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2019 - 1901(36) - 1902(29) - 1903(35) - 1904(56) - 1905(46) - 1906(36) - 1907(41) - 1908(23)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3454] **viXra:1908.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-21 23:05:24*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

The present paper explains Foucault Pendulum experiment which leads to No-Shape Substance form of SQ Aether of Qi Ji. We also discuss some related phenomena. This paper can be viewed as a dialogue effort to find connection between the notion of aether by Western scientists in the past and No-Shape Substance by Qi Ji et al.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3453] **viXra:1908.0410 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-19 23:08:34*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

Wang, Zheng, and Yao carried out an experiment in 2004 to determine if the Sagnac effect can be applied to the inertial motion.
Their experiment showed that there was indeed phase difference between the two light beams passing through the same optical
fiber in inertial motion.
However, the focus of their experiment was on the rest frame of the light source. They did not realize that the time
difference from the phase difference should exist in all reference frames. The difference in the elapsed time taken by
two light beams to pass through the linear fiber segment
in the rest frame of the segment effectively corresponds to the speed difference between two light beams.
The Sagnac effect in inertial motion provides a precise experimental evidence that the speed of light is different in a
different reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3452] **viXra:1908.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-20 00:50:18*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new idea that the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation ( CMBR ) could be Doppler shifted light from receding superluminal distant galaxies. One immediate objection to this idea is that superluminal velocities do not exist in nature. However, we know that superluminal galaxies have already been observed. Moreover, in my recent paper entitled " Absolute Motion, Light Speed Limit, Superluminal Galaxies and Star Light Bending " , I have shown how absolute motion, light speed limit and superluminal galaxies can co-exist in the universe. Hubble's law also predicts superluminal galaxies at sufficiently large distances. A new exponential law of Doppler effect is introduced: λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e -V/c , where e is Euler's constant. Using the new law of Doppler effect, CMBR frequency and Hubble's law we estimate the distance and speed of the superluminal galaxies the CMBR radiation is mainly coming from.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3451] **viXra:1908.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-18 10:08:45*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Compton scattering cannot yet be said to have been verified beyond any doubt. The only verification experiment performed is still the original experiment of A.H.Compton from 1922. To date, there is not another experiment done to corroborate the 1922 findings. There are modern experiments done in the laboratories of today’s universities to verify Compton scattering with γ-ray sources from radionuclides where the energies of the rays are measured with NaI scintillation detectors or germanium detectors. Such experiments are shown to be invalid as the result that shows clear agreement with the theory is all due to the calibration of the detectors and nothing besides. Furthermore, a verification that the inverse of energy 1/E varying linearly with
(1 − cos θ) is insufficient as a verification of the full Compton scattering formula for wavelength changes. A proper verification requires verifying the wavelength formula where the wavelength is measured directly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3450] **viXra:1908.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-19 02:32:39*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we assert that absolute motion is not motion relative to the hypothetical ether. Absolute motion is fundamentally motion of a body relative to all matter in the universe. Hence absolute motion does exist but the ether doesn't exist. The ether has been disproved by the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Arago and the Airy star light refraction and aberration experiments. On the other hand, absolute motion has been detected in the Silvertooth, the CMBR anisotropy, the Marinov, the Roland De Witte and other experiments. We show how this view of absolute motion can also be compatible with the observed phenomena of light speed limit, superluminal galaxies. We show that star light deflection near the Sun doesn't exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3449] **viXra:1908.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-18 00:42:48*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The kinetic energy of a moving mass is attributed to the mass increase because of its velocity. Thus, mass is recognized as a special form of energy.
In contrast to mass, according to the charge invariance principle, charge is a constant entity, not affected by its velocity.
However, a spectator, monitoring a moving charge, sees an increase in the charge density, because of the Lorentz Length Contraction factor.
Also, modern physics already recognizes that this increase in the charge density is the reason that this spectator also detects the magnetic field that this moving charge generated.
From the above, the following question might be asked:
Why charge remains a distinct entity while mass was discovered to be another form
of energy.
As will be shown in this article, there are similarities between mass and
charge which might lead us to conclude that charge should also be considered as a
special form of energy.
Thus, this article do claim that Charge is also another form of Energy, as mass turned to be. This claim makes Energy as the only distinct entity (in addition to time and space), a simpler and cleaner view of nature.
This article derives this claim by analyzing the existing energy density equations of
electric and magnetic fields.
Then, by analyzing the existing experimental results related to charges and the fields they create from a new point of view, the article tries to evaluate if this leads also to additional new insights.
The results are the following conclusions:
1. Magnetic and electric fields which are generated by the same moving charge are always perpendicular to each other, thus, these fields have the structure of the electromagnetic emission from accelerating moving charges.
Actually, this article shows that a moving charge generates not just a single
additional field referred to as the magnetic field generated by the moving charge.
This article shows that a moving charge generates two additional field
components, additional to the electric field it generated when it was not moving.
One of them is an increase of the electric field intensity generated when the
charge was not moving. The other is a field perpendicular to the electric field
and might be considered as the actual additional magnetic field.
This resolves the mystery why only in electromagnetic emissions the magnetic
and electric fields are always perpendicular to each other, while in other
cases, the current knowledge of physics imply that they are not necessarily
perpendicular to each other.
2. Analogeous to the equation:
E = m c2 where E is energy, m is mass and c is the speed of light.
derived by the special theory of relativity, which describes the relation between the
energy embedded in mass and mass magnitude, this article suggests the equation :
E = σ c2 where σ is the charge density.
This equation describes the relation between the energy and charge density.
This proposed relation between charge density and energy cannot be considered as a
derivation or a proof. But, it is a reasonable and logic deduction, and thus, a
reasonable suggestion of the relation between charge density and energy.
3. Since charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then the energy embedded in charge also comes in two energy types.
This might be one of the crucial reasons why it was difficult to recognize charge as another form of energy.
However, the article provides a logical explanation to this issue. The article also assigns these energy types to one set of Energy Pairs.
This Energy Pairs Theory is also used to explain why in the electron and positron
collisions the charges completely disappear.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3448] **viXra:1908.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-16 20:00:45*

**Authors:** Daniel Stedman

**Comments:** 2 Pages. From Medium.com

Wheeler's Anthropic Principle applied to marriage and co-habitation. Why do relationships experience disturbances? Because we are here!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3447] **viXra:1908.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-15 19:16:52*

**Authors:** Xuan Zhong Ni

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this article, we derived an exact solution of the Einstein equations with cosmological term for cylindrically symmetric space .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3446] **viXra:1908.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-14 09:29:44*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper reveals the long standing mysteries of inertia and gravity, based on Weber's electrodynamics formula. Conventionally it is presumed that the electrical and magnetic force of interaction between opposite charges is equal in magnitude to the force of interaction between similar charges. Changing this view leads to a very compelling theory of inertia and gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3445] **viXra:1908.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-14 10:33:32*

**Authors:** G. L. Harnagel

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Since the first part of the twentieth century, it has been maintained that faster-than-light movement could produce time travel into the past with its accompanying causality-violation paradoxes. This paper demonstrates that this assumption is false because of misinterpretation of the Minkowski diagram and the Lorentz transformation (LT) upon which it is based, plus the completely unsubstantiated belief that the past is “back there somewhere.”

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3444] **viXra:1908.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-12 15:11:15*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Higgs boson and its associated IVBs may be fairly characterized as "gate-keepers" of the Multiverse, in that they control/regulate the asymmetric products (such as our "matter only" Cosmos) that emerge from the "all-symmetric" domain of the Multiverse (i.e., the quantum-mechanical universal "void" of Heisenberg/Dirac).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3443] **viXra:1908.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-13 03:09:39*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

ABSTRACT
The special theory of relativity has been adopting as the basis of modern theoretical physics. Any assumption or contradiction is declaring erroneous.
Nevertheless, because of the lack of argument, and therefore not understanding, many people think that the special theory of relativity is true, although they do not know why.
In addition, there are still three scientific assessments in the academic environment.
1. The theory is correct and is one of the most outstanding discoveries of the 20th century.
2. The theory is a combination of truth and untruth.
3. The theory is absurd.
Some consideration of modern science on the special theory of relativity.
The Nobel Prize Committee refused to award premium to Einstein for the special theory of relativity.
Consequently, it is vital to investigate the essence of theory. This investigation is of unprecedented importance in terms of developing the science, philosophy and technology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3442] **viXra:1908.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-11 21:52:37*

**Authors:** David Colasante

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Keywords: speed c. lightspeed, speed limit, lightlike, photon, pinhole, interval-time, spacetime, ALPHA, CERN, coordinates, Euclidean, interval contact, remote contact, photo-annihilation, curved-space, radial-time, anti-hydrogen, positron, annihilation,

The Euclidean lens of interval-time coordinates reveals explanations for, rather than mere descriptions of finite, universal, constant and invariant speed limit c.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3441] **viXra:1908.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-10 06:28:05*

**Authors:** Milan D. Nešić

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Even a mathematical coordinate system without any physical quality cannot be without mass because it must assume both on the abscissa and on the ordinate some measuring units (numbers), even if they have been entered by a person at random. On the other hand, science is impossible without an analytical mathematical description that would be checked by an experiment, by man and his mass too. Then how can cosmology answer the question of the origin of the cosmos, which has mass, if the mass is assumed in advance as existing?
So that by no means, nor tacitly too, will man consider his technical coordinate system as absolute; by taking into account, therefore, the coordinate systems without any measuring unit, neither of the length nor of the time.
But is this then the coordinate system and any science at all?
The article exposes the true interpretation of Einstein's postulate c=const and a way of entering the philosophy of science and cosmology by which can be perhaps guessed the answer to the question:
How come the World exists?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3440] **viXra:1908.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-09 00:27:18*

**Authors:** Yang-Ho Choi

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

A world system is composed of the world lines of the rest observers in the system. We present a relativistic coordinate transformation, termed the transformation under constant light speed with the same angle (TCL-SA), between a rotating world system and the isotropic system. In TCL-SA, the constancy of the two-way speed of light holds, and the angles of rotation before and after the transformation are the same. Additionally a transformation for inertial world systems is derived from it through the limit operation of circular motion to linear motion. The generalized Sagnac effect involves linear motion, as well as circular motion. We deal with the generalized effect via TCL-SA and via the framework of Mansouri and Sexl (MS), analyzing the speeds of light. Their analysis results correspond to each other and are in agreement with the experimental results. Within the framework of special and general relativity (SGR), traditionally the Sagnac effect has been dealt with by using the Galilean transformation (GT) in cylindrical coordinates together with the invariant line element. Applying the same traditional methods to an inertial frame in place of the rotating one, we show that the speed of light with respect to proper time is anisotropic in the inertial frame, even if the Lorentz transformation, instead of GT, is employed. The local speeds of light obtained via the traditional methods within SGR correspond to those derived from TCL-SA and from the MS framework.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3439] **viXra:1908.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-09 00:34:54*

**Authors:** Yang-Ho Choi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Most physical societies seem to firmly believe that the special theory of relativity (STR) has been experimentally verified and dose not have any inconsistencies. However, the equivalence of inertial frames under light speed constancy is mathematically infeasible. I present a basic question of STR to show it, and ask the societies to answer the public question.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3438] **viXra:1908.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-07 13:56:17*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We show there is a scalar function calculated from a metric solution to the Einstein field equations for a static spherically symmetric sphere that depends on coordinates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3437] **viXra:1908.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-07 22:57:29*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 5 figures. Including Russian abstract.

There are many universe models, and the universe model based on general relativity has gained wide acceptance. The Big Bang theory is a view that many researchers accepted. However, what is the mechanism of The Big Bang in the universe, why the Universe Big Bang is produced, and what happened to the universe before the Big Bang in the universe, none of which is a good theory to explain. If we agree that there is Virtual Spacetime, we can explain the current expansion of the universe and the possible shrinkage from the mutual oscillation relationship between Virtual Spacetime and Real Spacetime. It is the expansion and contraction of the universe that is caused by the back and forth oscillation of the real spacetime and virtual spacetime component energy forms of the universe. That is, the mass and energy of the universe's Virtual and Real Spacetime transform each other, causing the expansion and contraction effects of the universe. The energy of Virtual Spacetime reflects the mass in Real Spacetime. In Real Spacetime, the reduction of the mass of the universe leads to an increase in the kinetic energy of Real Spacetime. Conversely, if the kinetic energy of Real Spacetime is reduced and the total mass of the universe is increased, it reflects the contraction of the universe. In addition, through the assumptions of Virtual Spacetime, we can also obtain a variety of states that may exist in the universe, including at least two states of gas and liquid. That is to say, if we look at the material composition of the universe from the scale of the universe, the forms of these substances include at least two forms, gaseous and liquid. The division of these two states of the universe also means that we can use the knowledge of fluid mechanics to deal with various problems of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3436] **viXra:1908.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-05 10:21:56*

**Authors:** Peter Hlava�?ka

**Comments:** 14 Pages. New version of original 2016 publication

Unified gravito-kinematics theory unifies gravity and kinematics on deeper level as current theories.
It is generally compatible with quotations of General relativity, but it extends it and introduces
different explanations to selected underlying principles on which is General relativity based. Unified
gravito-kinematics theory explains or solves following open problems: primary cause and underlying
mechanism of inertia, explanation of speed of light as speed limit, primary cause and underlying
mechanism of relativity (Lorentz transformations), explanation of creation of rings of planets
explanation of increasing speed of expansion of universe (dark energy), explanation of galaxy
rotation problem, solving of some singularities in relativity theory and solution for compatibility of
relativity theory with quantum mechanics, which will open door to merge of quantum mechanics
and what is now relativity theory. What is most important, Unified gravito-kinematics theory makes
very specific predictions, which can be tested by experiments and by astronomic observations. This
paper includes one proposed rotation experiment and explanation of creation of rings around
planets and smaller objects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3435] **viXra:1908.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-02 08:23:29*

**Authors:** F. J. Gheeraert

**Comments:** Language=Dutch, 55 pages

A model of the COSMOS based on the assumption that the limit of gravitational forces, although capable of keeping galaxies "together", cannot influence anymore the velocity at which the galaxies themselves are moving away from the point Omega (point of Big Bang).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3434] **viXra:1908.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-02 15:36:20*

**Authors:** Michele Renda

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We perform an analysis of the derivation of Quantized Inertia (QI) theory, formerly known with the acronym MiHsC, as presented by McCulloch (2007, 2013). Two major flaws were found in the original derivation. We derive a discrete black-body radiation spectrum, deriving a different formulation for $F(a)$ than the one presented in the original theory. We present a numerical result of the new solution which is compared against the original prediction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3433] **viXra:1908.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-02 04:39:16*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A new light speed anisotropy experiment is proposed that is based on time of flight technique. Two light transceivers A and B are fixed to each end of a rigid rod. A short light pulse initially emitted by A is detected by B, upon which B is triggered to emit a light pulse, which in turn is detected by A, upon which A is triggered to emit another light pulse which will be detected by B, and so on. An electronic counter counts the pulses. Changing the orientation of the rod with respect to Earth's absolute velocity direction will cause a variation of the number of pulses counted in a given period of time ( i.e. the frequency ). The unique feature of this experiment is that Earth's absolute velocity can be determined with any desired accuracy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3432] **viXra:1908.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-01 00:06:45*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 7 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The conservation of the interference pattern from double slit interference
proves that the wavelength is conserved in all inertial reference frames.
However, there is a popular belief in modern astronomy that the wavelength can be changed by the
choice of reference frame. This erroneous belief results in the problematic prediction of the radial speed of galaxy.
The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames.
From both conservation properties, the velocity of the light is proved to be different in a different reference frame.
This different velocity was confirmed by lunar laser ranging test at NASA in 2009. The relative motion between the light source
and the light detector bears great similarity to the magnetic force on a moving charge. The motion changes the
interference pattern but not the wavelength in the rest frame of the star. This is known as the blueshift or the redshift in
astronomy. The speed of light in the
rest frame of the grism determines how the spectrum is shifted. Wide Field Camera 3 in Hubble Space
Telescope provides an excellent example on how the speed of light can change the spectrum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3431] **viXra:1907.0623 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-31 12:17:42*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The presence of up quarks of 4.8 MeV indicate that unbroken E8 symmetry was active by the 2nd cyclic universe: also the presence of electron neutrinos of 2.2 x 10^-6 MeV indicate that holography was active by this time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3430] **viXra:1907.0620 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-31 13:05:04*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages. The MHCE8S theory is now essentially complete

Abstract: The replacement for the Standard Model is given

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3429] **viXra:1907.0618 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-31 13:18:57*

**Authors:** Bhaskar

**Comments:** 7 Pages. If wants to know whole theory go on "An another one"

This theory is written to explain the nature of space, time, matter and energy by the help of equations, this paper includes violation of some existing theories and introduction of some new concepts and introduction of some new concepts with explanation of some existing concepts like reason of big bang and the source of power from where particles gets properties like charge and mass, the physics of source of this power tells it is endless therefore a particle never looses its properties like charge and mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3428] **viXra:1907.0610 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-30 08:27:24*

**Authors:** Alexander Kholmetskii, Tolga Yarman, Ozan Yarman, Metin Arik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We show that a new attempt by C. Corda to once more rehash his so-called "synchronization effect" in order to account for the origin of the extra energy shift between emitted and absorbed radiation in Mössbauer rotor experiments (C. Corda, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D, doi: 10.1142/S0218271819501311) is yet again erroneous, just as were his previous attempts (Ann. Phys. 355, 360 (2015); Ann. Phys. 368, 258 (2016); Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 27, 1847016 (2018)). The correct approach presented herein with regards to the calculation of the energy shift between emitted and absorbed radiation in a rotating system leads to, as a matter of fact, no specific "synchronization effect".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3427] **viXra:1907.0585 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-29 11:27:35*

**Authors:** Ilija Baruk�?ić

**Comments:** 8 pages. Copyright © 2019 by Ilija Baruk�?ić, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved. Published by:

Trigonometry is an important part of mathematics. In general, a proper understanding of trigonometric functions is a pre-requisite for understanding important topics in physics, architecture, and many branches of engineering. We commonly suppose that the mathematics of trigonometric functions is perfectly true.
However, trigonometric functions have a very long and colourful history and the need to take a more precise look on the same is great. This publication provides some evidence that there are circumstances where today understanding of trigonometric functions leads to contradictions.
Keywords — Trigonometric functions, Classical logic, Contradiction

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3426] **viXra:1907.0571 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-30 03:36:36*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we propose a profound connection between the Michelson-Morley ( MM ) experiment and the phenomenon of stellar aberration. A new crucial insight can explain both the MM experiment and stellar aberration: apparent change of light source position relative to an absolutely moving observer. We call this Apparent Source Theory (AST ).The apparent change in star position in Bradley's stellar aberration is because of observer's absolute motion, not because of relative motion. Likewise, the effect of absolute motion of the observer/detector in the MM experiment is to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the observer/detector. In AST the observer is the human observer or a device that directly detects the light. This is unlike the theory of relativity in which the observer is the person doing the experiments. Apparent change in position of the light source will result in only a small fringe shift for the same reason that an actual, physical change of source position will result in a small fringe shift. This new interpretation requires a significant revision of the current understanding of stellar aberration which has its basis in the classical law of addition of velocities. The direction of apparent change in star position is not in the same direction as the observer's absolute velocity, but in the opposite direction !

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3425] **viXra:1907.0559 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-28 11:45:07*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The modern 0.511 MeV electron was established by the start of the 3rd cyclic universe. Why it had its 0.511 - 0.5 modern vs.archaic mc^2 energy difference is the subject of this note.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3424] **viXra:1907.0548 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-27 14:20:44*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The mistaken belief held by countless mathematicians that light always arrives at c for all observers can be easily demonstrated to be totally false by observing pulsars at different times of the year. Where v is the speed of an observer on earth, light from pulsars will arrive at c+v when the earth is moving toward the pulsar and at c-v when the earth is moving away from the pulsar.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3423] **viXra:1907.0522 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-26 20:33:20*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** Pages.

Given a well-isolated body of matter (e.g., a uniformly dense sphere) with a hole through its center, what happens when a test mass is dropped into the hole? Galileo is perhaps the most illustrious figure to have posed the problem. In his recent book, Going Underground, Martin Beech has echoed the ubiquity of the idea in modern physics, writing that "it has become a right-of-passage kind of question." Unfortunately, the only answers we have are abstract predictions; we have no empirical observations to match the predictions, even though modern technology has for decades made the test quite feasible. Humans have never yet witnessed gravity-induced radial motion through the centers of massive bodies. Since the 1960s several proposals have been made (to measure Newton's constant G) that would have incidentally tested the well-known oscillation prediction. But none of these experiments have ever been performed. For many years I have been urging members of the physics community to at last turn the "right-of-passage" thought experiment into a real experiment. This collection of correspondence comprises a wide range of authoritative responses to my plea. Promising though some of the responses may have seemed, Galileo's experiment yet remains undone. As is often stated in the correspondence, this failure, this gap in our empirical knowledge of gravity represents an unacceptable state of affairs. It is an embarrassment to academic physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3422] **viXra:1907.0518 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-27 00:25:15*

**Authors:** Naresh Jotwani

**Comments:** Six pages. Keywords: Spacetime; spacetime curvature; spacetime dynamics; general relativity.

The basic equation of general relativity is re-interpreted such that, at every spacetime point, the matter-energy tensor is defined by the relevant curvature tensor. It is shown that the equation of a geodesic, which is also the equation of motion, then becomes the basic equation governing spacetime dynamics. Implications of the proposed re-interpretation are developed for an elementary – or indivisible – space¬time entity. The properties of mass, spin and charge are thereby seen to have a natural interpretation. A simple experiment is suggested which can corroborate or refute the proposed interpretation, and other implications of the re-interpretation are briefly discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3421] **viXra:1907.0512 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-27 04:24:44*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Einstein made a major mistake. The author proves it in revaluation Kaufmann’s, Fizeau’s and Harres’s experiments in light of the new theory (intensity of moving charge, non-linear form of the interference field, etc.).

"The difference between a good experiment and a good theory is in the fact that the theory gets old quickly and it is replaced by another one, based on more perfect ideas. It will be forgotten quickly. The experiment is something else. The experiment, which has been thought well and performed carefully, will step in the science forever. It will become its part. It is possible to explain such experiment differently in different periods of times."
P. L. KAPICA
1.2 Galileo Galilei
•The first law (the law of inertia), in a less clear form, was published by Galileo. It should be noted that Galileo allowed free movement not only along a straight line, but also along a circle (apparently from astronomical considerations). Galileo also formulated the most important principle of relativity
•1996: Let’s have a real coordinates system firmly connected with a real laboratory on Earth, where all experiments testing the physical theories are performed. We know that this coordinates system moves around the Earth axis during an astronomical day i. e. it performs a quasi-circular motion. During the year it rotates around the Sun approximately in a quasi-circle together with the Earth. During 2*10^8 years it circulates in the quasi-circle around the center of the Galaxy. It performs a quasi-uniform motion in a quasi-circle together with the Sun.
•The Galaxy performs a quasi-uniform and quasi-circle motion around the center within the framework of metagalaxies of star clusters and our laboratory coordinates system on Earth together with it, etc.
•From the experimental testing of the law of inertia it is known that the body moves along the "plane" stated by a waterlevel, i. e. in fact it is not a straight-line uniform motion, but it is the motion in the circle of the Earth radius of R=6378 km.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3420] **viXra:1907.0510 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-27 04:23:10*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to define gravity as a similar phenomenon as electrostatic phenomenon

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3419] **viXra:1907.0483 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-26 01:59:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Now, in the most comprehensive test of general relativity near the monstrous black hole at the center of our galaxy, Ghez and her research team report July 25 in the journal Science that Einstein's theory of general relativity holds up. [9]
Astrophysicists at Frankfurt, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, and Nijmegen, collaborating in the project BlackHoleCam, answer this question by computing the first images of feeding non-Einsteinian black holes: it is presently hard to tell them apart from standard black holes. [8]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3418] **viXra:1907.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-23 07:26:05*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate two versions of the conjecture that all force speed is greater than a light speed. The conjecture is confirmed as tautologous.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3417] **viXra:1907.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-22 09:03:57*

**Authors:** Manfred U.E.Pohl

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In first chapter of ToE-Framework “The Solution to the Problem of Time” [1] the author introduced the concept of time that must be used to unify Gravity and Electromagnetism. Today, theoretical Physics is still in a major crisis since at least 1990, as there is no serious improvement in Interpretations of Quantum Theory or Solutions in Quantum-Gravity or String-Theory. In this paper the author concludes that only a radical rejection of both Einsteins Theories (Special Relativity and General Relativity) could lead to the strongly required progress in theoretical Physics. If Physics keeps trapped by Theory of General Relativity, that might be the most stupid Theory for Gravity ever suggested as it circumvents any real progress in theoretical Physics.
Keywords: Theory of Everything, Holographic Universe, Space-Time, Relativity, Einstein, Gravity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3416] **viXra:1907.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-22 15:09:55*

**Authors:** Hans Lugtigheid

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The v in the Lorentz transformation is the velocity of the origin of the second frame of reference. A point with no dimensions. From this v we cannot conclude a maximum speed (or anything) for physical objects. The c is the velocity of information. We can choose c to be any value and we see that that chosen value of c is measured the same in both reference frames. Then the speed of light is not a special case. The Lorentz transformation is an approximation of the Galileo transformation in which information has velocity c = ∞. The Galileo transformation is 'real-time'. We thereby consider a (absolute) frame of reference from any point in the universe. We can not establish absence of movement and we do not have information traveling at infinite velocity. Therefore the Lorentz transformation is our best approximation of the Galileo transformation and thus of reality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3415] **viXra:1907.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-22 00:50:20*

**Authors:** Xuan Zhong Ni

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this article, we derived an exact solution of the Einstein equations for cylindrically symmetric empty space .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3414] **viXra:1907.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-19 11:46:11*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Submission is on the 19th to note the Cosmological Constant: also 11 (Apollo 11), 12, and 13 (bad luck)

Abstract: The 2-digit Cosmological Constant 0.19 is duplicated in reverse order to form the 4-digit Z boson 91.19: the 4-digit bottom quark 4.180 can be similarly presented in 41.08 form to notify us of the importance of c/alpha

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3413] **viXra:1907.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-18 18:18:45*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

ABSTRACT
The new points of view of relativity and the new physical phenomena opened in the systems of inertial movement presents in this work. The new points of view in the special theory of relativity, open new laws of motion in works1-16 for solid bodies, as for electromagnetic waves. For all physical objects of motion, the new laws of motion present a new theory of physical processes, which occur in the rest system, and in inertial motion systems. In addition, the bijective transformation of these physical processes to all systems of inertial movement in absolute time presents.
In the works 1-16 is shown experimentally and theoretically the change a speed in the systems of inertial movement. The causes of the change of the speed in moving systems describe for solids and for electromagnetic waves. In addition, shown that in an inertial system in motion, there is no possibility to measure the real values of the distances, which pass the solid bodies and electromagnetic waves with respect to the rest system.
The enormous base of practical experiments in science, carried out in inertial movement systems, confirms all the scientific conclusions developed in the given works.
The theoretical analysis of the state of special theory of relativity of A. Einstein 17-20 in this work convincingly confirms reality of the need to find a new solution to errors in this work and exposes a new special theory of relativity.
ABSTRACT
Los nuevos puntos de vista de la relatividad y los nuevos fenómenos físicos abiertos en los sistemas de movimiento inercial, se presentan en este trabajo. Los nuevos puntos de vista en la teoría especial de la relatividad, abren nuevas leyes de movimiento en trabajas 1-16., tanto para los cuerpos sólidos, como para las ondas electromagnéticas. Para todos los objetos físicos de movimiento, las nuevas leyes de movimiento presentan una nueva teoría de los procesos físicos, que ocurren tanto en el sistema de reposo, como en los sistemas de movimiento inerciales. Además, se presenta la trasformación biyectiva de estos procesos físicos a varios sistemas de movimiento inercial en tiempo absoluto.
En estos trabajos1-16 se muestra experimentalmente y teóricamente el cambio de la velocidad en los sistemas de movimiento inercial. Se describen las causas del cambio de la velocidad en los sistemas en movimiento, tanto para sólidos, como para ondas electromagnéticas. Y se muestra que en un sistema inercial en movimiento, no hay posibilidad de medir los valores reales de las distancias, que pasan los cuerpos sólidos y ondas electromagnéticas con respecto al sistema de reposo.
La enorme base de experimentos prácticos en ciencia, realizados en sistemas de movimiento inerciales, confirma todas las conclusiones científicas desarrollados en los trabajos dados.
El análisis teórico del estado de teoría especial de relatividad de A. Einstein17-20, en este trabajo, confirma convincentemente realidad de necesidad de encontrar nueva solución de errores de este trabajo y exponer nueva Teoría especial de la relatividad.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3412] **viXra:1907.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-18 20:59:13*

**Authors:** Natan A Cerqueira

**Comments:** Pages. I'm looking for a physicist and author that wants to participate in the work, scientifically and comercially (a book with 256 p. already exists).

> Pure thought brought up and developed an idea that should have emerged in the pre-relativity time: Isn`t the “wind of space”, in Earth`s surface, what we call gravity? The flow of a real something, vertical at the surface, pointed towards the planet`s center, and put to accelerate by the convergence of the trajectories (funneling). > The idea found no contradictons, and is actually endorsed by general relativity, because a non-solid can only present a geometry precisely when flowing and being funneled; “*space flow” instead of “curved space” did not imply in any compromise to equations or experimental tests. > Reflections on the idea naturally led to an all-encompassing mechanical model of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3411] **viXra:1907.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-19 05:56:43*

**Authors:** Harry K. Hahn

**Comments:** 38 pages

The M87 (EHT2017) black hole images indicate a dodecahedral structure of the gravitational singularity. One feature in the fiducial image sequence caught my eye and forced me to write this paper here ! It‘s the apparent existence of 5 knots in the ring-structure and the nearly symmetrical pentagonal-shape of the black hole shadow !
In Paper IV it is written that the current image reconstructions and visibility-domain analyses are not able to confirm or reject the reality of the “knots” seen in the images, and these features should therefore be interpreted with caution.
But if these knots turn out to be real and stable, then we may look at a gravitational singularity which indicates a more complex universe then expected ! The pentagonal ring structure may indicate a Poincare Dodecahedral Space ( PDS ) structure of our universe, and a dodecahedral shaped gravitational singularity ( black hole ) in the center of M87.
The images may provide evidence for the underlying universal theory of our universe Albert Einstein was searching for. I.V. Volovich describes the construction of a universal physical theory based on pure numbers as fundamental entities.
And I want to show the importance of number 5 for the distribution of primes and non-primes as a base for this theory.
With the help of another study with title: Phase spaces in Special Relativity : Towards eliminating gravitational singularities - a way was found to express (calculate) all natural numbers and their square roots only by using the constant Phi (ϕ) and number 1.
An algebraic term found by Mr Peter Danenhower in this study made this possible.
With the formulas which I have found it‘s possible to express all natural numbers and their square roots only with Phi & 1 ! This is an interesting discovery because it also allows to describe most ( maybe all ) geometrical objects only with Phi & 1.
The constant Pi (π) can also be expressed only by using the constant Phi and 1 !
The result of this discovery may lead to a new base of number theory. Not numbers like 1, 2, 3,…. and constants like Pi (π) etc. may form base of number theory ! Only the constant Phi and the base unit 1 (which shouldn’t be considered as a number) may form the base of mathematics and geometry. This will certainly also have an impact on physics ! And eventually it will lead to an universal mathematical and physical theory !

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3410] **viXra:1907.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-18 00:28:51*

**Authors:** Nishant kumar sharma

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Non-Interactive Mechanics Which Is Evaluated From Fermi-Dirac Statistics And The Formulation Is Based On The Contraction Of Fermions. By using the rules of non-interactive mechanics Defining The condition for creating a zero space And Infinity Space, condition for space creation and it’s formula With Satisfying The Condition , condition for appearance of time With Satisfying The Condition Theoretically And Experimentally ,varies types of systems For The Movement Of Class Zero Particles, Atmamoul medium for the movement of Class Zero particles , concept of Para-Kans. concepts of app. Stable systems (planets ,Stars) ,concept of consciousness, Gravitation The Emergent Phenomena From Non-Intractable Particles , How Newton To Einstein We Are On The Correct Path Of Gravitation And How Einstein Was Right About Cosmological Constant Even When Universe Is Expanding And Why We Need An Extension To Understand Gravitation Correctly, What Is Gravitation And How It Originate , Types Of Gravitation And Gravitational Waves, The Test About Contracting Gravitation That Could Be or May Be already detected In Ligo, The Equations To Describe The Behavior Of Gravitation, The Combined Field Equation Of Gravitation For Expanding And Contraction Nature With Satisfying The Equation, Conditions To Find Graviton.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3409] **viXra:1907.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-14 10:46:13*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Adrian Klein, Slobodan Nedic, Yunita Umniyati, Marian Mesina

**Comments:** 387 Pages. This book is still a draft version. Your comments and suggestions are welcome

It is a wide-spread rumor among the Frontiers of physics, that some time “sweeping under the rug” practice has been quite the norm rather than exception. In other words, the leading paradigms have strong tendency to be hailed as the only game in town. For example, renormalization group theory was hailed as cure in order to solve infinity problem in QED theory.
A quote from Richard Feynman goes as follows:
“What the three Nobel Prize winners did, in the words of Feynman, was "to get rid of the infinities in the calculations. The infinities are still there, but now they can be skirted around . . . We have designed a method for sweeping them under the rug."[1]
And Paul Dirac himself also wrote with similar tune:
“Hence most physicists are very satisfied with the situation. They say: "Quantum electrodynamics is a good theory, and we do not have to worry about it any more." I must say that I am very dissatisfied with the situation, because this socalled "good theory" does involve neglecting infinities which appear in its equations, neglecting them in an arbitrary way. This is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it turns out to be small—not neglecting it just because it is infinitely great and you do not want it!”[2]
Similarly, dark matter and dark energy were elevated as plausible way to solve the crisis in prevalent Big Bang cosmology.
That is why we choose a theme here: Speakable and Unspeakable in Contemporary Physics, analogous to J.S. Bell’s book.[3]
Similarly we observe similar sweeping under the rug practice in the electromagnetic theory development, in particular what is termed as "longitudinal wave."

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3408] **viXra:1907.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-14 13:00:05*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page. The Apollo moon flight occurred 50 years ago: I saw the Saturn V take off.

Abstract: The physics magic number 50 appears on MHCE8S theory 2019 flow charts: it was responsible for the metal tin and its useful alloy bronze which led to early great civilizations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3407] **viXra:1907.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-15 00:45:06*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 5 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy bears great similarity to the frequency shift in the Doppler effect.
Both blueshift and redshift can be described by the movement of the double-slit interference.
In the rest frame of the star,
the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen.
The intersection of this path and the screen determines how the spectrum is shifted.
If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center of the screen.
This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center of the screen.
This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also resizes proportionally.
The spectral shift is caused by the motion of earth in the rest frame of the star while the wavelength of the star light remains
constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3406] **viXra:1907.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-12 10:13:27*

**Authors:** Geo Douglas

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper, a new formula to determine the size of the accretion disks at the center of galaxies. The formula starts with Einstein’s field equations and moves to the Schwarzschild radius. From there, following the patterns of nature and the golden ratio, I have configured a precise formula to determine the radius, diameter and circumference of all accretion disks that surround supermassive black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3405] **viXra:1907.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-12 10:44:07*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Einstein's theory works only for v < 0.1c.

Nobel laureates in physics are mostly physicists, who mainly create and defend physics. Einstein never received a Nobel prize for relativity...
For nearly 100 years ago have been Nobel Prize winners said:
"- The theory of relativity is a mathematical and not a physical theory.
- The theory is far from being confirmed experimentally, the results of the solar eclipse expeditions allow other interpretations
- The principle of relativity is only valid for mass-dependent movements
- The theory of relativity contradicts the fundamental ideas about space and time: the Euclidean space and the usual ideas of time must remain binding. "

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3404] **viXra:1907.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-10 03:54:35*

**Authors:** José Alberto Pardi

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The replacement of the vacuum dielectric constant Epsilon0, in the energy equation of electromagnetic fields, is a key element in any attempt to quantize the gravitational fields that is based on the reality of our Universe and not in a pure conceptual exercise. Usually, the choice falls on the inverse of the Universal Gravitational Constant G. This seems reasonable, since Epsilon0 has an inverse relationship with the Coulomb constant K, used to determine the force between two charges, just like G does between two masses. But this choice leads to the replacement of the unit charge by a mass not very common in the Universe: the Planck’s mass. However, the fine structure found in the Cosmos in the last century and the dimension of Time Crystals found in 2016, seem to differ with this option. The analysis made in this paper, leads to determine a different constant for the replacement of Epsilon0, more concordant with the cosmological data and Quantum Mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3403] **viXra:1907.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-08 06:40:29*

**Authors:** Manfred U.E.Pohl

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In first chapter of ToE-Framework “The Solution to the Problem of Time” and second Chapter of ToE-Framework “The Solution to the Problem of Gravity” this author informed scientific community about the framework for the Theory of Everything concept, that must be applied in order to get back into Paradise on earth. Within a third chapter, the author explains how to perform to decode the Matrix of thought. In this paper, the author gives an image of the holographic universe from outside.
Keywords: Theory of Everything, Matrix, Black Hole, Big Bang, Holographic Universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3402] **viXra:1907.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-07 12:01:37*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Einstein field equations was originally derived by Einstein in 1915 in respect
with canonical formalism of Riemann geometry,i.e. by using the classical sufficiently
smooth metric tensor, smooth Riemann curvature tensor, smooth Ricci tensor,smooth
scalar curvature, etc.. However have soon been found singular solutions of the Einstein
field equations with degenerate and singular metric tensor and singular Riemann
curvature tensor. These degenerate and singular solutions of the Einstein field equations
was formally accepted by main part of scientific community beyond rigorous canonical
formalism of Riemannian geometry.Recall that the classical Cartan’s structural equations show in a compact way the
relation
between a connection and its curvature, and reveals their geometric interpretation in
terms of moving frames. In order to study the mathematical properties of singularities,
we need to study the geometry of manifolds endowed on the tangent bundle with a
symmetric bilinear form which is allowed to become degenerate (singular). But if the fundamental tensor is allowed to be degenerate (singular), there are some obstructions in
constructing the geometric objects normally associated to the fundamental tensor. Also, local
orthonormal frames and co-frames no longer exist, as well as the metric connection and its curvature operator [2].As an important example of the geometry with the fundamental tensor which is
allowed to be degenerate, we consider now Mӧller’s uniformly accelerated frame given by
Mӧller’s line element

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3401] **viXra:1907.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-08 04:37:21*

**Authors:** Milan D. Nešić

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

If Feynman 1985 announced that he only describes how nature behaves and that nobody understands why it behaves that way–QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter–and Laughlin 2005 that it is necessary to build a new physics basically–A DIFFERENT UNIVERSE: Reinventing Physics From The Bottom Down–then a real understanding of the postulate c=const as c2 inertia of whole Universe is finally the opportunity for it. And all the laws of physics remain; only cosmology is basically changing. There is no single mass of the same origin, there is no “Big Bang” as the beginning, and that can also explain dark energy. And even new opportunities for further research open up. And the passing of Planck's law of black-body radiation through singularity by decreasing, let's say, the volume of Bose to zero, and the transition to Maxwell Boltzmann's distribution of velocity can be a good example or at least a clue to these new possibilities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3400] **viXra:1907.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-05 12:05:30*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

this is a paper about time and non stationary masses

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3399] **viXra:1907.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-05 23:52:42*

**Authors:** Скоробогатов В.П.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. in Russian

В работе дан простой вывод преобразований Лоренца и рассмотрены некоторые следствия. При этом формала сложения скоростей отличается от той, что получена в СТО. Установлена связь с моделью 4D материи, в которой частицам и телам соответствуют 4-вихри.Выражения для волн де Бройля получены на основании такого представления.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3398] **viXra:1907.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-04 22:24:08*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

В этой статье,более короче и доступно и с некоторыми дополнительными разъяснениями изложено доказательство "Парадокса Близнецов",которое я дал ранее 2019-05-23.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3397] **viXra:1907.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-03 11:43:42*

Вселенная расширяется замедленно

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. rus

According to astronomical observations, remote supernovae Ia have a brightness lower than that predicted by the standard Hubble law. This circumstance is interpreted as evidence of a smaller value of the Hubble constant in the past, as an accelerated expansion of the Universe. However, this conclusion is erroneous. The lower brightness of distant supernovae means that, on the contrary, the Hubble constant has now decreased. It follows from this that the Universe expands more slowly than in the past, the expansion of the Universe occurs with deceleration.

Согласно астрономическим наблюдениям удаленные сверхновые Ia имеют яркость меньшую, чем это предсказывается стандартным законом Хаббла. Это обстоятельство трактуется как свидетельство меньшего значения постоянной Хаббла в прошлом, как ускоренное расширение Вселенной. Однако этот вывод ошибочен. Меньшая яркость дальних сверхновых означает, что, напротив, в настоящее время постоянная Хаббла уменьшилась. Из этого следует, что Вселенная расширяется медленнее, чем в прошлом, расширение Вселенной происходит с замедлением.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3396] **viXra:1907.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-03 12:12:09*

Парадокс близнецов – обзор решений, гл.4 Противоречия решение парадокса близнецов в ОТО

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. rus

The well-known solutions of the relativistic "twin paradox" are considered and new ones are proposed. Contrary to popular belief, the paradox has the correct solution in the SRT. In contrast, in the GRT, the solutions to the paradox raise a number of questions. A fundamentally new paradox of twins is considered - in the tachyon theory of relativity.

Рассмотрены известные решения релятивистского "парадокса близнецов" и предложены новые. Вопреки распространенному мнению, парадокс имеет корректное решение в СТО. Напротив, в ОТО решения парадокса вызывают ряд вопросов. Рассмотрен принципиально новый парадокс близнецов - в тахионной теории относительности.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3395] **viXra:1907.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-03 00:32:51*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy arises from the relative motion between the observed star
and the earth. Both blueshift and redshift can be explained with the relative movement of the double-slit interference.
In the rest frame of the star,
the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen.
The intersection of this path and the screen is shifted by the movement of the screen.
If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center
of the screen. This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center
of the screen. This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also expands in size.
The spectral shift is the result of the relative motion between the projection screen and the path of phase shift.
It is not the result of any variation in the wavelength.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3394] **viXra:1907.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-02 03:04:39*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Daniel Chandra

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

In this paper , we review shortly UVS model of the Universe, based on information in their website. Universal Vortical Singularity (UVS) is a postulated cosmic archetype of a nested vortical hypersphere system. All sorts of its torus transformed hypersphere structures, are perceivable to be ubiquitously manifested in the observable universe throughout macrocosms and microcosms. We also discuss briefly a new model that we call Navier-Stokes cosmology, because we realize that the Cosmic Web of large scale structure of the Universe can only be approached using turbulence/NS theory. This short review is of course not complete, and therefore more research is needed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3393] **viXra:1907.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-02 03:06:42*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Daniel Chandra

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

In recent years, there is growing interest to describe the Universe we live in from the perspective of scale-invariant turbulence approach. Such an approach is not limited to hydrodynamics Universe model a la Gibson & Schild, but also from Kolmogorov turbulence approach as well as from String theory approach (some researcher began to explore String-Turbulence). In this article, we hope to bring out some correspondence among existing models, so we discuss shortly: the topological vortice approach, Burgers equation in the light of KAM theory and Golden Mean, and the Cantorian Navier-Stokes approach. Of course, this short article is far from being complete. We hope further investigation can be done around this line of approach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3392] **viXra:1907.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-02 03:08:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper has been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

Inspired by “One Note Samba,” a standard jazz repertoire, we present an outline of BoseEinstein Condensate Cosmology (BECC). Although this approach seems awkward and a bit off the wall at first glance, it is not impossible to connect altogether BEC, Scalar Field Cosmology and Feshbach Resonance with Ermakov-Pinney equation. We also discuss shortly possible link with our previous paper, where we describe Newtonian Universe with Vortex in terms of Ermakov equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3391] **viXra:1907.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-01 00:33:07*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Some cosmologists have noted the profound coincidence of the value of the anomalous acceleration ( 8.74 x 10-10 m/s2 ) of Pioneer spacecraft with the value of the so-called cosmological acceleration, about which mainstream physics has been silent. The starting argument in this paper is that this may not be a coincidence and that both accelerations are manifestations of the same phenomenon.However, the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer is negative, whereas cosmological acceleration is positive, which would be a contradiction. Therefore, both accelerations must have not only the same magnitude, but also the same sign. This leads us to question of the usual interpretation of distance-redshift curves of receding galaxies, which is based on the theory of expansion of the universe .In this paper, we will show that the universe is in decelerating 'expansion', not accelerating expansion. A decelerating force will increase the time taken for a galaxy to reach a given receding velocity, compared to the time taken according to Hubble's law.Using elementary kinematics we will show that increase in the time taken to reach a given receding velocity will increase the corresponding distance travelled.The longer the time the galaxy is in motion, the larger the distance it will travel. The effect of increase in time will always more than offset the effect of decrease in acceleration.Hubble's law is not due to expansion of the universe; it is due to a modified Newtonian law of gravity. The coincidence of the Pioneer anomalous acceleration with cosmological acceleration disproves general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3390] **viXra:1906.0576 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-30 14:03:25*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The dimensionless constant 1.0000055 appears twice in MHCE8S theory for production of the proton and neutron and the dimensionless constant 1.000055 appears once for a date of extinction. The dimensionless constants 273.55 and 273.55488 also make single appearances

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3389] **viXra:1906.0515 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-26 11:56:26*

**Authors:** R. Winnubst

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Quantum Physics (QP) has proven tremendously successful in describing the behaviour of subatomic particles, yet it cannot fundamentally explain particle-wave duality and other related paradoxes. As a consequence, starting with Einstein, there has always been the suspicion that QP is merely a mathematical approximation of a deeper underlying physical reality. Now, nearly a century later, many theories have been added, yet the old paradoxes remain. This suggests something fundamental we implicitly take for granted may yet be false….
Remarkably, it would appear the solution lies not within QP but at the very heart of classical physics; Used to only think in terms of ‘the big’, we humans have always assumed there is a fixed relation between the four ‘functions’ of our continuum -Grid, Clock, Potential, Inertia- and the four SI base units 0r ‘dimensions’ of Space, Time, Energy, Mass.
In this paper we will prove this relation is actually a binary or dual one: When crossing the Planck length, the function of ‘Grid’ is no longer defined by ‘Space’ but by ‘Energy’, while also ‘Time’ and ‘Mass’ switch orthogonally in their function of ‘Clock’ and ‘Inertia’. This switch includes an orthogonal ½ π polar Planck energy ‘distanced’ spiralled wrapping of physical grid field lines which run unabridged through both continuums as closed strings.
Crucially, both orthogonal dimensional setups always apply for all particles of both continuums, their influence getting equally strong near the border of the Planck scale. This results in the observed ‘quantum effects’ which can now all be classically explained. As such, Quantum Physics may be a great mathematical approximation, fundamentally it is a flawed mono-continuum human perception of a world that is inherently governed by the symmetric dual continuum set-up.
The implications of the dual setup are far-reaching: It provides 2x4=8 base dimensions and 3 encapsulated ‘brane’ singularity levels, consistent with 11 dimensional string theory. In addition, when applying the dual setup at the atomic level, an improved ‘Bosonic’ atom model emerges, shattering our classic view of especially the electron. Finally, the physical and very tangible fundamentals behind mass and gravity on all scales are now exposed, as are the solutions to dark energy and dark matter on the cosmic scale.
Summarised, the dual continuum literally adds the missing 50% of our classical physics, offering the solid foundation for physics on all scales, solving the QP paradoxes that have blocked progress in fundamental physics for nearly a century…

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3388] **viXra:1906.0505 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-27 06:44:09*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We consider a static spherically symmetric distribution of matter. Time intervals for a free falling and a stationary clock are compared. This does not agree with that calculated using Newton approximation to gravity and the equivalence principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3387] **viXra:1906.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-25 20:14:12*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to my theory, the space/medium field is an energy field comprised from the sum of the gravitational potentials of all masses in the Universe, with a total value of c^2 in empty space.
The Frame Dragging effect is due to a percentage of that total energy being set in motion. The inertia of objects in this energy field is determined by referenced to the state of motion of the field, thus if the field itself is set in motion, it affects the state of motion of objects within the field too.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3386] **viXra:1906.0464 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-24 16:36:17*

**Authors:** Manuel Urueña Palomo

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

An expected behaviour of spacetime and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, solving mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox by considering a time transformation and the corresponding antigravitational negative mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2445] **viXra:1908.0409 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-22 09:34:08*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new idea that the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation ( CMBR ) could be Doppler shifted light from receding superluminal distant galaxies. One immediate objection to this idea is that superluminal velocities do not exist in nature. However, we know that superluminal galaxies have already been observed. Moreover, in my recent paper entitled " Absolute Motion, Light Speed Limit, Superluminal Galaxies and Star Light Bending " , I have shown how absolute motion, light speed limit and superluminal galaxies can co-exist in the universe. Hubble's law also predicts superluminal galaxies at sufficiently large distances. A new exponential law of Doppler effect is introduced: λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e -V/c , where e is Euler's constant. Using the new law of Doppler effect, CMBR frequency and Hubble's law we estimate the distance and speed of the superluminal galaxies the CMBR radiation is mainly coming from. The new theory (" Doppler shifted light from superluminal galaxies" ) can also explain the origin of apparently unrelated cosmic X ray background radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2444] **viXra:1908.0309 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-19 02:38:06*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper reveals the long standing mysteries of inertia and gravity, based on Weber's electrodynamics formula. Conventionally it is presumed that the electrical and magnetic force of interaction between opposite charges is equal in magnitude to the force of interaction between similar charges. Changing this view leads to a very compelling theory of inertia and gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2443] **viXra:1908.0256 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-21 13:52:33*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 7 Pages. replacing postscript

Abstract
The Higgs boson and its associated IVBs may be fairly characterized
as "gate-keepers" of the Multiverse, in that they control/regulate the asymmetric products (such as our "matter only" Cosmos) that emerge from the "all-symmetric" domain of the Multiverse (i.e., the quantum-mechanical universal "void" of Heisenberg/Dirac).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2442] **viXra:1908.0256 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-13 09:02:50*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. adding several new links and minor corrections

The Higgs boson and its associated IVBs may be fairly characterized as "gate-keepers" of the Multiverse, in that they control/regulate the asymmetric products (such as our "matter only" Cosmos) that emerge from the "all-symmetric" domain of the Multiverse (i.e., the quantum-mechanical universal "void" of Heisenberg/Dirac).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2441] **viXra:1908.0238 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-12 12:05:58*

**Authors:** David Colasante

**Comments:** 4 Pages. append figure numbers

The Euclidean lens of interval-time coordinates reveals explanations for, rather than mere descriptions of finite, universal, constant and invariant speed limit c.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2440] **viXra:1908.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-14 09:35:38*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new light speed anisotropy experiment is proposed that is based on time of flight technique. Two light transceivers (transponders) A and B are fixed to each end of a rigid rod. A short light pulse initially emitted by transponder A is detected by transponder B, upon which B is triggered to emit a light pulse, which in turn is detected by A, upon which A is triggered to emit another light pulse which will be detected by B, and so on. A short light pulse is continuously exchanged between two light transponders. An electronic counter counts the pulses emitted. Changing the orientation of the rod with respect to Earth's absolute velocity direction will cause a variation of the number of pulses counted in a given period of time ( i.e. the frequency ). The unique feature of this experiment is that Earth's absolute velocity can be determined, theoretically, with any desired accuracy. The new 'transponder' technique may reveal many of the mysteries of the speed of light, including light speed anisotropy and the dependence of group velocity of light on mirror velocity, which would not be possible or difficult otherwise. Conventional methods involve a single pulse with spatially separated emitter and detector and clock synchronization. The new technique involves a free running, continuous exchange of a short light pulse, with the frequency determined by the round trip time of the light pulse itself. Change in the (group) velocity of light is detected as change in the frequency of the light pulses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2439] **viXra:1908.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-06 01:48:53*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A new light speed anisotropy experiment is proposed that is based on time of flight technique. Two light transceivers (transponders) A and B are fixed to each end of a rigid rod. A short light pulse initially emitted by transponder A is detected by transponder B, upon which B is triggered to emit a light pulse, which in turn is detected by A, upon which A is triggered to emit another light pulse which will be detected by B, and so on. A short light pulse is continuously exchanged between two light transponders. An electronic counter counts the pulses. Changing the orientation of the rod with respect to Earth's absolute velocity direction will cause a variation of the number of pulses counted in a given period of time ( i.e. the frequency ). The unique feature of this experiment is that Earth's absolute velocity can be determined with any desired accuracy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2438] **viXra:1908.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-12 15:55:54*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 7 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The conservation of the interference pattern from double slit interference
proves that the wavelength is conserved in all inertial reference frames.
However, there is a popular belief in modern astronomy that the wavelength can be changed by the
choice of reference frame. This erroneous belief results in the problematic prediction of the radial speed of galaxy.
The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames.
From both conservation properties, the velocity of the light is proved to be different in a different reference frame.
This different velocity was confirmed by lunar laser ranging test at NASA in 2009. The relative motion between the light source
and the light detector bears great similarity to the magnetic force on a moving charge. The motion changes the
interference pattern but not the wavelength in the rest frame of the star. This is known as the blueshift or the redshift in
astronomy. The speed of light in the
rest frame of the grism determines how the spectrum is shifted. Wide Field Camera 3 in Hubble Space
Telescope provides an excellent example on how the speed of light can change the spectrum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2437] **viXra:1908.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-06 22:41:44*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 7 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The conservation of the interference pattern from double slit interference
proves that the wavelength is conserved in all inertial reference frames.
However, there is a popular belief in modern astronomy that the wavelength can be changed by the
choice of reference frame. This erroneous belief results in the problematic prediction of the radial speed of galaxy.
The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames.
From both conservation properties, the velocity of the light is proved to be different in a different reference frame.
This different velocity was confirmed by lunar laser ranging test at NASA in 2009. The relative motion between the light source
and the light detector bears great similarity to the magnetic force on a moving charge. The motion changes the
interference pattern but not the wavelength in the rest frame of the star. This is known as the blueshift or the redshift in
astronomy. The speed of light in the
rest frame of the grism determines how the spectrum is shifted. Wide Field Camera 3 in Hubble Space
Telescope provides an excellent example on how the speed of light can change the spectrum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2436] **viXra:1908.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-05 23:19:35*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 7 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2435] **viXra:1908.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-01 15:29:05*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 7 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2434] **viXra:1907.0585 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-31 03:08:38*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukcic

**Comments:** 8 pages. (C) Copyright 2019 by Ilija Barukcic, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved. Published by:

Trigonometry is an important part of mathematics. In general, a proper understanding of trigonometric functions is a pre-requisite for understanding important topics in physics, architecture, and many branches of engineering. We commonly suppose that the mathematics of trigonometric functions is perfectly true.
However, trigonometric functions have a very long and colourful history and the need to take a more precise look on the same is great. This publication provides some evidence that there are circumstances where today understanding of trigonometric functions leads to contradictions.
Keywords — Trigonometric functions, Classical logic, Contradiction

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2433] **viXra:1907.0451 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-24 12:52:54*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** Pages.

We evaluate two versions of the conjecture that any force speed is greater than a light speed. The conjecture is confirmed as tautologous.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2432] **viXra:1907.0424 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-24 01:43:05*

**Authors:** Manfred U.E.Pohl

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In first chapter of ToE-Framework “The Solution to the Problem of Time” [1] the author introduced the concept of time that must be used to unify Gravity and Electromagnetism. Today, theoretical Physics is still in a major crisis since at least 1990, as there is no serious improvement in Interpretations of Quantum Theory or Solutions in Quantum-Gravity or String-Theory. In this paper the author concludes that only a radical rejection of both Einsteins Theories (Special Relativity and General Relativity) could lead to the strongly required progress in theoretical Physics. If Physics keeps trapped by Theory of General Relativity, that might be the most stupid Theory for Gravity ever suggested as it circumvents any real progress in theoretical Physics. Keywords: Theory of Everything, Holographic Universe, Space-Time, Relativity, Einstein, Gravity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2431] **viXra:1907.0399 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-22 10:33:09*

**Authors:** Xuan Zhong Ni

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this article, we derived an exact solution of the Einstein equations for cylindrically symmetric empty space .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2430] **viXra:1907.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-23 07:30:37*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Adrian Klein, Slobodan Nedic, Yunita Umniyati, Marian Mesina

**Comments:** 425 Pages. This book is under review for publication. Your comments are welcome

It is widely known among the Frontiers of physics, that “sweeping under the rug" practice has been quite the norm rather than exception. In other words, the leading paradigms have strong tendency to be hailed as the only game in town. For example, renormalization group theory was hailed as cure in order to solve infinity problem in QED theory. For instance, a quote from Richard Feynman goes as follows: “What the three Nobel Prize winners did, in the words of Feynman, was "to get rid of the infinities in the calculations. The infinities are still there, but now they can be skirted around . . . We have designed a method for sweeping them under the rug."[1] And Paul Dirac himself also wrote with similar tune: “Hence most physicists are very satisfied with the situation. They say: "Quantum electrodynamics is a good theory, and we do not have to worry about it any more." I must say that I am very dissatisfied with the situation, because this so-called "good theory" does involve neglecting infinities which appear in its equations, neglecting them in an arbitrary way. This is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it turns out to be small—not neglecting it just because it is infinitely great and you do not want it!"[2] Similarly, dark matter and dark energy were elevated as plausible way to solve the crisis in prevalent Big Bang cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2429] **viXra:1907.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-01 05:01:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Adrian Klein, Slobodan Nedic, Yunita Umniyati, Marian Mesina

**Comments:** 385 Pages. This book is under review for publication. Your comments are welcome

It is widely known among the Frontiers of physics, that “sweeping under the rug�? practice has been quite the norm rather than exception. In other words, the leading paradigms have strong tendency to be hailed as the only game in town. For example, renormalization group theory was hailed as cure in order to solve infinity problem in QED theory. For instance, a quote from Richard Feynman goes as follows: “What the three Nobel Prize winners did, in the words of Feynman, was "to get rid of the infinities in the calculations. The infinities are still there, but now they can be skirted around . . . We have designed a method for sweeping them under the rug."[1] And Paul Dirac himself also wrote with similar tune: “Hence most physicists are very satisfied with the situation. They say: "Quantum electrodynamics is a good theory, and we do not have to worry about it any more." I must say that I am very dissatisfied with the situation, because this so-called "good theory" does involve neglecting infinities which appear in its equations, neglecting them in an arbitrary way. This is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it turns out to be small—not neglecting it just because it is infinitely great and you do not want it!�?[2] Similarly, dark matter and dark energy were elevated as plausible way to solve the crisis in prevalent Big Bang cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2428] **viXra:1907.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-18 07:58:46*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Adrian Klein, Slobodan Nedic, Yunita Umniyati, Marian Mesina

**Comments:** 387 Pages. This book is under review for publication. Your comments are welcome

It is widely known among the Frontiers of physics, that “sweeping under the rug” practice has been quite the norm rather than exception. In other words, the leading paradigms have strong tendency to be hailed as the only game in town.
For example, renormalization group theory was hailed as cure in order to solve infinity problem in QED theory.
For instance, a quote from Richard Feynman goes as follows:
“What the three Nobel Prize winners did, in the words of Feynman, was "to get rid of the infinities in the calculations. The infinities are still there, but now they can be skirted around . . . We have designed a method for sweeping them under the rug."[1]
And Paul Dirac himself also wrote with similar tune:
“Hence most physicists are very satisfied with the situation. They say: "Quantum electrodynamics is a good theory, and we do not have to worry about it any more." I must say that I am very dissatisfied with the situation, because this so-called "good theory" does involve neglecting infinities which appear in its equations, neglecting them in an arbitrary way. This is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it turns out to be small—not neglecting it just because it is infinitely great and you do not want it!”[2]
Similarly, dark matter and dark energy were elevated as plausible way to solve the crisis in prevalent Big Bang cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2427] **viXra:1907.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-18 00:37:42*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 5 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy bears great similarity to the frequency shift in the Doppler effect.
Both blueshift and redshift can be described by the movement of the double-slit interference.
In the rest frame of the star,
the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen.
The intersection of this path and the screen determines how the spectrum is shifted.
If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center of the screen.
This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center of the screen.
This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also resizes proportionally.
The spectral shift is caused by the motion of earth in the rest frame of the star while the wavelength of the star light remains
constant. The redshift places a maximum limit on the radial velocity of the remote galaxy. The galaxy can not be detected
if the earth moves faster than the light in the rest frame of the galaxy. This is dark galaxy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2426] **viXra:1907.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-16 23:00:58*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 5 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy bears great similarity to the frequency shift in the Doppler effect.
Both blueshift and redshift can be described by the movement of the double-slit interference.
In the rest frame of the star,
the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen.
The intersection of this path and the screen determines how the spectrum is shifted.
If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center of the screen.
This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center of the screen.
This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also resizes proportionally.
The spectral shift is caused by the motion of earth in the rest frame of the star while the wavelength of the star light remains
constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2425] **viXra:1907.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-07 00:36:03*

**Authors:** Скоробогатов В.П.

**Comments:** 18 Pages. in Russian

The Lorentz transformations were derived from the consideration of orthogonal transformation . Some consequences such as the formation of wave of de Broglie are discussed stemming from this presentation.It is added the transformations of electromagnetic field in the new version.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2424] **viXra:1907.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-24 22:02:45*

**Authors:** Скоробогатов В.П.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. on Russian

The Lorentz transformations were derived from the consideration of orthogonal transformation . Some consequences such as the formation of wave of de Broyle are discussed stemming from this presentation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2423] **viXra:1907.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-15 20:53:15*

**Authors:** Скоробогатов В.П.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. in Russian

The simple derivation of the Lorentz transformation ans some consequences are given. In particularly, the expression for velocity adding became different from that in SR. Alas the Fizeau experiment gave not enouph confidence in its validation. The connection with the model of 4D matter is established. In this model so called 4-whirl is associated with body. The expressions for de Broyle wave are obtained from such presentation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2422] **viXra:1907.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-11 20:55:17*

**Authors:** Скоробогатов В.П.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. in Russian

The simple derivation of the Lorentz transformation ans some consequences are given. In particularly, the expression for velocity adding became different from that in SR. The connection with the model of 4D matter is established. In this model so called 4-whirl is associated with body. The expressions for de Broyle wave are obtained from such presentation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2421] **viXra:1907.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-17 11:47:02*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy arises from the relative motion between the observed star
and the earth. Both blueshift and redshift can be explained with the relative movement of the double-slit interference.
In the rest frame of the star,
the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen.
The intersection of this path and the screen is shifted by the movement of the screen.
If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center
of the screen. This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center
of the screen. This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also expands in size.
The spectral shift is the result of the relative motion between the projection screen and the path of phase shift.
It is not the result of any variation in the wavelength.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2420] **viXra:1907.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-03 23:08:47*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy arises from the relative motion between the observed star
and the earth. Both blueshift and redshift can be explained with the relative movement of the double-slit interference.
In the rest frame of the star,
the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen.
The intersection of this path and the screen is shifted by the movement of the screen.
If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center
of the screen. This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center
of the screen. This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also expands in size.
The spectral shift is the result of the relative motion between the projection screen and the path of phase shift.
It is not the result of any variation in the wavelength.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2419] **viXra:1907.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-02 05:38:12*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Some cosmologists have noted the profound coincidence of the value of the anomalous acceleration( 8.74 x 10-10 m/s2 ) of Pioneer spacecraft with the value of the so-called cosmological acceleration, about which mainstream physics has been silent. The starting argument in this paper is that this may not be a coincidence and that both accelerations are manifestations of the same phenomenon.However, the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer is negative, whereas cosmological acceleration is positive, which would be a contradiction. Therefore, both accelerations must have not only the same magnitude, but also the same sign. This leads us to question the usual interpretation of distance-redshift curves of receding galaxies, which is based on the theory of expansion of the universe .In this paper, we will show that the universe is in decelerating 'expansion', not accelerating expansion. A decelerating force will increase the time taken for a galaxy to reach a given receding velocity, compared to the time taken according to Hubble's law.Using elementary kinematics we will show that increase in the time taken to reach a given receding velocity will increase the corresponding distance travelled.The longer the time the galaxy is in motion, the larger the distance it will travel. The effect of increase in time will always more than offset the effect of decrease in acceleration.Hubble's law is not due to expansion of the universe; it is due to a modified Newtonian law of gravity. The coincidence of the Pioneer anomalous acceleration with cosmological acceleration disproves general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2418] **viXra:1906.0480 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-30 17:44:53*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to my theory [1], the space/medium field is an energy field comprised from the sum of the gravitational potentials of all masses in the Universe, with a total value of c^2 in empty space. The Frame Dragging effect is due to a percentage of that total energy being set in motion. The inertia of objects in this energy field is determined by reference to the state of motion of the field, thus if the field itself is set in motion, it affects the state of motion of objects within the field too. Due to this effect on the inertia, there is a difference in the energy of an object in orbit around a large spinning body compared to its orbits around a large stationary body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2417] **viXra:1906.0464 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-21 20:24:33*

**Authors:** Manuel Urueña Palomo

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a new model that describes the interior of a black hole. The behaviour of spacetime and matter within a real black hole is discussed by the use of the theory of general relativity and relativistic particle physics, together with the fundamental symmetries in physics. Based on the mathematical indications and predictions of these theories, it is suggested that a time transformation takes place at the black hole’s event horizon, changing the signature of energies and masses of all particles inside the black hole. These negative mass particles would behave antigravitationally inside this causally disconnected region of space, avoiding the collapse of the central singularity. It is demonstrated that the possibility of the time inversion does not require modifications of other current theories and it does not contradict any empirical results either. Additionally, this model solves fundamental problems of the real entity of the black hole, such as the gravitational singularity or the information paradox, and clarifies other questions like the Hawking radiation mechanism by which it reduces the mass of the black hole and the question of what is the mass of the black hole assigned to.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2416] **viXra:1906.0464 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-24 08:34:00*

**Authors:** Manuel Urueña Palomo

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

An expected behaviour of spacetime and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications and hints of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond. In this model, it is suggested that a time transformation takes place at the black hole’s event horizon, solving all questions and mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox. This model shows that the time transformation switches all energies and masses inside the black hole into negative energies and negative masses, which would interact antigravitationally in that causally disconnected region of space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2415] **viXra:1906.0464 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-20 18:01:06*

**Authors:** Manuel Urueña Palomo

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

An expected behaviour of spacetime and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, solving mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox by considering a time transformation and the corresponding antigravitational negative mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2414] **viXra:1906.0464 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-15 04:37:27*

**Authors:** Manuel Urueña Palomo

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

An expected behaviour of spacetime and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, solving mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox by considering a time transformation and the corresponding antigravitational negative mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology