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2014 - 1401(36) - 1402(30) - 1403(34) - 1404(32) - 1405(39) - 1406(35) - 1407(42)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1357] **viXra:1407.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-26 02:24:42*

**Authors:** M. Sharif, M. Zaeem Ul Haq Bhatti

**Comments:** 09 Pages. Can. J. Phys. 90(2012)1233

We consider static cylindrically symmetric charged gravitating
object with perfect fluid and investigate the gravitational binding
energy. It is found that only the localized part of the mass
function provides the gravitational binding energy, whereas the
non-localized part generated by the electric coupling does not
contribute for such energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1356] **viXra:1407.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-26 02:35:06*

**Authors:** M. Sharif, Z. Yousaf

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Astrophys. Space Sci. 351(2014)351.

In this paper, we employ cut and paste scheme to construct
thin-shell wormhole of a charged black string with $f(R)$ terms. We
consider $f(R)$ model as an exotic matter source at
wormhole throat. The stability of the respective solutions are
analyzed under radial perturbations in the context of
$R+{\delta}R^2$ model. It is concluded that both stable as well as
unstable solutions do exist for different values of $\delta$. In the
limit $\delta{\rightarrow}0$, all our results reduce to general
relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1355] **viXra:1407.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-24 09:57:18*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Please contact Gene Barbee at genebarbee@msn.com with comments

The first law of thermodynamics is fairly straightforward. It states that energy can be
converted from one form into another but not created or destroyed. The author’s work on
the subject indicates that net energy is zero [6][7][13] but separated into two different
types of energy that balance one another. The second law is not as straightforward. A
quantity called entropy describes the probability of energy states for systems with many
particles. The second law states that more probable energy states become filled over time
and energy differences that can be used to carry out work become less available. How
everything achieved a high state that can continually “run down” has been somewhat of
an enigma.
There is a strange situation in fundamental physics regarding time. Well respected
physicists [Julian Barbour for example] point out that all quantum mechanical equations
are cyclical with time. Common sense tells us that time advances and tension exists
between fundamentals and what we observe. This situation extends to fundamentals of
space as well as fundamentals of time. Special relativity and curvature of space time is
known to be the source of gravity at the large scale but efforts to understand quantum
gravity encounter significant theoretical difficulties.
The author uses a cellular model that describes gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic
and potential energy at the quantum level [6][7]. Using cosmology as a platform, the
present paper explores time and the second law. It concludes that time advances because
expansion converts kinetic energy to potential energy. Further, the gravitational coupling
constant appears to convert quantum behavior to large scale behavior. Although pressure
expands the universe, gravitational accumulation begins to dominate locally. The
improbable expanded state and the many states available related to gravitational
accumulation explain how everything can “run down” as time progresses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1354] **viXra:1407.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-24 09:14:21*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** FIVE PAGES

A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measues both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car.
However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1353] **viXra:1407.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-23 13:34:50*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a Meta Law (Scale Principle or Scale Law) which describes a number of fundamental laws. This paper provides the derivation of the Lorentz transformations and shows that these transformations obey the Scale Law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1352] **viXra:1407.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-23 10:52:03*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu1

**Comments:** 22 Pages. -

In present work , is established a correlation with Inflation Dynamics, especially at the reheating era, when the Inflaton field is sufficiently strong, and the energy of the vacuum can be lowered, in order to create by Schwinger effect pairs, of quarks , gluons, bosons ( ), gluons (monopoles) , the magnetic monopoles themselves (of spin 1).
Also, in the work is calculated the Inflation Dynamics putting in evidence all the epochs (quarks, hadrons, leptons). That ours permitting to observe that the potential nears the end of reheating (at quarks epoch) is very much reduced, thus, at , the potential becomes ; when, the mass of monopoles off-diagonal nonabelian component (for ) ; and the quarks pairs created by Schwinger effect, which get string strength of , both remaining locked at theses values till confinement ( ; ) and today. Therefore, apparently, is not any trace of an external residual field like of Higgs field. In others words, the Inflation can not explains the Higgs field, only, if we consider that the top ( ) and antitop ( ) quarks pairs also, produced by Schwinger effect, they form a bound state, that is a composite Higgs boson field as in the frame of Topcolor model. This is a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the top quark and anti-top quark form a top quark condensate and act effectively like the Higgs boson. This is analogous to the phenomenon of superconductivity. These theories will ultimately be tested at the LHC in its Run-II commencing in 2015
In our present model, the things are similarly, an equivalence of my model with that of the Standard Model, is given in previously author’ works. Thus, in my model the Inflaton potential, by Schwinger effect during the reheating period, generates all kinds of particles: gluons , magnetic monopoles themselves, and fermions (quarks, top quarks). In the model, theses gluon-gluon interactions constrain color fields to string-like objects called "flux tubes", which exert constant force when stretched. The difference with Standard Model, is that it results a probability ( or a continuously production rates) for gluons, and a number of quarks. Finally, at all the gluons are being captured by all generated by quarks ( ) pairs, together forming nucleons of
an incredibly exactly number , which is the known number of particles in Universe. Since, the reheating potential continues to diminish, at approximately -that corresponding to confinement, the production of gluons (monopoles) quarks stops. But, a near field it was created inside nucleons , as was found in previously author’s works.
This field makes possible the beta decay of free neutrons, and later of isotopes. Also, this field creates a Lorenz force between quarks flux tube and gluons (in structures of gauge monopoles type current), that is found to explain the gravity of nucleons (mass).
Also, there are found the number and mass of top quarks pairs locked in Higgs field and its decay.
And more, is discovered the exact origin of primordial magnetic field ( ), namely, the electromagnetic fields ( ) generated by a primordial charged blackhole, which can B-imprints . A clear relationship it was established between and the Hubble length. Thus, at the end of time , all ( ) of magnetic monopoles pairs produced are already bounded in strings, and the light of type imprinted is due of residual , , either as itself, or by Faraday rotation as resulting of that gives , for a frequency of .
Therefore, the monopoles pairs suppression by bounding its in strings, that explains the magnetic monopoles absence mentioned in Iflation works. Also, the PMF easy “passes” the plasma period as to be formed by particles, , , till , in the same way as the gravitational field, which it is not affected by this plasma. The main conclusion of the work is that the energy density equally with magnetic flux ( ) from Einstein equations is the fundamental stone of Universe origin and its evolution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1351] **viXra:1407.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-22 19:30:34*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We calculate the parameter c_L on holographic dark energy (HDE) model and the series c_L (z_i) on generalized holographic dark energy (GHDE) model. Applying the normalization method, we find the normalized equation; get c_L= 0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; find the normalized equation of redshift z; obtain c_L (z_i) = 0.471 when Ω_de (z_i ) = 0.683 by the same method, which is in good agreement with c; have the same solution by the iteration method. We suggest that the HDE model and the GHDE model are competitive and promising.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1350] **viXra:1407.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-22 07:41:31*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 24 Pages. slide presentation

This presentation shows that there cannot be any Gravito-Electro-Magnetic (GEM) field contrary to a popular belief of its existence and contrary to many claims of its existence found in the reputable publications. This is shown using a simple thought experiment of two massive parallel plates that are moving in a direction parallel to the plates’ surfaces and in a direction perpendicular to the plates’ surfaces. It is found that the field energy is not conserved for these two directions if the GEM field existence is postulated as derived from the Einstein’s field equations for the weak gravitational field and as claimed that it has been detected by the Gravity Probe B.
In the second portion of the presentation the Gravity Probe B results are analyzed in a greater detail and it is found that this experiment does not prove the correctness of Einstein General Relativity Theory (GRT) as is enthusiastically claimed. It is clearly shown that an error exists in the GRT geodetic precession formula derivation and that the experiment actually proves the correctness of a different metric rather than the Schwarzschild metric of the celebrated GRT theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1349] **viXra:1407.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 15:57:04*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the epoch prior to the big bang E8 was an unbroken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) and both positive and negative intrinsic energy (mc^2) boson particles could be formed and combined with positive intrinsic energy leptons, hadrons and strong force particles to form zero intrinsic energy fermibosonic entities which could carry matter from the previous universe without violating flatness requirements. Two new gauge bosons were needed (along with a third to enable the big bang) and these gauge bosons could produce attractive forces much stronger than the weaker force of our broken symmetry force of gravity. The period of time that the universe had unbroken symmetry could thus be relatively short compared to our epoch of broken E8 symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1348] **viXra:1407.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 08:01:56*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Will be in Portuguese and English

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1347] **viXra:1407.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 20:21:51*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time-evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust-density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also execute a specifically time-cycloidal linear gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously scuppered their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1346] **viXra:1407.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 01:04:15*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Six page paper

Einstein’s Relativity-theories predict: length-contraction, time-dilation, transverse-Doppler-shift, gravitational-spectral-shifts, expansion-of-space, time-dilation-of-super-nova-light-curves...etc. This letter attempts to gain some insight into two of them in terms of wave-theory. For example, the observations of time-dilation of ‘super-nova-light-curves’ are currently considered as a confirmative-test of expansion-of-time; whereas it is shown here that the super-nova-light-curve can be viewed as a ‘gate-function’ in the ‘time-domain’; and it can be Fourier-transformed into frequency-domain; and it is this wide band of waves which travels in space and reaches us after millions of years. During its travel, when this wide-band of waves gets red-shifted due to any mechanism, including the tired-light-interpretation of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’, then its band-width shrinks in the frequency-domain; so when it is transformed back into time-domain we find that the duration of the curve has got increased. Thus, time-dilation of super-nova-light-curves is not an independent observation from the observations of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’ due to any mechanism. Similarly, the relativistic length-contraction with speed is also explained in terms of waves, with the help of Fourier-transform.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1345] **viXra:1407.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 09:54:35*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 41 Pages. slide presentation

The presentation deals with a discovery of errors in the Einstein’s General Relativity Theory (GRT). The presentation starts with the confirmation of the correctness of Special Relativity Theory (SRT), but derives justification for a different dependence of gravitational mass on velocity than the inertial mass dependence on velocity. This leads to finding that photons cannot have a gravitational mass and thus can escape form “Black Holes”. This finding contradicts the popular belief and the popular statements such as: “not even light can escape from Black Holes”. The presentation then introduces a new metric whose validity has been confirmed by the standard GRT tests and applies it to create a new model of the universe, which is not based on the Big Bang assumption. Finally, the new universe model predictions are compared with observations and an excellent agreement is obtained thus confirming the assumptions on which the model is built.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1344] **viXra:1407.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 11:27:33*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Conventionally, the phenomenon of light (stellar) aberration is understood as a phenomenon of source observer relative motion. In this paper, it is proposed that a phenomenon of aberration exists even if the source and the observer are at rest relative to each other, but co-moving absolutely in space. The contradiction between the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Sagnac effect is resolved by this theory and this may lead to understanding of many of the other experiments and observations on the speed of light. It discloses the mystery of inability to detect any dependence of the velocity of light on the velocity of its source. Special Relativity theory is rendered unnecessary. A new interpretation of absolute motion and the non-existence of the ether is proposed. A new kind of Michelson-Morley experiment capable of detecting absolute motion is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1343] **viXra:1407.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 05:55:24*

**Authors:** Kevin Nolan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In GR (general relativity) a static thin solid and uniform spherical matter shell is the source of an external SM (Schwarzschild metric) and interior flat MM (Minkowski metric), plus a shell wall transitional metric not needing consideration here. It will be shown in part 1 the above implies a physically absurd disappearing dependence on gravitational potential for just the radial spatial metric component, in crossing the shell wall.
In part 2 mathematical inconsistency is found. In the gravitationally small regime, treating each element of shell mass as an independent point source of SM and linearly summing over all such contributions ought to but manifestly does not yield an interior spatial metric consistent with the usual matching scheme of part 1.
A conformally flat exterior metric as necessary cure is discussed in part 3.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1342] **viXra:1407.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-17 12:11:50*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this short paper I present two experiments that can be easily done to test the validity of theory, "A relativistic theory based on the invariance of Newton's second law for motion and the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1341] **viXra:1407.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-17 08:13:18*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A new way of factorizing the Klein-Gordon equation is proposed, which applies to fields of any type. The spin one-half case leads essentially to the Dirac equation. However, a new interpretation is given, in which the occurrence of anti-particles is a consequence of the two-valuedness of the representations of the Lorentz group in Hilbert space. Boosts have in these representations an anti-unitary component which leads to a change of the norm of wave functions. Under a boost, a state originally at rest develops a positive-frequency component. While the mass of a wave packet is a conserved quantity, its energy transforms according to the law of special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1340] **viXra:1407.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-16 23:42:20*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I present, "The general law of conversion of matter and energy" which supercedes my previous paper on the law of conversion of matter and energy. I draw certain conclusions based upon this law, and one of which is that, the famous mass/energy equation by Einstein, which also describes the conversion of matter and energy, is only a special case of a more general law of conversion of matter and energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1339] **viXra:1407.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-16 03:37:46*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Physics – Uspekhi, 43 1267–1270 (2000) (including V.L. Ginzburg’s note and L.B. Okun’s Reply)

Does the mass of bodies depend on their velocity? Is the mass additive if separate bodies are joined together to form a composite system? Is the mass of an isolated system conserved? Different teachers of physics and specialists give different answers to these questions because there is no general agreement on the definition of mass. We shall show that the notion of the velocity-dependent relativistic mass should be given preference over that of the rest mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1338] **viXra:1407.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 15:28:04*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I give the final and complete formulation of the law that describes the conversion from matter to energy and from energy to matter. It is found that the conversion from energy to matter is not as given by the famous mass/energy equation by Einstein. However, the conversion from matter to energy is in accordance to the matter/energy equation by Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1337] **viXra:1407.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 08:54:57*

**Authors:** Peter B. Wilson

**Comments:** 6 pages; 3 figures; 1 table; references

A physical explanation for dark energy Λ is proposed by revisiting the subject of causality in cosmology, especially with regard to duality. Duality is the observation that local regions are contracting, even as the cosmos is expanding. “Local” means distances less than the center-to-center spacing of galaxy clusters, Ri; “non-local” means distances greater than Ri. It is argued that the Friedmann solution is causally incomplete by two parameters: Ri, denoting “inter-cluster” distance (twice the zero gravity radius RZG); and energy coupling η (0 < η < 1). Both factors--energy coupling and the distance across which it is coupled--are required to describe the duality of a gravitational system. Because Ri and η do not appear in the standard model, it is suggested that Λ may represent them in the relationship Λ = η/Ri^2. This requires η of the order of 0.0001%. It is concluded that modeling the universe gravitationally requires at least four causal parameters, two of which are missing in the Friedmann model. To clarify the situation, a solution is needed to Einstein’s field equations for general relativity that explicitly includes duality, i.e. a solution that includes Ri and η.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1336] **viXra:1407.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:04:03*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

English (traslation): Half of the stars in the universe are composed of ordinary matter, half antimatter. Each atomic particle has the same number of gravitons that half of the stars in the Universe. Links of gravitons with stars of one kind or another, determine the gravity and inertia. The blueshift phenomenon is explained and also shows how you can get energy from gravity, based on the above.
Spanish (original): La mitad de las estrellas del Universo están compuestas de materia ordinaria, la otra mitad de antimateria. Cada partícula atómica tiene el mismo número de gravitones que la mitad de las estrellas del Universo. Los enlaces de los gravitones con las estrellas, de uno u otro tipo, determinan la gravedad y la inercia. Se explica el fenómeno del blueshift y se muestra, asimismo, como se puede obtener energía a partir de la gravedad, basándose en lo anterior.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1335] **viXra:1407.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:20:11*

**Authors:** mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I draw more conclusions based on my theory on relativity presented earlier. Here I show, (1) a new expression for the relativistic mass, (2) a new expression for the relativistic kinetic energy of a relativistic mass, (3) the limitation for the equivalence of matter and energy as expressed by Einstein's famous mass/energy equation, (4) formulation of a new law of physics dealing with the conversion of energy into matter and vice versa and lastly, (5) give another example of the breakdown of the thinking based on non-relativistic events when applied to relativistic events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1334] **viXra:1407.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:14:26*

**Authors:** Branislav Pavlovic

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The following paper consists of two parts. The first one is the translation of the 21st chapter ”The Pioneer anomaly” of my book ” Aether theory with experimental verification”. I chose this particular chapter for the reason that the Pioneer anomaly is a very interesting issue to be discussed. The book is available for reading at viXra. There have been different interpretations of the Pioneer anomaly, but mine is from my aether theory. For the purpose of a more exhaustive explanation of this particular occurrence, the second part of this paper presents some fundamental results of the aether theory, which are closely related to the Doppler effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1333] **viXra:1407.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 04:47:28*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Spanish

In the same publication in which Hermann Weyl in 1918 published his unified field theory, Albert Einstein raised sharp criticism to the new theory. He argued that if true would not exist defined spectral lines. Later Wolfgang Pauli developed this review in more detail, than accepted other leading physicists of the time, including the own Weyl. The result was that the theory that unified gravitation and electromagnetism born dead. In this research, we analyze in depth the concept of conformal transformation, a concept basic in the theory of Weyl, and we interpret it as a change in the scale of the units, concluding that the physical phenomena that are not altered by making a conformal transformation, the which means that Einstein's criticism is incorrect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1332] **viXra:1407.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 06:03:42*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

Abandon the hypothesis that the satellites of the solar system may be responsible for the precession of 43" arc of the perihelion of Mercury. Satellites together contribute, by our estimate, with just over 1" to the value of this precession, the Moon being the most responsible for this deviation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1331] **viXra:1407.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-13 10:33:10*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 9 Pages. one table

In this article it is shown that the hallmark of the General Relativity Theory (GRT), the calculation of the light deflection by a gravitating body, is incorrect. The reason is that the derivation does not follow the well know Fermat principle from optics. Instead an ad hoc principle is used that violates the basic tenets of relativity in order to force an agreement with observations. The Fermat principle has to be satisfied because it follows from the wave equation that guides the photon propagation. This is a fatal problem for the GRT with the root cause traced to the Schwarzschild metric, which does not describe the reality correctly. When the author's new metric is used the standard Fermat principle can be generalized and used leading to the results agreeing with observations and experiments quite well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1330] **viXra:1407.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 15:21:10*

**Authors:** Rahul Garg

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

At first the concept of gravitational time dilation may look a bit complicated and it is difficult to figure out the reason. In this paper, I am going to explain gravitational time dilation without the knowledge of any other concept such as the equivalence principle and others. This paper aims to simplify any confusions or doubts that arise regarding gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1329] **viXra:1407.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 13:26:33*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The article presents arguments with a view to recognize that space is material and has possibly a fractal dimension in the range of from three to two. It is proposed that along to the unit of substance (atom) some a unit of the field (vortex tubes) should be set. It is shown that the formation of the field structures being a kind “doubles” of atomic ones is possible. The existence of the three-zone electron structure is confirmed. It is indicated that this concept have already resulted in to the successful explanation of phenomena and to finding of their important parameters at different levels of the organization of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1328] **viXra:1407.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 15:30:22*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Conventionally, time dilation is defined as the decrease in the rate of flow of time in a frame moving relative to an outside observer. I argue that any process (exemplified by, say, a clock) that moves through space takes longer than that process would take if that process were stationary relative to space. The space that I define in this context is a field (of particles as yet undefined) that I label the temporal-inertial (TI) field. The relation between the TI field and the Higgs field or Higgs fields is undefined in this conjecture. I argue that the TI field constitutes the one and only frame of reference for motion by which time dilation can be reckoned. Furthermore, the velocity of a process relative to the TI field is the one and only cause of time dilation for that process. Accordingly, time dilation is not a decrease in the rate of flow of time in a moving frame, but an increase in the time taken by a process in motion relative to the TI field. If we measure time by the cycle time of a process (e.g. the ticking of a clock) it doesn’t mean that time slows down when the process is in motion, it means that the process takes longer when moving relative to the TI field. The twin paradox is readily resolved by reckoning the motion of the traveling twin relative to the space through which the twin (or clock) moves, not relative to the reference, stationary twin (or clock). The time dilation between two clocks moving in space is shown to be based on each clock’s velocity relative to the TI field, not on the difference of their velocities relative to each other. The TI field is shown to be subject to gravity. Gravitational time dilation of a process (e.g. a clock) is shown to be caused directly by the velocity of the process relative to the TI field, not by the graviton flux at the process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1327] **viXra:1407.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 19:33:51*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 9 Pages. one graph

In this article it is shown that the General Relativity Theory is an incorrect theory of gravity. It leads to erroneous predictions when it is extrapolated beyond its experimentally verified validity such as the prediction of the existence of Black Holes with their event horizons. The article describes the two fatal problems found in the theory in particular in the Schwarzschild metric, which is the “vacuum” solution of Einstein field equations for a mass point. The problems are the insufficient contravariance and the violation of conservation of angular momentum. The article then derives the correct metric for the centrally gravitating body, which does not have the above mentioned problems, presents the Christoffel coefficients, and derives the Riemann, and the Ricci tensors. From this metric it is also shown that the Einstein’s Weak Equivalence Principle does not correspond to reality and that the inertial mass and the gravitational mass both depend on the gravitational potential as well as on the velocity in such a way that their product remains constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1326] **viXra:1407.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 19:53:52*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In 2012 I formulated the scale principle or scale law which was published at viXra.org in June this year. This paper is about a cosmological analysis based on this new law. On previous papers I have shown that several fundamental laws such as the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, the black hole entropy, the Bohr postulate, the De Broglie wavelength-momentum relationship, the formula for the Schwarzschild radius, Einstein’s relativistic energy equation, Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Schrödinger’s equation obey this formulation. Furthermore the author’s previous research suggests that the mass of the Higgs boson, the radius of the proton, the radius of the electron might obey this law as well. The present paper shows that the scale law correctly describes several cosmological issues such as the age of the universe (this analysis includes the latest data from the Planck spacecraft- 2013), the universe mass density, the radius of the present particle horizon and finally the Friedmann’s equation. This simple law is the first Meta law we, humans, have discovered.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1325] **viXra:1407.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 13:48:20*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. The major drawback concerning
warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain
the warp bubble.In order to perform an interstellar space travel
to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years away in a reasonable amount
of time a ship must attain a speed of about $200$ times faster
than light.However the negative energy density at such a speed is
directly proportional to the factor $10^{48}$ which is
$1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times bigger in magnitude than
the mass of the planet Earth!! Although the energy conditions of
General Relativity forbids the existence of negative energy the
Casimir Effect first predicted by Casimir in $1948$ and verified
experimentally by Lamoreaux in $1997$ allows sub-microscopical
amounts of it.We introduce in this work a shape function that will
low the negative energy density requirements in the Natario warp
drive from $10^{48} \frac{Joules}{Meter^{3}}$ to
$10^{-7} \frac{Joules}{Meter^{3}}$ a low and affordable level.
However reducing the negative energy density requirements of the
warp drive to arbitrary low levels works only for empty bubbles
not for bubbles with real spaceships inside because the positive
mass of the spaceship exerts over the negative mass of the bubble
a gravitational repulsive force and a spaceship with a large
positive mass inside a bubble of small negative mass destroys the
bubble.According to Lobo and Visser we can reduce the negative
energy density of the warp bubble only to the limit when the
negative energy becomes a reasonable fraction of the positive
mass/energy of the spaceship.and no less otherwise the bubble is
destroyed.The analysis of Lobo and Visser must be taken in account
when considering bubbles with real spaceships inside otherwise the
warp drive may not work.We reproduce in this work the analysis of
Lobo and Visser for the Natario and Casimir warp drives.The work
of Lobo and Visser is the third most important work in warp drive
science immediately after the works of Alcubierre and Natario and
the Lobo-Visser paper must also be considered a seminal paper like
the ones of both Alcubierre and Natario.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1324] **viXra:1407.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-06 22:22:17*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. Portuguese language.

No satellite was taken into account in calculating the angular displacement of the perihelion of Mercury, not even known at the time, by Le Verrier.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1323] **viXra:1407.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-06 05:57:29*

**Authors:** Rami Vitale

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This paper introduces a new approach to relativity -a non-equivalent alternative, explaining the same phenomena discussed by Special and General Relativity. This approach is based on the famous mass energy equation as the main postulate as well as the relativity principle. By using pure mathematical methods; it explains the phenomenon of the fixed speed of light in different inertial frames of reference, as well as those of non-accelerated light when moving toward, or away from a mass, the bending of light near masses and the additional perihelion advance in astronomic objects' orbits. Results do not match perfectly those predicted by General or Special Relativity. However, the known experiments results do not agree with the classical relativity theories more than they do with this study.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1322] **viXra:1407.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-05 06:36:11*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Over a period spanning at least the past fifteen years it has been repeatedly pointed out that the singularities and event horizons which arise from the Oppenheimer-Snyder ostensible calculation of the gravitational contraction of a localized sphere of dust are at odds with the Principle of Equivalence: notably the timelike geodesic trajectory which that Principle requires for every dust particle precludes any such dust particle from encountering an infinite redshift. Sweeping abstract arguments on the incompatibility of the Principle of Equivalence with an infinite redshift or other singularities have also been advanced. Scrutiny of the Oppenheimer-Snyder calculation shows that it never deals from scratch with localized dust; its one calculation from scratch is a Friedmann model variant with the archetypal Friedmann uniform dust density that pervades the entirety of space. This very unrealistic model, which inter alia has infinite energy, exhibits singularities and violations of the Principle of Equivalence. Since the Birkhoff theorem doesn't apply to Friedmann models because they have no empty space region, the Oppenheimer-Snyder follow-on instruction to utilize a spliced-on Schwarzschild metric beyond some arbitrarily specified radius contravenes logic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1321] **viXra:1407.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 20:26:26*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The content of this paper is essentially the same as that of an article submitted to the weblog, *Scientia Salon* in July 2014. It was inspired by Jim Baggott's article, "The Evidence Crisis," which was posted to the *Salon* in June 2014. Baggott is also the author of *Farewell to Reality*, a recent book, one of whose main concerns--as with his article--is the diminishing value of empirical evidence in modern theoretical physics and cosmology. 382 years ago Galileo proposed an extremely simple gravity experiment that has yet to be carried out. With modern technology, it could have been carried out decades ago. The point of this paper is to generate interest in conducting Galileo's experiment. That the possibility of doing so has rarely even been discussed by physicists is an indication that the *Evidence Crisis* of which Baggott has written, pertains not only to untestable theories, but to "established" theories that have not yet been adequately tested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1320] **viXra:1407.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 20:45:48*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Still nowadays is not known: What is the gravity? Which is its speed?.
However, in the world, the great majority of the physicists follow the General Relativity, which explains the gravity like the effect of the curvature of the spacetime in the movement of free fall of the bodies. But, simultaneously they agree that gravity as gravitational waves is a quantum phenomenon, endowed with a transmitting particle, known as real graviton, whose origin is the energy of the oscillation of the spacetime. Thus the gravity appears like geometric and quantum phenomenon, that has not allowed unify General Relativity and Quantum Physics. This is the other great existing physical theory, from which has been derived, the Quantum Gravity theory, whose carrier is the virtual graviton.
This problem has two basic alternatives to solve it. One is the theory of "Everything" that is based on explaining the quantum character of the gravity from strings in spaces of 5 and more dimensions, where the particle is turned pure geometry, but in spite of the great efforts realized, it is not surpassed the low energies. The other alternative is to leave General Relativity in search of the unification of the gravity and other physical phenomenons in a quantum theory, but of material particles. This scenery is again explored, as soon as it was left by the pioneers of the quantum gravity.
The geometric-quantum duality of the gravity, of the General Relativity, also, has darkened so much the concept of speed of the gravity like the development of an suitable technology to measure it, that according to the relativity must be equal to c. This was the goal for the end of 2005, of the Laser Interferometry projects of LIGO, GEO, VIRGO, TAMA, LISA, etc.
In 2002, the ingenious experiment made for to measure the speed of the gravity, by the scientist Sergei Kopeikin is not accepted due to its controversial effectiveness.
In 1998, from Quantum Gravity, from the material particles, in a theoretical experiment, the prestigious scientist Tom Van Flandern calculates the speed of the gravity at least in 2 x 1010 times c, that is consistent with the thesis of the author, formulated within an analogous scenery, in 1969, about the superluminal speed of the gravity.
In this paper the author presents the controversy on the speed of the gravity between General Relativity and the Quantum Theory of the Gravity and exposes the foundations of his thesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1319] **viXra:1407.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 06:29:31*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Portuguese language.

Three hypotheses for the advance of the perihelion of Mercury. To be continued.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1318] **viXra:1407.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 08:12:28*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Thank you

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s revised gravity field equation (add the cosmological constant), discovers the solution of the cosmological problem. In this time, by the cosmological constant, understand the universe energy density without the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1317] **viXra:1407.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-01 13:41:13*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In previous papers we have discussed the concept of a theory of gravitation with local energy conservation, and the properties of a large neutron star resulting when the energy of gravitation resides locally with the particle mass and not in the gravitational field [1][2][3]. A large neutron star’s surface radius grows closer to the gravitational radius as the mass increases, but is always slightly larger. As the mass increases there is a continuously greater mass defect for incoming particles. Since the localization of energy also applies to the photon, photons do not decrease energy rising in a gravitational field, and can escape, but there some caveats that must be considered. Photon trajectories in a strong gravitational field have some peculiar features that are not immediately obvious but can be investigated by the use of ray tracing procedures. The most notable is the fact that only a fraction of the blackbody radiation emitted from the surface escapes into space (about 0.00004% for Sag A*). The remainder enters orbit below the maximum photon orbit, and can constitute a horizontal photon atmosphere. Because of the low percent of escaping blackbody radiation, the heavy neutron stars considered in this paper will be referred to as a Neutron Dark Star (NDS). In contrast to the Black Hole (BH) which should be totally dark inside the photon shadow, the NDS will appear as a fuzzy low luminosity ball with a full width half maximum radius of about 3.85 Schwarzschild radii inside the shadow. This paper will investigate the difference in the appearance of a Neutron Dark Star and a Black Hole by using ray tracing techniques. The Event Horizon Telescope currently under development should be able to distinguish the difference between the theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1316] **viXra:1407.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-01 07:28:39*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Portuguese language.

A second reading of the way it calculates the motion of the perihelion of a planet in General Relativity is taken, coming to the conclusion that General Relativity does not explain this movement of precession.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1315] **viXra:1406.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-30 22:43:23*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The paper's brevity belies the effort required to carry out the indicated variations of the various Riemann-Christoffel and Ricci terms. But they're straightforward, and the dedicated student should have no trouble verifying them.

The Weyl conformal tensor describes the distorting but volume-preserving tidal effects of gravitation on a material body. A rather complicated combination of the Riemann-Christoffel tensor, the Ricci tensor and the Ricci scalar, the Weyl tensor is used in the construction of a unique conformally-invariant Lagrangian. In 1938 Cornelius Lanczos discovered a clever simplification of the mathematics that eliminated the RC term, thus considerably reducing the complexity of the overall Lagrangian. Here we present an equivalent but simpler approach to the one Lanczos used.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1314] **viXra:1406.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-30 07:34:05*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The aim of the paper is to develop a gauge theory, which shall be on the one hand as similar as possible to the original ansatz of Einstein’s theory of general relativity, and on the other hand in agreement with other gauge theories as, for instance, those of the electroweak or of the strong interaction. The result is a nonabelian gauge theory with the general linear group GL(4,R) as its gauge group.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1313] **viXra:1406.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-29 12:02:50*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 12 pages, 32 references

World – Universe Model (WUM) is based on two fundamental parameters in various rational
exponents: Fine-structure constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q
increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World.
WUM predicts that there exist two additional fundamental interactions – Super-Weak and
Extremely-Weak – in addition to four commonly described. The cross-section of Super-Weak
interaction is about 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the Weak; Extremely-Weak interaction is
10 orders of magnitude smaller still. These ratios are in good agreement with the published
theoretical models concerning the origin of Strangeness and CP violation.
In this paper, we examine the role of super-weakly interacting sterile neutrinos in the structure of
galaxies and galaxy clusters.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1312] **viXra:1406.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-27 17:28:05*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A very elementary overview of the original Kaluza-Klein theory is presented, suitable for undergraduates who want to learn the basic mathematical formalism behind a revolutionary idea that was proposed one hundred years ago, yet today serves as the template for modern higher-dimensional particle and gravity theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1311] **viXra:1406.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-27 04:01:03*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Spanish

We define the Weyl geometry and we establish two types: integrable and nonintegrable. We obtain the equation of motion for a free particle in Weyl integrable geometry. We analyze the ways to obtain the field equations: take the components of the metric tensor as the only potentials or take the components of the metric tensor and the components of the metric connexion as the potentials of the field. We analyze how the calibration is imposed on each of these two options. We finished applying the results to the equations derived from some Lagrangian densities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1310] **viXra:1406.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 09:33:49*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Portuguese language.

We develop a solution in an infinite degree polynomial for the Schwarzschild equation and obtained some numerical results. Conclude that their solution seems to converge to a spiraling motion that converges to the center point, and not an ellipse that has precession.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1309] **viXra:1406.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-24 14:35:36*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

At least a couple of vixra postings aim at debunking Einstein’s seminal paper on Special Relativity. We point out that, some time ago, Prof. Jeremy Dunning-Davies has refuted these claims with clear-cut explanations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1308] **viXra:1406.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-24 03:43:52*

**Authors:** B. Ravi Sankar

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Special Relativity can not be derived as shown by Einstein's 1905 paper “ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES”.

The purpose of this paper is to point out a major derivational error in Albert Einstein’s 1905 paper
titled “ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES”. An alternate expression for coordinate transformation is derived which shows that the time co-ordinate of the moving clock cannot be expressed in terms of the temporal and spatial co-ordinate of the stationary system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1307] **viXra:1406.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-23 17:29:27*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I propose that, (1) dark matter is nothing more and nothing less than dark energy itself, (2) an object that is far away from the boundary of the universe makes the dark energy to "appear" to behave like dark matter towards it, (3) an object near the boundary of the universe makes the dark energy to behave like dark energy towards it, (4) the appearance of quantum entanglement to be instantaneous is only an illusion due to the speed of the particle involved in transferring the information between them to be much greater than that of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1306] **viXra:1406.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-23 16:12:46*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote an article entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that article I formulated a new physical principle which describes nature at both quantum and cosmic scales. Now I found that this principle also encompasses, at least, part of Einstein’s special theory of relativity. Thus, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that Einstein’s relativistic energy is a special case of the present formulation: the scale principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1305] **viXra:1406.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-23 02:15:04*

**Authors:** Frank Martin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abstract – A model of time is described which is based on presentist ideas. The main issue facing presentism is the apparent contradiction it brings when one is faced with considering the future and the past as being existent exclusively in the present. The model presented herein relates time to the constant change of energy in the universe. In particular, parallels are drawn between future, present and past, representing time, and potential energy, kinetic energy and entropy representing change. This model includes the future and the past as integral parts of the present.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1304] **viXra:1406.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-22 09:41:45*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 2 Pages. no

As my hobby and having a long time dormant interest in Special and General Relativities I have decided in 2004 to start looking into these topics in more detail and most of all to satisfy my curiosity. The main problem and irritation were the claims of existence of Black Holes with Event Horizons and generally the claims that the Big Bang formed the universe we are living in. These claims seemed to me totally absurd and preposterous. The described study addresses these points, it does not follow the main stream theory, rather it is based on the engineering approach and a philosophy that the results must be reasonable and most of all supported by experimental test results, observations, or at least by thought experiments without contradictions. I have thus started to look closely into the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) and gradually progressed towards the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and finally to the alternate model of the universe as is outlined in the step by step fashion below. Each point and the accompanied statements are therefore documented in detail by referenced publications, which in most cases were refereed, and can be easily accessed by the included internet links.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1303] **viXra:1406.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-22 01:58:37*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A method allowing us to introduce into the Lagrangian the terms, which characterize an arbitrary vector field of a system, is described. As a result of applying the principle of least action it becomes possible to find all the main characteristics of this field, including its energy and momentum, field equations, force of interaction with the matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1302] **viXra:1406.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-21 05:58:02*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly P.

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This article discusses@@ the relationship between the principle of relativity and the holographic principle. Such synthesis gives a chance to understanding quantum gravity theory, which is based on the concepts of information, entropy, and the geometry of space-time. In this work these concepts are combined into a single law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1301] **viXra:1406.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-17 16:35:35*

**Authors:** BASSERA Hamid

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

No doubt, there is a continuity of physical laws. Here I show a link between general and special relativity and especially a kind of gravitational trace or signature in a moving frame, means a memorising of initial process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1300] **viXra:1406.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-16 21:09:22*

**Authors:** Gary D. Simpson

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

A novel hypothesis concerning motion through the vacuum is presented. The hypothesis relates the complex time exponential of Quantum Mechanics (QM) to absolute motion through a wave medium. The hypothesis is combined with Special Relativity (SR). The two most significant results from this are that this combination produces a term that is consistent with angular momentum and that the direction associated with time is the direction of motion through the vacuum. These relations are presented in Equations 12.0/12.1 and Equation 4 respectively. Equation 12.4 then describes the electron-positron. These are a direct explanation for wave-particle duality and an explanation for the "arrow of time", thereby eliminating time as a fourth dimension. The hypothesis predicts a distinction between the emission and the absorption of energy. The hypothesis requires a tangible wave medium. A variation of the Stern-Gerlach experiment is proposed as empirical verification.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1299] **viXra:1406.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 16:31:31*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the epoch prior to the big bang E8 was an unbroken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) and both positive and negative intrinsic energy (mc^2) boson particles could be formed and also combined with positive intrinsic energy hadrons and leptons to form zero intrinsic energy fermibosonic entities which could carry matter from the previous universe without violating flatness requirements. Two such negative intrinsic energy bosons are a spin 0 particle and a spin 1 particle, known to us as dark energy and dark matter respectively. The positive intrinsic energy forms of these particles also exist as the the Higgs and the Zo particles. The negative intrinsic energy entities cannot form in our epoch with E8 symmetry broken to E8 x U(1).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1298] **viXra:1406.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 11:47:29*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

From Mach's principle, the speed of light is shown to be decreasing as the universe expands. The rate of decrease in the speed of light is equivalent to Hubble's constant within accuracy of the cosmological parameters. Modelling the universe as two dimensional quantum well for the plane of traveling quantum waves and their associated energy being equivalent to the rest energy of all particles results in a wavelength-mass relationship for quantizing the gravitational field. This formula predicts the most fundamental wavelenth as corresponding to the mass of the photon which is 1E-68 Kg

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1297] **viXra:1406.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-14 16:53:14*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper is a correction to my previous paper relating the probabilities for gravitational attraction and repulsion to mass. Here I resolve the contradiction that exists between the probability for gravitational attraction when M approaches infinity and r approaches infinity. The result is that, (1) there is maximum mass at which the probability for attraction reaches maximum value after which it starts to decrease with any further increase in the mass, (2) there is a non-zero mass which has zero net gravitational field around it, in contradiction to Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, (3) one can do astronomical observations to find objects with zero gravitational fields, (4) unlike Einstein's GTR it is not necessary that a non-zero mass must produce a gravitational field around itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1296] **viXra:1406.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-14 17:41:53*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 125 Pages. Free, properly attributed, unaltered distribution is encouraged

General Relativity’s Schwarzschild solution describes a spherically symmetric gravitational field as an utterly static thing. The Space Generation Model (SGM) describes it as an absolutely moving thing. The SGM nevertheless agrees equally well with observations made in the fields of the Earth and Sun, because it predicts almost exactly the same spacetime curvature. This success of the SGM motivates deepening the context—especially with regard to the fundamental concepts of motion. The roots of Einstein’s relativity theories thus receive critical examination. A particularly illuminating and widely applicable example is that of uniform rotation, which was used to build General Relativity (GR). Comparing Einstein’s logic to that of the SGM, the most significant difference concerns the interpretation of the readings of accelerometers and the rates of clocks. Where Einstein infers relativity of motion and spacetime symmetry, it is argued to be more logical to infer absoluteness of motion and spacetime asymmetry. This approach leads to reassessments of the essential nature of matter, time, and the dimensionality of space, which lead in turn to some novel cosmological consequences. Special emphasis is given to the model’s deviations from standard predictions inside matter, which have never been tested, but could be tested by conducting a simple experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1295] **viXra:1406.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-14 04:09:22*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Theory of relativity is a joke.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1294] **viXra:1406.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 16:45:10*

**Authors:** David Radice

**Comments:** PhD Thesis, 269 Pages

Strong gravity and relativistic plasma flows are among the fundamental ingredients powering high-energy astrophysical phenomena such as short and long gamma ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae and relativistic outflows from black-hole accreting systems. General-relativistic hydrodynamics is also essential in modelling the merger of neutron stars binaries and black-hole neutron- star binaries that are among the best sources for future gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo or KAGRA.
Over the past decade, the understanding of these phenomena has benefited significantly from the results obtained through non-linear numerical calculations. Key factors in this progress have been the switch to more advanced numerical schemes that are able to properly treat relativistic shock waves, and the progressive inclusion of more “physics”, such as magnetic fields or realistic equations of state. Following this trend, even better numerical tools and more accurate physical description will be be essential to understand these phenomena. This thesis aims at contributing to both of these aspects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1293] **viXra:1406.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 17:24:18*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The singularity problem is inarguably the most troubling predicament of Einstein's General Relativity, if not of all physics. This pathology contradicts the laws of thermodynamics and quantum mechanics, as known to us. It is also refuted by observations confirming the existence of Hawking's Radiation. Previous solutions to the problem have utilized a regime which keeps General Relativity intact, except at the singularity pint, at which the classical spacetime is bridged by a discrete quantum one. Here I propose a very simple solution to the purely gravitational, spherical black hole. Specifically, I show that a simple relativity theory, based on two plausible, well accepted axioms, yields a black hole size which equals the Schwarzschild radius. The theory is consistent with quantum and thermodynamic theories of black holes. For supermassive black holes at galaxies centers, the theory yields a simple expression which describes the dynamics of the host galaxy. The derived dynamics show that black holes have no singularities at the interior, that they are dark at the interior, luminous at the rim of their event horizon, and gray at the nearby exterior; that they constitute part of binary systems, with a naked singularity at the exterior, located at redshift z = 2^(-1/2)≈ 0.7071, suspected to be quasars with extreme velocity offsets, or active galactic nuclei(AGN).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1292] **viXra:1406.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 07:39:06*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, an equivalence between falling toward observers free falling toward a black hole and being stationary in the presence of a growing black hole is assumed. With this assumption, expressions for entropy generation in gravitating systems are derived using the Bekenstein-Hawking formula for black hole entropy. The equations show that gravitational free fall is always results in an increase in the entropy of the Universe. This entropy generation is shown to manifest itself in the expansion of space outside the gravitating system. Finally, analogues between black holes and entangled quantum systems are formulated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1291] **viXra:1406.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-11 10:07:17*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages. English version.

We analyze the solution of Schwarzschild's Equation taking mathematically the observation that the motion of bodies can be modulated spiral by trigonometric functions, which may be something more important than simply mean a shift of perihelion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1290] **viXra:1406.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-11 07:16:26*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Portuguese language

We analyze the solution of Schwarzschild Equation taking mathematically the observation that the motion of bodies can be modulated spiral by trigonometric functions, which may be something more important than simply mean a shift of perihelion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1289] **viXra:1406.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 20:57:31*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I use the fictional Absolute inertial reference frame and Absolute Newtonian Time together with the Newton's second law for motion and the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum to find a relationship between the Newtonian Time and Einstein Time. Using this relationship as the stepping stone I then construct a set of relativistic transformation equations between two realistic non-newtonian inertial reference frames associated with Einstein Time. These transformation equations lead to some very interesting consequences such as: (1) There is no upper limit on the relative speed of a moving inertial reference frame with respect to a "stationary" inertial reference frame, (2) There is no length contraction in the moving frame, (3) There is time dilation in the moving frame that is qualitatively similar to Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity, (4) Supra-luminal relative speeds are allowed for the moving reference frame, (5) With supra-luminal relative speed of moving frame the Einstein Time in it moves backwards, (6) The mass/energy relation of Einstein is preserved, (7) Current and as yet unexplainable cosmic and quantum mechanical events can be used to see if the theory is able to explain them. After this the theory can be used to prediction as yet unknown phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1288] **viXra:1406.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 20:31:04*

**Authors:** John Frederic Sweeney

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Relativity, supposedly one of the great achievements of Albert Einstein, was in fact a minor corollary of natural processes, from the perspective of Vedic Particle Physics. This paper discusses the relative unimportance of the so – called Theory of Relativity, which probably was not even a true theory, since it failed to make correct predictions. Yet one further indication of the need for paradigm change in Physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1287] **viXra:1406.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 11:32:58*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Portuguese language

A first reading of the way it calculates the precession of the perihelion of Mercury on General Relativity is taken. It is shown that the equation of motion obtained for this precession does not solve the differential equation that originated, as it is only approximate, and so we can not be sure about the fact of General Relativity to explain this precession through its solution. We also show that even in classical mechanics can obtain a False precession orbit for the planets, through the use of small quantities considered. We solve exactly the differential equation Binet to General Relativity (Schwarzschild equation) for some cases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1286] **viXra:1406.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-08 07:12:12*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

1.A new interpretation of absolute motion: the effect of absolute motion is to create a change in path length, and not the speed, of light. The apparent position (distance and direction) of a light source changes relative to an observer due to absolute motion. The center of the wave fronts is always at ( and moves with) the apparent source. The velocity of light is c relative to the apparent source. The ether doesn’t exist.
2.Massive cosmic objects define or ‘fix’ the space in their vicinity, with their influence (in defining space) diminishing with distance. The absolute velocity of a body is the vector sum of all its absolute velocities, which is the ‘inverse distance weighed’ velocity of the body relative to all cosmic massive objects. It is analogous to the resultant gravitational force acting on a body.
3.It follows that the speed of light in ideal free space ( region of space far away from cosmic objects) is infinite. There is no ‘free’ space endowed with characteristics permittivity and permeability.
4.The phase velocity of light is constant (independent of source or observer motion) whereas the group velocity of light is variable. The apparent phase velocity c' of light relative to a source at rest increases or decreases by the same amount of the velocity (V) of the observer, so that the phase velocity of light relative to the observer is always equal to c: c' + V = c (vector sum).
5.A new result of Einstein’s thought experiment: for an observer moving at the speed of light away from a light source that is at absolute rest, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light whereas the group will be frozen.
These new ideas explain many of the experiments and observations related to the speed of light, from the historical Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) to the modern experiments using flying elementary particles as sources of radiation. The new theory can readily explain the following experiments and observations: the Michelson-Morley (both conventional and modern) and the Kennedy-Thorndike experiments, the Trouton-Noble experiment, the Sagnac and Michelson-Gale experiments, the Silvertooth and Marinov experiments, de Sitter’s binary star argument, moving mirror and moving source experiments, the Bryan G.Wallace’s Venus planet radar data ‘anomaly’, and possibly the Pioneer anomaly, the positron annihilation in flight experiment, bending of starlight near the sun, the Hafele-Keating experiment, the GPS corrections, all astronomical and terrestrial speed of light measuring experiments, stellar aberration. The mystery behind the failure of many terrestrial experiments to detect any dependence of the velocity of light on the velocity of the source, why the MMX failed to detect a fringe shift whereas fringe shift is observed in Sagnac experiments, why no significant variation in the measured speed of light has ever been detected is disclosed. This theory resolves the centuries old perplexing paradox: Relative to what is the absolute velocity of a body determined? Argument against the ether hypothesis is presented. A new type of Michelson-Morley experiment is proposed. This paper presents a new theory that unites the main theories and postulates of the speed of light into a single theoretical framework: Einstein’s light postulate, emission theory and the ether (absolute space) theory. The effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change of position (distance and direction) of the light source relative to the observer. Relative to a detector on a rotating Sagnac device, the source appears farther away when 'looking' in the backward direction than when 'looking' in the forward direction. The well known formula 4ωA / c for the path difference of the forward and backward beams is given a new interpretation. In fact, this formula has been modified as (4ωA / c) / (1- (ωR/C)2 ). The new interpretation discloses the fundamental flaw in the Michelson-Morley experiment: the use of a single light source, in which both the forward and lateral beams would be affected in identical ways by absolute motion. Modern MM experiments using optical cavity resonators use two light sources, but then they look for changes/differences in frequency, which is not affected by absolute motion, and not for phase differences. SRT assumes that the center of the light wave fronts stays at the point in space where the source was at the instant of emission, with a tacit assumption of a medium (ether). The center of the wave fronts neither stays at the point in space where the source was at the instant of emission, nor move with the source as in emission theories. In this paper it is proposed that the center of the wave fronts moves with the apparent source. If anyone ridicules the notion of absolute motion, they must be ignorant of the mind blowing Silvertooth's experiment (1986). Silvertooth detected an absolute velocity of the earth of about 378 Km/s, towards constellation Leo, correlated with sidereal time! This result was confirmed later on by NASA COBE satellite from CMBR anisotropy measurement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1285] **viXra:1406.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-07 08:12:42*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Although no theory is complete in that it is perfect and never needing update or modification with the discovery of new experimental facts, that is very different to a theory being logically inconsistent and also different to a theory being in conflict with a fundamental principle in physics that has been established by a vast array of experiments. Relying upon the incompleteness of a theory as an argument to keep it despite inconsistencies in logic and experiment is therefore unjustifiable, and this is particularly so in the case of General Relativity for which proponents thereof plead incompleteness to ignore inconsistencies. Logical inconsistency alone invalidates a theory. General Relativity is logically inconsistent and so that alone invalidates it. It is also in conflict with a fundamental principle of physics, determined by many experiments, to wit, in General Relativity the usual conservation of energy and momentum for a closed system is violated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1284] **viXra:1406.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-04 19:31:41*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I start by proposing that the theory of gravity based on quantum interactions and the definition of an object in it can be looked in terms of fluid mechanics and fluid dynamics. From this I show, qualitatively, that practical results can be obtained. I also go into a brief discussion on the abstract entity of "time". I end the article with a statement that one should be able to make predictions based on this theory of gravity which will be both testable and cannot be explained by any other theory on gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1283] **viXra:1406.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-04 11:30:14*

**Authors:** Valery Zhukov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

If space is curved, then the nature of the cosmological redshift and time dilation is the same effect as the gravitational redshift and time dilation in a gravitational field. This is confirmed by the fact that the ratio between redshift and time dilation is the same for both gravitational and cosmological redshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1282] **viXra:1406.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-04 07:55:45*

**Authors:** Christina Munns

**Comments:** 8 Pages. It is presented in archival form that others may read its introduction.

This work represents the Author's Foreword of Principia Unitas - the six volumes of Unified Field Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1281] **viXra:1406.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-03 22:02:53*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 25 pages, 10 figures, 81 references

World – Universe Model is based on two fundamental parameters in various rational exponents: Fine-structure constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World.
The Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter (DM) particles and explains the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray background radiation as the sum of contributions of multicomponent self-interacting dark matter annihilation.
The signatures of DM particles annihilation with predicted masses of 1.3 TeV, 9.6 GeV, 70 MeV, 340 keV, and 3.7 keV, which are calculated independently of astrophysical uncertainties, are found in spectra of the diffuse gamma-ray background and the emission of various macroobjects in the World. The correlation between different emission lines in spectra of macroobjects is connected to their structure, which depends on the composition of the core and surrounding shells made up of DM particles. Thus the diversity of Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources in the World has a clear explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[716] **viXra:1407.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-23 12:12:28*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[715] **viXra:1407.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-23 06:11:33*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[714] **viXra:1407.0155 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-22 20:48:27*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally-interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also execute a specifically time-cycloidal linear gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously scuppered their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[713] **viXra:1407.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-21 08:25:42*

**Authors:** Kevin E Nolan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Minor textual edits to parts 1, 2, 3, passage tying topic to Mach's principle added in part 4.

In GR (general relativity) a static thin solid and uniform spherical matter shell is the source of an external SM (Schwarzschild metric) and interior flat MM (Minkowski metric), plus a shell wall transitional metric not needing consideration here. It will be shown in part 1 the above implies a physically absurd disappearing dependence on gravitational potential for just the radial spatial metric component, in crossing the shell wall. In part 2 mathematical inconsistency is found. In the gravitationally small regime, treating each element of shell mass as an independent point source of SM and linearly summing over all such contributions ought to but manifestly does not yield an interior spatial metric consistent with the usual matching scheme of part 1. A conformally flat exterior metric as necessary cure is discussed in part 3.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[712] **viXra:1407.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-17 13:04:45*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this short paper I present two experiments that can be easily done to test the validity of theory, "A relativistic theory based on the invariance of Newton's second law for motion and the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[711] **viXra:1407.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-16 04:31:24*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Spanish

In the same publication in which Hermann Weyl in 1918 published his unified field theory, Albert Einstein raised sharp criticism to the new theory. He argued that if true would not exist defined spectral lines. Later Wolfgang Pauli developed this review in more detail, than accepted other leading physicists of the time, including the own Weyl. The result was that the theory that unified gravitation and electromagnetism born dead. In this research, we analyze in depth the concept of conformal transformation, a concept basic in the theory of Weyl, and we interpret it as a change in the scale of the units, concluding that the physical phenomena that are not altered by making a conformal transformation, the which means that Einstein's criticism is incorrect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[710] **viXra:1407.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-25 06:26:11*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

Abandon the hypothesis that the satellites of the solar system may be responsible for the precession of 43" arc of the perihelion of Mercury. Satellites together contribute, by our estimate, with just over 1" to the value of this precession, the Moon being the most responsible for this deviation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[709] **viXra:1407.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-16 05:47:20*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

Abandon the hypothesis that the satellites of the solar system may be responsible for the precession of 43" arc of the perihelion of Mercury. Satellites together contribute, by our estimate, with just over 1" to the value of this precession, the Moon being the most responsible for this deviation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[708] **viXra:1407.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-15 06:06:34*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[707] **viXra:1407.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-15 05:49:15*

**Authors:** Rahul Garg

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

At first the concept of gravitational time dilation may look a bit complicated and it is difficult to figure out the reason. In this paper, I am going to explain gravitational time dilation without the knowledge of any other concept such as the equivalence principle and others. This paper aims to simplify any confusions or doubts that arise regarding gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[706] **viXra:1407.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-07 12:42:06*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. Portuguese language.

No satellite was taken into account in calculating the angular displacement of the perihelion of Mercury, even those already known at that time, by Le Varrier.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[705] **viXra:1407.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 09:17:58*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Over a period spanning at least the past fifteen years it has been repeatedly pointed out that the singularities and event horizons which arise from the Oppenheimer-Snyder ostensible calculation of the gravitational contraction of a localized sphere of dust are at odds with the Principle of Equivalence: notably the timelike geodesic trajectory which that Principle requires for every dust particle precludes any such dust particle from encountering an infinite redshift. Sweeping abstract arguments on the incompatibility of the Principle of Equivalence with an infinite redshift or other singularities have also been advanced. Scrutiny of the Oppenheimer-Snyder calculation shows that it never deals from scratch with localized dust; its one calculation from scratch is a Friedmann model variant with the archetypal Friedmann uniform dust density that pervades the entirety of space. This very unrealistic model, which inter alia has infinite energy, exhibits singularities and violations of the Principle of Equivalence. Since the Birkhoff theorem doesn't apply to Friedmann models because they have no empty space region, the Oppenheimer-Snyder follow-on instruction to utilize a spliced-on Schwarzschild metric beyond some arbitrarily specified radius contravenes logic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[704] **viXra:1407.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-05 10:11:49*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Over a period spanning at least the past fifteen years it has been repeatedly pointed out that the singularities and event horizons which arise from the Oppenheimer-Snyder ostensible calculation of the gravitational contraction of a localized sphere of dust are at odds with the Principle of Equivalence: notably the timelike geodesic trajectory which that Principle requires for every dust particle precludes any such dust particle from encountering an infinite redshift. Sweeping abstract arguments on the incompatibility of the Principle of Equivalence with an infinite redshift or other singularities have also been advanced. Scrutiny of the Oppenheimer-Snyder calculation shows that it never deals from scratch with localized dust; its one calculation from scratch is a Friedmann model variant with the archetypal Friedmann uniform dust density that pervades the entirety of space. This very unrealistic model, which inter alia has infinite energy, exhibits singularities and violations of the Principle of Equivalence. Since the Birkhoff theorem doesn't apply to Friedmann models because they have no empty space region, the Oppenheimer-Snyder follow-on instruction to utilize a spliced-on Schwarzschild metric beyond some arbitrarily specified radius contravenes logic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[703] **viXra:1407.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 11:23:10*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The content of this paper is essentially the same as that of an article submitted to the weblog, *Scientia Salon* in July 2014. It was inspired by Jim Baggott's article, "The Evidence Crisis," which was posted to the Salon in June 2014. Baggott is also the author of *Farewell to Reality*, a recent book, one of whose main concerns--as with his article--is the diminishing value of empirical evidence in modern theoretical physics and cosmology. 382 years ago Galileo proposed an extremely simple gravity experiment that has yet to be carried out. With modern technology, it could have been carried out decades ago. The point of this paper is to generate interest in conducting Galileo's experiment. That the possibility of doing so has rarely even been discussed by physicists is an indication that the *Evidence Crisis* of which Baggott has written, pertains not only to untestable theories, but to "established" theories that have not yet been adequately tested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[702] **viXra:1407.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 06:24:49*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Portuguese language.

Three hypotheses are given to explain the advance of the perihelion of Mercury without the use of general relativity: 1) bodies not included in the classic Le Verrier and Simon Newcomb calculations, like the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn discovered after the nineteenth century; 2) the latitude of astronomical observatories that performed the measurements related to the value of this precession; 3) solar wind.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[701] **viXra:1407.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-04 09:09:35*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Portuguese language.

Three hypotheses for the advance of the perihelion of Mercury. To be continued.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[700] **viXra:1407.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-03 06:12:05*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Portuguese language.

A second reading of the way it calculates the motion of the perihelion of a planet in General Relativity is taken, coming to the conclusion that General Relativity does not explain this movement of precession.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[699] **viXra:1407.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-01 16:32:48*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Portuguese language.

A second reading of the way it calculates the motion of the perihelion of a planet in General Relativity is taken, coming to the conclusion that General Relativity does not explain this movement of precession.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[698] **viXra:1406.0188 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-03 17:24:37*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Final edits added

The Weyl conformal tensor describes the distorting but volume-preserving tidal effects of gravitation on a material body. A rather complicated combination of the Riemann-Christoffel tensor, the Ricci tensor and the Ricci scalar, the Weyl tensor is used in the construction of a unique conformally-invariant Lagrangian. In 1938 Cornelius Lanczos discovered a clever simplification of the mathematics that eliminated the RC term, thus considerably reducing the complexity of the overall Lagrangian. Here we present an equivalent but simpler approach to the one Lanczos used.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[697] **viXra:1406.0188 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-01 08:47:24*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Fixed several typos

The Weyl conformal tensor describes the distorting but volume-preserving tidal effects of gravitation on a material body. A rather complicated combination of the Riemann-Christoffel tensor, the Ricci tensor and the Ricci scalar, the Weyl tensor is used in the construction of a unique conformally-invariant Lagrangian. In 1938 Cornelius Lanczos discovered a clever simplification of the mathematics that eliminated the RC term, thus considerably reducing the complexity of the overall Lagrangian. Here we present an equivalent but simpler approach to the one Lanczos used.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[696] **viXra:1406.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-19 00:34:35*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The aim of the paper is to develop a gauge theory, which shall be on the one hand as similar as possible to the original ansatz of Einstein’s theory of general relativity, and on the other hand in agreement with other gauge theories as, for instance, those of the electroweak or of the strong interaction. The result is a nonabelian gauge theory with the general linear group GL(4,R) as its gauge group.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[695] **viXra:1406.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-28 09:35:05*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Fixed typos in Eqs. 6.2 and 6.3

A very elementary overview of the original Kaluza-Klein theory is presented, suitable for undergraduates who want to learn the basic mathematical formalism behind a revolutionary idea that was proposed one hundred years ago, yet today serves as the template for modern higher-dimensional particle and gravity theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[694] **viXra:1406.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-27 10:37:09*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Spanish

We define the Weyl geometry and we establish two types: integrable and nonintegrable. We obtain the equation of motion for a free particle in Weyl integrable geometry. We analyze the ways to obtain the field equations: take the components of the metric tensor as the only potentials or take the components of the metric tensor and the components of the metric connexion as the potentials of the field. We analyze how the calibration is imposed on each of these two options. We finished applying the results to the equations derived from some Lagrangian densities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[693] **viXra:1406.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-27 05:41:55*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Portuguese language.

We develop a solution in an infinite degree polynomial for the Schwarzschild equation and obtained some numerical results. Conclude that their solution seems to converge to a spiraling motion that converges to the center point, and not an ellipse that has precession.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[692] **viXra:1406.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-25 04:44:21*

**Authors:** Frank Martin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A model of time is described which is based on presentist ideas. The main issue facing presentism is the apparent contradiction it brings when one is faced with considering the future and the past as being existent exclusively in the present. The model presented herein relates time to the constant change of energy in the universe. In particular, parallels are drawn between future, present and past, representing time, and potential energy, kinetic energy and entropy representing change. This model includes the future and the past as integral parts of the present.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[691] **viXra:1406.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-21 12:23:05*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 6 Pages

The validity of Planck's constant in gravitational wave detection experiments is brought into question in the context of the framework of quantum mechanics. It is shown that in the absence of a purely gravitational measurement of Planck's constant one cannot at present rule out the possibility that gravitational quanta may not be scaled by Planck's constant. An experiment that could unequivocally test this possibility is suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[690] **viXra:1406.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-19 01:08:46*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 125 Pages.

General Relativity’s Schwarzschild solution describes a spherically symmetric gravitational field as an utterly static thing. The Space Generation Model (SGM) describes it as an absolutely moving thing. The SGM nevertheless agrees equally well with observations made in the fields of the Earth and Sun, because it predicts almost exactly the same spacetime curvature. This success of the SGM motivates deepening the context—especially with regard to the fundamental concepts of motion. The roots of Einstein’s relativity theories thus receive critical examination. A particularly illuminating and widely applicable example is that of uniform rotation, which was used to build General Relativity (GR). Comparing Einstein’s logic to that of the SGM, the most significant difference concerns the interpretation of the readings of accelerometers and the rates of clocks. Where Einstein infers relativity of motion and spacetime symmetry, it is argued to be more logical to infer absoluteness of motion and spacetime asymmetry. This approach leads to reassessments of the essential nature of matter, time, and the dimensionality of space, which lead in turn to some novel cosmological consequences. Special emphasis is given to the model’s deviations from standard predictions inside matter, which have never been tested, but could be tested by conducting a simple experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[689] **viXra:1406.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-16 08:46:06*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The singularity problem is arguably the most troubling result of Einstein's General Relativity, if not of all physics. This pathology contradicts the laws of thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. It is also refuted by observations confirming the existence of Hawking's Radiation. Previous solutions to the problem have utilized a regime which keeps General Relativity intact, except at the singularity point, at which the classical spacetime is bridged by a discrete quantum one. Here I propose a simple solution to the gravitational, spherical black hole. Specifically, I show that a simple Newtonian Relativity theory yields a black hole size which equals the Schwarzschild radius. For a supermassive black hole at a galaxy center, the theory yields a simple expression for the mechanics of the host galaxy. The derived solution predicts that a black hole has no singularity at the interior, and that it is part of a binary system with a naked singularity located at redshift z = 2^(-1/2) ≈ 0.7071, suspected to be a quasar with extreme velocity offsets or an active galactic nucleus.
No less important, it is shown that the proposed theory, while being intimately related to Newtonian mechanics, is consistent with quantum mechanics and with ΛCDM cosmology.
Keywords: Black holes, Singularity, Schwarzschild radius, Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[688] **viXra:1406.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-15 12:46:22*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The singularity problem is inarguably the most troubling predicament of Einstein's General Relativity, if not of all physics. This pathology contradicts the laws of thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. It is also refuted by observations confirming the existence of Hawking's Radiation. Previous solutions to the problem have utilized a regime which keeps General Relativity intact, except at the singularity point, at which the classical spacetime is bridged by a discrete quantum one. Here I propose a simple solution to the gravitational, spherical black hole. Specifically, I show that a simple Newtonian Relativity theory yields a black hole size which equals the Schwarzschild radius. For supermassive black holes at galaxies centers, the theory yields a simple expression for the mechanics of the host galaxy. The derived solution predicts that a black hole has no singularity at the interior, and that it is part of a binary system with a naked singularity located at redshift z = 2^(-1/2) ≈ 0.7071, suspected to be a quasar with extreme velocity offsets or an active galactic nucleus.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[687] **viXra:1406.0070 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-12 10:44:51*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages. English version

We analyze the solution of 2nd order of the Schwarzschild equation and made the observation that the motion of bodies can be a spiral modulated by trigonometric functions, which may be more important than simply means a shift of perihelion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[686] **viXra:1406.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-10 05:58:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Portuguese language

A first reading of the way it calculates the precession of the perihelion of Mercury on General Relativity is taken. It is shown that the equation of motion obtained for this precession does not solve the differential equation that originated, as it is only approximate, and so we can not be sure about the fact of General Relativity to explain this precession through its solution. We also show that even in classical mechanics can obtain a False precession orbit for the planets, through the use of small quantities considered. We solve exactly the differential equation Binet to General Relativity (Schwarzschild equation) for some cases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[685] **viXra:1406.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-01 10:14:39*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

In this paper a new interpretation and theory of absolute motion and the speed of light is proposed.
There are numerous and divergent experimental and observational evidences related to the speed of light that have accumulated for centuries, but defied a natural and logical explanation by any known single theory of light. The conventional and modern Michelson-Morley and the Kennedy-Thorndike experiments, the Trouton-Noble experiment, the Sagnac and Michelson-Gale experiments, de Sitter’s binary star argument, moving mirror and moving source experiments, the positron annihilation in flight experiment, bending of starlight near the sun, the Hafele-Keating experiment, the GPS correction, astronomical and terrestrial speed of light measuring experiments, stellar aberration, the Ives-Stilwell, the Fizeau experiments, relativistic mass increase of the electron. The Pioneer anomaly, the Silvertooth and the Marinov experiments, Venus planet radar range data anomaly (Bryan G.Wallace ) and Ronald de Witte’s experiment are some of the relatively recent anomalies adding to the list. The emission and ether theories are logical and intuitive but decisively fail on a number of experiments. The Special Relativity Theory (SRT) apparently agrees better with experiments and observations, but is illogical, counterintuitive. SRT utterly fails to explain the Sagnac effect and, particularly, the Silvertooth and Marinov experiments. The Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) can be explained otherwise easily, naturally by the emission theory. The ether theory is the most straightforward theory to explain the Sagnac effect. Einstein’s thought experiment (light postulate) is also attractive in the interpretation of Maxwell’s equations. This paper presents a new theory which fuses emission theory, absolute space theory and Einstein’s light postulate into a single theoretical framework. 1. A new interpretation of absolute motion : the effect of absolute motion is to create a change in path length, and not the speed, of light. The velocity of light is c relative to the apparent source, and not relative to the source. The center of the wave fronts neither stays at the point in space where the source was at the instant of emission (as in SRT and ether theories), nor move with the source as in emission theories. The center of the wave fronts moves with the apparent source. The ether doesn’t exist. Relative to a detector on a rotating Sagnac device, the source appears farther away when 'looking' in the backward direction than when 'looking' in the forward direction. 2. Massive cosmic objects define or ‘fix’ the space in their vicinity, with their influence diminishing with distance. The absolute velocity of a body is the vector sum of all its absolute velocities; it is proportional to the ‘inverse squared distance’ weighed velocity of the body relative to all cosmic massive objects in the universe. In free space (region of space far from cosmic massive objects) there will be no absolute motion and hence no apparent shift of light source (no ‘aberration’); it follows that the phase and group velocity of light is infinite in free space. There will be no ‘free’ space endowed with characteristics permittivity and permeability. The speed of light increases with distance from cosmic massive objects. 3.The phase velocity of light is locally constant, in accordance with Maxwell’s equations, whereas the group velocity of light is locally variable. The apparent phase velocity c' of light relative to a source at rest increases or decreases by the same amount of the velocity (V) of the observer, so that the phase velocity of light relative to the observer is always equal to c: c' + V = c (vector sum). This is also interpreted to account for the ‘relativistic mass increase’ of the electron. A new result of Einstein’s thought experiment is proposed: for an observer moving at the speed of light away from a light source that is at absolute rest, the phases will still move past the observer at the local speed of light whereas the group will be frozen. This paper discloses the mystery behind the failure of many experiments to detect any dependence of the velocity of light on the velocity of the source. Fundamental flaws in conventional and modern Michelson-Morley experiments is disclosed. A new type of Michelson-Morley experiment capable of detecting absolute motion is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[684] **viXra:1406.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-19 12:23:12*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Version 2 corrects some misalignment in equation numbering and some typographical anomalies.

Although no theory is complete in that it is perfect and never needing update or modification with the discovery of new experimental facts, that is very different to a theory being logically inconsistent and also different to a theory being in conflict with a fundamental principle in physics that has been established by a vast array of experiments. Relying upon the incompleteness of a theory as an argument to keep it despite inconsistencies in logic and experiment is therefore unjustifiable, and this is particularly so in the case of General Relativity for which proponents thereof plead incompleteness to ignore inconsistencies. Logical inconsistency alone invalidates a theory. General Relativity is logically inconsistent and so that alone invalidates it. It is also in conflict with a fundamental principle of physics, determined by many experiments, to wit, in General Relativity the usual conservation of energy and momentum for a closed system is violated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[683] **viXra:1406.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-20 02:06:53*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 25 pages, 10 figures, 82 references

World – Universe Model is based on two fundamental parameters in various rational exponents: Fine-structure constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World.
The Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter (DM) particles and explains the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray background radiation as the sum of contributions of multicomponent self-interacting dark matter annihilation.
The signatures of DM particles annihilation with predicted masses of 1.3 TeV, 9.6 GeV, 70 MeV, 340 keV, and 3.7 keV, which are calculated independently of astrophysical uncertainties, are found in spectra of the diffuse gamma-ray background and the emission of various macroobjects in the World. The correlation between different emission lines in spectra of macroobjects is connected to their structure, which depends on the composition of the core and surrounding shells made up of DM particles. Thus the diversity of Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources in the World has a clear explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology