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2015 - 1501(41) - 1502(28) - 1503(27) - 1504(30) - 1505(21)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1642] **viXra:1505.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 16:13:55*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 8 Pages; 4 References

Since its final version and publication in 1916, it is widely reported in several specialized
textbooks and research articles that General Relativity theory reduces to Newton's theory of gravity in the limit of a weak gravitational field and slowly moving material bodies. In the present paper, the so-called reducibility of Einstein's geodesic and field equations, to Newton's equation of motion and Poisson's
gravitational potential equation, respectively, is scrutinized and proven to be mathematically, physically and dimensionally incorrect, and that the geometrization of gravity is unnecessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1641] **viXra:1505.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-24 09:23:56*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, if we use Einstein’s gravity field equation, we can discover the General Robertson-Walker solution and new solution in the cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1640] **viXra:1505.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 14:35:07*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is well known that stars oscillate perpendicular to their axis of rotation as they orbit galactic nuclei[1]. Since stellar orbits are not strictly elliptical, modifications to Kepler's laws will be introduced. It will be shown that the observed consistency in a star's orbital velocity is simply due to the law of conservation of angular momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1639] **viXra:1505.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 11:29:29*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Some of the massless fermibosonic entity fundamental to E8 symmetry universe theory failed to develop its fully massless character (i.e. the ttH process entity) during the prior unbroken E8 symmetry epoch before the big bang and now be observed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1638] **viXra:1505.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 22:27:07*

**Authors:** Sasongko Raharjo

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Velocity of an object can affect the gravitational acceleration. Black hole is an example where the light can form a circular orbit in the strong gravitational field. This light is moving around that causes the observer where is not in the path of the light orbit see the black hole as total darkness. In addition, when there is a high velocity of an object has been interacting with the gravitational acceleration, the object is in the micro or zero gravity relative to massive object therefor the gravitational acceleration does no longer exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1637] **viXra:1505.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 07:11:49*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** Pages.

In a recent paper [1] I proposed a novel relativity theory termed Information Relativity (IR). Unlike Einstein's relativity which dictates as force majeure that relativity is a true state of nature, Information Relativity assumes that relativity results from difference in information about nature between observers who are in motion relative to each other. The theory is based on two axioms: 1. the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (Special relativity's first axiom); 2. All translations of information from one frame of reference to another are carried by light or by another carrier with equal velocity (information-carrier axiom). For the case of constant relative velocities, I showed in the aforementioned paper that IR accounts successfully for the results of a class of relativistic time results, including the Michelson-Morley's "null" result, the Sagnac effect, and the neutrino velocities reported by OPERA and other collaborations. Here I apply the theory, with no alteration, to cosmology. I show that the theory is successful in accounting for several cosmological findings, including the pattern of recession velocity predicted by inflationary theories, the GZK energy suppression phenomenon at redshift z ̴ 1.6, and the amounts of matter and dark energy reported in recent ΛCDM cosmologies.
Keywords:

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1636] **viXra:1505.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 08:35:14*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There are enough unknowns for not considering the special relativity as true.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1635] **viXra:1505.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 12:06:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The recent finding by CERN of the rare process of Higgs-boson production in association with two top quarks and a Higgs makes one wonder if this process, like the tetraquark particle, serves a marker function, in this case for the existence of fermibosonic entities of E8 symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1634] **viXra:1505.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 08:47:22*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The concept of mass is usually introduced through Newton’s Laws. Associated to the concepts of force and acceleration in the second law of Newton f = m a , valid, it is affirmed, in inertial frames. Since Newton's laws does no define force and inertial frame in a logical unobjectionable manner (Eisenbud, 1957) the concept of mass must be introduced in a way consistent with previous established concepts that we assume a priori. The concepts of space and time permits the introduction of two concepts that define motion – velocity and acceleration. If we admit symmetry properties to space the mass concept emerge as a relation of distances of the centres of two spheres with mass m and mp (standard mass) and another point designated mass centre, at rest, the spheres describe a central motion. Mass is defined by motion. The spheres gravitate around the mass centre with accelerations in the same relationship of the masses, the relationship of the distances to the mass centre. Initially we admit a classical approximation since time is the same everywhere independently of the frame of reference.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1633] **viXra:1505.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 13:46:06*

**Authors:** Roald C Maximo

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A serious conceptual error has been committed along with the experiment performed by Michelson and Morley in the year 1887 conceived in order to detect the existence of an ether and whose null outcome gave rise to far-fetched speculations regarding the nature of light and the properties of space and time. The resulting fuss caught the attention of the physicist Hendrik Lorentz who, to cope with that result, suggested the introduction of an arbitrary correction factor to the equations describing the devised experimental model. In fact, this factor was introduced to suit an ill-conceived premise to an unexpected outcome and, since then, it has become a spook that's persistently being applied as a panacea to explain other little understood phenomena in the Physics and even the Cosmology domain, not to mention Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1632] **viXra:1505.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-10 09:56:06*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The zero-mass limit for quantum-fields is performed. The resulting field-quanta consist of equal components of positive and negative frequency, which result in a conserved zero 4-vector of mass current. The transformation behaviour of a field's spin variables shows that only states of zero total twist survive this limit process. As a consequence neutrinos must have non-zero mass. Static fields are the classical interpretation of stationary mass-currents which consist of positive- and negative-frequency components of equal spatial k-vector (opposite for quanta!). Such objects, which require sources and sinks, do not occur in conventional quantum field theories, but are central to the case of gravitation. Consequently, static fields have a flow-nature with corresponding retardation effects, which provided a 19th century explanation of Mercury's perihelion shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1631] **viXra:1505.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-08 11:57:51*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 1 Page. EPS 12 Trends in Physics, Budapest (2002).

Lorentz Transformation is reinterpreted. It is shown that by admitting the existence of a frame of reference with synchronized clocks, we conclude that any other frame of reference that moves related to the first has desynchronized clocks. From this conclusion we will arrive at a new expression to relate the time of different frames of reference. We will also arrive at a new expression to relate the contraction of different frames. We will show that if the maximum speed on the frame with synchronized clocks is the speed of light, then the speed of light varies accordingly to the velocity of the frame of reference. The new interpretation of Lorentz Transformation explains and solves Relativity’s paradoxes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1630] **viXra:1505.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 09:40:39*

**Authors:** Yaroslav Grushka

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this comment some incorrect results published in the article "Extended Linear and Nonlinear Lorentz Transformations and Superluminality" are refuted. The article "Extended Linear and Nonlinear Lorentz Transformations and Superluminality" can be found in the journal "Advances in High Energy Physics", Volume 2013 (2013), article ID 760916.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1629] **viXra:1505.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 08:01:51*

**Authors:** M. Askin, H. Abedi, M. Salti

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Rom. J. Phys. 60 (2015) 44-55

In the present study, we discuss a non-equilibrium picture of thermodynamics at
the apparent horizon of flat Friedmann-Roberton-Walker universe in f(T;) theory of
gravity, where T is the torsion scalar and is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor.
Mainly, we investigate the validity of the first and second laws of thermodynamics in
this scenario. We consider two descriptions of the energy-momentum tensor of dark
energy density and pressure and discuss that an equilibrium picture of gravitational
thermodynamics can not be given in both cases. Furthermore, we also conclude that
the second law of gravitational thermodynamics can be achieved both in phantom and
quintessence phases of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1628] **viXra:1505.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 08:04:01*

**Authors:** H. Abedi, M. Salti

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Pramana-J. Phys. 84 (2015) 503

In the present study, using the time-like fractal theory of gravity, we mainly focus on the ghost
dark energy model which was recently suggested to explain the present acceleration of the cosmic
expansion. Next, we establish a connection between the quintessence scalar field and fractal ghost
dark energy density. This correspondence allows us to reconstruct the potential and the dynamics
of a fractal canonical scalar field (the fractal quintessence) according to the evolution of ghost dark
energy density.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1627] **viXra:1505.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-05 13:08:13*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: A cycling-universe theory based on cycles of E8 and E8 x U(1) symmetry is proposed. Non-quantum fermibosonic matter entities play a critical role. Three new gauge bosons are also used, for a total of 8 (the 8-fold symmetry of life). Unobservable particles of negative intrinsic energy (-mc^2) play roles of dark energy (spin 0) and dark matter (spin 1).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1626] **viXra:1505.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-04 14:41:54*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

In this paper we leave the neighborhood of the singularity at the origin and turn to the singularity at the horizon.Using nonlinear super distributional geometry and super generalized functions it seems possible to show that the
horizon singularity is not only a coordinate singularity without leaving Schwarzschild coordinates.However the Tolman formula for the total energy E of a static and asymptotically flat spacetime,gives E=m, as it should be.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1625] **viXra:1505.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-03 13:51:43*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 10 pages, 19 references

In 1983, Paul S. Wesson developed 5D Space-Time-Mass theory that associates the fifth dimension with rest mass. The gravitational constant serves as the dimension-transposing parameter.
This paper puts the World-Universe Model (WUM) onto the theoretical basis developed by Prof. Wesson, with the following modifications: the fifth dimension is associated with the total energy of the Medium of the World, and the gravitomagnetic parameter of the Medium serves as the dimension-transposing parameter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1624] **viXra:1505.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-03 10:39:03*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

English (translation): We study here a possible cause of the intrinsic precession of the planetary orbits in terms of the sets of stars ["Reality elements'' Vixra.org: 1407.0107], compared with classic atomic model, which, together with the wave-particle duality, it leads to the conclusion that the thermodynamic energy is continuously being created and destroyed.
Based on the above two machines capable of generating electric power by precession resonant circuits are exposed.
Español (original): Se estudia aquí una posible causa de la precesión intrínseca de las órbitas planetarias en función de los conjuntos de estrellas ["Reality elements'' Vixra.org: 1407.0107], comparándola con la del modelo atómico clásico, que, junto con la dualidad onda-corpúsculo, da lugar a considerar que la energía termodinámica está continuamente creándose y destruyéndose.
En base a todo lo anterior se exponen dos máquinas capaces de generar energía eléctrica mediante la precesión en circuitos resonantes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1623] **viXra:1505.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-03 02:57:17*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Spanish

During 1923 Einstein wrote three articles that developed the first purely affine field theory with which he tried to unify the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The theory was not satisfactory, but research of Einstein, first forgotten and then recovered in the forties by Schrödinger, provides interesting ideas that may serve to construct a generalization of the theory of gravity. In this research we analyze Einstein's theory, detailing the missing calculations in the work original.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1622] **viXra:1505.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 06:56:12*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Readers comments are most welcome.

The Un Manifested Supre Space ( UMSS) is holding our Manifested Physical Space.( MPS ) There are infinity of singularity particles in UMSS.Two or three of the singularity paricles of UMSS collided and this is the big bang.Both time and space were created at this event.Also, the universe started to expand right from the collission of singularity particles.All the singularity particles and the manifested universes are all in elliptical motion in the UMSS. When one or more a singularity partiles come very closer to the manifested space, the end of the manifested space occurs. i.e the singularity particles of the UMSS) will either swallow or torn apart the manifested physical spaces. This is the origin and end of manifested physical spaces in the UMSS.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1621] **viXra:1504.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 22:04:59*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The theory of electrodynamic space-time relativity (TESTR) is the study of the transformation of time and space between two electrodynamic inertial frames of reference, which have both inertial velocity difference and electric potential difference. It is a fundamental space-time theory of theoretical physics based on the Einstein’s special theory of relativity (STR), the electric potential limit postulate and the high-precision experimental facts of the inversion proportional square law of Coulomb’s force. It also proposed new basic physical concepts, such as electric potential limit, quaternion velocity, quaternion electric potential and etc., revealing the inherent relationships between the quaternion velocity, the quaternion electric potential and time-space. This paper discusses in detail the process of establishing the theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity and theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity as well as their various conversions and transformations. At the same time, proved that the special theory of relativity is a special case of TESTR, and found another important special case: the theory of electric potential relativity (TEPR). The basic effects of TESTR were also discussed, proposing the equations for superposition of quaternion velocity, and quaternion potential of TESTR respectively. It predicts some important new space-time change effects, which provides theoretical basis for the experimental validation of TESTR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1620] **viXra:1504.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 08:34:42*

**Authors:** Sjaak UItterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The article shows that a lot of misunderstanding and confusion has been originated after Einstein published his article about the STR. Fundamental errors, manipulative mathematics and an unfounded believe in the transformation formulas of the STR caused this chaos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1619] **viXra:1504.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 01:57:34*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 5 pages, 2 figures, 5 labeled equations, and 17 references. Keywords: Space, Time, and the Luminiferous Ether (Luminiferous Aether).

This work proves that the ether exists – at each event in space-time, there exists a state of translation only relative to which light speed is isotropic – proving as well that Special Relativity is inconsistent both internally and with observation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1618] **viXra:1504.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-28 03:24:07*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Based on author’s published papers, summarizing some problems that special and general relativity cannot solve or induce wrong results, such as: special twin paradox that two brothers’ states of motion are quite same, contradictions between relativity and principle of conservation of energy, and the like. The two main shortcomings of relativity are as follows: firstly, applying mathematical principle (rather than physical principle) as the main principle to solve physics problems; secondly, as establishing relativity, the principle of conservation of energy is not considered. Referring to "partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far" including all the equations of natural science so far, the related formulas and equations of relativity can be improved and restricted (or constrained) by principle of conservation of energy, and thus these formulas and equations can satisfy the principle of conservation of energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1617] **viXra:1504.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-26 18:36:47*

**Authors:** James E. Beichler

**Comments:** 21 Pages. This paper is presently being published in Proceedings of Vigier IX Symposium

Too many physicists believe the ‘phallacy’ that the quantum is more fundamental than relativity without any valid supporting evidence, so the earliest attempts to unify physics based on the continuity of relativity have been all but abandoned. This belief is probably due to the wealth of pro-quantum propaganda and general ‘phallacies in fysics’ that were spread during the second quarter of the twentieth century, although serious ‘phallacies’ exist throughout physics on both sides of the debate. Yet both approaches are basically flawed because both relativity and the quantum theory are incomplete and grossly misunderstood as they now stand. Had either side of the quantum versus relativity controversy sought common ground between the two worldviews, total unification would have been accomplished long ago. The point is, literally, that the discrete quantum, continuous relativity, basic physical geometry, theoretical mathematics and classical physics all share one common characteristic that has never been fully explored or explained – a paradoxical duality between a dimensionless point (discrete) and an extended length (continuity) in any dimension – and if the problem of unification is approached from an understanding of how this paradox relates to each paradigm, all of physics and indeed all of science could be unified under a single new theoretical paradigm.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1616] **viXra:1504.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 16:24:54*

**Authors:** Frederik Vantomme

**Comments:** 24 Pages. The original paper is written in LaTex format.

We explore the possibility that black holes and Space could be the geometrically Compactified Transverse Slices ("CTS"s) of their higher (+1) dimensional space. Our hypothesis is that we might live somewhere in between partially compressed regions of space, namely 4d_{L+R} hyperspace compactified to its 3d transverse slice, and fully compressed dark regions, i.e. black holes, still containing all _{L}d432-1-234d_{R} dimensional fields. This places the DGP, ADD, Kaluza-Klein, Randall-Sundrum, Holographic and Vanishing Dimensions theories in a different perspective.

We first postulate that a black hole could be the result of the compactification (fibration) of a 3d burned up S^{2} star to its 2d transverse slice; the 2d dimensional discus itself further spiralling down into a bundle of one-dimensional fibres.

Similarly, Space could be the compactified transverse slice (fibration) of its higher 4d_{L+R} S^{3} hyper-sphere to its 3d transverse slice, the latter adopting the topology of a closed and flat left+right handed trefoil knot. By further extending these two ideas, we might consider that the Universe in its initial state was a "Matroska" 4d_{L+R} hyperspace compactified, in cascading order, to a bundle of one-dimensional fibres. The Big Bang could be an explosion from within that broke the cascadingly compressed Universe open.

[1615] **viXra:1504.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 02:41:47*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Luzboa A arte da Luz em Lisboa, 14-19, Extra]muros[ (2004).

The traditional presentation of special relativity is made from a rupture with previous ideas, such as the notion of absolute motion, emphasizing the antagonism of the Lorentz’s views and Einstein’s ideas. However, a weaker formulation of the postulates allows to recover all the results from Einstein’s special relativity and reveals that both viewpoints are merely diﬀerent perspectives of one and the same theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1614] **viXra:1504.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-21 08:40:29*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll

**Comments:** 15 Pages. A rough outline of this hypothesis has already attracted over 300,000 reads on my website. One of your contributing physicists suggested that I tidy it up and offer it to viXra. Regards, Pete.

The author proposes that a reinterpretation of cosmological redshift as arising from the small positive spacetime curvature of a 4-rotating Hyperspherical Universe of constant size can eliminate the current requirement for spacetime singularities, cosmic inflation, dark matter, and dark energy from cosmological models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1613] **viXra:1504.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 09:13:30*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 journal pages

For relatively moving inertial frames, the constancy of the speed of light principle physically leads to time dilation in the transverse direction. This time dilation is irreconcilable in the longitudinal direction unless a length contraction in the relative motion direction is postulated. However, time dilation is contradictorily coupled with length expansion, a fact erroneously twisted in the special relativity and related text books, as demonstrated in this paper. The typical physical demonstration of the length contraction is shown to be inconsistent and contradicts its derivation from the Lorentz transformation. The misinterpretation of the Lorentz Transformation in predicting the length contraction is revealed. The constancy of the speed of light is consequently unviable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1612] **viXra:1504.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-19 16:53:37*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Einstein's theory of special relativity (SR) theory dictates, as a force majeure, an ontic view, according to which relativity is a true state of nature. For example, the theory’s solution to the famous twin paradox prescribes the "traveling" twin returns truly and verifiably younger than the "staying" twin, thereby implying the “traveling” twin returns to the future.
Here I propose an epistemic view of relativity, according to which relativity results from a difference in knowledge about Nature between observers who are in motion relative to each other. Utilizing this postulation, together with SR’s first axiom, I construct an epistemic relativity theory (ER) for the dynamics of moving bodies in inertial systems. I show that ER solves the twin paradox such that the rejoining twins age equally. Tests of the theory's time transformation show that although the theory contradicts the Lorentz invariance principle (LI), it accords nicely with the results of the famous Michelson-Morley experiment and the well-known Frisch and Smith muon decay experiment. More important, the theory accounts for the linear Sagnac effect, which disobeys starkly both LI and SR. It also precisely predicts the results of several recent neutrino velocity experiments conducted by OPERA and other collaborations. I explain why the experimental setups of the linear Sagnac and the neutrino velocity experiments qualify them as stringent falsification tests for the LI and SR.
In another paper cited here I show that application of ER to cosmology and astrophysics, proves quite potent in providing plausible answers to key cosmological questions, including dark matter and dark energy, and the evolutionary timeline of the nucleosynthesis of chemical elements.
The theory's prediction concerning the kinetic energy density as a function of velocity reveals that for approaching bodies, the dependence of energy on velocity is similar, although not identical, to the one prescribed by SR. However, for departing bodies, the theory predicts kinetic energy density will monotonically increase with velocity up to a maximal value, after which it will monotonically decrease more steeply, reaching zero at a velocity equal to the velocity of light. Most strikingly, the breakdown of the acknowledged relationship between energy and velocity is predicted to occur at velocity v = Φ c, where c is the velocity of light and Φ is the famous Golden Ratio (≈ 0.618). This result echoes a recent
3
finding demonstrating that the quantum criticality of cobalt niobate atoms exhibits Golden Ratio symmetry. Another peculiar Golden Ratio symmetry of the predicted energy density indicates that at v = - Φ c (approaching bodies), the energy density is equal to 1+ Φ (= 1/ Φ) ≈ 1.618. No less surprising, we find the maximal energy density at v = Φ c, relative to the rest-frame energy density is Φ^5 ≈0.09016994, which precisely equals Hardy's probability of entanglement. The emergence of these results from a deterministic relativity theory based on SR's first axiom plus an axiom specifying light as information carrier is puzzling. One possible explanation is to attribute their emergence to mere coincidence. However, given the many confirmed predictions of the theory, including in cosmology, and the unlikelihood of such a coincidence actually happening, this explanation is highly improbable. Another possibility worth pursuing is that ER reveals more than one thread for a possible connection between an epistemic view of relativity and quantum mechanics, with the Golden Ratio symmetry playing a key role.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1611] **viXra:1504.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 21:44:22*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Our space-time is postulated to have the following characteristics: (1) the space is an ocean filled with the “Gamma elements” having energy and mass and of a certain size; (2) both time and distance are discretized by the process of light propagation from one Gamma element to the next in some process of relativistic boost of the internal energy. These postulates provide us with a theoretical basis to explain why the speed of light, c, should remain constant in all inertial reference frames. The discrete process of light propagation leads us to a set of natural units. As a result, new physically based “Planck element units” may be defined with the new mass scale being ~7.37 x 10-51 kg (~4.14 x 10-15 eV/c2). The length scale is estimated from the wavelength of the highest energy gamma rays, in the range of 1 x 10-19 m ‒ 1 x 10-25 m, and the new time scale then being in the range of 3.34 x 10-28 s ‒ 3.34 x 10-34 s. The Planck element units are shown to relate with the fundamental constants, c (speed of light), G (gravitational constant), and h (Planck constant) with the same dimensional relationship as the conventional Planck units, but the length and time units are larger than those of the latter by 109 – 1016 orders of magnitude while the mass is smaller by whopping 10-43 orders of magnitude.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1610] **viXra:1504.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 21:50:01*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We postulate that our space is filled by the “Gamma elements” having energy and mass with the size approximately given by the wavelength of the highest energy gamma rays and that time and distance are both discretized by the process of light propagation from one Gamma element to the next. These postulates provide us with a theoretical ground to explain why the speed of light, c, should remain constant to all observers regardless of their inertial frames of reference. In the cosmological scale, the energy of the Gamma elements filling space has been equated to the energy represented by the cosmological constant, i.e., the dark energy. When applied to the expanding universe, the EST model brings additional 25% of the total mass simply as the relativistic correction to the non-relativistic results; hence the dark matter is closely identified as merely the relativistic correction to the dark energy predicted by the Friedman equation. The agreement with the observed magnitudes convincingly supports this interpretation of dark energy and dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1609] **viXra:1504.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-16 23:25:44*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 1 Page.

we prove that a negative length and mass are absent in nature if there are negative charges with not equal to one factors in the form of dimensionless fundamental constants.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1608] **viXra:1504.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-15 23:49:17*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Experiments have repeatedly revealed the existence of a dynamical structured fractal 3-space, with a speed relative to the Earth
of some 500km/s from a southerly direction. Experiments have ranged from optical light speed anisotropy interferometers to
zener diode quantum detectors. This dynamical space has been missing from theories from the beginning of physics. This
dynamical space generates a growing universe, and gravity when included in a generalised Schrodinger equation, and light
bending when included in generalised Maxwell equations. Here we review ongoing attempts to construct a deeper theory of
the dynamical space starting from a stochastic pattern generating model that appears to result in 3-dimensional geometrical
elements, “gebits”, and accompanying quantum behaviour. The essential concept is that reality is a process, and geometrical
models for space and time are inadequate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1607] **viXra:1504.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-16 00:00:48*

**Authors:** Reginald T cahill

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The anisotropy of the velocity of EM radiation has been repeatedly detected, including the Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887, using a variety of techniques. The experiments reveal the existence of a dynamical space that has a velocity of some 500km/s from a southerly direction. These consistent experiments contradict the assumptions of Special Relativity, but are consistent with the assumptions of neo-Lorentz Relativity. The existence of the dynamical space has been missed by physics since its beginnings. Novel and checkable phenomena then follow from including this space in Quantum Theory, EM Theory, Cosmology, etc, including the derivation of a more general theory of gravity as a quantum wave refraction effect. The corrected Schrodinger equation has resulted in a very simple and robust quantum detector, which easily measures the speed and direction of the dynamical space. This report reviews the key experimental evidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1606] **viXra:1504.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-16 00:03:56*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In 2014 Jiapei Dai reported evidence of anisotropic Brownian motion of a toluidine blue
colloid solution in water. In 2015 Felix Scholkmann analysed the Dai data and detected
a sidereal time dependence, indicative of a process driving the preferred Brownian motion
diusion direction to a star-based preferred direction. Here we further analyse the
Dai data and extract the RA and Dec of that preferred direction, and relate the data
to previous determinations from NASA Spacecraft Earth-flyby Doppler shift data, and
other determinations. It is shown that the anisotropic Brownian motion is an anisotropic
“heating” generated by 3-space fluctuations: gravitational waves, an eect previously
detected in correlations between ocean temperature fluctuations and solar flare counts,
with the latter being shown to be a proxy for 3-space fluctuations. The dynamical 3-
space does not have a measure of energy content, but can generate energy in matter
systems, which amounts to a violation of the 1st Law of Thermodynamics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1605] **viXra:1504.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-12 12:57:54*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Recent conclusions regarding the behavior of giant black holes obeying quantum-mechanical rules indicate that these rules are not obeyed for the large-universe. For example, the existence of fermibosonic matter in the large-scale universe need not be prohibited as it is using quantum-mechanical rules

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1604] **viXra:1504.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 05:59:29*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Single-page letter

It is proposed hare that: Just as, a photon, while experiencing the ‘gravitational red-shift’, dose not loose its velocity, and chooses to loose its energy, in the form of frequency, so exactly, the photons emitted from the luminous bodies, like the receding galaxies, may be partly loosing their energy due to ‘gravitational red-shift’; depending upon the ‘cosmic-gravitational-potential’ of a given galaxy. The ‘cosmological red-shift’ may be a combination of ‘gravitational red-shift’ and ‘Doppler-shift’. Thus ‘cosmological red-shift’ may not be wholly representing the ‘recessional-velocity’ of a galaxy. The recessional-velocity may be much lesser than it is currently believed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1603] **viXra:1504.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-07 16:03:48*

**Authors:** Jerry Zhompson

**Comments:** 11256 Pages. please excuse poor quality english as natives not speaker

Please excuses the poor english of the quality foreign speaker:
we proves einstein was is wrong about stuff

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1602] **viXra:1504.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-07 05:36:54*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Whenever human understanding of the size of the universe is at a breakthrough point, a new idea about the nature of gravity introduces itself to the world. For thousands and thousands of years, the magnitude of the cosmos was limited to the stars that could be seen in the night sky (not that people knew what they were looking at). Just over 400 years ago, a tremendous breakthrough came. The telescope arrived, and drastically changed our view of the heavens. A mere 60 years later (a drop in the ocean of historical time), gravity was compared to the fall of an apple and Isaac Newton proposed that the moon traces out the curve of its orbit by constantly "falling" towards Earth.
Things progressed steadily for over 200 years - telescopes grew bigger, planets and stars were discovered, and the universe became as large as the Milky Way galaxy. About the same time that we were starting to wonder if there other galaxies out there (a concept that would vastly increase the universe's size again), another gravitational breakthrough came. Albert Einstein reinterpreted the moon’s being constantly tugged towards Earth by our planet’s gravity. He said the moon is “pushed” towards Earth by the hills and valleys of curved space-time surrounding this world.
Since then, things have – despite the inevitable dead ends science embarks on but sooner or later corrects - steadily progressed once more. Complacency seems to have arisen, because many appear to think real science never means anything except continual slow progress. There’s a new idea in the world, however – that the universe may be infinite. This would drastically increase the size of the universe once more, and herald another breakthrough in comprehension of gravity.
The ideas of Newton and Einstein embrace the entire universe, and the truth in their theories has been repeatedly confirmed. It’s only logical that elements of both Newtonian and relativistic gravity must be present in a new “infinite universe gravity” (IUG). The universe can’t possibly be larger than infinite – even hypothetical multiverses and cyclic universes would be included in its infinity if they existed. So you might think an idea of infinite gravity would be the final breakthrough in understanding gravity. But it would be terrible if learning could reach an end – the infinite nature of gravity implies it might undergo infinite refinements over the eons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1601] **viXra:1504.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-06 12:42:10*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 25 Pages. A new work on which we demonstrate the light origin of Universe.

In the work we have advanced another scenario for Universe creation and its evolution, respectively, when an initial high energy at Reheating generates high energy photons which following Thomson and Breit Wheeler interaction generate pairs which gives an external electrical field ( ) that it produces at the interface between normal phase and the superconducting phase, a decay of the superconductor magnetic field ( ) generated by the color gluons condensate components like the Meissner effect. The inverse value of the penetration length of is just the ( ) at high densities and the effective color magnetic gluon mass at QCD.
This critical temperature together with the number of particles created verifies the BEC quantum state condition along the entire Universe evolution. Thus, the color magnetic gluons field is introduced in Friedman equation in place of Einstein tensor, which permits to obtain the rates of Universe expansion. After the CMBR time, the decoupled photons interact with the Quantum Well producing excitons condensate which form with photons the polaritons as in Earth’s experiments. These polaritons sustains the expansion of Universe, their mass and energy verifies the cosmological constant, that one can consider its as dark matter particles. During matter creation(+dark matter) a fix number of particles and a total mass of are obtained, that it is a spectacular result, which it could be the essential prove of the entirely model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[954] **viXra:1505.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-19 21:19:29*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In a recent paper [1] I proposed a novel relativity theory termed Information Relativity (IR). Unlike Einstein's relativity which dictates as force majeure that relativity is a true state of nature, Information Relativity assumes that relativity results from difference in information about nature between observers who are in motion relative to each other. The theory is based on two axioms: 1. the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (Special relativity's first axiom); 2. All translations of information from one frame of reference to another are carried by light or by another carrier with equal velocity (information-carrier axiom). For the case of constant relative velocities, I showed in the aforementioned paper that IR accounts successfully for the results of a class of relativistic time results, including the Michelson-Morley's "null" result, the Sagnac effect, and the neutrino velocities reported by OPERA and other collaborations. Here I apply the theory, with no alteration, to cosmology. I show that the theory is successful in accounting for several cosmological findings, including the pattern of recession velocity predicted by inflationary theories, the GZK energy suppression phenomenon at redshift z ̴ 1.6, and the amounts of matter and dark energy reported in recent ΛCDM cosmologies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[953] **viXra:1505.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-25 13:21:58*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 10 pages, 18 references

In 1983, Paul S. Wesson developed 5D Space-Time-Mass theory that associates the fifth dimension with rest mass. The gravitational constant serves as the dimension-transposing parameter.
This paper puts the World-Universe Model (WUM) onto the theoretical basis developed by Prof. Wesson, with the following modifications: the fifth dimension is associated with the total energy of the Medium of the World, and the gravitomagnetic parameter of the Medium serves as the dimension-transposing parameter.
The Medium of the World composed of massive particles (protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter particles) is the manifestation of the 5D Space-Time-Energy WUM.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[952] **viXra:1505.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-03 11:54:47*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Spanish

During 1923 Einstein wrote three articles that developed the first purely affine field theory with which he tried to unify the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The theory was not satisfactory, but research of Einstein, first forgotten and then recovered in the forties by Schrödinger, provides interesting ideas that may serve to construct a generalization of the theory of gravity. In this research we analyze Einstein's theory, detailing the missing calculations in the work original.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[951] **viXra:1504.0178 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-14 07:30:57*

**Authors:** Emmanuel Kanambaye

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The document is in french

In this document, after presented that we mean by : smallest length having physical sense ; we propose the theorem resulting.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[950] **viXra:1504.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-03 10:08:50*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Einstein's theory of special relativity (SR) theory dictates, as a force majeure, an ontic view, according to which relativity is a true state of nature. For example, the theory’s solution to the famous twin paradox prescribes the "traveling" twin returns truly and verifiably younger than the "staying" twin, thereby implying the “traveling” twin returns to the future.
I propose an epistemic view of relativity, according to which relativity results from difference in Information about Nature between observers who are in motion relative to each other. The proposed theory, termed Information Relativity (IR) theory is based on two axioms: 1. the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (SR's first axiom); 2. All translations of information from one frame of reference to another are carried by light or by another carrier with equal velocity (information-carrier axiom). For the case of constant relative velocities, I derive the theory's time and distance transformations and compare them with the corresponding SR's transformations. I show that despite IR's contradiction with Lorentz's Invariance Principle, it accounts as good as SR for the results of a class of time measurement experiments, including Michelson-Morley's type of experiments as well as the time dilation detected in muon decay and in "around-the-world atomic clocks" experiments. More important, the theory accounts for the linear Sagnac effect, which starkly disobeys LI and SR. It also predicts with precision the (v-c)⁄c values reported in several neutrino velocity experiments, conducted by OPERA and other collaborations. I outline the necessary conditions for a stringent comparative test between IR and SR, and explain why the experimental designs of the linear Sagnac and the neutrino velocity experiments qualify as stringent tests of both theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[949] **viXra:1504.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-01 08:02:43*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Einstein's theory of special relativity (SR) theory dictates, as a force majeure, an ontic view, according to which relativity is a true state of nature. For example, the theory’s solution to the famous twin paradox prescribes the "traveling" twin returns truly and verifiably younger than the "staying" twin, thereby implying the “traveling” twin returns to the future.
I propose an epistemic view of relativity, according to which relativity results from a difference in knowledge about Nature between observers who are in motion relative to each other. Utilizing this postulation, together with SR’s relativity axiom, I construct an "epistemic relativity theory" (ER) for the dynamics of moving bodies in inertial systems. Here I focus on the resulting time and distance transformations. I show that ER solves the twin paradox such that the rejoining twins age equally. Tests of ER reveal that despite its contradiction with the Lorentz Invariance Principle (LI), it accounts as good as SR for the results of a class of Michelson-Morley type experiments, for the time dilation detected in muon decay experiments and in "Around the World Atomic Clocks" experiments. More important, the theory accounts for the linear Sagnac effect, which starkly disobeys LI and SR. It also predicts with precision the (v-c)⁄c values reported in several neutrino velocity experiments, conducted by OPERA and other collaborations. I outline the necessary conditions for a stringent comparative test between ER and SR, and explain why the experimental designs of the linear Sagnac experiment, and the neutrino velocity experiments conducted by OPERA and other collaborations, qualify as stringent tests of both theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[948] **viXra:1504.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-25 00:20:44*

**Authors:** Andrew Wutke

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Please sent any comments or suggestion to the email address within. I want to improve the content and eliminate factual errors or ambiguities.

This paper presents the proof of the apparent nature of relative simultaneity originally derived from Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity (STR). The proof does not challenge the validity of the STR but uncovers fundamental and widespread error in understanding of practical implications of Lorentz transformations. It is demonstrated that more than a century long debates generally miss the point. This results in counterintuitive claims of coexisting multiple time realities by mere equivalence of equal clock indications and simultaneity. Such claims have little empirical significance but they are substantial in education and philosophy which has become utterly confused after universal acceptance of the STR and rejections of Henri Bergson’s challenge. There is nothing more to “relative simultaneity” other than the effect of identical clocks being shifted by an offset which depends on synchronisation method.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[947] **viXra:1504.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-19 12:14:47*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 26 Pages. It is corrected the model of free neutron decay by accounting for Higgs field for W bosons pair generation

In the work we have advanced another scenario for Universe creation and its evolution, respectively, when an initial high energy at Reheating generates high energy photons which following Thomson and Breit Wheeler interaction generate pairs which gives an external electrical field ( ) that it produces at the interface between normal phase and the superconducting phase, a decay of the superconductor magnetic field ( ) generated by the color gluons condensate components like the Meissner effect. The inverse value of the penetration length of is just the ( ) at high densities and the effective color magnetic gluon mass at QCD.
This critical temperature together with the number of particles created verifies the BEC quantum state condition along the entire Universe evolution. Thus, the color magnetic gluons field is introduced in Friedman equation in place of Einstein tensor, which permits to obtain the rates of Universe expansion. After the CMBR time, the decoupled photons interact with the Quantum Well producing excitons condensate which form with photons the polaritons as in Earth’s experiments. These polaritons sustains the expansion of Universe, their mass and energy verifies the cosmological constant, that one can consider its as dark matter particles. During matter creation(+dark matter) a fix number of particles and a total mass of are obtained, that it is a spectacular result, which it could be the essential prove of the entirely model. Also, is proposed a new test for the finally proof of the model as the deduction of the lifetime value of the decay of the free neutron.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[946] **viXra:1504.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-10 12:17:51*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 25 Pages. the introduction of prove test for the model-the deduction of beta decay of the free neutron liftime

In the work we have advanced another scenario for Universe creation and its evolution, respectively, when an initial high energy at Reheating generates high energy photons which following Thomson and Breit Wheeler interaction generate pairs which gives an external electrical field ( ) that it produces at the interface between normal phase and the superconducting phase, a decay of the superconductor magnetic field ( ) generated by the color gluons condensate components like the Meissner effect. The inverse value of the penetration length of is just the ( ) at high densities and the effective color magnetic gluon mass at QCD.
This critical temperature together with the number of particles created verifies the BEC quantum state condition along the entire Universe evolution. Thus, the color magnetic gluons field is introduced in Friedman equation in place of Einstein tensor, which permits to obtain the rates of Universe expansion. After the CMBR time, the decoupled photons interact with the Quantum Well producing excitons condensate which form with photons the polaritons as in Earth’s experiments. These polaritons sustains the expansion of Universe, their mass and energy verifies the cosmological constant, that one can consider its as dark matter particles. During matter creation(+dark matter) a fix number of particles and a total mass of are obtained, that it is a spectacular result, which it could be the essential prove of the entirely model. Also, is proposed a new test to prove finally the model as the deduction of the lifetime value of the decay of the free neutron.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology