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2015 - 1501(41) - 1502(28) - 1503(27) - 1504(26)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1619] **viXra:1504.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-26 18:36:47*

**Authors:** James E. Beichler

**Comments:** 21 Pages. This paper is presently being published in Proceedings of Vigier IX Symposium

Too many physicists believe the ‘phallacy’ that the quantum is more fundamental than relativity without any valid supporting evidence, so the earliest attempts to unify physics based on the continuity of relativity have been all but abandoned. This belief is probably due to the wealth of pro-quantum propaganda and general ‘phallacies in fysics’ that were spread during the second quarter of the twentieth century, although serious ‘phallacies’ exist throughout physics on both sides of the debate. Yet both approaches are basically flawed because both relativity and the quantum theory are incomplete and grossly misunderstood as they now stand. Had either side of the quantum versus relativity controversy sought common ground between the two worldviews, total unification would have been accomplished long ago. The point is, literally, that the discrete quantum, continuous relativity, basic physical geometry, theoretical mathematics and classical physics all share one common characteristic that has never been fully explored or explained – a paradoxical duality between a dimensionless point (discrete) and an extended length (continuity) in any dimension – and if the problem of unification is approached from an understanding of how this paradox relates to each paradigm, all of physics and indeed all of science could be unified under a single new theoretical paradigm.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1618] **viXra:1504.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 16:24:54*

**Authors:** Frederik Vantomme

**Comments:** 24 Pages. The original paper is written in LaTex format.

We explore the possibility that black holes and Space could be the geometrically Compactified Transverse Slices ("CTS"s) of their higher (+1) dimensional space. Our hypothesis is that we might live somewhere in between partially compressed regions of space, namely 4d_{L+R} hyperspace compactified to its 3d transverse slice, and fully compressed dark regions, i.e. black holes, still containing all _{L}d432-1-234d_{R} dimensional fields. This places the DGP, ADD, Kaluza-Klein, Randall-Sundrum, Holographic and Vanishing Dimensions theories in a different perspective.

We first postulate that a black hole could be the result of the compactification (fibration) of a 3d burned up S^{2} star to its 2d transverse slice; the 2d dimensional discus itself further spiralling down into a bundle of one-dimensional fibres.

Similarly, Space could be the compactified transverse slice (fibration) of its higher 4d_{L+R} S^{3} hyper-sphere to its 3d transverse slice, the latter adopting the topology of a closed and flat left+right handed trefoil knot. By further extending these two ideas, we might consider that the Universe in its initial state was a "Matroska" 4d_{L+R} hyperspace compactified, in cascading order, to a bundle of one-dimensional fibres. The Big Bang could be an explosion from within that broke the cascadingly compressed Universe open.

[1617] **viXra:1504.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 07:50:04*

**Authors:** Emmanuel Kanambaye

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The document is in french

In this document, after presented that we mean by "smallest length having physical sense",we propose the theorem resulting.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1616] **viXra:1504.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 02:41:47*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Luzboa A arte da Luz em Lisboa, 14-19, Extra]muros[ (2004).

The traditional presentation of special relativity is made from a rupture with previous ideas, such as the notion of absolute motion, emphasizing the antagonism of the Lorentz’s views and Einstein’s ideas. However, a weaker formulation of the postulates allows to recover all the results from Einstein’s special relativity and reveals that both viewpoints are merely diﬀerent perspectives of one and the same theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1615] **viXra:1504.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-21 08:40:29*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll

**Comments:** 15 Pages. A rough outline of this hypothesis has already attracted over 300,000 reads on my website. One of your contributing physicists suggested that I tidy it up and offer it to viXra. Regards, Pete.

The author proposes that a reinterpretation of cosmological redshift as arising from the small positive spacetime curvature of a 4-rotating Hyperspherical Universe of constant size can eliminate the current requirement for spacetime singularities, cosmic inflation, dark matter, and dark energy from cosmological models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1614] **viXra:1504.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 09:13:30*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 journal pages

For relatively moving inertial frames, the constancy of the speed of light principle physically leads to time dilation in the transverse direction. This time dilation is irreconcilable in the longitudinal direction unless a length contraction in the relative motion direction is postulated. However, time dilation is contradictorily coupled with length expansion, a fact erroneously twisted in the special relativity and related text books, as demonstrated in this paper. The typical physical demonstration of the length contraction is shown to be inconsistent and contradicts its derivation from the Lorentz transformation. The misinterpretation of the Lorentz Transformation in predicting the length contraction is revealed. The constancy of the speed of light is consequently unviable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1613] **viXra:1504.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-19 16:53:37*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Einstein's theory of special relativity (SR) theory dictates, as a force majeure, an ontic view, according to which relativity is a true state of nature. For example, the theory’s solution to the famous twin paradox prescribes the "traveling" twin returns truly and verifiably younger than the "staying" twin, thereby implying the “traveling” twin returns to the future.
Here I propose an epistemic view of relativity, according to which relativity results from a difference in knowledge about Nature between observers who are in motion relative to each other. Utilizing this postulation, together with SR’s first axiom, I construct an epistemic relativity theory (ER) for the dynamics of moving bodies in inertial systems. I show that ER solves the twin paradox such that the rejoining twins age equally. Tests of the theory's time transformation show that although the theory contradicts the Lorentz invariance principle (LI), it accords nicely with the results of the famous Michelson-Morley experiment and the well-known Frisch and Smith muon decay experiment. More important, the theory accounts for the linear Sagnac effect, which disobeys starkly both LI and SR. It also precisely predicts the results of several recent neutrino velocity experiments conducted by OPERA and other collaborations. I explain why the experimental setups of the linear Sagnac and the neutrino velocity experiments qualify them as stringent falsification tests for the LI and SR.
In another paper cited here I show that application of ER to cosmology and astrophysics, proves quite potent in providing plausible answers to key cosmological questions, including dark matter and dark energy, and the evolutionary timeline of the nucleosynthesis of chemical elements.
The theory's prediction concerning the kinetic energy density as a function of velocity reveals that for approaching bodies, the dependence of energy on velocity is similar, although not identical, to the one prescribed by SR. However, for departing bodies, the theory predicts kinetic energy density will monotonically increase with velocity up to a maximal value, after which it will monotonically decrease more steeply, reaching zero at a velocity equal to the velocity of light. Most strikingly, the breakdown of the acknowledged relationship between energy and velocity is predicted to occur at velocity v = Φ c, where c is the velocity of light and Φ is the famous Golden Ratio (≈ 0.618). This result echoes a recent
3
finding demonstrating that the quantum criticality of cobalt niobate atoms exhibits Golden Ratio symmetry. Another peculiar Golden Ratio symmetry of the predicted energy density indicates that at v = - Φ c (approaching bodies), the energy density is equal to 1+ Φ (= 1/ Φ) ≈ 1.618. No less surprising, we find the maximal energy density at v = Φ c, relative to the rest-frame energy density is Φ^5 ≈0.09016994, which precisely equals Hardy's probability of entanglement. The emergence of these results from a deterministic relativity theory based on SR's first axiom plus an axiom specifying light as information carrier is puzzling. One possible explanation is to attribute their emergence to mere coincidence. However, given the many confirmed predictions of the theory, including in cosmology, and the unlikelihood of such a coincidence actually happening, this explanation is highly improbable. Another possibility worth pursuing is that ER reveals more than one thread for a possible connection between an epistemic view of relativity and quantum mechanics, with the Golden Ratio symmetry playing a key role.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1612] **viXra:1504.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 21:44:22*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Our space-time is postulated to have the following characteristics: (1) the space is an ocean filled with the “Gamma elements” having energy and mass and of a certain size; (2) both time and distance are discretized by the process of light propagation from one Gamma element to the next in some process of relativistic boost of the internal energy. These postulates provide us with a theoretical basis to explain why the speed of light, c, should remain constant in all inertial reference frames. The discrete process of light propagation leads us to a set of natural units. As a result, new physically based “Planck element units” may be defined with the new mass scale being ~7.37 x 10-51 kg (~4.14 x 10-15 eV/c2). The length scale is estimated from the wavelength of the highest energy gamma rays, in the range of 1 x 10-19 m ‒ 1 x 10-25 m, and the new time scale then being in the range of 3.34 x 10-28 s ‒ 3.34 x 10-34 s. The Planck element units are shown to relate with the fundamental constants, c (speed of light), G (gravitational constant), and h (Planck constant) with the same dimensional relationship as the conventional Planck units, but the length and time units are larger than those of the latter by 109 – 1016 orders of magnitude while the mass is smaller by whopping 10-43 orders of magnitude.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1611] **viXra:1504.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 21:50:01*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We postulate that our space is filled by the “Gamma elements” having energy and mass with the size approximately given by the wavelength of the highest energy gamma rays and that time and distance are both discretized by the process of light propagation from one Gamma element to the next. These postulates provide us with a theoretical ground to explain why the speed of light, c, should remain constant to all observers regardless of their inertial frames of reference. In the cosmological scale, the energy of the Gamma elements filling space has been equated to the energy represented by the cosmological constant, i.e., the dark energy. When applied to the expanding universe, the EST model brings additional 25% of the total mass simply as the relativistic correction to the non-relativistic results; hence the dark matter is closely identified as merely the relativistic correction to the dark energy predicted by the Friedman equation. The agreement with the observed magnitudes convincingly supports this interpretation of dark energy and dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1610] **viXra:1504.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-16 23:25:44*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 1 Page.

we prove that a negative length and mass are absent in nature if there are negative charges with not equal to one factors in the form of dimensionless fundamental constants.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1609] **viXra:1504.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-15 23:49:17*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Experiments have repeatedly revealed the existence of a dynamical structured fractal 3-space, with a speed relative to the Earth
of some 500km/s from a southerly direction. Experiments have ranged from optical light speed anisotropy interferometers to
zener diode quantum detectors. This dynamical space has been missing from theories from the beginning of physics. This
dynamical space generates a growing universe, and gravity when included in a generalised Schrodinger equation, and light
bending when included in generalised Maxwell equations. Here we review ongoing attempts to construct a deeper theory of
the dynamical space starting from a stochastic pattern generating model that appears to result in 3-dimensional geometrical
elements, “gebits”, and accompanying quantum behaviour. The essential concept is that reality is a process, and geometrical
models for space and time are inadequate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1608] **viXra:1504.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-16 00:00:48*

**Authors:** Reginald T cahill

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The anisotropy of the velocity of EM radiation has been repeatedly detected, including the Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887, using a variety of techniques. The experiments reveal the existence of a dynamical space that has a velocity of some 500km/s from a southerly direction. These consistent experiments contradict the assumptions of Special Relativity, but are consistent with the assumptions of neo-Lorentz Relativity. The existence of the dynamical space has been missed by physics since its beginnings. Novel and checkable phenomena then follow from including this space in Quantum Theory, EM Theory, Cosmology, etc, including the derivation of a more general theory of gravity as a quantum wave refraction effect. The corrected Schrodinger equation has resulted in a very simple and robust quantum detector, which easily measures the speed and direction of the dynamical space. This report reviews the key experimental evidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1607] **viXra:1504.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-16 00:03:56*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In 2014 Jiapei Dai reported evidence of anisotropic Brownian motion of a toluidine blue
colloid solution in water. In 2015 Felix Scholkmann analysed the Dai data and detected
a sidereal time dependence, indicative of a process driving the preferred Brownian motion
diusion direction to a star-based preferred direction. Here we further analyse the
Dai data and extract the RA and Dec of that preferred direction, and relate the data
to previous determinations from NASA Spacecraft Earth-flyby Doppler shift data, and
other determinations. It is shown that the anisotropic Brownian motion is an anisotropic
“heating” generated by 3-space fluctuations: gravitational waves, an eect previously
detected in correlations between ocean temperature fluctuations and solar flare counts,
with the latter being shown to be a proxy for 3-space fluctuations. The dynamical 3-
space does not have a measure of energy content, but can generate energy in matter
systems, which amounts to a violation of the 1st Law of Thermodynamics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1606] **viXra:1504.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-12 12:57:54*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Recent conclusions regarding the behavior of giant black holes obeying quantum-mechanical rules indicate that these rules are not obeyed for the large-universe. For example, the existence of fermibosonic matter in the large-scale universe need not be prohibited as it is using quantum-mechanical rules

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1605] **viXra:1504.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 05:59:29*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Single-page letter

It is proposed hare that: Just as, a photon, while experiencing the ‘gravitational red-shift’, dose not loose its velocity, and chooses to loose its energy, in the form of frequency, so exactly, the photons emitted from the luminous bodies, like the receding galaxies, may be partly loosing their energy due to ‘gravitational red-shift’; depending upon the ‘cosmic-gravitational-potential’ of a given galaxy. The ‘cosmological red-shift’ may be a combination of ‘gravitational red-shift’ and ‘Doppler-shift’. Thus ‘cosmological red-shift’ may not be wholly representing the ‘recessional-velocity’ of a galaxy. The recessional-velocity may be much lesser than it is currently believed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1604] **viXra:1504.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-07 16:03:48*

**Authors:** Jerry Zhompson

**Comments:** 11256 Pages. please excuse poor quality english as natives not speaker

Please excuses the poor english of the quality foreign speaker:
we proves einstein was is wrong about stuff

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1603] **viXra:1504.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-07 05:36:54*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Whenever human understanding of the size of the universe is at a breakthrough point, a new idea about the nature of gravity introduces itself to the world. For thousands and thousands of years, the magnitude of the cosmos was limited to the stars that could be seen in the night sky (not that people knew what they were looking at). Just over 400 years ago, a tremendous breakthrough came. The telescope arrived, and drastically changed our view of the heavens. A mere 60 years later (a drop in the ocean of historical time), gravity was compared to the fall of an apple and Isaac Newton proposed that the moon traces out the curve of its orbit by constantly "falling" towards Earth.
Things progressed steadily for over 200 years - telescopes grew bigger, planets and stars were discovered, and the universe became as large as the Milky Way galaxy. About the same time that we were starting to wonder if there other galaxies out there (a concept that would vastly increase the universe's size again), another gravitational breakthrough came. Albert Einstein reinterpreted the moon’s being constantly tugged towards Earth by our planet’s gravity. He said the moon is “pushed” towards Earth by the hills and valleys of curved space-time surrounding this world.
Since then, things have – despite the inevitable dead ends science embarks on but sooner or later corrects - steadily progressed once more. Complacency seems to have arisen, because many appear to think real science never means anything except continual slow progress. There’s a new idea in the world, however – that the universe may be infinite. This would drastically increase the size of the universe once more, and herald another breakthrough in comprehension of gravity.
The ideas of Newton and Einstein embrace the entire universe, and the truth in their theories has been repeatedly confirmed. It’s only logical that elements of both Newtonian and relativistic gravity must be present in a new “infinite universe gravity” (IUG). The universe can’t possibly be larger than infinite – even hypothetical multiverses and cyclic universes would be included in its infinity if they existed. So you might think an idea of infinite gravity would be the final breakthrough in understanding gravity. But it would be terrible if learning could reach an end – the infinite nature of gravity implies it might undergo infinite refinements over the eons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1602] **viXra:1504.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-06 12:42:10*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 25 Pages. A new work on which we demonstrate the light origin of Universe.

In the work we have advanced another scenario for Universe creation and its evolution, respectively, when an initial high energy at Reheating generates high energy photons which following Thomson and Breit Wheeler interaction generate pairs which gives an external electrical field ( ) that it produces at the interface between normal phase and the superconducting phase, a decay of the superconductor magnetic field ( ) generated by the color gluons condensate components like the Meissner effect. The inverse value of the penetration length of is just the ( ) at high densities and the effective color magnetic gluon mass at QCD.
This critical temperature together with the number of particles created verifies the BEC quantum state condition along the entire Universe evolution. Thus, the color magnetic gluons field is introduced in Friedman equation in place of Einstein tensor, which permits to obtain the rates of Universe expansion. After the CMBR time, the decoupled photons interact with the Quantum Well producing excitons condensate which form with photons the polaritons as in Earth’s experiments. These polaritons sustains the expansion of Universe, their mass and energy verifies the cosmological constant, that one can consider its as dark matter particles. During matter creation(+dark matter) a fix number of particles and a total mass of are obtained, that it is a spectacular result, which it could be the essential prove of the entirely model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1601] **viXra:1504.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-05 21:39:34*

**Authors:** Marcelo Carvalho; Alexandre Lyra de Oliveira

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Using the concept of absolute time introduced in a previous work \cite{carvalho} we define two coordinate systems for spacetime, the Galilean and the Lorentzian systems. The relation between those systems allows us to develop a tensor
calculus that transfer the Maxwell electrodynamics to the Galilean system. Then, by using a suitable Galilean limit, we show how this transformed Maxwell theory in the Galilei system results in the Galilei electrodynamics formulated by Levy Leblond and Le Bellac.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1600] **viXra:1504.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-04 20:15:21*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: A very careful count of the different particles and antiparticles in our universe confirms and extends a similar conclusion made on 8-22-2014; namely, the exotic 4-quark tetraquark particle is the sole marker for E8 symmetry in our universe and also marks the existence of the extremely long-lived proton particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1599] **viXra:1504.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-05 03:16:39*

**Authors:** Omar A.H. Shabsigh, Pro. Dr.

**Comments:** 26 Pages. Extreme

This article discusses the upper limit imposed on the speed of traveling of any mass as being the speed of light in vacuum. The article shows, based on the results of Special Relativity, that such a limit does not really exist. We shall prove that Special Relativity is theoretically valid under the constraints and assumptions made by Einstein and has no practical applications.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1598] **viXra:1504.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 13:02:08*

**Authors:** Eric Thompson

**Comments:** 79 pages, equations, diagrams, images

A fundamental assumption, that basic electric charge is an inherent property of elementary particles, is overturned. Therefore, if basic charge does not come from within, it could only come from without. Hence we re-introduce the aether and show how it is responsible not only for electromagnetism, but also how its flowing nature is responsible for gravitational effects. Inertia, light propagation, and the large scale structure of the cosmos also fall out simply and naturally from this basic concept. A great deal of pruning is done to current theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1597] **viXra:1504.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 07:02:27*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 11 Pages. New supporting references: J. Cosmol. Astropar. P. (2013) doi: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/03/007, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D (2013) doi: 10.1142/S0218271813500120

Throughout the cosmic evolution, currently believed cosmic ‘critical density’ can be shown to be a default result of the ‘positively curved’ light speed rotating black hole universe. As there is no observational or experimental evidence to
Friedmann’s second assumption, the density classification scheme of Friedmann cosmology must be reviewed at fundamental level and possibly can be relinquished. The observed cosmic redshift can be reinterpreted as an index of ‘cosmological’ light emission mechanism. Clearly speaking, during cosmic evolution, as cosmic time increases,
hydrogen atom emits photons with increased quanta of energy. Thus past light quanta emitted from old galaxy will have less energy and show a red shift with reference to our galaxy. Note that in 1947 Edwin Hubble himself thought for a new
mechanism for understanding the observed galactic redshift data. By considering the ‘Planck mass’ as the initial mass of the baby cosmic black hole, initial physical and thermal parameters of the cosmic black hole can be defined and current
physical and thermal parameters of the cosmic black hole can be fitted and understood. Uncertainty relation and all other microscopic physical constants play a crucial role in understanding the halt of the present cosmic expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1596] **viXra:1504.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 14:26:21*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory. Some years ago starting from $2012$ to $2014$ a set of
works appeared in the current scientific literature covering the
Natario warp drive with an equation intended to be the original
Natario equation however this equation do not obeys the original
$3+1$ Arnowitt-Dresner-Misner($ADM$) formalism and hence this
equation cannot be regarded as the original Natario warp drive
equation.However this new equation satisfies the Natario criteria
for a warp drive spacetime and as a matter of fact this equation
must be analyzed under a new and parallel contravariant $3+1$
$ADM$ formalism.In this work we introduce also a second new
Natario equation but using a parallel covariant $3+1$ $ADM$
formalism. We compare both the original and parallel $3+1$ $ADM$
formalisms wether in contravariant or covariant form using the
approach of Misner-Thorne-Wheeler($MTW$) and Alcubierre and while
in the $3+1$ spacetime the parallel equations differs radically
from the original one when we reduce the equations to a $1+1$
spacetime all the equations becomes equivalent.We discuss the
possibilities in General Relativity for these new equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1595] **viXra:1504.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 06:51:00*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 10 pages, 7 equations, 17 references

In our framework for 'realistic non-singular cosmology' we consider a more radical situation where the present photonic temperature of the universe is higher (for instance ~16 K) than that suggested by the microwave background. This leads to a minimal scale of ~0.08, and a maximum temperature of ~192 K, for an oscillating cosmology whose main protagonists are whole galaxies rather that stars, with an age of the current expansion of ~8.9 Gyr. We show
that this scheme is quite compatible with the supernovae data for magnitudes and redshifts, provided that the Hubble fraction is ~0.55.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1594] **viXra:1503.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 08:05:03*

**Authors:** John R Wilson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper theorizes that the Big Bang was the result of a collision between two singularities and that dark energy is the result of gravitational forces of singularities outside of the visible universe.
Because of the conditions immediately following the Big Bang, it can be theorized that the Big Bang was caused by the collision of two supermassive singularities. Evidence for this collision event is found in cosmic inflation and how dark energy is accelerating the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1593] **viXra:1503.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 06:25:28*

**Authors:** James Arnold

**Comments:** 15 Pages. European Scientific Journal vol 11 no 9 (2015)

The Minkowski diagram, by which the concept of spacetime has been graphically represented and interpreted, is shown to have a pre-relativistic flaw: It depicts the relative motion of a body moving in time as-if it is moving along with the observer’s clock, not as it is actually observed, according to its own proper time. An alternative diagram provides an accurate representation of relativistic relationships and enables heuristic insights into the nature of relativistic effects, and of time, light, gravitation, and wave/particle duality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1592] **viXra:1503.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 08:41:30*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Four pages

The second postulate in Dr. Einstein’s 1905 paper is “…light (c) is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity v which is independent of the state of motion of the source…” The current brief paper identifies the difference between actual light speed and two different kinds of RELATIVE light speed, a critical distinction that Dr. Einstein and most current scientists did (do) not seem to understand.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1591] **viXra:1503.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 00:34:25*

**Authors:** Timo Huovinen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

According gravitational wave theory, gravity is caused by gravitational waves that occur between two same substances rotating around each other. This generates gravitational waves, which pulls same substance towards itself (because it matches the same wavelength as the gravitational waves). So every element has its own gravity. Bigger the atom of given substance is, the bigger the wavelength. Gravitational waves frequency is determined by how much (and how fast) there is substance in question spinning around each other. Force of gravity depends on the distance between source of gravitational waves and the substance that is affecting.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1590] **viXra:1503.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 14:40:24*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Please be the first to review this paper, I would very much like feedback.

One of the great questions in modern cosmology today is what is causing the accelerating expansion of the universe – the so called dark energy. It has been recently discovered this property is not unique to the universe; trees also do it and trees are fractals. Do fractals offer insight to the accelerating expansion a property of the universe and more?
In this investigation a simple experiment was undertaken on the classical (Koch snowflake) fractal. It was inverted to model and record observations from within an iterating fractal set as if at a static (measured) position. New triangles sizes were held constant allowing earlier triangles in the set to expand as the set iterated.
Velocities and accelerations were calculated for both the area of the total fractal, and the distance between points within the fractal set using classical kinematic equations. The inverted fractal was also tested for the Hubble's Law.
It was discovered that the area(s) expanded exponentially; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the observer, at exponentially increasing velocities and accelerations. The model was consistent with the standard ΛCDM model of cosmology and demonstrated: a singularity Big Bang beginning, infinite beginnings; homogeneous isotropic expansion consistent with the CMB; an expansion rate capable of explaining the early inflation epoch; Hubble's Law – with a Hubble diagram and Hubble's constant; and accelerating expansion with a ‘cosmological’ constant. It was concluded that the universe behaves as a general fractal object. Thought the findings have obvious relevance to the study of cosmology, they may also give insight into: the recently discovered accelerating growth rate of trees; the empty quantum like nature of the atom; and possibly our perception value of events with the passage of time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1589] **viXra:1503.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 14:50:37*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Is the universe a fractal? This is one of the great – though not often talked about – questions in cosmology. In my earlier publication where I inverted (Koch snowflake) fractal I showed the fractal demonstrated: Hubble’s Law, accelerating expansion, and a singularity beginning. Surveys of the universe – the most recent and largest, the 2012 WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey – show, galaxy distribution on small scales to be fractal, while on large-scales, homogeneity holds. There appears to be new anomaly to explain: a galaxy distribution transition from rough to smooth with cosmic distance. From my model I derived a Fractal-Hubble diagram. On this diagram, measurement points along the curve are clustered near the origin. This clustering was not addressed in discussions or part of the conclusion of my earlier experiment. Can this clustering of points account for the observed galaxy distribution transition? Could this transition be another property of fractals, and therefore could the universe – itself – be fractal? It was found, yes they do. Clustering of measurement points (and of galaxies) is as a result of observation position in the fractal. On small scales – relative to large scales – the cosmic surveys are what one would expect to see if one were viewing from within an iterating – growing – fractal. If trees – natural fractals that have also been found to grow at accelerating rates – are used to demonstrate this fractal: the large-scale smoothness maybe akin to a tree’s trunk; and the rough (fractal) on small-scales, to its branches. This discovery unifies the anomalies associated with the standard cosmological model. Together they are – through the mechanics of the fractal – inextricably linked.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1588] **viXra:1503.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 07:46:04*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Eight pages

This paper details a replacement for Dr. Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity which, along with quantum theory, are pillars of 21st century physics. Special Relativity deals with light and other forms of radiation, such as radio, X, gamma, and delta radiation and the constant nature of the velocity of light as distinguished from the non constant nature of the relative velocity of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1587] **viXra:1503.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 05:52:13*

**Authors:** Lutz Kayser

**Comments:** 60 Pages.

The Einstein Postulates of Special Relativity (SR), namely the invariance of the speed of light c relative to the observer, the symmetry of relative velocities, and the Galilean Principle independent of velocity and gravitational potential are falsified. The replacement Law is: There exists an absolute universal velocity reference (Cosmic Velocity Reference, CVR). The velocity of light c is invariant and isotropic only relative to absolute universal space CVR. In honor of the discoverer, we propose to call it Smoot’s Law. Experimental evidence of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave radiation background CMB and the one-way measurements of the speed of light are given. From the new Laws it follows (in vector notation) c_(rel )=c- c_cvr . This results in the elimination from physics of the Minkowski four-vector spacetime symmetry, time dilation, length contraction, velocity and acceleration symmetrical Lorentz transformation, Einstein vector addition, covariance, invisible and unphysical net of monolithic worldlines, and other weird mathematical constructs without physical meaning resulting from Special Relativity SR and General Relativity GR. The mass increase of particles with speed by the so-called Lorentz Factor 〖ϒ=(1-v^2 /c^2 )〗^(-1/2) is so often cited by Relativists as empirical proof of SR. ϒ was fraudulently smuggled into SR without mathematical proof applying it to relative velocities which give wrong results. We show that the Lorentz Factor is a simple part of the system of classical dynamic equations and the mass-energy conservation law. But it is only valid with absolute cosmic velocity v_CVR. The increases of mass, momentum, and energy with an object’s velocity are correct but not part of or caused by SR. This is true also for the change of clock rate as a function of velocity and Newtonian gravity potential. PIPS welcomes discussions and proposals for improvement of this work for the sake of the physics community and the wider public. For the general public, we have made an effort to explain important facts in everyday examples. Periodic revisions will be published. (Second Revised Edition 3/15/2015).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1586] **viXra:1503.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-24 10:20:08*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Astronomical observations of cosmological red-shift are currently interpreted in terms of ‘expansion of universe’ and ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’, at the rate of H0 c; here H0 is Hubble’s constant, and c is the speed of light. Whereas a straight forward derivation presented here suggests that: rather it is the photon which is decelerating, at the rate of H0 c. As soon as any alternative interpretation for the ‘cosmological red-shift’ is proposed, it is argued that: tired-light interpretations of cosmological red-shift’ are not compatible with the observations of ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. So in a paper titled: “Wave-theoretical insight into the relativistic ‘length-contraction’ and ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’” (Tank, Hasmukh K. 2013) it has been already shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. Therefore, we now need not remain confined to the Big Bang model of cosmology. Martin Lopez-Corredoira (2013) applied Alcock- Paczynski cosmological test to six candidate cosmological models; and reached a conclusion that only two of them, namely lambda-CDM and static universe with tired light interpretation of the cosmological red-shift, fit the data. Ling Jun Wang, (2014) “On the Flatness of Space-time” has rigorously proven that curvature and expansion of space-time are mathematical entities, not the physically real curvature or expansion of space. So, the static universe with tired-light explanation has remained the only candidate. In this paper ‘cosmological red-shift’ is explained in terms of deceleration of photons caused by virtual electrons and pi-mesons contained in the extra galactic quantum vacuum. And, as supportive evidence, it is shown here that virtual electrons, and pi-mesons do have gravitational-acceleration of the order H0 c at their “surfaces”. Since, as per the interpretation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’ proposed here, in terms of deceleration of photons, the ‘reduction-in-energy of the photon’ (h Δν) goes on reducing with every subsequent unit distance traveled by the photon; so the red-shift-distance-curve automatically becomes non-linear, which has been creating an impression of ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’. As a further supportive evidence for this proposal, it is shown that even the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses too did decelerate at the same rate H0 c (Anderson J.D. et. al.1998).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1585] **viXra:1503.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 10:11:52*

**Authors:** Hartmut Schwab

**Comments:** 3 pages, German language

The light speed paradoxon which was until now explained by the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) and was not understood according to classic physics, is now freely explained by the laws of classic physics. The explanation is extended on all other kinds of oscillations without or with medium. Complex approaches like Einsteins space time continuum and SRT miss their basis and therefore are unnecessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1584] **viXra:1503.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 01:23:25*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

It is difficult to find a derivation of the Lorentz transformations beyond a single dimension in rectangular Cartesian coordinates. Here, a rigorous general derivation is established.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1583] **viXra:1503.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 19:59:04*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Galileo proposed a simple gravity experiment that has yet to be performed. Suppose we drop a test mass into a hole through the center of a larger source mass. What happens? Using a modified Cavendish balance or an orbiting satellite, modern technology could have revealed the answer decades ago. General Relativity is widely regarded as being supported by empirical evidence throughout its accessible range. Not commonly realized is that, with regard to gravity-induced motion, this evidence excludes the interior regions of material bodies over this whole range. If only to fill this huge gap in our empirical knowledge of gravity, Galileo’s experiment ought to be performed without further delay.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1582] **viXra:1503.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 20:05:25*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

This is an updated and augmented version of the previously published paper, Space Generation Model of Gravitation and the Large Numbers Coincidences. The basis of the gravity model is that motion sensing devices—most notably accelerometers and clocks—consistently tell the truth about their state of motion. When the devices are attached to a uniformly rotating body this is undoubtedly true. Uniform rotation is sometimes referred to as an example of stationary motion. It is proposed here, by analogy, that gravitation is also an example of stationary motion. Einstein used the rotation analogy to deduce spacetime curvature. Similar logic suggests that in both cases the effects of curvature are caused by motion. A key distinction is that, unlike rotation, gravitational motion is not motion through space, but rather motion of space. Extending the analogy further, gravitation is conceived as a process involving movement into a fourth space dimension. Space and matter are dynamic, continuous extensions of each other, which implies that the average cosmic density is a universal constant. Assuming this to be the case leads to a cosmological model according to which ratios such as the gravitational to electrostatic force, electron mass to proton mass, Bohr radius to cosmic radius, and constants such as the fine structure constant, Hubble constant, the saturation density of nuclear matter and the energy density of the cosmic background radiation are all very simply related to one another. Measured values of these numbers are discussed in suffcient detail to facilitate judging whether or not the found and predicted relationships are due to chance. The notorious "cosmological constant" (dark energy) problem is also addressed in light of the new gravity model. Finally, it is emphasized that the model lends itself to a relatively easy laboratory test.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1581] **viXra:1503.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 06:29:44*

**Authors:** Jacky Jerome, Frederic Jerome

**Comments:** Main article 6 pages + Appendices 34 pages (total 40 pages)

Recent enigmas of astrophysics such as dark energy or accelerating universe need to update General Relativity. A thorough examination of the original Einstein Field Equations (EFE) hghlights three inconsistencies concerning the nature of spacetime. Here we solve these inconsistencies. As a consequence, this article proposes a Higgs compatible 4D expression of mass, m=f(x,y,z,t), and a new explanation of gravity based on Le Sage Push Gravity. This paper is interesting and important because it touches the weakest nerve of General Relativity by asking “how mass curves spacetime”? Moreover, this article is supported
by several mathematics demonstrations such as a new version of the Newton Law, a new version of the Schwarzschild Metric, and a 4D rewriting of the Energy-Momentum Tensor and Einstein Constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1580] **viXra:1503.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-15 18:17:35*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Submitted to EJP

The double deflection of a light ray near an attracting center, which was predicted by Einstein, is explained by the space curvature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1579] **viXra:1503.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-13 11:41:10*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article discusses the density of dark energy and the cosmological constant as the process quantum tunneling effect of the false vacuum thru a scalar Higgs field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1578] **viXra:1503.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-11 11:00:51*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

In our previous arXiv papers (“The Information and the Matter”, v1, v5; more systematically the informational conception is presented in the paper “The Information as Absolute”, 2014) it was rigorously shown that Matter in our Universe – and Universe as a whole - are some informational systems (structures), which exist as uninterruptedly transforming [practically] infinitesimal sub-sets of the absolutely infinite and fundamental “Information” Set. Such a conception allows not only to clear essentially a number of metaphysical and epistemological problems in philosophy but, besides, allows to suggest a reasonable physical model. Since Matter in Universe is an informational system where every interaction between Matter’s sub-structures, i.e. – particles and systems of the particles – happens always as an exchange by exclusively true information between these structures, the model is based on the conjecture that Matter is some analogue of computer. This conjecture, in turn, allows to introduce in the model the basic logical elements that constitute the material structures and support the informational exchange - i.e. the forces - between the structures. The model is experimentally testable and yet now makes be more clear a number of basic problems in special relativity, quantum mechanics, and, rather probably, in [now – in Newtonian] gravity.
This paper is a next upgrade of earlier version http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.4657, 2012

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[939] **viXra:1504.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-25 00:20:44*

**Authors:** Andrew Wutke

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Please sent any comments or suggestion to the email address within. I want to improve the content and eliminate factual errors or ambiguities.

This paper presents the proof of the apparent nature of relative simultaneity originally derived from Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity (STR). The proof does not challenge the validity of the STR but uncovers fundamental and widespread error in understanding of practical implications of Lorentz transformations. It is demonstrated that more than a century long debates generally miss the point. This results in counterintuitive claims of coexisting multiple time realities by mere equivalence of equal clock indications and simultaneity. Such claims have little empirical significance but they are substantial in education and philosophy which has become utterly confused after universal acceptance of the STR and rejections of Henri Bergson’s challenge. There is nothing more to “relative simultaneity” other than the effect of identical clocks being shifted by an offset which depends on synchronisation method.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[938] **viXra:1504.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-19 12:14:47*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 26 Pages. It is corrected the model of free neutron decay by accounting for Higgs field for W bosons pair generation

In the work we have advanced another scenario for Universe creation and its evolution, respectively, when an initial high energy at Reheating generates high energy photons which following Thomson and Breit Wheeler interaction generate pairs which gives an external electrical field ( ) that it produces at the interface between normal phase and the superconducting phase, a decay of the superconductor magnetic field ( ) generated by the color gluons condensate components like the Meissner effect. The inverse value of the penetration length of is just the ( ) at high densities and the effective color magnetic gluon mass at QCD.
This critical temperature together with the number of particles created verifies the BEC quantum state condition along the entire Universe evolution. Thus, the color magnetic gluons field is introduced in Friedman equation in place of Einstein tensor, which permits to obtain the rates of Universe expansion. After the CMBR time, the decoupled photons interact with the Quantum Well producing excitons condensate which form with photons the polaritons as in Earth’s experiments. These polaritons sustains the expansion of Universe, their mass and energy verifies the cosmological constant, that one can consider its as dark matter particles. During matter creation(+dark matter) a fix number of particles and a total mass of are obtained, that it is a spectacular result, which it could be the essential prove of the entirely model. Also, is proposed a new test for the finally proof of the model as the deduction of the lifetime value of the decay of the free neutron.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[937] **viXra:1504.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-10 12:17:51*

**Authors:** The Photons Creation at the Origin of Matter Creation, of Universe Expansion

**Comments:** 25 Pages. the introduction of prove test for the model-the deduction of beta decay of the free neutron liftime

In the work we have advanced another scenario for Universe creation and its evolution, respectively, when an initial high energy at Reheating generates high energy photons which following Thomson and Breit Wheeler interaction generate pairs which gives an external electrical field ( ) that it produces at the interface between normal phase and the superconducting phase, a decay of the superconductor magnetic field ( ) generated by the color gluons condensate components like the Meissner effect. The inverse value of the penetration length of is just the ( ) at high densities and the effective color magnetic gluon mass at QCD.
This critical temperature together with the number of particles created verifies the BEC quantum state condition along the entire Universe evolution. Thus, the color magnetic gluons field is introduced in Friedman equation in place of Einstein tensor, which permits to obtain the rates of Universe expansion. After the CMBR time, the decoupled photons interact with the Quantum Well producing excitons condensate which form with photons the polaritons as in Earth’s experiments. These polaritons sustains the expansion of Universe, their mass and energy verifies the cosmological constant, that one can consider its as dark matter particles. During matter creation(+dark matter) a fix number of particles and a total mass of are obtained, that it is a spectacular result, which it could be the essential prove of the entirely model. Also, is proposed a new test to prove finally the model as the deduction of the lifetime value of the decay of the free neutron.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[936] **viXra:1503.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-02 10:03:44*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Three-page Letter

Astronomical observations of cosmological red-shift are currently interpreted in terms of ‘expansion of universe’ and ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’, at the rate of H0 c; here H0 is Hubble’s constant, and c is the speed of light. Whereas a straight forward derivation presented here suggests that: rather it is the photon which is decelerating, at the rate of H0 c. Such a deceleration of photons can be caused by virtual electrons, positrons and pi-mesons, contained in the extra galactic quantum vacuum, because: they do have gravitational-acceleration of the same order as H0 c at their “surfaces”; or by decay of photon into a lighter photon and a particle of mass h H0 / c^2.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[935] **viXra:1503.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-20 16:18:31*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** This text contains two version of the paper: English version (pages 1-40) and Russian version (pages 1-86)

In our previous arXiv papers (“The Information and the Matter”, v1, v5; more systematically the informational conception is presented in the paper “The Information as Absolute”, 2014) it was rigorously shown that Matter in our Universe – and Universe as a whole - are some informational systems (structures), which exist as uninterruptedly transforming [practically] infinitesimal sub-sets of the absolutely infinite and fundamental “Information” Set. Such a conception allows not only to clear essentially a number of metaphysical and epistemological problems in philosophy but, besides, allows to suggest a reasonable physical model. Since Matter in Universe is an informational system where every interaction between Matter’s sub-structures, i.e. – particles and systems of the particles – happens always as an exchange by exclusively true information between these structures, the model is based on the conjecture that Matter is some analogue of computer. This conjecture, in turn, allows to introduce in the model the basic logical elements that constitute the material structures and support the informational exchange - i.e. the forces - between the structures. The model is experimentally testable and yet now makes be more clear a number of basic problems in special relativity, quantum mechanics, and, rather probably, in [now – in Newtonian] gravity.
This paper is a next upgrade of earlier version http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.4657, 2012
This text contains two version of the paper: English version (pages 1-40) and Russian version (pages 1-86)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology