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2015 - 1501(41) - 1502(28) - 1503(21)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1588] **viXra:1503.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 07:46:04*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Eight pages

This paper details a replacement for Dr. Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity which, along with quantum theory, are pillars of 21st century physics. Special Relativity deals with light and other forms of radiation, such as radio, X, gamma, and delta radiation and the constant nature of the velocity of light as distinguished from the non constant nature of the relative velocity of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1587] **viXra:1503.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 05:52:13*

**Authors:** Lutz Kayser

**Comments:** 60 Pages.

The Einstein Postulates of Special Relativity (SR), namely the invariance of the speed of light c relative to the observer, the symmetry of relative velocities, and the Galilean Principle independent of velocity and gravitational potential are falsified. The replacement Law is: There exists an absolute universal velocity reference (Cosmic Velocity Reference, CVR). The velocity of light c is invariant and isotropic only relative to absolute universal space CVR. In honor of the discoverer, we propose to call it Smoot’s Law. Experimental evidence of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave radiation background CMB and the one-way measurements of the speed of light are given. From the new Laws it follows (in vector notation) c_(rel )=c- c_cvr . This results in the elimination from physics of the Minkowski four-vector spacetime symmetry, time dilation, length contraction, velocity and acceleration symmetrical Lorentz transformation, Einstein vector addition, covariance, invisible and unphysical net of monolithic worldlines, and other weird mathematical constructs without physical meaning resulting from Special Relativity SR and General Relativity GR. The mass increase of particles with speed by the so-called Lorentz Factor 〖ϒ=(1-v^2 /c^2 )〗^(-1/2) is so often cited by Relativists as empirical proof of SR. ϒ was fraudulently smuggled into SR without mathematical proof applying it to relative velocities which give wrong results. We show that the Lorentz Factor is a simple part of the system of classical dynamic equations and the mass-energy conservation law. But it is only valid with absolute cosmic velocity v_CVR. The increases of mass, momentum, and energy with an object’s velocity are correct but not part of or caused by SR. This is true also for the change of clock rate as a function of velocity and Newtonian gravity potential. PIPS welcomes discussions and proposals for improvement of this work for the sake of the physics community and the wider public. For the general public, we have made an effort to explain important facts in everyday examples. Periodic revisions will be published. (Second Revised Edition 3/15/2015).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1586] **viXra:1503.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-24 10:20:08*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Astronomical observations of cosmological red-shift are currently interpreted in terms of ‘expansion of universe’ and ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’, at the rate of H0 c; here H0 is Hubble’s constant, and c is the speed of light. Whereas a straight forward derivation presented here suggests that: rather it is the photon which is decelerating, at the rate of H0 c. As soon as any alternative interpretation for the ‘cosmological red-shift’ is proposed, it is argued that: tired-light interpretations of cosmological red-shift’ are not compatible with the observations of ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. So in a paper titled: “Wave-theoretical insight into the relativistic ‘length-contraction’ and ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’” (Tank, Hasmukh K. 2013) it has been already shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. Therefore, we now need not remain confined to the Big Bang model of cosmology. Martin Lopez-Corredoira (2013) applied Alcock- Paczynski cosmological test to six candidate cosmological models; and reached a conclusion that only two of them, namely lambda-CDM and static universe with tired light interpretation of the cosmological red-shift, fit the data. Ling Jun Wang, (2014) “On the Flatness of Space-time” has rigorously proven that curvature and expansion of space-time are mathematical entities, not the physically real curvature or expansion of space. So, the static universe with tired-light explanation has remained the only candidate. In this paper ‘cosmological red-shift’ is explained in terms of deceleration of photons caused by virtual electrons and pi-mesons contained in the extra galactic quantum vacuum. And, as supportive evidence, it is shown here that virtual electrons, and pi-mesons do have gravitational-acceleration of the order H0 c at their “surfaces”. Since, as per the interpretation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’ proposed here, in terms of deceleration of photons, the ‘reduction-in-energy of the photon’ (h Δν) goes on reducing with every subsequent unit distance traveled by the photon; so the red-shift-distance-curve automatically becomes non-linear, which has been creating an impression of ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’. As a further supportive evidence for this proposal, it is shown that even the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses too did decelerate at the same rate H0 c (Anderson J.D. et. al.1998).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1585] **viXra:1503.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 10:11:52*

**Authors:** Hartmut Schwab

**Comments:** 3 pages, German language

The light speed paradoxon which was until now explained by the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) and was not understood according to classic physics, is now freely explained by the laws of classic physics. The explanation is extended on all other kinds of oscillations without or with medium. Complex approaches like Einsteins space time continuum and SRT miss their basis and therefore are unnecessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1584] **viXra:1503.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 01:23:25*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

It is difficult to find a derivation of the Lorentz transformations beyond a single dimension in rectangular Cartesian coordinates. Here, a rigorous general derivation is established.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1583] **viXra:1503.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 19:59:04*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Galileo proposed a simple gravity experiment that has yet to be performed. Suppose we drop a test mass into a hole through the center of a larger source mass. What happens? Using a modified Cavendish balance or an orbiting satellite, modern technology could have revealed the answer decades ago. General Relativity is widely regarded as being supported by empirical evidence throughout its accessible range. Not commonly realized is that, with regard to gravity-induced motion, this evidence excludes the interior regions of material bodies over this whole range. If only to fill this huge gap in our empirical knowledge of gravity, Galileo’s experiment ought to be performed without further delay.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1582] **viXra:1503.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 20:05:25*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

This is an updated and augmented version of the previously published paper, Space Generation Model of Gravitation and the Large Numbers Coincidences. The basis of the gravity model is that motion sensing devices—most notably accelerometers and clocks—consistently tell the truth about their state of motion. When the devices are attached to a uniformly rotating body this is undoubtedly true. Uniform rotation is sometimes referred to as an example of stationary motion. It is proposed here, by analogy, that gravitation is also an example of stationary motion. Einstein used the rotation analogy to deduce spacetime curvature. Similar logic suggests that in both cases the effects of curvature are caused by motion. A key distinction is that, unlike rotation, gravitational motion is not motion through space, but rather motion of space. Extending the analogy further, gravitation is conceived as a process involving movement into a fourth space dimension. Space and matter are dynamic, continuous extensions of each other, which implies that the average cosmic density is a universal constant. Assuming this to be the case leads to a cosmological model according to which ratios such as the gravitational to electrostatic force, electron mass to proton mass, Bohr radius to cosmic radius, and constants such as the fine structure constant, Hubble constant, the saturation density of nuclear matter and the energy density of the cosmic background radiation are all very simply related to one another. Measured values of these numbers are discussed in suffcient detail to facilitate judging whether or not the found and predicted relationships are due to chance. The notorious "cosmological constant" (dark energy) problem is also addressed in light of the new gravity model. Finally, it is emphasized that the model lends itself to a relatively easy laboratory test.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1581] **viXra:1503.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 06:29:44*

**Authors:** Jacky Jerome, Frederic Jerome

**Comments:** Main article 6 pages + Appendices 34 pages (total 40 pages)

Recent enigmas of astrophysics such as dark energy or accelerating universe need to update General Relativity. A thorough examination of the original Einstein Field Equations (EFE) hghlights three inconsistencies concerning the nature of spacetime. Here we solve these inconsistencies. As a consequence, this article proposes a Higgs compatible 4D expression of mass, m=f(x,y,z,t), and a new explanation of gravity based on Le Sage Push Gravity. This paper is interesting and important because it touches the weakest nerve of General Relativity by asking “how mass curves spacetime”? Moreover, this article is supported
by several mathematics demonstrations such as a new version of the Newton Law, a new version of the Schwarzschild Metric, and a 4D rewriting of the Energy-Momentum Tensor and Einstein Constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1580] **viXra:1503.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-15 18:17:35*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Submitted to EJP

The double deflection of a light ray near an attracting center, which was predicted by Einstein, is explained by the space curvature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1579] **viXra:1503.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-13 11:41:10*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article discusses the density of dark energy and the cosmological constant as the process quantum tunneling effect of the false vacuum thru a scalar Higgs field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1578] **viXra:1503.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-11 11:00:51*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

In our previous arXiv papers (“The Information and the Matter”, v1, v5; more systematically the informational conception is presented in the paper “The Information as Absolute”, 2014) it was rigorously shown that Matter in our Universe – and Universe as a whole - are some informational systems (structures), which exist as uninterruptedly transforming [practically] infinitesimal sub-sets of the absolutely infinite and fundamental “Information” Set. Such a conception allows not only to clear essentially a number of metaphysical and epistemological problems in philosophy but, besides, allows to suggest a reasonable physical model. Since Matter in Universe is an informational system where every interaction between Matter’s sub-structures, i.e. – particles and systems of the particles – happens always as an exchange by exclusively true information between these structures, the model is based on the conjecture that Matter is some analogue of computer. This conjecture, in turn, allows to introduce in the model the basic logical elements that constitute the material structures and support the informational exchange - i.e. the forces - between the structures. The model is experimentally testable and yet now makes be more clear a number of basic problems in special relativity, quantum mechanics, and, rather probably, in [now – in Newtonian] gravity.
This paper is a next upgrade of earlier version http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.4657, 2012

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1577] **viXra:1503.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-10 15:02:04*

**Authors:** György Szondy

**Comments:** 1 Page. Poster - original size: A0

Minkowski 4-force is known to be perpendicular to the 4-velocity and the 4-momentum vector. In the ‘50s Károly Novobátzky worked out the generalization of this 4-force in Special Relativity. We will shortly explain how this formalism can be used to describe conservative fields and how it helps us to overcome fundamental problems in General Relativity like nonlinearity. We will introduce our results connecting such generalized 4-force with metric in a way that leads towards geometry based quantum gravity.
This poster was presented in the 5th Central Europian Relativity Seminar (26-28th February 2015, Budapest, at Hungarian Academy of Sciences) http://www.univie.ac.at/cers5/

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1576] **viXra:1503.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-10 10:30:29*

**Authors:** Maduabuchi Echa

**Comments:** 125 Pages.

The scientific enquiry to be presented is an attempt to establish the principle of universal equivalence and also extend Einstein’s theory of special relativity to non-inertial reference frames by recognizing the existence of gravi-electromagnetic wave. So far, every scientist finds harmony in nature and as such we are prompted to present this harmony in our equations; such that the laws of physics are the same for all reference frames. This scientific enquiry aims at presenting the underlying harmony between inertial and non-inertial reference frames while also presenting their discrepancies. In this paper I employed the use of Euclidean geometry to derive my conclusions, and I hope to present a clearer understanding of light and the force of gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1575] **viXra:1503.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-10 10:11:15*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Two page priliminary note

Cosmology is primarily based on the measured value of Hubble’s constant. Though its value is still being refined, the currently available value shows interesting relations with the other physical constants, as derived here. These relations can be helpful for: (i) arriving at theoretical value of Hubble’s constant, and (ii) for understanding correct mechanism behind the cosmological red-shift. The relationship of Hubble’s constant H0 with the other constants derived here are: (h H0 / me c2) = [ ( G me mp ) / h c ] = [ λC / R0 ] = [ (G mp / c2) / λC ] = [ mp / M0 ]1/2 ; here: h is Planck’s constant, c the speed of light, and λC is Compton-wavelength of the electron. These relations suggest that either the cosmological red-shift is based on gravity, or gravity is due to the cosmological red-shift-effect on the photons exchanged between the particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1574] **viXra:1503.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-08 23:13:59*

**Authors:** D.G. Taylor

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The General Relativity [GR] time distortion equation Time’ = Time/(1 – 2GM/rc2)½ is related to the ve=(2GM/r)½ escape velocity equation. The ve equation can also be written as ve2=2GM/r, so the GR equation could also be: Time’ = Time/(1 – ve2/c2)½. The mathematic logic of the Gravitational Force and the ve equations would lead to unlimited gravitational forces, but escape velocities limited to c. Escapable Schwarzschild Objects would eliminate “imaginary” time distortions. Relativistic Time distortions reduce the velocity/mass of Bosons. GR Gravitic Time distortions reduce the mass/strength of Gravitons. A combination of Boson slowdown and potentially infinite Gravitational pressure could unify energies into matter. Energetic matter could escape because of the c limit to ve but not the slowed Bosons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1573] **viXra:1503.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 19:59:10*

**Authors:** James Arnold

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Gravitation is described as a uniquely geometric phenomenon, incompatible with the concept of force, and only analogically comparable with force by means of mathematical formalisms. Two thought experiments are employed to demonstrate that the association of gravitation with force is irreconcilable with the geometric interpretation and without theoretical foundation or empirical support. Motion in time is identified as the dynamic source of what has been attributed as the energetic component of gravitational phenomena.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1572] **viXra:1503.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 10:30:03*

**Authors:** Carl S. Reiff

**Comments:** 16 pages, 20 figures, 2 tables, 56 equations, 22 references.

This paper posits that ‘Gravitational Flow’ permeates the Universe, and all observed time dilation is a result of movement relative to this flow. The speed of the flow at any given location is simply the corresponding escape velocity. So time dilation can be calculated from escape velocities. The procedure is illustrated using three distinct examples: 1) The time dilation setting required by the atomic clocks aboard the GPS satellites orbiting Earth; 2) The Shapiro delay experienced by a ray of light as it passes very near the Sun; 3) The portion of the perihelion precession of Mercury’s orbit that is due to time dilation, often called ‘anomalous precession’. Also included are proposals for four distinct experiments, each of which will demonstrate the effects of the flow.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1571] **viXra:1503.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-06 05:47:10*

**Authors:** Robert M. Hartranft, Scott W. Hartranft

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Suppose the laws of physics are truly invariant: they were, are, and always will be as they are here and now. Suppose further that there were no physical things before the Big Bang, just endless void. At some point, the laws of physics came into being, including conservation of mass-energy: this was the true creation event; the Big Bang was simply an allowed event. We speculate on the resulting cosmology. The three fundamental equations for mass (F = ma ; F = Gm1m2/r2 ; and E = mc2 ) are symmetric for positive and negative values of m, suggesting a family of negative mass particles ("unmatter"), with zero net mass-energy for the universe overall. The Big Bang would have produced two precisely concentric, inter-meshed, expanding spheres, one of positive m matter, the other of negative m unmatter. After 7.2 years, the spheres would have had sufficient volume for 10^81 hydrogen atoms. They would have repelled and segregated at myriad local sites, providing the birth areas for an immense number of large, short-lived stars, which in turn provided the evidently immense number of black holes in the universe today, and then early cosmic anisotropy and galactic spins. As the spheres expanded to their current, roughly 28 billion light-year diameters, they became progressively more segregated, leading to apparently huge voids if only one sphere is considered. As segregation further increased, the unbalanced local forces increased, leading to the observed and heretofore exceedingly puzzling accelerating expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1570] **viXra:1503.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-06 03:23:46*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Spanisch

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article, which is a continuation of [34], [35] and [36], we analyze the fourth of the purely affine theories of Schrödinger (Schrödinger-IV), where he used a connection asymmetric and a metric tensor also asymmetric and the simplest Lagrangian density that is proportional to the square root of the determinant of the Ricci tensor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1569] **viXra:1503.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-04 09:36:08*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 journal pages

In this paper, it is shown that the classical addition of velocities is unavoidable, and follows naturally from an intrinsic physics concept. It is revealed that the relativistic addition of velocities and the Lorentz contraction simply lead to time transformations contradicting the Special Relativity predictions. Ironically, the Special Relativity time dilation prediction could be obtained from the classical addition of velocities and the Lorentz contraction, when the travel time of a two-way light trip is considered. A one-way (forward or backward) travel time leads to contradictions with the Special Relativity predictions. The special relativity time dilation factor could be obtained from the classical addition of velocities for a light trip in the transverse direction, but in contradiction with the speed of light postulate. Analyzed light travel time between relatively moving frame origins offers outcomes inconsistent with the Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1568] **viXra:1503.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-03 08:24:42*

**Authors:** Allen Graycek

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Results of laboratory studies of hydrogen-induced redshift indicate light is shifted spectrally as found in space.[1] Due to improvement in telescopic equipment, vast regions of hydrogen in and around galaxies are now being found, the necessary ingredient for redshift. If this is the cause of the cosmological redshift, then a universe exists that is not expanding, and there was no big bang. This is an effort to compare the big bang model (BBM) to a great age model (GAM). Approximate distances and ages can still be determined based on amounts of red shift currently seen. Size of the universe might be much larger than currently thought. With a GAM, inflation and dark energy are not needed. GAM allows sufficient time for stars to have full life cycles. This process involves their birth, consumption of all their fuel, then cooling to the point of non-visibility naturally resulting in many times more cool or invisible stars than bright ones.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1567] **viXra:1502.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 06:08:52*

**Authors:** Brett A Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I postulate the existence of a second time dimension, making five dimensions, three space dimensions and two time dimensions. I will postulate some basic properties based on a smoking gun and then use these basic properties to derive the time dilation equations of "Special Relativity", which helps defne additional properties of the second time dimension. The conclusion being that the Universe has five dimensions but that we only perceive four dimensions. Further more I will demonstrate that Newton's second law of motion still holds if you ignore the time contribution from the second time dimension and additionally as a result of this paper we will understand a little bit more about the very nature of time. I believe this to be quiet a significant paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1566] **viXra:1502.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-26 12:34:18*

**Authors:** Juergen Altenbrunn

**Comments:** 16 Pages. needs Theory of relativity without singularities

The cosmologic red shift is an effect of general relativity. It is possible to calculate cosmologic red shift of light, passing through a transparent continuum with mass. It is necessary to consider the mass variation caused caused from variation of potential energy demonstrated in [3] for this calculation. Result of this calculation is also an intensified increasing of cosmologic red shift at very long distances. Accelerated expansion of our universe or dark energy is not needed for this calculation, only pure theory of general relativity. It is possible to calculate the average density of our universe, if you know Hubble-constant. Calculated average density is 1.76*10^-26kg/m^3 by using a Hubble-constant of 21km/s per million light years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1565] **viXra:1502.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-26 15:00:00*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

An attempt is made to explain the Allais effect, the anomalous behavior of pendulums during a total solar eclipse, by Poisson diffraction of gravitational waves into the lunar shadow, with the waves emitted through large mass motion in the center of the sun by a thermonuclear fusion reaction driven magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Thermomagnetic currents in the tachocline shield the strong magnetic field in the solar core.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1564] **viXra:1502.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-26 12:04:28*

**Authors:** Juergen Altenbrunn

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Singularities are avoidable in theory of relativity by consideration of mass variation. Mass varies not only by changing of kinetic energy but also by changing of the potential energy of the mass. This variation of the mass follows the relation E = m * c^2. The mass will be lighter, it decreases in the same way as potential energy of this mass decreases. This will be very clearly by consideration of distances in the same range like Schwarzschild radius. Standstill mass is the potential energy against infinity.
The dissemination of the gravitational field varies near the mass also by consideration of mass variation. Also red shift varies near a heavy dense mass by consideration of mass variation. The event horizon disappears. Physics are possible inside of Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1563] **viXra:1502.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-24 07:58:41*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Astronomical observations of cosmological red-shift are currently interpreted in terms of ‘expansion of universe’ and ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’. Whereas a straight forward derivation presented here suggests that: it is not the universe, which is expanding, rather it is the photon which is decelerating, at the rate of H0 c; here H0 is Hubble’s constant, and c is the speed of light. (As soon as a new mechanism for the ‘cosmological red-shift’ is proposed, it is argued that: tired-light interpretations of cosmological red-shift’ are not compatible with the observations of ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. So in a paper titled: “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic ‘length-contraction’ and ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’” [1] it has been already shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. Therefore, we now need not remain confined to the Big Bang Cosmology, to understand the universe.) Since, as per this new interpretation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’, the ‘reduction-in-energy of the photon’ (h Δν) goes on reducing with every subsequent unit distance traveled by the photon; so the Red-shift-Distance-Curve automatically becomes non-linear, which has been creating an impression of ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’. As a supportive evidence for this proposal, it is shown that even the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses too did decelerate at the same rate H0 c [2]. And to counter-balance this deceleration, the accelerations at the boundaries of: the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies and the galactic-clusters too, are of the same order as H0 c. This coincidence was numerically found by Sivaram [3]; and is explained here, in terms of equilibrium between self-gravitational-acceleration of structures and the acceleration of the un-manifest-energy contained in space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1562] **viXra:1502.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-23 12:12:17*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, if we use Einstein’s gravity field equation, we can discover the General Schwarzschild solution. We obtain new solution in the General Schwarzschild solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1561] **viXra:1502.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 20:37:09*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

There are 4 particles Intrinsically (mc^2) more energetic than the copious tetraquark (4.430 GEV): The top quark (173 GEV), the Z particle (91.2 GEV), and the two W particles (80.4 GEV each). These are all much more energetic than the tetraquark and should be considered as a class of particle by themselves and as a group signaled by the copious tetraquark. The group is partly responsible for the E8-symmetry breaking at the time of the Big Bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1560] **viXra:1502.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-21 05:23:36*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Through the work of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Compton, Niels Bohr, and many others, current scientific theory holds that all particles also have a wave nature (and vice versa).[1] This phenomenon has been verified

Einstein's theory of relativity can not explain ...
1. Movement principles of the fast-spinning pulsars,
2. Nuclear Fusion ,
3. Wave - Particle Duality as Kinetic Energy Against and In Direction of Motion
4. the 4th Maxwell's equation,
5. Lorentz equals without the help of Space-Time,
6.Confinement of quarks
7. Great Table of Elementary Particles
8. Spectral line Hα
9. Neutrino Oscillations
10. Form of the interference field must be non-linear.
11.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field must be asymmetrical.
12.Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave
Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]
Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle
Tkin id = mc2[ln|1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)]
13. Yukawa potential

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1559] **viXra:1502.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-18 04:28:03*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article, which is a continuation of [36] and [37], we analyze the third of the purely affine theories Schrödinger (Schrödinger-III), where he used a connection asymmetric capable of accommodating the unification of the three fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1558] **viXra:1502.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 12:35:20*

**Authors:** Sjaak UItterdijk

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract – This article shows, from several points of view, why the equation E=mc2 must be an untenable equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1557] **viXra:1502.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 09:57:53*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

In this paper, the conclusive origin of the Special Relativity (SR) mathematical conflicts identified in the author’s prior related works will be presented and linked to these various conflicts. It is shown that for inertial reference frames in relative motion, the constancy of the speed of light postulate inherently results in time transformations independent of the spatial coordinates. The time of events occurring along the longitudinal coordinate axis is transformed with a different scaling factor than that of events occurring along the transverse coordinate axes. The incorporated x coordinate (considering that the relative motion is in the X-direction) in the Lorentz transformation time equation is the result of the assumption forcing the transformation to take a linear form as a function of the time and x coordinate. The SR derived Lorentz transformation time equation takes the assumed form by the aid of the imposed constancy of the speed of light equation, resolving itself as x’=ct’ and x=ct to supply the x’ and x terms to the assumed time transformation and its inverse, respectively. The resulting time transformation equation (and its inverse) dependence on the x’ (and x) coordinate is therefore fake, since x’ (x) in the transformation is nothing but ct’ (ct) making the transformation time-dependent only, yet contradicting the time transformation for events in the transverse Y-Z plane.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1556] **viXra:1502.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-14 16:55:10*

**Authors:** D.G. Taylor

**Comments:** Pages.

Direct mathematic reasoning is used to show Escape velocity can never be greater than light speed||“c”. The White radiations from the Abell 2261 Galaxy Cluster should be much more Red-Shifted, because a large part of the signal would be generated at the border of that object. That is not observed.
For a theoretic ideal Schwarzschild object with Sagittarius A mass distortion ranges from infinity at the border to 7.49E44 one Planck length farther, to 1.21E10 a full metre from the border.
The gravity values range from:
3.71177227489019958645677741714417017372776536834702E6 m/s^2 – at the border.
To
3.71177227489019958645677741714417017372776535843664E6m/s^2 – one Planck length farther.
Then
3.71177227427702911490298860538514634565064802791866E6m/s^2 – at 1 full metre from the border.
The total range downward for DIFFERENCE gravity is less than - 6.13170471553788811759023828077117340428362310702818E-4
Whereas the PROPORTIONAL range downward for Relativistic distortion is infinite.
Even allowing for the fundamental arithmetic difference between Gravity and Escape velocity logic, the above values are not consistent

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1555] **viXra:1502.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-14 18:09:06*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We determine the relations of power product of physical quantities (PQs) by the generalized relation. Assuming the relations with two, three and four PQs to generalized relation separately, we find the corresponding general formulas. By ordering the exponent of physical constant in relations being zero or fit number, we gain many famous equations without factors such as mass-energy relation, formula of event horizon temperature of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH), equation of holographic dark energy (HDE) model, Casimir effect equation, Planck black body radiation formula, Stefan-Boltzmann law, Einstein field equation, Newtonian attraction law, Schr?dinger equation, Coulomb law, Newtonian second law, Clapeyron equation, formula of superconducting thin film, centrifugal force formula, etc. Some new relations are given including square of total energy with energy density of HDE, square of energy with its density of SBH, energy density with sextic radii of SBH, pressure in SBH centre and entropy density of SBH center. We show that the generalized relation can determine the relations of power product of two, three and four PQs, it is useful and significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1554] **viXra:1502.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-14 08:24:41*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Five-page paper

Accepting Einstein’s General Relativity Theory, that the changes in gravitational field can propagate at the speed of light, it is proposed here that: before an electron in an atom emits a photon, the energy (h f0) of the photon was a part of total energy of the atom; contributing to establishing the gravitational-field around the atom. As soon an electron in that atom emits a photon of energy h f0 , and the photon starts moving away from the atom, the gravitational-field around the atom partly reduces, proportional to the photon’s energy h f0 , and this wave of ‘reduced gravitational field’ propagates radially-outwards at the speed of light. And a part of energy of the photon gets spent in “filling” the ‘gravitational potential-well’ produced by its energy, when it was a part of energy of the atom. From the derivation presented here we find that the energy spent by the photon to “fill” the ‘gravitational potential-well’, during its inter-galactic journey manifests as the ‘cosmological red-shift’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1553] **viXra:1502.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-14 01:23:48*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We investigate the relations between the physical quantities and the physical constants by the dimensional analysis. From normal form of uncertainty relations (URs), we propose an assumption which the physical quantities have the formal symmetry with the physical constants; and find three basic formulas. A physical quantity has a corresponding Planck scale and many physical quantities have the same Planck scales because of the same dimensions. All Planck scales can be classified by two methods, one is the basic Planck scale and derived Planck scale, and another is Femi-Planck scale, Bose-Planck scale and other-Planck scale. The basic formulas can be rewritten as the ones of corresponding Planck scales. We find the generalized relation which the power products of physical quantities are equivalent to the ones of corresponding Planck scales. Heisenberg UR is part of the generalized relation when the reduced Planck constant ? appears. We also find the Big Bang UR between its temperature and volume by the generalized relation, and the Schwarzschild black holes (SBH) UR between its mass and volume. These suggest no singularity at Big Bang and in SBH with the quantum effect. We show that the generalized relation is interesting and significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1552] **viXra:1502.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-13 09:29:09*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Accepting Einstein’s theory, that the changes in gravitational field can propagate at the speed of light, it is proposed here that: before an electron in an atom emits a photon, the energy (h f0) of the photon was a part of total energy of the atom; contributing to establishing the gravitational-field around the atom. As soon an electron in that atom emits a photon of energy h f0 , and the photon starts moving away from the atom, the gravitational-field around the atom partly reduces, proportional to the photon’s energy h f0 , and this wave of ‘reduced gravitational field’ propagates radially outwards at the speed of light. And a part of energy of the photon gets spent in “filling” the ‘gravitational potential-well’ produced by its energy when it was a part of energy of the atom. From the Gauss’s law for gravity we find that the energy spent by the photon to “fill” the ‘gravitational potential-well’ during its inter galactic journey manifests as the ‘cosmological red-shift’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1551] **viXra:1502.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-12 09:26:57*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

The Neo-classical Theory of Relativity uses concepts of Classical Mechanics and Classical Electromagnetism to describe the relativity of inertial motion better than it is described in the Special Theory of Relativity conceived by Albert Einstein in 1905.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1550] **viXra:1502.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-12 09:04:46*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. In portuguese

We transform the Schwarzschild metric in spherical coordinates to rectangular, confirming that the conclusion obtained by Einstein for rules disposed perpendicular to a gravitational field remains unchanged when using the exact solution of Schwarzschild, obtained under the conditions of static field in vacuum and with spherical symmetry. Beyond this transformation also talked again about the speed of light in radial and perpendicular directions measures in the Earth's surface, we recall tests for the verification of the principle of the constancy of the speed of light and calculate the acceleration of light and bodies in generally, in a radial static gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1549] **viXra:1502.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-11 07:45:24*

**Authors:** Sjaak UItterdijk

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity (STR) is based on two, in 1905 not yet existing, postulates: one regarding the property of the velocity of light, the other regarding the phenomenon ‘time’. In this article it is demonstrated that both postulates are wrong. This must lead to the unavoidable conclusion that the STR is invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[920] **viXra:1503.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-20 16:18:31*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** This text contains two version of the paper: English version (pages 1-40) and Russian version (pages 1-86)

In our previous arXiv papers (“The Information and the Matter”, v1, v5; more systematically the informational conception is presented in the paper “The Information as Absolute”, 2014) it was rigorously shown that Matter in our Universe – and Universe as a whole - are some informational systems (structures), which exist as uninterruptedly transforming [practically] infinitesimal sub-sets of the absolutely infinite and fundamental “Information” Set. Such a conception allows not only to clear essentially a number of metaphysical and epistemological problems in philosophy but, besides, allows to suggest a reasonable physical model. Since Matter in Universe is an informational system where every interaction between Matter’s sub-structures, i.e. – particles and systems of the particles – happens always as an exchange by exclusively true information between these structures, the model is based on the conjecture that Matter is some analogue of computer. This conjecture, in turn, allows to introduce in the model the basic logical elements that constitute the material structures and support the informational exchange - i.e. the forces - between the structures. The model is experimentally testable and yet now makes be more clear a number of basic problems in special relativity, quantum mechanics, and, rather probably, in [now – in Newtonian] gravity.
This paper is a next upgrade of earlier version http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.4657, 2012
This text contains two version of the paper: English version (pages 1-40) and Russian version (pages 1-86)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[919] **viXra:1503.0070 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-18 00:43:32*

**Authors:** Maduabuchi Echa

**Comments:** 129 Pages.

The scientific enquiry to be presented is an attempt to establish the principle of universal equivalence and also extend Einstein’s theory of special relativity to non-inertial reference frames by recognizing the existence of gravi-electromagnetic wave. So far, every scientist finds harmony in nature and as such we are prompted to present this harmony in our equations; such that the laws of physics are the same for all reference frames. This scientific enquiry aims at presenting the underlying harmony between inertial and non-inertial reference frames while also presenting their discrepancies. In this paper I employed the use of Euclidean geometry to derive my conclusions, and I hope to present a clearer understanding of light and the force of gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[918] **viXra:1503.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-11 05:43:40*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Cosmology is primarily based on the measured value of Hubble’s constant. Though its value is still being refined, the currently available value shows interesting relations with the other physical constants, as derived here. These relations can be helpful for: (i) arriving at theoretical value of Hubble’s constant, and (ii) for understanding correct mechanism behind the cosmological red-shift. The relationship of Hubble’s constant H0 with the other constants derived here are: (h H0 / me c^2) = [ ( G me mp ) / h c ] = [ λC / R0 ] = [ (G mp / c^2) / λC ] = [ mp / M0 ]^1/2 ; here: h is Planck’s constant, c the speed of light, and λC is Compton-wavelength of the electron, and me and mp are masses of the electron and proton respectively. These relations suggest that either the cosmological red-shift is based on gravity, or gravity is due to the cosmological red-shift-effect on the photons exchanged between the particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[917] **viXra:1503.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-06 04:09:43*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article, which is a continuation of [34], [35] and [36], we analyze the fourth of the purely affine theories of Schrödinger (Schrödinger-IV), where he used a connection asymmetric and a metric tensor also asymmetric and the simplest Lagrangian density that is proportional to the square root of the determinant of the Ricci tensor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[916] **viXra:1502.0155 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-18 10:16:50*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article, which is a continuation of [36] and [37], we analyze the third of the purely affine theories Schrödinger (Schrödinger-III), where he used a connection asymmetric capable of accommodating the unification of the three fields

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[915] **viXra:1502.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-18 04:02:37*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages - [v2] minor editing

In this paper, the conclusive origin of the Special Relativity (SR) mathematical conflicts identified in the author’s prior related works will be presented and linked to these various conflicts. It is shown that for inertial reference frames in relative motion, the constancy of the speed of light postulate inherently results in time transformations independent of the spatial coordinates. The time of events occurring along the longitudinal coordinate axis is transformed with a different scaling factor than that of events occurring along the transverse coordinate axes. The incorporated x coordinate (considering that the relative motion is in the X-direction) in the Lorentz transformation time equation is the result of the SR assumption forcing the transformation to take a linear form as a function of the time and x coordinate. The SR derived Lorentz transformation time equation takes the assumed form by the aid of the imposed constancy of the speed of light equation, resolving itself as x=ct and x’=ct’ to supply the x and x’ terms to the assumed time transformation and its inverse, respectively. The resulting time transformation equation (and its inverse) dependence on the x (and x’) coordinate is therefore fake, since x (x’) in the transformation is nothing but ct (ct’) making the transformation time-dependent only, yet contradicting the time transformation for events in the transverse Y-Z plane.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[914] **viXra:1502.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 14:52:15*

**Authors:** D.G. Taylor

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Direct mathematic reasoning is used to show Escape velocity can never be greater than light speed||“c”. The White radiations from the Abell 2261 Galaxy Cluster should be much more Red-Shifted, because a large part of the signal would be generated at the border of that object. That is not observed. For a theoretic ideal Schwarzschild object with Sagittarius A mass distortion ranges from infinity at the border to 7.49E44 one Planck length farther, to 1.21E10 a full metre from the border. The gravity values range from:
3.71177227489019958645677741714417017372776536834702E6 m/s2
– at the border.
3.71177227489019958645677741714417017372776535843664E6m/s2
– one Planck length farther.
3.71177227427702911490298860538514634565064802791866E6m/s2
– at 1 full metre from the border.
The total arithmetic range downward is less than
- 6.13170471553788811759023828077117340428362310702818E-4
Even allowing for the fundamental arithmetic difference between Gravity and Escape velocity logic, the above values are not consistent

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[913] **viXra:1502.0106 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-10 20:25:51*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We determine the relations of power products of physical quantities (PQs) by the generalized relation. Assuming the relations of two, three and four PQs to generalized relation separately, we find the corresponding general formulas. By ordering the exponent of physical constants in relations being zero or fit numbers, we gain many famous equations without factors such as mass-energy relation, formula of event horizon temperature of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH), equation of holographic dark energy (HDE) model, Casimir effect equation, Planck black body radiation formula, Stefan-Boltzmann law, Einstein field equation, Newtonian attraction law, Schr?dinger equation, Coulomb law, Newtonian second law, Clapeyron equation, formula of superconducting thin film, centrifugal force formula, etc. Some new relations are given including the square of total energy with energy density of HDE, square of energy with its density of SBH, energy density with sextic radii of SBH, pressure in SBH centre and entropy density of SBH center. We show that the generalized relation can determine the relations of power products of two, three and four PQs, it is useful and significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[912] **viXra:1502.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 02:44:27*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Six-page letter

Accepting Einstein’s General Relativity Theory, that the changes in gravitational field can propagate at the speed of light, it is proposed here that: before an electron in an atom emits a photon, the energy (h f0) of the photon was a part of total energy of the atom; contributing to establishing the gravitational-field around the atom. As soon an electron in that atom emits a photon of energy h f0 , and the photon starts moving away from the atom, the gravitational-field around the atom partly reduces, proportional to the photon’s energy h f0 , and this wave of ‘reduced gravitational field’ propagates radially-outwards at the speed of light. And a part of energy of the photon gets spent in “filling” the ‘gravitational potential-well’ produced by its energy, when it was a part of energy of the atom. From the derivation presented here we find that the energy spent by the photon to “fill” the ‘gravitational potential-well’, during its inter-galactic journey manifests as the ‘cosmological red-shift’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[911] **viXra:1502.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-14 14:27:30*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. In portuguese

We transform the Schwarzschild metric in spherical coordinates to rectangular, confirming that the conclusion obtained by Einstein for rulers disposed perpendicular to a gravitational field remains unchanged when using the exact solution of Schwarzschild, obtained under the conditions of static field in vacuum and with spherical symmetry. Beyond this transformation also talked again about the speed of light in radial and perpendicular directions measures in the Earth's surface, we recall tests for the verification of the principle of the constancy of the speed of light and calculate the acceleration of light and bodies in generally, in a radial static gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology