z < 1/2 and that dark matter and dark energy dominate the universe at z > 1/2 . The theory yields simple expressions for the prediction of the amounts of matter and dark energy for any given redshift range, and compares the predicted cosmology with various observationally derived ΛCDM models. With regard to the evolutionary time line of chemical elements, the theory predicts that the chemical elements may have been formed twice: first, in massive galaxy structures at the early universe, and second, in young galaxies in the recent history of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1362] viXra:1407.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-31 11:24:23

Power Series Solution for Photon Trajectories In Static Stationary Spherically Symmetric Gravitational Field

Authors: Mark Timothy Sheldrick
Comments: 14 Pages.

Here a simple power series solution for the path of a photon in a static, stationary spherically symmetric gravitational field in a vacuum (described by the Schwarzschild solution) is derived in the form of a power series of the angular coordinate () of the photon around the axis in spherical coordinates (r,,). Standard results for photon trajectories under the influence of gravity are derived by this method. The series solution simplifies where there is a part of the trajectory with a zero first derivative (tangent) and simplifies in a different way when the trajectory crosses the r=3m radius.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1361] viXra:1407.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-30 22:08:53

Seeking a Theory for the End of the World: Introduction to Fractal Vibrating String

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 2 Pages. This is a cover for a book that has been published by LAP Publishing, Saarbrucken, Germany (http://www.lap-publishing.com). If you are interested in this book, you can contact me at email: victorchristianto@gmail.com, or skype: vic1043.

The author asks a number of questions, which touch fundamental subjects, and presents his discussions with many researchers mooting separate big problems starting from the behavior of an electron in an atom to a possible acceleration of the universe. For example, in the book it is treated: the fine structure constant and the Shannon entropy; Shpenkov’s interpretation on the classical wave equation leading to a shell-nodal model of atoms and molecules and the periodic table of elements close to the Mendeleyev’s table; 50 questions on the issue of astrophysics, cosmology and gravitational physics (some of them have been surveyed jointly with M. Peck), etc. Besides, the author considers some serious philosophical issues associated with physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1360] viXra:1407.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-31 03:02:40

The BICEP2 Experiment And The Inflationary Model: Dimensionless Quantization of Gravity. Predictive Theory of Quantum Strings.Quantum Wormholes and Nonlocality of QM.The Absence Of Dark Matter

Authors: A.Garcés Doz
Comments: 134 Pages.

In this paper shown; on the one hand, as the tensor-scalar polarization modes B ratio, it is derived from the initial properties of the vacuum due to the unification of gravitation and electromagnetism. This ratio suggest that it is 2/Pi ^ 2 (0.20262423673), as an upper bound. Secondly; demonstrates that it is not necessary to introduce any inflaton scalar field or similar ( ad-hoc fields ); If on the other hand, is the same structure of the vacuum and the quantization of gravity which perfectly explains this initial exponential expansion of the universe. In some respects exponential vacuum emptying has certain similarities with the emission of radiation of a black hole. This quantization of gravity and its unification with electromagnetic field, shown in previous work; It allows deriving complete accurately the exponential factor of inflation; and therefore calculate accurately the Hubble constant, mass of the universe, matter density, the value of the vacuum energy density, the GUT mass scale ( bosons X,Y ), the gravitino mass and more. The method of quantize gravity used in this work; It is based on dimensionless constants that must be enforced in accordance with general relativity. We demonstrate the existence of quantum wormholes as the basic units of space-time energy, as an inseparable system.These quantum wormholes explain the instantaneous speed of propagation of entangled particles. Or what is the same: an infinite speed, with the condition of zero net energy. Another consequence of the dimensionless quantization of gravity; is the existence of a constant gravitational acceleration that permeates all space. Its nature is quantum mechanical, and inseparable from the Hubble constant. This work is not mere speculation; since applying this vacuum gravitational acceleration; first allows us to explain and accurately calculate the anomaly of the orbital eccentricity of the Moon. This anomaly was detected and accurately measured with the laser ranging experiment. This same constant acceleration in vacuum (in all coordinate of space), which interacts with the masses; explains the almost constant rotation curves of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Therefore there is no dark matter. Current interpretation of quantum mechanics is completely erroneous. We explain that; as the de Broglie–Bohm theory, also known as the pilot-wave theory; is a much more realistic and correct interpretation of quantum mechanics. The current assumption that there is reality no defined; until the act of observation does not occur; is an aberrant, illogical assertion false and derived from the obsolete current interpretation of quantum mechanics. The age of the universe derived from the Hubble constant is a wrong estimate; due to absolute ignorance of the true nature of this constant and its physical implications. The universe acquired its current size in the very short period of time, a unit of Planck time. We understand that this work is dense and completely revolutionary consequences. Experiments reflection of lasers; type of the laser ranging experiment; undoubtedly will confirm one of the main results: the existence of an intrinsic acceleration of vacuum of gravitational quantum mechanical nature, which explains the rotation curves of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; and which thus makes unnecessary the existence of dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1359] viXra:1407.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-28 19:59:44

Normalization of Some Holographic Dark Energy Models

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 4 Pages.

We propose the normalization of some holographic dark energy (HDE) models. Applying the normalization method, we derive the general equation of normalization of initial HDE model and General HDE (GHDE) model; obtain that the coefficient w_de is inversely proportional to the square of the parameter c_L which is variable; get the normalized equations of initial HDE model, GHDE model, agegraphic dark energy (ADE) model and New HDE (NHDE) model; obtain n = 2.894 which is in good agreement with n = 〖2.886〗_(-0.163)^(+0.169) in ADE model and c_Ln= 3 which agrees well with 1.41 < c < 3.09 in NHDE model; and interpret the physical meaning of the ratio f_de and its average value by dimensional analysis. We suggest that the normalization of some HDE models is interesting and significant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1358] viXra:1407.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-27 03:35:43

Transversal Fizeau Effect and the GRT

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 12 Pages. slide presentation

This presentation explains in detail that when studying the effects of rotation on the motion of bodies or light, it is necessary to use the metric of a curved spacetime. Furthermore, it is shown that the relativistic addition of velocities in such systems is not valid and that the classical velocity addition must be used instead. It thus becomes clear that most of the Special Relativity Theory effects are nullified in such systems by the centripetal force of rotation and that the Special Relativity is thus strictly valid only in inertial systems. Finally it is confirmed that the inertial mass depends on velocity differently than the gravitational mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1357] viXra:1407.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-26 02:24:42

Gravitational Binding Energy in Charged Cylindrical Symmetry

Authors: M. Sharif, M. Zaeem Ul Haq Bhatti
Comments: 09 Pages. Can. J. Phys. 90(2012)1233

We consider static cylindrically symmetric charged gravitating object with perfect fluid and investigate the gravitational binding energy. It is found that only the localized part of the mass function provides the gravitational binding energy, whereas the non-localized part generated by the electric coupling does not contribute for such energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1356] viXra:1407.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-26 02:35:06

Cylindrical Thin-Shell Wormholes in $f(R)$ Gravity

Authors: M. Sharif, Z. Yousaf
Comments: 20 Pages. Astrophys. Space Sci. 351(2014)351.

In this paper, we employ cut and paste scheme to construct thin-shell wormhole of a charged black string with $f(R)$ terms. We consider $f(R)$ model as an exotic matter source at wormhole throat. The stability of the respective solutions are analyzed under radial perturbations in the context of $R+{\delta}R^2$ model. It is concluded that both stable as well as unstable solutions do exist for different values of $\delta$. In the limit $\delta{\rightarrow}0$, all our results reduce to general relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1355] viXra:1407.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-24 09:57:18

On Cosmology, Time and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: Gene H. Barbee
Comments: 12 Pages. Please contact Gene Barbee at genebarbee@msn.com with comments

The first law of thermodynamics is fairly straightforward. It states that energy can be converted from one form into another but not created or destroyed. The author’s work on the subject indicates that net energy is zero [6][7][13] but separated into two different types of energy that balance one another. The second law is not as straightforward. A quantity called entropy describes the probability of energy states for systems with many particles. The second law states that more probable energy states become filled over time and energy differences that can be used to carry out work become less available. How everything achieved a high state that can continually “run down” has been somewhat of an enigma. There is a strange situation in fundamental physics regarding time. Well respected physicists [Julian Barbour for example] point out that all quantum mechanical equations are cyclical with time. Common sense tells us that time advances and tension exists between fundamentals and what we observe. This situation extends to fundamentals of space as well as fundamentals of time. Special relativity and curvature of space time is known to be the source of gravity at the large scale but efforts to understand quantum gravity encounter significant theoretical difficulties. The author uses a cellular model that describes gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic and potential energy at the quantum level [6][7]. Using cosmology as a platform, the present paper explores time and the second law. It concludes that time advances because expansion converts kinetic energy to potential energy. Further, the gravitational coupling constant appears to convert quantum behavior to large scale behavior. Although pressure expands the universe, gravitational accumulation begins to dominate locally. The improbable expanded state and the many states available related to gravitational accumulation explain how everything can “run down” as time progresses.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1354] viXra:1407.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-24 09:14:21

Understanding Special Relativity

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: FIVE PAGES

A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measues both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car. However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1353] viXra:1407.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-23 13:34:50

The Lorentz Transformations and the Scale Principle

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 12 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a Meta Law (Scale Principle or Scale Law) which describes a number of fundamental laws. This paper provides the derivation of the Lorentz transformations and shows that these transformations obey the Scale Law.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1352] viXra:1407.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-23 10:52:03

Arguments for the Magneto-Genesis at the Origin and Evolution of Universe

Authors: Stefan Mehedinteanu1
Comments: 22 Pages. -

In present work , is established a correlation with Inflation Dynamics, especially at the reheating era, when the Inflaton field is sufficiently strong, and the energy of the vacuum can be lowered, in order to create by Schwinger effect pairs, of quarks , gluons, bosons ( ), gluons (monopoles) , the magnetic monopoles themselves (of spin 1). Also, in the work is calculated the Inflation Dynamics putting in evidence all the epochs (quarks, hadrons, leptons). That ours permitting to observe that the potential nears the end of reheating (at quarks epoch) is very much reduced, thus, at , the potential becomes ; when, the mass of monopoles off-diagonal nonabelian component (for ) ; and the quarks pairs created by Schwinger effect, which get string strength of , both remaining locked at theses values till confinement ( ; ) and today. Therefore, apparently, is not any trace of an external residual field like of Higgs field. In others words, the Inflation can not explains the Higgs field, only, if we consider that the top ( ) and antitop ( ) quarks pairs also, produced by Schwinger effect, they form a bound state, that is a composite Higgs boson field as in the frame of Topcolor model. This is a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the top quark and anti-top quark form a top quark condensate and act effectively like the Higgs boson. This is analogous to the phenomenon of superconductivity. These theories will ultimately be tested at the LHC in its Run-II commencing in 2015 In our present model, the things are similarly, an equivalence of my model with that of the Standard Model, is given in previously author’ works. Thus, in my model the Inflaton potential, by Schwinger effect during the reheating period, generates all kinds of particles: gluons , magnetic monopoles themselves, and fermions (quarks, top quarks). In the model, theses gluon-gluon interactions constrain color fields to string-like objects called "flux tubes", which exert constant force when stretched. The difference with Standard Model, is that it results a probability ( or a continuously production rates) for gluons, and a number of quarks. Finally, at all the gluons are being captured by all generated by quarks ( ) pairs, together forming nucleons of an incredibly exactly number , which is the known number of particles in Universe. Since, the reheating potential continues to diminish, at approximately -that corresponding to confinement, the production of gluons (monopoles) quarks stops. But, a near field it was created inside nucleons , as was found in previously author’s works. This field makes possible the beta decay of free neutrons, and later of isotopes. Also, this field creates a Lorenz force between quarks flux tube and gluons (in structures of gauge monopoles type current), that is found to explain the gravity of nucleons (mass). Also, there are found the number and mass of top quarks pairs locked in Higgs field and its decay. And more, is discovered the exact origin of primordial magnetic field ( ), namely, the electromagnetic fields ( ) generated by a primordial charged blackhole, which can B-imprints . A clear relationship it was established between and the Hubble length. Thus, at the end of time , all ( ) of magnetic monopoles pairs produced are already bounded in strings, and the light of type imprinted is due of residual , , either as itself, or by Faraday rotation as resulting of that gives , for a frequency of . Therefore, the monopoles pairs suppression by bounding its in strings, that explains the magnetic monopoles absence mentioned in Iflation works. Also, the PMF easy “passes” the plasma period as to be formed by particles, , , till , in the same way as the gravitational field, which it is not affected by this plasma. The main conclusion of the work is that the energy density equally with magnetic flux ( ) from Einstein equations is the fundamental stone of Universe origin and its evolution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1351] viXra:1407.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-22 19:30:34

Calculating Parameter on Hde and Ghde Model

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 4 Pages.

We calculate the parameter c_L on holographic dark energy (HDE) model and the series c_L (z_i) on generalized holographic dark energy (GHDE) model. Applying the normalization method, we find the normalized equation; get c_L= 0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; find the normalized equation of redshift z; obtain c_L (z_i) = 0.471 when Ω_de (z_i ) = 0.683 by the same method, which is in good agreement with c; have the same solution by the iteration method. We suggest that the HDE model and the GHDE model are competitive and promising.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1350] viXra:1407.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-22 07:41:31

Gravitomagnetism a Fatal Problem for the General Relativity Theory and the Accompanied Analysis of the Gravity Probe B Experiment

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 24 Pages. slide presentation

This presentation shows that there cannot be any Gravito-Electro-Magnetic (GEM) field contrary to a popular belief of its existence and contrary to many claims of its existence found in the reputable publications. This is shown using a simple thought experiment of two massive parallel plates that are moving in a direction parallel to the plates’ surfaces and in a direction perpendicular to the plates’ surfaces. It is found that the field energy is not conserved for these two directions if the GEM field existence is postulated as derived from the Einstein’s field equations for the weak gravitational field and as claimed that it has been detected by the Gravity Probe B. In the second portion of the presentation the Gravity Probe B results are analyzed in a greater detail and it is found that this experiment does not prove the correctness of Einstein General Relativity Theory (GRT) as is enthusiastically claimed. It is clearly shown that an error exists in the GRT geodetic precession formula derivation and that the experiment actually proves the correctness of a different metric rather than the Schwarzschild metric of the celebrated GRT theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1349] viXra:1407.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 15:57:04

The Universe Contracted Rapidly During the Epoch When E8 Was an Unbroken Symmetry Before the Big Bang

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the epoch prior to the big bang E8 was an unbroken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) and both positive and negative intrinsic energy (mc^2) boson particles could be formed and combined with positive intrinsic energy leptons, hadrons and strong force particles to form zero intrinsic energy fermibosonic entities which could carry matter from the previous universe without violating flatness requirements. Two new gauge bosons were needed (along with a third to enable the big bang) and these gauge bosons could produce attractive forces much stronger than the weaker force of our broken symmetry force of gravity. The period of time that the universe had unbroken symmetry could thus be relatively short compared to our epoch of broken E8 symmetry.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1348] viXra:1407.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 08:01:56

Enhancing a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages. Will be in Portuguese and English

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1347] viXra:1407.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 20:21:51

Cyclic Nature of Energy-Conserving "Gravitational Collapse"

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time-evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust-density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also execute a specifically time-cycloidal linear gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously scuppered their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1346] viXra:1407.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 01:04:15

Wave-Theoretical Insight into the Relativistic Length-Contraction and Time-Dilation of Super Nova Light Curves

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Six page paper

Einstein’s Relativity-theories predict: length-contraction, time-dilation, transverse-Doppler-shift, gravitational-spectral-shifts, expansion-of-space, time-dilation-of-super-nova-light-curves...etc. This letter attempts to gain some insight into two of them in terms of wave-theory. For example, the observations of time-dilation of ‘super-nova-light-curves’ are currently considered as a confirmative-test of expansion-of-time; whereas it is shown here that the super-nova-light-curve can be viewed as a ‘gate-function’ in the ‘time-domain’; and it can be Fourier-transformed into frequency-domain; and it is this wide band of waves which travels in space and reaches us after millions of years. During its travel, when this wide-band of waves gets red-shifted due to any mechanism, including the tired-light-interpretation of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’, then its band-width shrinks in the frequency-domain; so when it is transformed back into time-domain we find that the duration of the curve has got increased. Thus, time-dilation of super-nova-light-curves is not an independent observation from the observations of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’ due to any mechanism. Similarly, the relativistic length-contraction with speed is also explained in terms of waves, with the help of Fourier-transform.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1345] viXra:1407.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-18 09:54:35

An Interesting Journey of Discovery of Many Errors in Einstein’s General Relativity Theory

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 41 Pages. slide presentation

The presentation deals with a discovery of errors in the Einstein’s General Relativity Theory (GRT). The presentation starts with the confirmation of the correctness of Special Relativity Theory (SRT), but derives justification for a different dependence of gravitational mass on velocity than the inertial mass dependence on velocity. This leads to finding that photons cannot have a gravitational mass and thus can escape form “Black Holes”. This finding contradicts the popular belief and the popular statements such as: “not even light can escape from Black Holes”. The presentation then introduces a new metric whose validity has been confirmed by the standard GRT tests and applies it to create a new model of the universe, which is not based on the Big Bang assumption. Finally, the new universe model predictions are compared with observations and an excellent agreement is obtained thus confirming the assumptions on which the model is built.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1344] viXra:1407.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-18 11:27:33

Light Aberration Without Source Observer Relative Motion Solving the Contradiction Between the Michelson-Morley and the Sagnac Experiments Making Special Relativity Unnecessary

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 5 Pages.

Conventionally, the phenomenon of light (stellar) aberration is understood as a phenomenon of source observer relative motion. In this paper, it is proposed that a phenomenon of aberration exists even if the source and the observer are at rest relative to each other, but co-moving absolutely in space. The contradiction between the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Sagnac effect is resolved by this theory and this may lead to understanding of many of the other experiments and observations on the speed of light. It discloses the mystery of inability to detect any dependence of the velocity of light on the velocity of its source. Special Relativity theory is rendered unnecessary. A new interpretation of absolute motion and the non-existence of the ether is proposed. A new kind of Michelson-Morley experiment capable of detecting absolute motion is proposed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1343] viXra:1407.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-18 05:55:24

Thin Spherical Matter Shell as Gravity Theory Filter

Authors: Kevin Nolan
Comments: 5 Pages.

In GR (general relativity) a static thin solid and uniform spherical matter shell is the source of an external SM (Schwarzschild metric) and interior flat MM (Minkowski metric), plus a shell wall transitional metric not needing consideration here. It will be shown in part 1 the above implies a physically absurd disappearing dependence on gravitational potential for just the radial spatial metric component, in crossing the shell wall. In part 2 mathematical inconsistency is found. In the gravitationally small regime, treating each element of shell mass as an independent point source of SM and linearly summing over all such contributions ought to but manifestly does not yield an interior spatial metric consistent with the usual matching scheme of part 1. A conformally flat exterior metric as necessary cure is discussed in part 3.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1342] viXra:1407.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-17 12:11:50

Experiments to Test the Theory, "A Relativistic Theory Based on the Invariance of Newton's Second Law for Motion and the Constancy of the Speed of Light in Vacuum

Authors: Mustafa A. Khan
Comments: 1 Page.

In this short paper I present two experiments that can be easily done to test the validity of theory, "A relativistic theory based on the invariance of Newton's second law for motion and the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1341] viXra:1407.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-17 08:13:18

On Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Paul R. Gerber
Comments: 6 Pages.

A new way of factorizing the Klein-Gordon equation is proposed, which applies to fields of any type. The spin one-half case leads essentially to the Dirac equation. However, a new interpretation is given, in which the occurrence of anti-particles is a consequence of the two-valuedness of the representations of the Lorentz group in Hilbert space. Boosts have in these representations an anti-unitary component which leads to a change of the norm of wave functions. Under a boost, a state originally at rest develops a positive-frequency component. While the mass of a wave packet is a conserved quantity, its energy transforms according to the law of special relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1340] viXra:1407.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-16 23:42:20

The General Law of Conversion of Matter and Energy

Authors: Mustafa A. Khan
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I present, "The general law of conversion of matter and energy" which supercedes my previous paper on the law of conversion of matter and energy. I draw certain conclusions based upon this law, and one of which is that, the famous mass/energy equation by Einstein, which also describes the conversion of matter and energy, is only a special case of a more general law of conversion of matter and energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1339] viXra:1407.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-16 03:37:46

What is Mass?

Authors: R. I. Khrapko
Comments: 9 Pages. Physics – Uspekhi, 43 1267–1270 (2000) (including V.L. Ginzburg’s note and L.B. Okun’s Reply)

Does the mass of bodies depend on their velocity? Is the mass additive if separate bodies are joined together to form a composite system? Is the mass of an isolated system conserved? Different teachers of physics and specialists give different answers to these questions because there is no general agreement on the definition of mass. We shall show that the notion of the velocity-dependent relativistic mass should be given preference over that of the rest mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1338] viXra:1407.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-15 15:28:04

The Law of Conversion of Matter and Energy

Authors: Mustafa A. Khan
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I give the final and complete formulation of the law that describes the conversion from matter to energy and from energy to matter. It is found that the conversion from energy to matter is not as given by the famous mass/energy equation by Einstein. However, the conversion from matter to energy is in accordance to the matter/energy equation by Einstein.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1337] viXra:1407.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-15 08:54:57

Causality and Duality in Cosmology

Authors: Peter B. Wilson
Comments: 6 pages; 3 figures; 1 table; references

A physical explanation for dark energy Λ is proposed by revisiting the subject of causality in cosmology, especially with regard to duality. Duality is the observation that local regions are contracting, even as the cosmos is expanding. “Local” means distances less than the center-to-center spacing of galaxy clusters, Ri; “non-local” means distances greater than Ri. It is argued that the Friedmann solution is causally incomplete by two parameters: Ri, denoting “inter-cluster” distance (twice the zero gravity radius RZG); and energy coupling η (0 < η < 1). Both factors--energy coupling and the distance across which it is coupled--are required to describe the duality of a gravitational system. Because Ri and η do not appear in the standard model, it is suggested that Λ may represent them in the relationship Λ = η/Ri^2. This requires η of the order of 0.0001%. It is concluded that modeling the universe gravitationally requires at least four causal parameters, two of which are missing in the Friedmann model. To clarify the situation, a solution is needed to Einstein’s field equations for general relativity that explicitly includes duality, i.e. a solution that includes Ri and η.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1336] viXra:1407.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-14 17:04:03

Reality Elements

Authors: Florentino Muñiz Ania
Comments: 4 Pages.

English (traslation): Half of the stars in the universe are composed of ordinary matter, half antimatter. Each atomic particle has the same number of gravitons that half of the stars in the Universe. Links of gravitons with stars of one kind or another, determine the gravity and inertia. The blueshift phenomenon is explained and also shows how you can get energy from gravity, based on the above. Spanish (original): La mitad de las estrellas del Universo están compuestas de materia ordinaria, la otra mitad de antimateria. Cada partícula atómica tiene el mismo número de gravitones que la mitad de las estrellas del Universo. Los enlaces de los gravitones con las estrellas, de uno u otro tipo, determinan la gravedad y la inercia. Se explica el fenómeno del blueshift y se muestra, asimismo, como se puede obtener energía a partir de la gravedad, basándose en lo anterior.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1335] viXra:1407.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-14 17:20:11

Further Conclusions Based on the Theory, "A Relativistic Theory Based on the Invariance of Newton's Second Law for Motion and the Constancy of the Speed of Light in Vacuum".

Authors: mustafa A. Khan
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I draw more conclusions based on my theory on relativity presented earlier. Here I show, (1) a new expression for the relativistic mass, (2) a new expression for the relativistic kinetic energy of a relativistic mass, (3) the limitation for the equivalence of matter and energy as expressed by Einstein's famous mass/energy equation, (4) formulation of a new law of physics dealing with the conversion of energy into matter and vice versa and lastly, (5) give another example of the breakdown of the thinking based on non-relativistic events when applied to relativistic events.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1334] viXra:1407.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-14 17:14:26

Aether Theory with Experimental Verification. Pioneer Anomaly

Authors: Branislav Pavlovic
Comments: 13 Pages.

The following paper consists of two parts. The first one is the translation of the 21st chapter ”The Pioneer anomaly” of my book ” Aether theory with experimental verification”. I chose this particular chapter for the reason that the Pioneer anomaly is a very interesting issue to be discussed. The book is available for reading at viXra. There have been different interpretations of the Pioneer anomaly, but mine is from my aether theory. For the purpose of a more exhaustive explanation of this particular occurrence, the second part of this paper presents some fundamental results of the aether theory, which are closely related to the Doppler effect.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1333] viXra:1407.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-14 04:47:28

Scale Invariance and Weyl Theory

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 9 Pages. Spanish

In the same publication in which Hermann Weyl in 1918 published his unified field theory, Albert Einstein raised sharp criticism to the new theory. He argued that if true would not exist defined spectral lines. Later Wolfgang Pauli developed this review in more detail, than accepted other leading physicists of the time, including the own Weyl. The result was that the theory that unified gravitation and electromagnetism born dead. In this research, we analyze in depth the concept of conformal transformation, a concept basic in the theory of Weyl, and we interpret it as a change in the scale of the units, concluding that the physical phenomena that are not altered by making a conformal transformation, the which means that Einstein's criticism is incorrect.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1332] viXra:1407.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-14 06:03:42

Estimating the Influence of the Satellites in the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

Abandon the hypothesis that the satellites of the solar system may be responsible for the precession of 43" arc of the perihelion of Mercury. Satellites together contribute, by our estimate, with just over 1" to the value of this precession, the Moon being the most responsible for this deviation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1331] viXra:1407.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-13 10:33:10

Critique of the Formula Derivation for Light Deflection by a Gravitating Body in the General Relativity Theory

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 9 Pages. one table

In this article it is shown that the hallmark of the General Relativity Theory (GRT), the calculation of the light deflection by a gravitating body, is incorrect. The reason is that the derivation does not follow the well know Fermat principle from optics. Instead an ad hoc principle is used that violates the basic tenets of relativity in order to force an agreement with observations. The Fermat principle has to be satisfied because it follows from the wave equation that guides the photon propagation. This is a fatal problem for the GRT with the root cause traced to the Schwarzschild metric, which does not describe the reality correctly. When the author's new metric is used the standard Fermat principle can be generalized and used leading to the results agreeing with observations and experiments quite well.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1330] viXra:1407.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-12 15:21:10

Gravitational Time Dilation Explained For Beginners

Authors: Rahul Garg
Comments: 4 Pages. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

At first the concept of gravitational time dilation may look a bit complicated and it is difficult to figure out the reason. In this paper, I am going to explain gravitational time dilation without the knowledge of any other concept such as the equivalence principle and others. This paper aims to simplify any confusions or doubts that arise regarding gravitational time dilation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1329] viXra:1407.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-12 13:26:33

On Materiality and Dimensionality of the Space. Is There Some a Unit of the Field?

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article presents arguments with a view to recognize that space is material and has possibly a fractal dimension in the range of from three to two. It is proposed that along to the unit of substance (atom) some a unit of the field (vortex tubes) should be set. It is shown that the formation of the field structures being a kind “doubles” of atomic ones is possible. The existence of the three-zone electron structure is confirmed. It is indicated that this concept have already resulted in to the successful explanation of phenomena and to finding of their important parameters at different levels of the organization of matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1328] viXra:1407.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-09 15:30:22

Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox Revisited

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 21 Pages.

Conventionally, time dilation is defined as the decrease in the rate of flow of time in a frame moving relative to an outside observer. I argue that any process (exemplified by, say, a clock) that moves through space takes longer than that process would take if that process were stationary relative to space. The space that I define in this context is a field (of particles as yet undefined) that I label the temporal-inertial (TI) field. The relation between the TI field and the Higgs field or Higgs fields is undefined in this conjecture. I argue that the TI field constitutes the one and only frame of reference for motion by which time dilation can be reckoned. Furthermore, the velocity of a process relative to the TI field is the one and only cause of time dilation for that process. Accordingly, time dilation is not a decrease in the rate of flow of time in a moving frame, but an increase in the time taken by a process in motion relative to the TI field. If we measure time by the cycle time of a process (e.g. the ticking of a clock) it doesn’t mean that time slows down when the process is in motion, it means that the process takes longer when moving relative to the TI field. The twin paradox is readily resolved by reckoning the motion of the traveling twin relative to the space through which the twin (or clock) moves, not relative to the reference, stationary twin (or clock). The time dilation between two clocks moving in space is shown to be based on each clock’s velocity relative to the TI field, not on the difference of their velocities relative to each other. The TI field is shown to be subject to gravity. Gravitational time dilation of a process (e.g. a clock) is shown to be caused directly by the velocity of the process relative to the TI field, not by the graviton flux at the process.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1327] viXra:1407.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-09 19:33:51

Why is the General Relativity Theory Incorrect?

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 9 Pages. one graph

In this article it is shown that the General Relativity Theory is an incorrect theory of gravity. It leads to erroneous predictions when it is extrapolated beyond its experimentally verified validity such as the prediction of the existence of Black Holes with their event horizons. The article describes the two fatal problems found in the theory in particular in the Schwarzschild metric, which is the “vacuum” solution of Einstein field equations for a mass point. The problems are the insufficient contravariance and the violation of conservation of angular momentum. The article then derives the correct metric for the centrally gravitating body, which does not have the above mentioned problems, presents the Christoffel coefficients, and derives the Riemann, and the Ricci tensors. From this metric it is also shown that the Einstein’s Weak Equivalence Principle does not correspond to reality and that the inertial mass and the gravitational mass both depend on the gravitational potential as well as on the velocity in such a way that their product remains constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1326] viXra:1407.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-09 19:53:52

Cosmology and the First Meta Law:From the Realm of Quantum Mechanics to the Large-scale Structure of the Cosmos

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 15 Pages.

In 2012 I formulated the scale principle or scale law which was published at viXra.org in June this year. This paper is about a cosmological analysis based on this new law. On previous papers I have shown that several fundamental laws such as the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, the black hole entropy, the Bohr postulate, the De Broglie wavelength-momentum relationship, the formula for the Schwarzschild radius, Einstein’s relativistic energy equation, Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Schrödinger’s equation obey this formulation. Furthermore the author’s previous research suggests that the mass of the Higgs boson, the radius of the proton, the radius of the electron might obey this law as well. The present paper shows that the scale law correctly describes several cosmological issues such as the age of the universe (this analysis includes the latest data from the Planck spacecraft- 2013), the universe mass density, the radius of the present particle horizon and finally the Friedmann’s equation. This simple law is the first Meta law we, humans, have discovered.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1325] viXra:1407.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-09 13:48:20

The Analysis of Lobo and Visser Applied to Both Natario and Casimir Warp Drives. Physical Reactions of Gravitational Repulsive Behavior Between the Positive Mass of the Spaceship and the Negative Mass of the Warp Bubble

Authors: Fernando Loup
Comments: 40 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$. The major drawback concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor $10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!! Although the energy conditions of General Relativity forbids the existence of negative energy the Casimir Effect first predicted by Casimir in $1948$ and verified experimentally by Lamoreaux in $1997$ allows sub-microscopical amounts of it.We introduce in this work a shape function that will low the negative energy density requirements in the Natario warp drive from $10^{48} \frac{Joules}{Meter^{3}}$ to $10^{-7} \frac{Joules}{Meter^{3}}$ a low and affordable level. However reducing the negative energy density requirements of the warp drive to arbitrary low levels works only for empty bubbles not for bubbles with real spaceships inside because the positive mass of the spaceship exerts over the negative mass of the bubble a gravitational repulsive force and a spaceship with a large positive mass inside a bubble of small negative mass destroys the bubble.According to Lobo and Visser we can reduce the negative energy density of the warp bubble only to the limit when the negative energy becomes a reasonable fraction of the positive mass/energy of the spaceship.and no less otherwise the bubble is destroyed.The analysis of Lobo and Visser must be taken in account when considering bubbles with real spaceships inside otherwise the warp drive may not work.We reproduce in this work the analysis of Lobo and Visser for the Natario and Casimir warp drives.The work of Lobo and Visser is the third most important work in warp drive science immediately after the works of Alcubierre and Natario and the Lobo-Visser paper must also be considered a seminal paper like the ones of both Alcubierre and Natario.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

Replacements of recent Submissions

[751] viXra:1408.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-25 12:58:33

The Earth's Rotation Perhaps May Explain the Anomaly of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 2 Pages.

As we could see, other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, are not contained in the value of the general Earth's precession calculated for Mercury (5026.50''), and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury. We should also add the variability of Earth’s precession, very well expressed in John N. Stockwell (and according to Mécanique Céleste).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[750] viXra:1408.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-25 06:10:13

The Earth's Rotation Perhaps May Explain the Anomaly of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 2 Pages.

As we could see, other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, are not contained in the value of the general precession Earth's calculated for Mercury (5026.50''), and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury. We should also add the variability of Earth’s precession, very well expressed in John N. Stockwell (and according to Mécanique Céleste).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[749] viXra:1408.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-24 07:51:51

The Earth's Rotation Perhaps May Explain the Anomaly of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 1 Page.

As we could see, the value of the general precession calculated for Mercury (5026.50'') are not contained in other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury. We should also add the variability of precession, very well expressed in John N. Stockwell (and according to Mécanique Céleste).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[748] viXra:1408.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-19 06:00:47

An Example of Numerical Limitation as the Cause of the Anomaly of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 3 Pages.

An example is given of how it is possible that a limitation in determining the value of daily precession of the perihelion of Mercury explain this precession when designed for a century.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[747] viXra:1408.0091 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-18 04:59:21

A New Value for the Anomaly of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 8 Pages.

Abandon the hypothesis of the solar wind and obtain a new value for the anomaly of the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury. The theoretical value of the total secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, according to the work of Le Verrier 1859, is only about 8'' unless the observed value quoted by Weinberg (in reference to Duncombe and Clemence). The hypothesis of the influence of the satellites in the calculation of precession, previously abandoned, should return, since 1'' is not so insignificant compared to 8''.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[746] viXra:1408.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-12 10:54:48

Finding in le Verrier, Theoretically, the 5600’’ Observed by Weinberg

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 2 Pages.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar), às imprecisões das massas dos planetas, em especial Mercúrio, e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[745] viXra:1408.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-11 14:04:57

Finding in le Verrier, Theoretically, the 5600’’ Observed by Weinberg

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 2 Pages. In portuguese.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar), às imprecisões das massas dos planetas, em especial Mercúrio, e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[744] viXra:1408.0056 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-16 16:32:45

On the Origin and Physical Nature of the Cosmological Vacuum

Authors: Ramon Isasi
Comments: 19 pages;1 Figure; 1 Table

In the present manuscript, we consider the origin of the cosmological space, and the Cosmological Constant as a consequence of the annihilation of the matter - antimatter at the very beginning of the big bang. Since the cosmological expansion creates the space, the cosmological vacuum is considered as a very hegemonic entity which is the locus where all the objects create the events. Certainly, N units of masses in conjunct are required to produce an equilibrium between the gravitational phenomena of the matter in bulk and each coulombic interaction between protons and electrons within the nuclear and atomic contour in all astrophysical (e.g. stars) or cosmological entities (e.g. galaxies). The "dark matter" is considered to be formed by highly excited H and HeI Rydberg`s atoms in equilibrium with the CMB radiation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[743] viXra:1408.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-08 05:30:28

A Comment on the Mass of the Planets

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 1 Page. A spontaneous letter in portuguese

Beyond the question "Gravitational Mass = Inertial Mass?" should be the question "Gravitational Mass Planet X = Gravitational Mass Planet Y"?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[742] viXra:1408.0027 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-11 05:15:26

The Masses of the Solar System´s Planets

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Compares the current masses of Mercury to Saturn, with the values of Le Verrier and Newcomb and recalculates the value of the deviation obtained for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury with current masses.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[741] viXra:1408.0013 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-25 21:35:49

A Simple Theory of Gravity Based on Mach's Principle

Authors: Arindam Sinha
Comments: 23 Pages.

A simple and intuitive alternative theory of gravity based on Mach's Principle is proposed. At any location, total gravitational potential from the Universe's matter distribution is c2. This Universal background potential constitutes unit rest energy of matter and provides its unit mass, which is the essence behind E=mc2. The background gravity creates a local sidereal inertial frame at every location. A velocity increases gravitational potential through net blue-shift of Universe's background gravity, causing kinematic time dilation, which is a form of gravitational time dilation. Matter and energy follow different rules of motion, and speed of matter may exceed the speed of light. The theory is consistent with existing relativity experiments, and is falsifiable based on experiments whose predictions differ from General Relativity. The theory also explains why all the ICARUS and corrected OPERA experiments still show mean neutrino velocities slightly above speed of light (early arrival of neutrinos by 0.1-6.5ns), even after correcting the issues that had led to the original OPERA experiments to erroneously report faster than light neutrinos (early arrival by ~60ns).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[740] viXra:1408.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-03 17:28:46

A Simple Relativistic Cosmology of the Universe

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 29 Pages.

The paper presents a relativistic extension of Newton’s mechanics, termed Newtonian Relativity, and utilizes it to infer the state of the observable universe. The theory is successful in making significant predictions regarding the accelerating nature of the universe, its composition of matter, dark matter and dark energy, and regarding the time-line of the evolution of chemical elements. The theory yields simple expressions for the dynamics of normal matter, dark matter, kinetic energy and dark energy, in their dependence on redshift. It also yields simple expressions for the prediction of Ω_matter and Ω_Λ for any given redshift range. Predictions from these expressions are compared with observations based ΛCDM cosmologies. Strikingly, the theoretical distribution of the kinetic energy density in the universe is bell shaped and symmetrical around the famous Golden Ratio. With regard to the evolutionary time-line of chemical elements, the theory predicts that the chemical elements may have been formed twice: first, in massive galaxy structures at the early universe, and second, in young galaxies in the recent history of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[739] viXra:1408.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-03 15:04:43

A Simple Relativistic Cosmology of the Universe

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 29 Pages.

The paper presents a relativistic extension of Newton’s mechanics, termed Newtonian Relativity, and utilizes it to infer the state of the observable universe. The theory is successful in making significant predictions regarding the accelerating nature of the universe, its composition of matter, dark matter and dark energy, and regarding the time-line of the evolution of chemical elements. The theory yields simple expressions for the dynamics of normal matter, dark matter, kinetic energy and dark energy, in their dependence on redshift. It also yields simple expressions for the prediction of Ω_matter and Ω_Λ for any given redshift range. Predictions from these expressions are compared with observations based ΛCDM cosmologies. Strikingly, the theoretical distribution of the kinetic energy density in the universe is bell shaped and symmetrical around the famous Golden Ratio. With regard to the evolutionary time-line of chemical elements, the theory predicts that the chemical elements may have been formed twice: first, in massive galaxy structures at the early universe, and second, in young galaxies in the recent history of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[738] viXra:1408.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-02 07:32:06

A Simple Relativistic Cosmology of the Universe

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 28 Pages.

The paper presents a relativistic extension of Newton’s mechanics, termed Newtonian Relativity, and utilizes it to infer the state of the observable universe. The theory is successful in making significant predictions regarding the accelerating nature of the universe, its composition of matter, dark matter and dark energy, and regarding the time-line of the evolution of chemical elements. The theory yields simple expressions for the dynamics of normal matter, dark matter, kinetic energy and dark energy, in their dependence on redshift. It also yields simple expressions for the prediction of Ω_matter and Ω_Λ for any given redshift range. Predictions from these expressions are compared with observations based ΛCDM cosmologies. Strikingly, the theoretical distribution of the kinetic energy density in the universe is bell shaped and symmetrical around the famous Golden Ratio. With regard to the evolutionary time-line of chemical elements, the theory predicts that the chemical elements may have been formed twice: first, in massive galaxy structures at the early universe, and second, in young galaxies in the recent history of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[737] viXra:1408.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-01 14:47:35

A Simple Relativistic Cosmology of the Universe

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 28 Pages.

The paper presents a relativistic extension of Newton’s mechanics, termed Newtonian Relativity, and utilizes it to infer the state of the observable universe. The theory is successful in making significant predictions regarding the accelerating nature of the universe, its composition of matter, dark matter and dark energy, and regarding the time line of the evolution of chemical elements. The theory yields simple expressions for the dynamics of normal matter, dark matter, kinetic energy, and dark energy in their dependence on redshift. It also yields simple expressions for the prediction of Ω_matter and Ω_Λ for any given redshift range. Predictions from these expressions are compared observationally derived ΛCDM cosmologies. Strikingly, the theoretical distribution of the kinetic energy density in the universe is bell shaped and symmetrical around the famous Golden Ratio. With regard to the evolutionary time-line of chemical elements, the theory predicts that the chemical elements may have been formed twice: first, in massive galaxy structures at the early universe, and second, in young galaxies in the recent history of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[736] viXra:1407.0208 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-31 19:22:05

Normalization of Some Holographic Dark Energy Models

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 4 Pages.

We propose the normalization of some holographic dark energy (HDE) models. Applying the normalization method, we derive the general equation of normalization of initial HDE model and General HDE (GHDE) model; obtain that the coefficient w_de is inversely proportional to the square of the parameter c_L which is variable; get the normalized equations of initial HDE model, GHDE model, agegraphic dark energy (ADE) model and New HDE (NHDE) model; obtain n = 2.894 which is in good agreement with n = 〖2.886〗_(-0.163)^(+0.169) in ADE model and c_Ln= 3 which agrees well with 1.41 < c < 3.09 in NHDE model; and interpret the physical meaning of the ratio f_de and its average value by dimensional analysis. We suggest that the normalization of some HDE models is interesting and significant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[735] viXra:1407.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-26 09:43:28

Understanding Special Relativity

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: FIVE PAGES

A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measures both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car. However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[734] viXra:1407.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-26 08:08:02

Understanding Special Relativity

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: FIVE PAGES

A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measures both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car. However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[733] viXra:1407.0175 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-16 11:39:08

Arguments for a Magneto-Genesis of Universe

Authors: Stefan Mehedinteanu
Comments: 24 Pages. a new version

In present work , is established a correlation with Inflation Dynamics, especially at the reheating era, when is found that the Inflaton field is a primordial magnetic field ( ) due of a primordial charged black(white)hole. This field is sufficiently strong, that, the energy of the vacuum can be lowered, in order to create by Schwinger effect pairs, of quarks , of gluons, of bosons ( ), of gluons (monopoles) , and of the magnetic monopoles themselves (of spin 1). Thus, in the work is calculated the Inflation Dynamics by putting in evidence all the epochs (quarks, hadrons, leptons). That, it ours permitting to observe that the potential nears the end of reheating (at quarks epoch) is very much reduced, and thus, at Hubble length , the potential becomes ; when, the mass of monopoles off-diagonal nonabelian component is (for ) ; and the quarks pairs created by Schwinger effect, its get string strength of , both remaining locked at theses values till confinement in nucleons ( ; ) and today. Therefore, apparently, is not any trace of an external residual field like of Higgs field. In others words, the Inflation can not explains the Higgs field, only, if we consider that the top ( ) and antitop ( ) quarks pairs, also, as been produced by Schwinger effect, they form a bound state, that is a composite Higgs boson field as in the frame of Topcolor model. This is a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the top quark and anti-top quark form a top quark condensate and act effectively like the Higgs boson. This is analogous to the phenomenon of superconductivity. These theories will ultimately be tested at the LHC in its Run-II commencing in 2015 In our present model, the things are similarly, an equivalence of my model with that of the Standard Model, is given in previously author’ works. Supplementary, in the present model the Inflaton potential is viewed as a due of charged black(white)hole, and by Schwinger effect during the reheating period, there are generated all kinds of particles: gluons , magnetic monopoles themselves, and fermions (quarks, top quarks). In my previously model, theses gluon-gluon interactions constrain color fields to string-like objects called "flux tubes", which exert constant force when are stretched. Also, it results a probability ( or a continuously production rates) for gluons(monopoles), and quarks, both with a number of quarks. Finally, all the gluons are being captured by all generated by quarks ( ) pairs, together forming nucleons of an incredibly exactly number , which is the known number of particles in Universe. Since, the reheating potential continues to diminish, at approximately -that corresponding to confinement, the production of gluons (monopoles) quarks stops. But, a near field it was (also) created inside nucleons , as was shown in previously author’s works. This field makes possible the beta decay of free neutrons, and later of isotopes. Also, this field creates a Lorenz force between quarks flux tube and gluons (in structures of gauge monopoles type current), that, it is found to explain the gravity of nucleons (mass). Also, there are found the number and mass of top quarks pairs ( ) locked in Higgs field and its decay. And more, is discovered the exact origin of primordial magnetic field ( ), namely, the electromagnetic fields ( ) generated by a primordial charged black(white)hole, which is the external source to polarize (ignition) the vacuum for pairs production and, later can B-imprint . A clear relationship it was established between and the Hubble length. Thus, at the end of time , all ( ) of magnetic monopoles pairs produced are already bounded , and the light of type imprinted is due of residual , of value , either as itself, or by Faraday rotation as resulting of that gives , for a frequency of . Therefore, the monopoles pairs suppression is by bounding its in strings (dumbbells) and in nucleons as gluons(monopoles), that, it explains the magnetic monopoles absence as it was mentioned in the classical Iflation works. Also, the PMF, easy “passes” the plasma period as to be formed by particles, till . The main conclusion of the work, it is that the energy density corresponds to a charged black(white)hole, it is equally with the magnetic flux ( ) from Einstein equations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[732] viXra:1407.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-15 19:32:04

Calculating Parameters in HDE Model and Its Series in GHDE Model by Normalization Method

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 4 Pages.

We calculate the parameter c_L in holographic dark energy (HDE) model and the series c_L (z_i) in generalized holographic dark energy (GHDE) model. Applying the normalization method, we find the normalized equation; get c_L= 0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; find the normalized equation of redshift z; obtain c_L (z_i) = 0.471 when Ω_de (z_i ) = 0.683 by the same method, which is in good agreement with c; have the same solution by the iteration method. We suggest that the HDE model and the GHDE model are competitive and promising.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[731] viXra:1407.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-27 02:05:09

Calculating Parameters in HDE Model and Its Series in GHDE Model by Normalization Method

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 4 Pages.

We calculate the parameter c_L in holographic dark energy (HDE) model and the series c_L (z_i) in generalized holographic dark energy (GHDE) model. Applying the normalization method, we find the normalized equation; get c_L= 0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; find the normalized equation of redshift z; obtain c_L (z_i) = 0.471 when Ω_de (z_i ) = 0.683 by the same method, which is in good agreement with c; have the same solution by the iteration method. We suggest that the HDE model and the GHDE model are competitive and promising.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[730] viXra:1407.0160 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-28 06:17:08

Solar Wind: Refining a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages.

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[729] viXra:1407.0160 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-23 12:12:28

Solar Wind: Refining a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[728] viXra:1407.0160 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-23 06:11:33

Solar Wind: Refining a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[727] viXra:1407.0155 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-28 19:37:53

Cyclic Nature of Energy-Conserving "Gravitational Collapse"

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally-interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also executes a specifically time-cycloidal degenerate gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously disrupted their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent energy density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem. Oppenheimer-Snyder dust of position-independent energy density is furthermore highly unphysical: its infinite dust energy causes the Oppenheimer-Snyder metric to violate the Principle of Equivalence. So for spatially localized dust only numerical computations are inherently credible.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[726] viXra:1407.0155 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-22 20:48:27

Cyclic Nature of Energy-Conserving "Gravitational Collapse"

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally-interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also execute a specifically time-cycloidal linear gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously scuppered their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[725] viXra:1407.0130 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-29 08:11:19

Thin Spherical Matter Shell as Gravity Theory Filter

Authors: Kevin E Nolan
Comments: 5 Pages. v3 adds comments in part 1 addressing misunderstandings encountered. Relation between standard and isotropic form of Schwarzschild metric elaborated in part 3. Other minor edits made throughout.

In GR (general relativity) a static thin solid and uniform spherical matter shell is the source of an external SM (Schwarzschild metric), interior flat MM (Minkowski metric), plus a shell wall metric not of interest here. In part 1 the above is shown to imply an illogical break in dependence on gravitational potential for the radial spatial metric component, exterior vs hollow interior regions, not shared by clocks. In part 2 further anomaly is found. In the gravitationally small regime, any infinitesimal element of shell mass is reasonably treated as an independent point source of SM. To within a tiny fractional error, linearly summing over the shell should but does not yield an interior metric consistent with the usual matching scheme of part 1. Conformally flat exterior metric as necessary cure is discussed in part 3. A tie-in to Mach’s principle is discussed in part 4.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[724] viXra:1407.0130 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-21 08:25:42

Thin Spherical Matter Shell as Gravity Theory Filter

Authors: Kevin E Nolan
Comments: 5 Pages. Minor textual edits to parts 1, 2, 3, passage tying topic to Mach's principle added in part 4.

In GR (general relativity) a static thin solid and uniform spherical matter shell is the source of an external SM (Schwarzschild metric) and interior flat MM (Minkowski metric), plus a shell wall transitional metric not needing consideration here. It will be shown in part 1 the above implies a physically absurd disappearing dependence on gravitational potential for just the radial spatial metric component, in crossing the shell wall. In part 2 mathematical inconsistency is found. In the gravitationally small regime, treating each element of shell mass as an independent point source of SM and linearly summing over all such contributions ought to but manifestly does not yield an interior spatial metric consistent with the usual matching scheme of part 1. A conformally flat exterior metric as necessary cure is discussed in part 3.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[723] viXra:1407.0127 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-17 13:04:45

Experiments to Test the Theory, “A Relativistic Theory Based on the Invariance of Newton’s Second Law for Motion and the Constancy of the Speed of Light in Vacuum”.

Authors: Mustafa A. Khan.
Comments: 1 Page.

In this short paper I present two experiments that can be easily done to test the validity of theory, "A relativistic theory based on the invariance of Newton's second law for motion and the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[722] viXra:1407.0099 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-16 04:31:24

Scale Invariance and Weyl Theory

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 9 Pages. Spanish

In the same publication in which Hermann Weyl in 1918 published his unified field theory, Albert Einstein raised sharp criticism to the new theory. He argued that if true would not exist defined spectral lines. Later Wolfgang Pauli developed this review in more detail, than accepted other leading physicists of the time, including the own Weyl. The result was that the theory that unified gravitation and electromagnetism born dead. In this research, we analyze in depth the concept of conformal transformation, a concept basic in the theory of Weyl, and we interpret it as a change in the scale of the units, concluding that the physical phenomena that are not altered by making a conformal transformation, the which means that Einstein's criticism is incorrect.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[721] viXra:1407.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-25 06:26:11

Estimating the Influence of the Satellites in the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

Abandon the hypothesis that the satellites of the solar system may be responsible for the precession of 43" arc of the perihelion of Mercury. Satellites together contribute, by our estimate, with just over 1" to the value of this precession, the Moon being the most responsible for this deviation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[720] viXra:1407.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-16 05:47:20

Estimating the Influence of the Satellites in the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

Abandon the hypothesis that the satellites of the solar system may be responsible for the precession of 43" arc of the perihelion of Mercury. Satellites together contribute, by our estimate, with just over 1" to the value of this precession, the Moon being the most responsible for this deviation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[719] viXra:1407.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-15 06:06:34

Estimating the Influence of the Satellites in the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

Abandon the hypothesis that the satellites of the solar system may be responsible for the precession of 43" arc of the perihelion of Mercury. Satellites together contribute, by our estimate, with just over 1" to the value of this precession, the Moon being the most responsible for this deviation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[718] viXra:1407.0092 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-15 05:49:15

Gravitational Time Dilation Explained For Beginners

Authors: Rahul Garg
Comments: 4 Pages. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

At first the concept of gravitational time dilation may look a bit complicated and it is difficult to figure out the reason. In this paper, I am going to explain gravitational time dilation without the knowledge of any other concept such as the equivalence principle and others. This paper aims to simplify any confusions or doubts that arise regarding gravitational time dilation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[717] viXra:1407.0048 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-07 12:42:06

Note on an Astronomical Surprise

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 1 Page. Portuguese language.

No satellite was taken into account in calculating the angular displacement of the perihelion of Mercury, even those already known at that time, by Le Varrier.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology