Relativity and Cosmology

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[2598] viXra:1709.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 17:03:02

Unified and Universal Field Theory - 1. Universal Topology

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 4 Pages.

The workings of Universal Topology unfolds a duality of our natural world for the following remarks: i) Dual complex manifolds and the reciprocal world planes beyond a single spacetime manifold; ii) Two pairs of scalar potentials for field entanglements; iii) A mathematical framework of the dual variances to clone the event operations; iv) Two pairs of fluxions of continuity and commutations as a hierarchy foundation of Potential Entanglements; and v) Commutation Infrastructure as an introductory to derive the empirical artifacts of Lorentz Generators, Pauli matrices, Electromagnetic Field Structures, Inertial Commutation Curvature, and General Relativity. Upon this inception, our Universal Topology is ready to give rise to the unified and universal field theory ...
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2597] viXra:1709.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 23:18:05

Dualism of time in the SRT of Einstein

Authors: Henry Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article it will be shown that in the moving frame of reference according to SRT two different time scales are observed. From this it follows that the "relativity of simultaneity" does not exist. Also from this follows the infidelity of the second postulate of Einstein on the constancy of the speed of light in all IFRs.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2596] viXra:1709.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 00:15:24

Ray of Light Near the Sun: the Energy View

Authors: Nikitin A. P.
Comments: Pages.

It is explained the deviation of the light beam in the gravitational field of the Sun from energy considerations, when all the changes and interactions, including gravitational ones, are considered not as force interactions or geometric manifestations of the curvature of space-time, but as manifestations and consequences of the motion of matter, described as the motion of energy in space-time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2595] viXra:1709.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 09:35:00

General Relativity and Dark Energy Are Hidden in the Klein-Gordon Equation in Curved Spacetime

Authors: Gary Nash
Comments: 20 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the Klein-Gordon equation in curved 4-dimensional spacetime, it can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors with the wave function $\Psi$ having spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$. Using a decomposition of symmetric tensors and two fundamental principles of general relativity, a new tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor. The tensors that constitute the modified Einstein equation add to zero. General relativity and dark energy are hidden in the symmetric part of the Klein-Gordon equation for each spin. As quantum field theory in curved spacetime is built from the free field solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation, general relativity and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory. The metric as a field variable describing gravitons vanishes from the massless spin-2 KG equation in the low-energy long-range to particle regimes of spacetime. Massless spin-2 gravitons in those regimes do not exist. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity in those regimes. It is shown that the cosmological constant must be zero. Dark energy effectively replaces the cosmological constant and describes a cyclic universe which developed after the Big Bang. Dark energy is interpreted to be the repulsive part of the trace of the tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy. The dark energy density provides a natural explanation of why the vacuum energy density is so small, and why it dominates the present epoch of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2594] viXra:1709.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 12:42:04

Michelson and Morley Experiment Does not Validate Length Contraction

Authors: Ziaedin Shafiei
Comments: 10 Pages.

The theory of length contraction was initially proposed to uphold the existence of aether after the surprise null result from Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment. The theory claimed that any physical object shrinks in the direction of its movement through aether. The theory is accepted by special relativity. It is, however, redefined as the shortening of any physical object in the direction of its movement relative to an observer. This article shows that M&M experiment, in fact, does not support length contraction as the theory was not based on all-inclusive analysis of the experiment.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2593] viXra:1709.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:21:16

Plausibility of Shaw’s “Aether Concept of Gravity”

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, PhD, Pe
Comments: 5 Pages.

Shaw has proposed an aether explanation for gravity, publishing several papers over the current decade (see http://www.duncanshaw.ca/). These have evolved into his “Aether Concept of Gravity,” by which inflowing aether into cosmic bodies produces an accelerating “ram force” that manifests as the “attractive” gravitational force without the need to postulate “action at a distance.” While examination of the full theory is beyond the scope of this paper, it is feasible to examine three of the key aspects which lend themselves to modeling in the form of mathematical constructs. While no attempt is made to explain the physics behind Shaw’s theory, an investigation into its plausibility, at least from a mathematical perspective, is undertaken and appears to support at least this level of plausibility.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2592] viXra:1709.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:29:53

A 3-Dimensional Excursion Through 2-Dimensional “Flatland” as an Analogy for 4-Dimensional Light and Coulombic Force in Three Dimensions

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, P.e.
Comments: 11 Pages.

The 19th century novella “Flatland” has often inspired comparisons of inter-dimensional phenomena, particularly how phenomena in dimension n + 1 would be manifested to observers restricted to dimension n. With n = 2, a possible analogy for the phenomena of light and Coulombic repulsion and attraction is examined for its potential extension to n = 3, given the impossibility of our even physically imagining a fourth dimension, purely spatial (i.e., not-temporal, in contrast to Einstein’s time or space-time) like the three we know (length, width and height).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2591] viXra:1709.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 10:00:47

Time, Space and Constant Speed of Light with Questionable Relativity.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 1 Page. Reality with time.

Are we following the right path by applying relativity for the larger universe?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2590] viXra:1709.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 07:02:57

Confronting the Galilean Transformation with the Field Shapes of a Constant-Velocity Point Charge

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Galilean space-time transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the Galilean space-time transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the Lorentz space-time transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2589] viXra:1709.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 14:52:53

Gravitational "Anomalies" Caused by Shapiro Delayed Traveling Energy Quanta Around Galactic and Cosmic Scale Structures

Authors: Jose Gregorio Baquero
Comments: 13 Pages.

In 1964, Irwin Shapiro pointed out that electromagnetic waves traveling near a gravitational well of a star were delayed due to relativistic Gravitational Time Dilation (GTD). This paper proposes that traveling energy quanta (mainly vacuum energy and gravitational waves, as well as neutrinos, electromagnetic waves, cosmic rays, stellar winds, and all other kinds of waves and relativistic particles yet to be discovered) accumulate in a Density Wave like mechanism around the galactic and cosmic scale structures because of Shapiro Delay. Ultimately, the accumulative effect is a substantial increase in energy density when seen from frames of reference far from the regions where it occurs. The higher energy density is imperceptible for an observer within its own frame of reference since the proposed mechanism nature is relativistic. The higher concentration of travelling energy quanta around galaxies and galaxy clusters is creating extra gravitational distortion in spacetime with its mass equivalent. The Relativistically Accumulated Mass Equivalent Mechanism (RAMEN), using the proposed model, matches without free parameters the tested local group galaxy rotation curves for all orbits using the same traveling energy density value. The paper proposes how all observations of “Dark Matter” can be easily explained by RAMEN. It predicts the existence of a Universe Traveling Energy Density in disagreement by several orders of magnitude with currently accepted Universe Critical Energy Density. The paper discusses how the Casimir Effect experiments directly confirm with less than 5% disagreement with Quantum Field Theory the existence of higher energy densities in the vacuum. It also discusses how we may have misunderstood the nature of the predominant form of energy in the universe and that have prevented us from understanding the gravitational anomalies attributed to “Dark Matter”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2588] viXra:1709.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 01:40:11

Local Time Theory

Authors: G. Stranathan
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper proposes an alternate way of thinking of 'empty' space and its interactions with matter, which may further explain certain mechanics of the universe, such as the behaviors of light, gravity and other forces. This paper will serve as a placeholder to communicate the general concepts until I am able to refine it further.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2587] viXra:1709.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 20:42:32

Dialogs on Various Relativistic Paradoxes

Authors: Francois Leyvraz
Comments: 15 Pages.

The author attempts to give a self-contained view of various paradoxes in the theory of relativity, and provides an extensive discussion of them in hopefully elementary terms.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2586] viXra:1709.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 02:40:06

Unscientific Behavior of the Yark Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Christian Corda
Comments: 8 Pages. Invited contribution accepted for publication in the 2018 Issue of New Advances in Physics.

We ultimately show the unscientific behavior of the so-called YARK theory of gravitation (which applications have been published in both of non-mainstream and mainstream journals) by using Einstein's equivalence principle which has today a strong, unchallengeable empiric evidence.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2585] viXra:1709.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 05:29:44

Expansion of the Universe and Cosmological Redshift

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 8 Pages.

Astronomical observations show generally a redshift of electromagnetic radiation emitted by stars and galaxies that proves they move away from the observer. There are nevertheless numerous exceptions that prove the existence of a blueshift of radiation and consequently an approach of stars and galaxies. This fact together with a few important anisotropies that are present in the spectrum of the Cosmic Microwaves Background Radiation (CMBR) pose important problems for theories of the Big Bang and of the isotropic expansion of the Universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2584] viXra:1709.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 16:47:35

Neutrosophic Regression and Possible Nonlinearity of Hubble Law: Some Preliminary Remarks

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 17 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It is known to experts, that in the nonlinear regression analysis, numerous curve fitting methods exist, which allow the statistician to cook up the data according to what he/she wants to see. Such a deep problem in nonlinear regression methods will be discussed in particular in the context of analyzing Hubble diagram from various existing data. It is our aim to distinguish the raw data and foregone conclusions, in order to arrive at a model-independent conclusion. As a preliminary remark, we deem that it remains possible that the Hubble law exhibits nonlinearity, just like proposed by Segal & Nicoll long time ago. More researches are needed to verify our proposition.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2583] viXra:1709.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 03:54:15

Cosmology Science Between Facts and Faith

Authors: Laszlo A. Marosi
Comments: 10 Pages.

The standard cosmological model rests on a never-ending array of hypotheses and assumptions (dark matter, dark energy and others) which either cannot be proved or, although theoretically possible, cannot yet be proved experimentally. This lack of secure knowledge raises legitimate doubts over the validity of the Big Bang model, which therefore cannot be seen as the ultimate answer to the question of the emergence and evolution of the universe. If the search for dark matter and dark energy turns out to be unsuccessful, the whole construction will break down and we will unavoidably face the question of which of the many different models based on Einstein’s field equations represents the real world.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2582] viXra:1709.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 07:20:36

The Formation of the Universe Premised on the Existence of Aether (In Japanese)

Authors: Yukihiko Hoshino
Comments: 21 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.4. Original Japanese paper.

In previous paper "Consideration on universal gravitation premised on the existence of aether (in Japanese)", it considered the cosmic inflation,the Big Bang and the dark energy on the premise of the presence of aether to show the possibility of the neoaether theory.This time, the large-scale structure of the cosmos is structured like bubbles overlapping many layers. There is a Supermassive black hole in the center of almost all galaxies, and its mass has a certain proportional relationship with the mass of the galaxy. It focused on these two points and further deepened the consideration.As a result, the large-scale structure of the cosmos is formed by the cosmic inflation continuing to occur several times at the same time in multiple places. The dark matter is an attractive force phenomenon caused by the flow of aether in one direction. These two points were newly turned out.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2581] viXra:1709.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 20:46:04

Ladder Paradox. Final Refutation of the SRT of Einstein.

Authors: Henry Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 2 Pages.

This article describes the logical error that physicists made when proving ladder paradox for 100 years.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2580] viXra:1709.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 01:01:16

Coordinate Transformation Between Inertial Reference Frames

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. Acceleration Coordinate Lorentz Transformation

Two inertial reference frames moving at identical velocity can be seperated if one of them is put under acceleration for a duration. The coordinates of both inertial reference frames are related by the acceleration and its duration. An immediate property of this coordinate transformation is the conservation of distance and length across reference frames. Therefore, the concept of length contraction from Lorentz Transformation is impossible in reality and physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2579] viXra:1709.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 11:53:34

A Newtonian-Vortex Cosmology Model from Solar System to Galaxy to Large Scale Structures: Navier-Stokes-Inspired Cosmography

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 14 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Some years ago, Matt Visser asked the following interesting questions: How much of modern cosmology is really cosmography? How much of modern cosmology is independent of the Einstein equations? (Independent of the Friedmann equations?) These questions are becoming increasingly germane — as the models cosmologists use for the stress-energy content of the universe become increasingly baroque. Therefore, in this paper we will discuss a novel Newtonian cosmology model with vortex, which offers wide implications from solar system, galaxy modeling up to large scale structures of the Universe. The basic starting point is very simple: It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models have singularity problem. Cosmological singularity has been a consequence of excessive symmetry of flow, such as “Hubble’s law.” More realistic one is suggested, based on Newtonian cosmology model but here we include the vortical-rotational effect of the whole Universe. We review an Ermakov-type equation obtained by Nurgaliev, and solve the equation numerically with Mathematica. A potential application is also considered, namely for understanding tornado dynamics using 3D Navier-Stokes equations. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observations, in order to open new possibilities of more realistic nonlinear cosmology models.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2578] viXra:1709.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 08:04:41

Modified Newtonian Dymanics in a Hypersphere MOND(H)

Authors: Peter J Carroll
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper proposes a modification to Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation that would have negligible and undetectable effects at terrestrial scales, but at greater scales, it would have obvious effects that would create significant anomalies that we have already observed and that conventional theories have perhaps misinterpreted. Newton devised his theories on the assumption that we inhabit a strictly Euclidian spacetime. Einstein showed that spacetime can have curvature. Conventional cosmology currently asserts that we inhabit an expanding universe with an overall curvature close to, or exactly equal to, zero. If however we entertain the possibility that the universe has a very small positive curvature then that small positive curvature could account for a number of apparent astronomical anomalies and remove the need to assume that it expands.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2577] viXra:1709.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-09 10:15:41

Behaviour of a Matter Torus Under the Influence of the Expanding Cosmos

Authors: Ernst Schmutzer
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper the behaviour of a matter torus under the influence of the expanding cosmos model (according to our theory PUFT) is investigated. This task can numerically be treated for the full life time of the cosmos model (from the Urstart to the Finish). As we know from our literature cited, the graphic course of the cosmological scalaric field after the Urstart exhibits an increase , followed by a return down to the Finish. This curious behaviour of the cosmological scalaric field leads to the suspicion that the shape of the torus during the life time of the cosmos may be: sphere at the Urstart, transformation of the sphere to a ring with decreasing thickness, return to a sphere at the Finish. It seems that such a theoretically predicted physical effect could perhaps exist in Nature. The torus was chosen as a test object, since the numerical calculations can be done without approximation procedures. We took this rather simple example to show this cosmological effect for further applications in astrophysics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2576] viXra:1709.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 19:17:43

Consideration on Universal Gravitation Premised on the Existence of Aether (In Japanese)

Authors: Yukihiko Hoshino
Comments: 24 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.3. Original Japanese paper.

The law of universal gravitation in which all objects are attracting each other, has been clarified physical laws such as how to work and how to calculate the strength of force, and it is widely used along with the three laws of motion. However, the fundamental problem of why attraction exists between substances and what conveys the power has not yet been elucidated.This time, on the premise that aether exists and attracted by gravity, it considered the universal gravitation. As a result, if since each substance attracts aether by attraction, it thinks that aether acts as a so-called rope and substances attract each other, then the strength of attraction acting between substances is not inversely proportional to the square of distance and it turned out to be contrary to the inverse-square law which is the nature of universal gravitation. Therefore, in order to consider the properties of substances as a source of attraction in detail, the properties of elementary particles considered as the smallest unit of substances were examined on the premise of the existence of aether. In quantum theory it is thought that elementary particles have both properties of particles and waves and can not determine the position. This is because elementary particles have the three phases of "gas phase", "liquid phase", and "solid phase" (to be distinguished from the three states of macroscopic substances by surrounding them with ") similar to those of macroscopic substances, and they are constantly repeating phase change,but we can think that it is only in the case of "liquid phase", "solid phase" that we can identify its position. In the case of elementary particles, the substance corresponding to the molecule of the macroscopic substance is aether, and it is assumed that elementary particles always repeat phase change at very short intervals between "solid phase" or "liquid phase" where we can specify the position and "gas phase" where we can not locate did. And, in addition to that, we examined the mechanism of attractive force generation using the concept of "aether pressure" similar to the concept of atmospheric pressure.As a result, we could explain the mechanism of attractive force generation and its properties theoretically.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2575] viXra:1709.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 15:00:33

Theory of Everything = Physoe + Philoe: Part 2 Unifying Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Metaphysics, Extra Dimensions and Consciousness

Authors: Abed Peerally
Comments: 35 PAGES. PART 2 OF THE PREVIOUS VIXRA PAPER: THEORY OF EVERYTHING= PHILOSOPHY OF EVERYTHING + PHYSICS OF EVERYTHING:1605/0239

This article precedes the author’s second book: Origin of Our Universe: Theory of Everything. The Final Answers to the Mystery of Existence. It proposes that science on its own, in its traditional nature, cannot explain the ultimate nature of physical realities, and therefore the ultimate nature of quantum reality, Einstein’s relativity laws, and the integration of relativity with quantum mechanics. In principle, a Theory of Everything of our universe, according to many physicists. ought to be a possible ultimate concept of physics, capable to explain all scientific and natural realities. However, nature appears to be perpetually mysterious and elusive. Therefore, in the finality of our existence, there should exist an ultimate scientific Theory of Everything capable of explaining our laws of nature and our realities, but this is not possible due to the impossibility of integrating relativity and quantum theory, without embodying a higher level multi-dimensional Metaphysics, that would underpin quantum theory, relativity and spacetime, as the author will lay out in his next book. This is an area where String Theory’s mathematics could be useful in attempts to unite spacetime and extra-dimensions. Metaphysics, integrated with our laws of nature, could provide the final arguments and interpretations that can tell us why we have an existence, where we appear to be an impossibility in an impossible universe. Therefore, the current status quo in terms of the elucidation of what existence in our universe entails, looks like an expectation that science and metaphysics will take us to the goal of knowing why and how we are here in our extraordinary realities.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2574] viXra:1709.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 06:52:28

A Fatal Error in a PhD Thesis Titled: “A Generalized Variational Principle of Gravitation”, City University, London, 1982

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 14 Pages.

I spotted a fatal error in understanding of one of the basics of mathematics used in a PhD thesis titled: “A Generalized Variational Principle of Gravitation”,City University, London, 1982. There also are two types of errors, one is a typographic error and a second one is a major error. Scanned copy of part of the thesis page (131-140) where the errors occurred is attached to this paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2573] viXra:1709.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 23:54:48

Reexamination of the Theory of Relativity on the Premise of the Presence of Aether (In Japanese)

Authors: Yukihiko Hoshino
Comments: 13 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.2. Original Japanese paper.

In the presence of aether as a medium of light, the speed of light in vacuum can be considered constant with aether. Then, the principle of constancy of light velocity does not hold, and the theory of relativity guided by this as one of the starting points also does not hold. However, delay of time and bending of light due to gravity derived from the theory of relativity are verified by various experiments and observations. Therefore, we reexamined the properties of light, time and space on the premise of the presence of aether as light medium. As a result, without using the principle of constancy of light velocity, we could explain many events that have been thought to be the result of the theory of relativity, such as delay of clock, bending and redshift of light due to gravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2572] viXra:1709.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 08:12:05

The Reexamination About the Aether Drag Hypothesis and the Aberration of Light (In Japanese)

Authors: Yukihiko Hoshino
Comments: 4 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.1. Original Japanese paper.

The Michelson-Morley experiment denied the existence of the aether wind Therefore, various hypotheses were considered to explain the existence of the aether even if no aether wind was observed. In one of them, there was the aether drag hypothesis that the aether was dragged by the earth.But,the aether drag hypothesis was denied because it couldn't explain the aberration of light. However, this time, I paid attention to the approaching angle of the light which was seen from the moving aether and re-examined.As a result, it turned out that the aberration of light can be explained even if the aether and the earth are moving together.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2571] viXra:1709.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 02:02:08

On the Cosmological Evolution

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this work, we discuss the possibility to investigate the cosmological evolution using a covariant Ricci flow. Even though we have focused on the evolution of large-scale structures, the results obtained can be applied equally to microscopic structures of quantum particles.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2570] viXra:1709.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 12:25:38

L’ÉQUATION DE L’UNIVERS

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 32 pages. This is the French version of « THE EQUATION OF THE UNIVERSE » on viXra.org/abs/1709.0033v2.

Une nouvelle équation est trouvée dans laquelle le concept de matière-espace-temps est mathématiquement relié ; la gravitation et l’électromagnétisme sont également liés par l’espace-temps. Un mécanisme décrit comment sont corrélés la vitesse, le temps, la distance, la matière et l’énergie. Nous sommes amenés à constater que la gravité et l’électricité sont deux manifestations distinctes d’un même processus sous-jacent : l’électro-gravitation. La gravitation résulte de l’électromagnétisme – force intrinsèquement beaucoup plus forte – divisé par l’espace-temps cosmologique. Le rayon de l’espace-temps appartient à la famille des ondes électromagnétiques : la longueur d’onde est le rayon de l’univers et la période est son âge cosmologique. Pour la première fois, le temps cosmologique, considéré comme un objet physique réel, est intégré à « une équation cosmologique » qui rend cohérent ce que l’on sait du temps (son origine, son écoulement…), de la matière et de l’espace. Cette équation s’érige en modèle mathématique permettant de se représenter l’énergie noire (ou constante cosmologique) comme étant une énergie à la fois « négative » et « fatiguée ». En fait, c’est une équation de la cosmologie quantique qui opère la réconciliation entre le macrocosme et le microcosme, pour dresser une vision cohérente du comportement de la matière à travers l’espace et le temps.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2569] viXra:1709.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-03 20:12:38

The Application of the Relativity of Simultaneity, in the Proof of Paradoxes, Leads to Two Physical Events and Does not Solve the Contradiction of SRT

Authors: Arutyunov Henry
Comments: 1 Page.

The article shows that the paradoxes of the ladder can not be solved with the help of the relativity of simultaneity. There are no paradoxes of SRT, there is only a contradiction between SRT and nature.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2568] viXra:1709.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 00:30:09

The Equation of the Universe

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 31 Pages.

A new equation is found in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electrogravitation. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated in a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter and the space. It sets up a mathematical model allowing us to interpret dark energy (or cosmological constant) as being both "negative" and "tired" energy. In fact, it is an equation of quantum cosmology that operates the reconciliation between the macrocosm and the microcosm to draw up a coherent view of the behavior of matter through space and time. mberbag@videotron.ca
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2567] viXra:1709.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 05:17:53

New Approach to the Theoretical Value of the Wavelength of the CMB Photons

Authors: S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract In this new approach the total number of the photons from the Big-Bang [1] and the volume of the entire Universe at the present epoch [2], have produced the energy density of the CMB photons. This energy density shows that the photons of the CMB have a wavelength of: . Approximate frequency of 30 GHz with a temperature of: .This new approach indicates that the CMB photons are the force behind the expansion of the Universe [3] or the Dark energy. The peak at 0.2 cm, 160 mega Hertz with a temperature of 2.7 K could either be due to all the galaxies in the Universe giving a peak intensity in the microwave at 2.7 K or according to: P.J.E. PEEBLES Principles of physical cosmology (pages144 and145). “The CBR energy density can be compared to that of other local fields. The luminosity of the Milky Way is so at our position near the outskirts, at distance from the centre, the energy density is . This defines an effective temperature for the starlight; the result is . The interstellar magnetic field is . If we again define effective temperature by the energy density, , we get .”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2566] viXra:1708.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-31 13:19:40

Thanks to Bekenstein Bound Holograhic Phenomena Collapse of E8 Symmetry Cyclic Universes Can be Prevented

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: The Bekenstein Bound energy limit of the universe has a value determined by the universe's radius and mc^2 energy content at a given time. The bound energy cannot be exceeded and controls the maximum size and final age of each succeeding cyclic universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2565] viXra:1708.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 22:14:52

Michelson and Morley Expected the Wrong Result from Their Experiment

Authors: Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper endeavours to explain why light and elementary particles have dual wave and particle characteristics, and proposes a physical interpretation of Huygens’ principle. It also explains why the famous Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and to show that it did, in fact, detect the ether but was not correctly interpreted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2564] viXra:1708.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 00:10:32

The Mistake of Michelson, Morley and Their Followers.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 6 Pages. ielkin@yandeex.ru

It is shown here that interferometers can not detect a difference in the speeds of light signals. For the proof, we assume that there is a difference in the speed of light signals. Then we get different units of length for different signals. Therefore, the time of passage of the interferometer arm by the light signal does not change. And this does not give a shift in the interference image.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2563] viXra:1708.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-27 05:26:21

Michelson-Morley Experiment's Error Hidden for 130 Years

Authors: Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, I endeavour to show why the Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and to show that their disappointment was due to a hidden error in their assumptions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2562] viXra:1708.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-25 22:10:27

On the Occasion of Eclipse 2017: an ex-Ante Prediction of Starlight Bending Without Allusion to Spacetime

Authors: Ramzi suleiman
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this brief note we put forward a novel prediction of starlight bending, to be measured during Eclipse 2017. Our prediction is based on a simple, relativistic modification of Newton's physics, without allusion, whatsoever, to Einstein's concept of spacetime.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2561] viXra:1708.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-25 22:14:38

Dark Matter and Dark Energy as Quantum Entities

Authors: Ramzi suleiman
Comments: 12 Pages.

In the present article, we propose a new model based on our recently proposed information relativity theory for explaining dark matter and dark energy and for inferring about the nature of their interactions. The model gives rise to a matter-wave duality, similar to the realistic de Broglie–Bohm model. We allude briefly to the model’s applications in predicting and explaining quantum phenomena; then we utilize it to construct a simple quantum cosmology of the universe, according to which dark matter and dark energy are, respectively, quantum matter and dual-wave energy at cosmic scales. We use the model to explain, in physical terms, the dynamic interaction among matter, dark matter, and dark energy as functions of the recession velocities and redshifts of celestial objects, such galaxies, quasars, etc. Contrary to the standard cosmological model, the predicted distributions of matter and dark energy densities, as functions of redshift, are far from being uniform, with matter reaching its maximal energy density at a point of quantum phase transition equaling the golden ratio (z ≈ 1.618). The predicted dynamics between matter and dark energy are shown to a function of the celestial’s object recession velocity (or redshift). We derive general terms for predicting the amount of matter and dark energy in any redshift range and show that our predictions confirm with recent observations-based ΛCDM cosmologies. The model predicts that, for redshift z ≤ 1 2 , corresponding to recession velocity β ≤ 1/3 , the universe is dominated by matter, while for z > 1 2 (β > 1/3 ), it is dominated by dark energy. This prediction alleviates the so-called “coincidence problem,” by providing a physical explanation as to why the density of the two components at the present time are equal.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2560] viXra:1708.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:57:20

New Ether Theory

Authors: Mr ether
Comments: 18 Pages. this si paradigm shift of classical physics

I successed structure the grand unified theory "new ether exist " by ether exist. ether is quatum pair charge production by space energy. various physical phenomena can explained by ether.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2559] viXra:1708.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 02:31:09

Michelson-Morley Experiment Contains a Hidden Error

Authors: Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, I endeavour to show why Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result and to show that their disappointment was due to a hidden error in their assumptions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2558] viXra:1708.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 07:38:16

Refuting Special Relativity by General Relativity

Authors: Azzam Almosallami
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I’ll propose a thought experiment proving that special relativity of Einstein is impossible to be applied in physics and the Einstein view point of simultaneity is wrong physically, and the synchronization of clocks is impossible even if the train is stationary by using the general relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2557] viXra:1708.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 05:16:50

A New Hypothesis About the Nature of Time by Anupam Kumar

Authors: Anupam Kumar
Comments: 1 Page.

This is a new hypothesis about time which accepts freewill and randomness and attempts to solve the Time Paradox. It assumes that the universe itself has a time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2556] viXra:1708.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-20 19:39:10

Time

Authors: Emil Gigov
Comments: 1 Page.

In the article "On the Influence of Gravitation on Propagation of Light" 1911, Einstein uses as a basis a homogeneous gravitational field in which there is equal (absolute) gravitational acceleration everywhere. Consequently, in this field there must be also a homogeneous time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2555] viXra:1708.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 16:25:48

Cosmologists and Their Problem with Equivocation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Cosmologists use equivocation, which confuses the public and even themselves. They do this to make sure they can never be wrong in any situation, by never taking a stance one way or the other. Their intent is to deceive to protect their careers and to sell books that say nothing. It is essentially a political tactic that does not belong in science, and neither does cosmology (which is a quasi-religion) as a whole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2554] viXra:1708.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 19:18:40

Time Dilation Can be Emerged from Newtonian Space in One Case

Authors: Mohamed Abdelwhab
Comments: 7 Pages.

This study shows that time dilation supposed by Einstein can be derived from absolute time supposed by Newton if Newtonian space is sloped with motion where space of moving frames is sloped with respect to space of the stationary frame of reference. Slope of Newtonian space creates a new kind of energy that causes moving frames to experience slight resistance while moving to forward in Newtonian space; hence, moving frames reverse slightly backward in space. With respect to observers at rest, the sum of the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the moving frame to forward and the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the same frame to backward is equal to the distance ( ) that the light travels vertically in frame from the perspective of the observers in the same frame . The motion of light through the reversed space dilates Newtonian time of the moving frames with respect to the stationary frame of reference, like a car that moves slowly because it is climbing a hill, the time of the moving bodies moves slowly because of the slope of Newtonian space. This work does not aim to prove slope or straightness of space; rather it aims to show that time dilation can be exists in nature as a result of a reaction between Newtonian time and slope of Newtonian space, therefore testing of slope's property must be included in the interests of applied physicists in the next days.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2553] viXra:1708.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 07:54:16

Duality of Time and Perpetual Re-creation of Space

Authors: Mohamed Haj Yousef
Comments: 28 Pages. The concept of the Duality of Time is based on a previous research published in The Single Monad Model of the Cosmos (www.amazon.com/dp/1499779844).

Based on the Duality of Time hypothesis, a dynamic, granular and self-contained space-time is introduced and investigated. A new time-time or complex-time Euclidean space is defined and it is shown that the non-Euclidean Minkowski space is the first global approximation of this complex-time space in which the space-time interval becomes invariant between different inertial and non-inertial frames alike. Therefore, in addition to Lorentz factor, the equivalence principle is derived directly from the resulting discrete symmetry. To support this hypothesis, it will be applied to derive the mass-energy equivalence relation directly from fundamental classical principles. It will be also shown that the resulting dynamic quintessence could diminish the cosmological constant discrepancy by 117 orders of magnitude.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2552] viXra:1708.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 11:07:19

Redshift in Lattice-Cellular Models of the Universe: Lindquist-Wheeler and Beyond

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 5 Pages. This paper will be submitted to Open Physics J.

Many physicists and philosophers alike have debated a long standing puzzle: whether the space is continuous or discrete. It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models rely on pseudo-Riemannian metric as the cornerstone of Einsteinian universe. But the metric itself is based on continuum model. It is known that such models have led us to too many (monster) problems, including dark matter and dark energy etc. Now what if the universe is discrete? Then perhaps we can solve these problems naturally. Despite majority of cosmologists rely on such a Standard Model which is called Lambda CDM theory, we will explore here the redshift theory based on a few of lattice-cellular models, including Lindquist-Wheeler theory and beyond it. We will also touch briefly some peculiar models such as Voronoi tesellattice and also Conrad Ranzan’s cellular model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2551] viXra:1708.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 01:29:25

On the Universal Speed in Relativity

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment has been considered as a verification of the validity of Einstein’s postulate of the universal constancy of the speed of light in vacuum. However, it has been shown that the special theory of relativity can be developed by applying only the principle of relativity without the need to postulate the universal constancy of the speed of light and, as a consequence, this raises the question of what role the Michelson-Morley experiment would play in special relativity. In this work we show that the Michelson-Morley experiment can be used to verify the fact that the speed of light is not universal as postulated in Einstein’s special relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2550] viXra:1708.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 01:58:54

A Special Relativity of Circular Reference Frame

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 3 Pages.

Similar to Einstein’s method to formulate a special relativity for inertial reference systems in classical physics, we show that a special relativity can also be formulated for systems of circular reference frames.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2549] viXra:1708.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 12:07:35

Solving Numerically Ermakov-type Equation for Newtonian Cosmology Model with Vortex

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models have singularity problem. Cosmological singularity has been a consequence of excessive symmetry of flow, such as “Hubble’s law”. More realistic one is suggested, based on Newtonian cosmology model but here we include the vertical-rotational effect of the whole Universe. We review a Riccati-type equation obtained by Nurgaliev, and solve the equation numerically with Mathematica. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2548] viXra:1708.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 18:10:58

Some Views of Time Trials for Fundamental Constants and a New Physical Philosophy

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 9 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments proved that the fundamental constants are changing by the evolution of the universe, this paper tries to give some explanations. We have observed that the proton-to-electron mass ratio and the fine structure constant both are changing over time. Some scientists think the vacuum dielectric constant and the speed of light are changing, too. I agree them. So I finish this paper to explain those experiments and develop those guesses. The constants are changing over time. They are different from early universe. We can't understand why them change now, maybe they change because the change of the entropy because entropy is very closed with time (to know the relation between time and entropy, you can see the note under this paper), I want to prove that in this paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2547] viXra:1708.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 01:51:29

Heuristic Approach to Einsteins Field Equation Theory

Authors: Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar
Comments: 4 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s field equations (Fig. 1), mass curves space time and curvature of space-time dictates the gravitational field around the mass. Based on the interpretation today of the Einstein’s field equations the curvature of space time causes a smaller mass B to move towards a greater mass A since it is the shortest geodesic path in the curved space-time. This article tries to analyze the Einstein field equations in a new heuristic approach in which curvature of space-time and geodesic path is replaced by an equivalent dynamic flow of space –time model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2546] viXra:1708.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 07:36:46

Hilbert's Forgotten Equation of Velocity Dependent Acceleration in a Gravitational Field

Authors: David L. Berkahn, James M. Chappell, Derek Abbott
Comments: 5 Pages.

The principle of equivalence is used to argue that the known law of decreasing acceleration for high speed motion, in a low acceleration regime, produces the same result as found for a weak gravitational field, with subsequent implications for stronger fields. This result coincides with Hilbert's little explored equation of 1917, regarding the velocity dependence of acceleration under gravity. We derive this result, from first principles exploiting the principle of equivalence, without need for the full general theory of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2545] viXra:1708.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 09:06:24

Understanding the Limit of Relativity, Dark Matter and the Hubble Shift

Authors: Capt. Joseph H. Forrington
Comments: 17 Pages.

There is fundamental misnomer about what General Relativity describes. This is why Einstein’s field equations do not explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. Dilation fields have two different shapes, spherical and flat. Stellar systems are spherical and have only one shape gradient, and events are evolved forward and accelerated sequentially as the dilation gradient deepens. Flattened spiral galaxies have two types of interacting gradients. From above and below the disk, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. Along the edge the effect is spherical and this causes the circular orbits, as in General Relativity. This paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of the continuum, how events and spaces evolve forward together and how relative velocities equate to forward evolution within the continuum rather than movement through pre-existing, static, spaces. This approach also allows the Hubble shift to be described in terms of time dilation. Since events are always being accelerated in the rate of time, older frames have progressively slower rates the older they are, creating a time dilation gradient. As we are always being accelerated in time and space, objects in older frames must appear to be accelerating away from us. This eliminates the need for Dark Energy. The theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMBR is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at C through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna, translating the force in time into “real” energy. Also, IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 14 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like, which is where the difference in the rate of time between frames, the dRt, = 1 s/s, both looking into a gravity well, and looking outward to the limits of perception.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2544] viXra:1708.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 14:05:34

Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (Yark) Gravitation Theory Versus Infantile Harassment and Abuse

Authors: T. Yarman, A. L. Kholmetskii, O. Yarman, M. Arik
Comments: 5 pages

We provide our reply to a new attempt by C. Corda where he calumniates Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory (http://vixra.org/pdf/1705.0287v1.pdf.). It therefore becomes incumbent upon us to once more demonstrate that the origin of his criticism is based on his misunderstanding of the basic aspects of YARK theory, as well as on his misinterpretation of the outcomes of Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system. All of this came to be despite the fact that we had drawn a final point to his agitations in our recent papers published in Annals of Physics in 2015 and 2016 in response to his adverse behavior.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2543] viXra:1708.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 04:27:33

Theory of Events, Space and Time

Authors: Corrado La Posta
Comments: 26 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity [1], conceived in 1905 by A. Einstein and now universally applied, involves some theoretical problems as well as some difficulties in the interpretation of experimental facts. Theoretical issues have long been debated [2,4] but have not found a sufficiently good explanation, indeed many interpretations [3,24] appear forceful and prejudicial. The many paradoxes expressed and debated and never clarified are still unresolved. The consequences of adopting a radical point of view, such as the relativistic one, also appear in the Quantum Field Theory, where the Lorentz-covariance formulation of the theory results, with careful analysis, the cause of many of the problems [54, 78]. The experimental point of view, contrary to what is commonly stated, does not undoubtedly support the theory; actually several results [5,42, 78] appear of difficult interpretation and others [6, 75] even in sharp contrast to the theory itself [23, 76]. The analysis of these inconsistencies leads to the assumption that the theory is spoiled by its foundations, that is the postulates, from defective origins that can not be eliminated [40, 77]. An alternative hypothesis, based on different premises, is therefore elaborated in this paper to reach a number of conclusions [81]. Such a different theoretical context recovers certain concepts of classical, mechanical and electrodynamic physics, which are however extended in a relativistic sense. Modifications are introduced in current kinematic, dynamic, electrodynamic and Quantum field theory. The theory thus developed is devoid of paradoxical aspects, adhering to experimental facts and free of divergence problems; superluminary motions are especially possible. Electrodynamic equations are extended into a new invariant form, compatible with Newtonian mechanics. Lorentz's force law is rewritten as a force variable with speed while the mass remains constant. A generalization of the equation of the waves is introduced, from which the equations of the superluminal motion and the equations of the material waves (Schrodinger and Klein-Gordon) can be obtained.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2542] viXra:1708.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 01:33:39

A Generalization of the Thomas Precession, Part I

Authors: Gary Osborn
Comments: 4 pages, no figures

The time shown by a moving clock depends on its history. The Lorentz transform does not distinguish between the history of an accelerated clock and a constant velocity clock. The history of the clock can be assimilated by integrating the first derivative of the Thomas precession from the time t=0. A definite integral is required because the unknown trajectory of the clock in the distant past affects its displayed time. The coordinates are spinning in the second frame of reference during the integration, but in the definite integral from time t=0 to time t the spin accumulates to a specific angle. The integral is equivalent to a Lorentz transform followed by a space rotation. A space rotation does not affect the invariant quantity r2 - c2 t2. The history of a jerked clock is different than that of an accelerated clock. The solution in that order is equivalent to a Lorentz transform followed by two consecutive space rotations in different directions. Similarly, there are three rotations in the ä solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2541] viXra:1708.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 07:08:51

Euler-Lagrange Equations of the Einstein-Hilbert Action

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 7 Pages.

I applied the method of the second variations of the Calculus of Variations to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Since the Einstein-Hilbert’s Lagrangian for a gravitational field is proportional to the Ricci curvature scalar construction of the Euler-Lagrange equations requires dealing with the tensor quantities from which the Ricci curvature scalar is composed rather than the Ricci curvature scalar itself. As the result of applying this method two Euler-Lagrange equations emerged; both equations yielded the same Einstein’s field equations in absence of energy-momentum fields.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2540] viXra:1708.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 19:00:46

Universe (Part 4). Relations Between Charge, Time, Matter, Volume, Distance, and Energy.

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 8 Pages.

- In given article author has summarized and corrected a theory [1 -3] which allows derivation of the unknown relations between the main parameters (energy, time, charge, distance, volume, matter) in the Universe. He finds also the quantum (minimal values) of energy, time, charge, distance, volume and matter and he applied these quantum for estimations of quantum volatility and the estimation of some values of our Universe and received both well-known and new unknown relations. Author offers possibly valid relations between charge, time, matter, charge, volume, distance, and energy. The net picture derived is that in the Universe exists ONLY one substance – ENERGY. Charge, time, matter, volume, fields are evidence of this energy and they can be transformed one to other. Author gives the equations which allow to calculate these transformation like the famous formula E = mc2. Some assumptions about the structure of the Universe follow from these relations. Most offered equations give results close to approximately known data of Universe, the others allow checking up by experiment.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2539] viXra:1708.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 04:31:53

Special Relativity: its Inconsistency with the Standard Wave Equation

Authors: Stephen J Crothers
Comments: 3 Pages.

By means of the Lorentz Transformation, Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity purports invariance of the standard wave equation. Counter-examples, satisfying the Lorentz Transformation, and hence Lorentz Invariance, prove that the Lorentz Transformation does not in fact produce invariance of the standard wave equation. Systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers are Galilean and necessarily transform by the Galilean Transformation. Einstein's insistence that systems of Galilean observers transform, not by the Galilean Transformation, but by the non-Galilean Lorentz Transformation, is logically inconsistent. The Special Theory of Relativity is therefore logically inconsistent. Therefore, it is false. The Lorentz Transformation is meaningless.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2538] viXra:1708.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 10:03:35

Psi-Lines and the Golden Ratio

Authors: Jeffrey S. Keen
Comments: 3 Pages, 3 Tables

Abstract This paper builds on published research regarding psi-lines. Quantitative experiments that are detailed here, demonstrate that psi-lines and the mind are intrinsically connected to the Golden Ratio (1.6180). As this is a universal constant, the conclusion strongly suggests that mind created psi-lines are connected to the structure of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2537] viXra:1708.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 08:33:43

Dual Natures of Light and Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 3 Pages.

The wave-particle dual nature of light was discovered from experimental observations and from theoretical works of Max Planck and Albert Einstein during the beginning of the twentieth century. This paper reveals that wave-particle duality is just one aspect of the all dual nature of light (electromagnetic waves) and electromagnetic fields and that light and electromagnetic fields manifest dual natures in other ways also. For example, light is not only a local phenomenon as conventionally viewed, but also a non-local phenomenon. Light behaves both according to classical ether theory and emission theory. Light acts as if it travels both in a straight line and in curved path, at the same time! Electrostatic lines of force behave as if they are both straight and curved lines. Electrostatic fields behave as if they ‘propagate’ both at the speed of light and with infinite speed, at the same time! This paper is a summary of the findings reported in previous papers published by this author. An extensive theoretical research carried out by this author in an attempt to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and other light speed experiments led to uncovering of the broader and more fundamental nature of duality in electromagnetism.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2536] viXra:1708.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-01 13:31:25

E=mc2

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

The formula E=mc2, which states that the energy content of a massive object is equal to that object’s mass times the speed of light squared, is incorrect. Why?, because that formula implies that a mass requires an infinite amount of energy to reach the speed of light. The term "infinite" is often used by physicists but they don't seem to realize that it's unrealistic/unnatural, it tells us that E=mc2 must be a mistake.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2535] viXra:1708.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-01 17:13:46

Special Relativity in Complex Space-Time. Part 2. Basic Problems of Electrodynamics.

Authors: Jozef Radomanski
Comments: 26 Pages.

This article discusses an electric field in complex space-time. Using an orthogonal paravector transformation that preserves the invariance of the wave equation and does not belong to the Lorentz group, the Gaussian equation has been transformed to obtain the relationships corresponding to the Maxwell equations. These equations are analysed for compliance with classic electrodynamics. Although, the Lorenz gauge condition has been abandoned and two of the modified Maxwell's equations are different from the classical ones, the obtained results are not inconsistent with the experience because they preserve the classical laws of the theory of electricity and magnetism contained therein. In conjunction with the previous papers our purpose is to show that space-time of high velocity has a complex structure that differently orders the laws of classical physics but does not change them.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2534] viXra:1707.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 14:29:32

"Quanta of the Universe" Are Closely Related to Universe Matter Density and the Cosmological Constant

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: (H-Z) x mc^2 "quanta of the universe", universe matter density and the cosmological constant are all closely related to Planck's constant of quantum mechanics save for its time dependence.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2533] viXra:1707.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-29 04:04:04

Information Wave and the Theory of Observational Relativity

Authors: Xiaogang Ruan
Comments: 25 pages with 4 figures and supplementary information of 13 pages.

The invariance of light speed (ILS) is the mainstay of Einstein's special relativity (SR). However, to this day, we do not even know why the speed of light is invariant, why the speed of light cannot be exceeded, and why the photon has no mass. Here, we have theoretically derived the theory of observational relativity (OR) from the most basic facts and prerequisites, which reveals the truth behind the ILS. OR have unified Einstein's SR and de Broglie's theory of matter wave. More importantly, as the result of logical derivation, the light speed in the Lorenz factor has been replaced by the speed of information wave (IW) that carries and transmits the spacetime information of observed objects. OR has gotten a vital logic inference of pure rationality (rather that a hypothesis like the ILS): the invariance of IW speed. Only when light is employed as IW, can the ILS be valid, and can Einstein's SR be a special case of OR. OR suggests that: Einstein's theory of relativity is flawed and limited. Actually, all relativistic effects are observational effects rather than real natural phenomena. The theory of OR will profoundly change our view of spacetime and endow physics with a significant mission to explore superluminal IWs so that we can break though the observational limit of light and observe a more abundant and more objective natural world.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2532] viXra:1707.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 09:16:38

Schwarzschild Cosmology

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 12 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The expanding Universe is likened to a collapsing star in this context, where the future spacetime of the Universe is empty (justifying the vacuum solution) and the present is a 3-sphere boundary akin to the 2-sphere surface of a collapsing star. Because the present time of the Universe is the boundary, it sees the vacuum solution just as the surface of a collapsing star sees the vacuum solution. It is shown that the model predicts an accelerated expansion that agrees with current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. With a simple coordinate change we get a metric resembling the FRW metric for flat space with a time dependent scale factor. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, perhaps causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle. The consequences for an observer in freefall in a local gravitational field are then examined in the context of this model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2531] viXra:1707.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 14:00:13

Is Special Relativity in Algorithmic Information Theory?

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 7 Pages.

My purpose with this paper is to show that the theory of special relativity is derivable from algorithmic information theory (AIT). Specifically, I construct a partition function of Omega such that the program-runtime and the program-size are observables of a prefix free universal Turing machine. This partition function implies a maximum speed in bits per iterations of the UTM, which has a similar interpretation as the speed of light does in special relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2530] viXra:1707.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 16:14:38

Einstein’s Destruction of Physics and Scientific Principles

Authors: Peter Sujak
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper is partially an excerpt from a third chapter of author's in July 2017 newly published book titled "Einstein's destruction of physics". Book is distributed directly by author's link www.createspace.com/7339672 or by Amazon.com or .de or co.uk. In this paper Einstein’s destruction of physics and scientific principles is documented.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2529] viXra:1707.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 13:10:06

Radiation Pressure Inside a Collapsing Shell

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 2 Pages.

Birkhoff’s theorem says that the spacetime inside a spherically symmetric collapsing shell is Minkowskian. Given this fact, signals exchanged between the shell and a central observer as well as between observers on the shell itself are examined, and it is shown that these signals will become infinitely blueshifted as the shell approaches its Schwarzschild radius. It is also shown that the space inside the shell will contract to zero volume in the frame of a shell observer as the shell approaches its Schwarzschild radius.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2528] viXra:1707.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 04:37:53

Restraining General Covariance

Authors: Lluís Bel
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Postulate of General covariance, a last choice that Einstein introduced in his General relativity theory of gravitation, endows the theory with an excessive generality that needs to be restrained. Otherwise it is easy to check that, beyond the first order of approximation, several space-time models, all of them derived from the original Schwarzschild's initial solution of Einstein's field equations corresponding to a static spherical source, would predict different results to two fundamental experiments: the measure of the force acting on a given passive test mass at a distance $R$ of the center of the source, or equivalently, its initial acceleration when falling from rest, and the comparison of two way transit times of light traveling into an optic fiber along a vertical direction and along a meridian. The last section describes how to find numeric, static and spherically symmetric, interior models with pre-selected mass $m$ and radius $R$ with $m/R<1$ or $m/R>1$ solving the horizon problem. \end{abstract}
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2527] viXra:1707.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-23 09:15:17

The Special Relativity Theory and Energy

Authors: Tsuneaki Takahashi
Comments: 3 Pages.

Considering Special Relativity Theory, energy has been derived through the case of mass points’ collision applying the equation from the theory. But the difference of space distance and the difference of time distance are based on the different view for each frame of references. So relativistic mass and energy quantity assumed real quantity should be tried to derive directly and deductively from the same assumption for the theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2526] viXra:1707.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-22 14:18:09

Absolute Time Theory

Authors: Giacomo Roccaforte
Comments: 79 Pages. This version is in Italian, but conclusions are in English.

This theory arises from the analysis of specific situations that the Special Theory of Relativity does not consider, or for which it does not provided information about them. These situations are listed as critical points, scenarios that would lead to ambiguous, contradictory or unexplained conclusions, using the same principles as the theory itself. Using the same experimental data as the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, and which are normally used to confirm the theory itself, we comes to a solution where these critical points would be eliminated. We then come to a theory where the results would be unambiguous, independent by how we choose to consider variables, in line with data experiences and established theory principles, such as the constancy of the speed of light and its independence from the motion of the source , means the same elements that are in Special Theory of Relativity, but interpreted in a different way. It would therefore provide a new explanation of the Nature of Light, and a basis for further studies not yet examined.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2525] viXra:1707.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 20:38:29

Quantum Cosmology and Life

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 2 Pages.

In frame of the quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger), supported by cosmic data (without fitting), a new physically distinguished scale is obtained. This scale indicate a mechanism of formation new particles from the background matter. At the same time that scale corresponds to the size of a living cell.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2524] viXra:1707.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 13:19:06

An Experiment Against Relativity Interactive Dependency (a New Story of the Present Physics the Failure of Relativity Leads the Present Physics from Time Dilation to no Time.)

Authors: Bandaru Ramu
Comments: 9 Pages.

Many thinkers and scientists tried to prove that Relativity is wrong. But this article show EXPERIMENTAL PROOFS TO PROVE THAT THE THEORY OF RELATIVTY IS WRONG. In this article, two experiments are explained. EXPERIMENT-1 PROVES:( whatever the relative constant velocities may be 50, 75, or 90 percent of `C` the velocity of light, The information P Simultaneity not follow any time dilations when compared with the information `Q`) Michelson and Morley’s experiment conducted many times. But all their experiments were conducted in only one inertial frame. But if that experiment extended up to two inertial frames, which Results will be taken place? 1.Simultaneity not depend on the concept time interval. 2.‘C` not stand to calculate the time. 3.Time dilation can not keep the speed of light rays constant. It can not keep the relation - inversely proportional between the frequency and wave length. 4.The light rays not travel with equal velocity in all directions in vacuum. According to Max well, “The velocity of electromagnetic waves is specific.” This truth is valid in the observer’s own inertial frame not in vacuum because light rays not run in vacuum independently. The traveling of light rays is dependent on inertial frame. They run interacting along with the surroundings of inertial frames such as massive bodies. EXPERIMENT -2 reveals: 1. According to Relative theory, Physical laws take place in one concerned inertial frame and follow the time of that inertial frame. Physical laws are interactive and dependent. These physical laws or interactions take place among many inertial frames. Thus the interactions cannot follow any relative time among the inertial frames. that interaction should consider the relative velocity of concerned inertial frames.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2523] viXra:1707.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 14:46:05

Microscopic Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Baihua Qi, Tian Qi
Comments: 5 Pages.

The source of gravitation may come from the virtual electron-positron pairs generated by vacuum polarization and the force carrier particles would be pairs of virtual photons generated by the virtual electron-positron pair that travels in unison, and the origin of gravitation would be electron-positron pair that exchanges virtual photons. Based on this assumption, we establish a theory to describe gravitation. We discuss Barnett effect
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2522] viXra:1707.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 07:10:07

Doppler Effect and Aberration in my New Relativistic Space-Time Theory

Authors: A.V. Mamaev
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this article using Einstein’s method from his known 1905 year article the formulas for the Dopler effect and aberration valid in my new relativistic space-time theory are derived. Key words: relativity, Doppler effect, aberration
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2521] viXra:1707.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 08:03:22

Demonstration of Existence of Superlight Speeds

Authors: A.V. Mamaev
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper introduces an idea of experimental demonstration of electrons superluminal speed existence or non-existence in vacuum of near-Earth space of Universe. As according to Einstein’s special relativity theory superlight speeds of both particles having non-zero rest mass and particles with zero rest mass are forbidden, such an experiment will either confirm Einstein’s special relativity theory in the part of absence in Nature of superlight speeds of any particles or disprove Einstein’s theory clearly, crudely and seeably.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2520] viXra:1707.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 10:22:39

Explanation of the Nature of Negative, Dark Energy, and Dark Matter.

Authors: Richard Palkovac
Comments: 2 Pages.

Although contemporary cosmology and physics allow the mass to be pushed into the singularity (dimensionless point) in the center of black holes, it still doesn't understand that mass in such a state loses the quality of matter. Matter, being a substance and field, is the energy distributed in space. If we take away space from energy, it then changes to a different quality, to pure energy. Today it is often called the negative, dark energy, causing the expansion of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2519] viXra:1707.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 10:30:27

Universes in Other Dimensions.

Authors: Richard Palkovac
Comments: 2 Pages.

Can there be universes in dimensions other than those of our 3 (or 4 if we are talking about a time-space) ? When we want to talk about it, we must first make sure there is a logical reason for the existence of other dimensions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2518] viXra:1707.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 07:05:04

Interactions and Limiting Speed.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Relativistic physics is based on the principle of least action. Conclusions from the proposed theory give formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2517] viXra:1707.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 09:17:53

Stationary Frame is the “denied” Absolute Rest

Authors: Mohammed Mezouar
Comments: 3 Pages.

Einstein’s relativism is not only “physical” but also philosophical because it forbids any concept leading to the idea of the absolute. But this phobia is translated into flight forward without giving decisive answers to the crucial questions raised by the paradoxes arising from Special Relativity. In what follows, we show by a thought experiment that absolute rest has it’s discreet but real place in the Einsteinian reasoning under the pseudonym of stationary system.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2516] viXra:1707.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 14:41:45

Religious Science

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity is a very “popular” theory among physicists, so don’t dare to state that it is a nonsense theory. The most basic reason for the weirdness of this theory is the acceptance by almost all physicists of the fact that the velocity of light in vacuum in this theory is fully undefined.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2515] viXra:1707.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 12:27:37

Fayaz Quantum-Relativity Conception and Resolution

Authors: Fayaz Ahmed Siyal
Comments: 6 Pages. my research have well application for the resolution of black hole information paradox and singularity solution . author have prove it by mathematically

Contemporary physics of this century have measured many problems regarding the behaviour of gravity, black hole evolution and its information paradox. Our physicists have struggled to resolve these problems but they again and again failed. The reason of their failure has been resolved by author. The general relativity narrates the behaviour of masses and their gravitational fields on the basis of their space time curvatures. The reason scientist failed to measure the relation of mass and space time curvature because, always they made their calculations in inertial frame of reference for space time curvature but the galaxies, stars, sun, earth, etc are continued in acceleration or moving in accelerating frame of reference so, their space time curvature must be in acceleration. Then space time curvature should behave like variable accelerating wave (these are same waves which have been discovered by LIGO gravitational waves) and by author with mathematical proof it is estimated that space time curvature is the classical property of matter or mass depending upon alternation in the quantum energy of mass or matter. Then the Schrödinger, Hamilton operator H and time evolution operator are applicable for the calculation of space time geometry and its energy. From the author creational research black hole problems are easily solved. Even the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics can be done.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2514] viXra:1707.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 12:56:14

Interaction is Given by the Limiting Speed.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Calculations of relativistic physics are based on the principle of least action. Conclusions from the proposed theory give formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2513] viXra:1707.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 14:31:07

Integration Over Manifolds with Variable Coordinate Density

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper, the integration of a function over a curved manifold is examined in the case where the curvature of the manifold results in a varying density of coordinates over which the function is being integrated where the upper bound of the of integration is infinity. It is shown that when the coordinate density varies in such a case, the true area under the curve is not correctly calculated by traditional techniques of integration, but must account for the varying coordinate density. This integration technique is then applied to the Schwarzschild metric of General Relativity to examine the proper time taken for a freefalling observer to reach the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2512] viXra:1707.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-04 13:57:13

Limiting Speed.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 5 Pages. 0

Relativistic physics is built on the principle of least action. The conclusions from this theory give the formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2511] viXra:1707.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:55:53

Another Path Towards the Truth About How the Universe Works?

Authors: Dino Bruniera
Comments: 16 Pages.

In the article titled “Each Point of Space in Expansion is the Preferred Reference Frame for Any Object Transiting to that Point”, published on March 30th, 2017, I presented a theory that demonstrates the existence of the Preferred Reference Frame and at which speed the Earth moves relative to it. I also stated that further theories about various phenomena of the Universe, may be derived from this theory and that it, therefore, opens a new path towards the truth about how the Universe works. And now, with this article, I will tray to begin to walk the above path, exposing some hypotheses explaining various phenomena of the Universe, in a way compatible with said theory. Here are, in short, these hypotheses. The Universe is exclusively composed of an infinity of space quanta, which tend to expand and thus cause it to expand, as a consequence. Matter manifests on sets of space quanta, which are compressed and thus enable the neighbouring quanta, and later the quanta further apart, to expand further. Gravity is the effect of the fact that each object tends to move towards the least compressed space quanta and, therefore, towards other objects. Speed of light depends on the degree of compression of space quanta in the locations (or points) in which it transits, meaning that the greater the compression, the higher the speed. But since also clocks move more or less rapidly according to their degree of compression, speed of light results always the same at any location. Therefore, in the past, when the degree of compression of space quanta was greater, speed of light was also greater. Cosmological redshift is due to the speed of the location in which the celestial object receiving photons, is moving, compared to the location in which the celestial object emitting it, has moved, in a Universe in decelerating expansion. In support of this hypothesis, I present two tables that simulate the journey of the photons of a high-redshift galaxy and that of CMBR photons, and, above all, a formula for calculating apparent luminosity, compatible with the observations of the high-redshift type Ia supernovae. I would like to point out that I haven’t mentioned either the dark energy or dark matter, since I haven’t considered it necessary for this model of the Universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2510] viXra:1707.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-02 13:39:04

Properties of Kinematics with the Universal Frame of Reference

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 15 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

In this article, we derive the properties of kinematics of bodies from the universal frame of reference (UFR, ether), which we called the Special Theory of Ether. The article explains why Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the universal frame of reference. In article, a different transformation of time and position than the Lorentz transformation is derived on the basis of the geometric analysis of the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments. The transformation is derived based on the assumption that the universal frame of reference exists. UFR is a frame of reference in which the velocity of light is constant in every direction. In inertial frames of reference moving in the UFR, the one-way velocity of light may be different. Formulas for summation for absolute speed and relative speeds has been derived. The formulas for length contraction and dilatation of time were also derived. The entire article contains only original research conducted by its authors.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2509] viXra:1707.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-02 13:41:25

Właściwości Kinematyki Z Uniwersalnym Układem Odniesienia (In Polish)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 15 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

W artykule wyprowadzamy własności kinematyki ciał z uniwersalnym układem odniesienia (universal frame of reference - UFR, eter), którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru. W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperyment Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalny układ odniesienia. W artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Transformację wyprowadzamy przy założeniu, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia. UFR jest układem odniesienia wyróżniającym się tym, że prędkość światła jest w nim stała w każdym kierunku. W inercjalnych układach odniesienia poruszających się względem UFR, jednokierunkowa prędkość światła może być inna. Wyprowadzone zostały wzory na sumowanie prędkości dla prędkości bezwzględnej oraz prędkości względnych. Wyprowadzone zostały także zależności na skrócenie długości oraz dylatację czasu. Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania autorów publikacji.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2508] viXra:1707.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 01:31:47

An Astronomical Hypothesis in 6 Parts

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 16 Pages. This is a backup for my files of my entry in the "Catch A Star" contest for 2017

AN ASTRONOMICAL HYPOTHESIS IN 6 PARTS - 1) Uniting Quantum Mechanics with General Relativity 2) Special Relativity Viewed from Einstein's Unified Field 3) MATHEMATICS AND UNIFICATION 4) IMAGINARY TIME, QUANTUM GRAVITY AND CREATING THE COSMOS 5) NEGATIVE ENTROPY AND ETERNAL LIFE 6) DARK ENERGY, DARK MATTER, AND THE UNIFYING QUBIT IN A NONEXPANDING AND TOPOLOGICAL COSMOLOGY Science today - this report focuses on physics, quantum physics, cosmology and mathematics - is naturally very dependent on the empirical aspects of observation and experiment. The trend in modern physics is towards a unified theory of the universe - starting with the unified theories of the 20th century (notably Einstein's) and extending to string theory. At present, no observation or experiment can confirm or deny the existence of unification. The main point of this report is to show how sciences, and maths, could be altered by a unified space-time. In 1919, Einstein wrote a paper asking if gravitational waves play an essential role in forming elementary particles. If so, the waves that fill the space-time between particles would connect them in a unified field which a future LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) may be able to detect.* With waves that travel forwards in time being potentially cancelled by waves going back in time (see TIQM and Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory in this report), the cancelling of the waves might unite Relativity's gravity with quantum mechanics by producing what we call entanglement. * See "Physicists use Einstein’s ‘spooky’ entanglement to invent super-sensitive gravitational wave detector" - May 17, 2017 by David Blair.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

Replacements of recent Submissions

[1727] viXra:1709.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-16 11:38:01

Confronting the Galilean Transformation with the Field Shapes of a Constant-Velocity Point Charge

Authors: Steven Kauffmann
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Galilean space-time transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the Galilean space-time transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the Lorentz space-time transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1726] viXra:1709.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-16 09:31:42

Confronting the Galilean Transformation with the Field Shapes of a Constant-Velocity Point Charge

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Galilean space-time transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the Galilean space-time transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the Lorentz space-time transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1725] viXra:1709.0207 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-18 23:28:20

Dialogues on Various Relativistic Paradoxes

Authors: Francois Leyvraz
Comments: 15 Pages.

The author attempts to give a self-contained view of various paradoxes in the theory of relativity, and provides an extensive discussion of them in hopefully elementary terms.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1724] viXra:1709.0071 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-11 18:58:03

Theory of Everything = Philosophy of Everything + Physics of Everything (Part 2). Unifying Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Metaphysics and Consciousness

Authors: Abed Peerally
Comments: 35 Pages. REPLACEMENT DUE TO MINOR REVISION

It is proposed that traditional science and mathematics, on their own, cannot fully explain physical realities, and therefore the ultimate nature of quantum theory and of Einstein’s relativity laws, and their integration. A Theory of Everything of our universe, according to many physicists, might be the ultimate concept of physics, capable of elucidating all scientific and natural realities, but nature appears to be perpetually mysterious and elusive. This article indicates that we require a higher level multi-dimensional physics, can take us towards understanding Metaphysics, that would underpin quantum theory, relativity and spacetime. This is an area where String Theory’s mathematics could be applied in abstruse attempts to find new ways to unite space time and extra-dimensions. Why we have an existence, where we appear to be an impossibility in an impossible universe, seems to unconditionally require a higher-level quantum concept connected partially to metaphysics, the only option capable to unravel the Theory of Everything, from which the integration of quantum theory with Einstein’s relativity and consciousness, has a strong potential to surface.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1723] viXra:1709.0071 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-08 20:04:12

Theory of Everything = Philosophy of Everything + Physics of Everything (Part 2). Unifying Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Metaphysics and Consciousness

Authors: Abed Peerally
Comments: 35 Pages. REPLACEMENT DUE TO MINOR REVISION

This article precedes the author’s second book: Origin of Our Universe: Theory of Everything. The Final Answers to the Mystery of Existence. It proposes that science on its own, in its traditional nature, cannot explain the ultimate nature of physical realities, and therefore the ultimate nature of quantum reality, Einstein’s relativity laws, and the integration of relativity with quantum mechanics. In principle, a Theory of Everything of our universe, according to many physicists. ought to be a possible ultimate concept of physics, capable to explain all scientific and natural realities, but nature appears to be perpetually mysterious and elusive. However, in the finality of our existence, there should exist an ultimate scientific Theory of Everything capable of explaining our laws of nature and our realities, which requires integrating relativity and quantum theory, embodying a higher level multi-dimensional Metaphysics, that would underpin quantum theory, relativity and spacetime, as the author will lay out in his next book. This is an area where String Theory’s expertise in mathematics could be useful in attempts to unite spacetime and extra-dimensions. Metaphysics, integrated with our laws of nature, could provide the final arguments and interpretations that can tell us why we have an existence, where we appear to be an impossibility in an impossible universe. Therefore, the current status quo in terms of the elucidation of what existence in our universe entails, looks like an expectation that science and metaphysics could soon lead us to the goal of knowing why and how we are here in our extraordinary realities.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1722] viXra:1709.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-11 05:47:35

On the Cosmological Evolution

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this work, we discuss the possibility to investigate the cosmological evolution using a covariant Ricci flow, in particular spacetime manifolds with constant curvature. Even though we have focused on the evolution of large-scale structures, the results obtained can be applied equally to microscopic structures of quantum particles.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1721] viXra:1709.0033 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-06 06:56:10

The Equation of the Universe

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 31 Pages.

A new equation is found in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter, and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electro-gravitation. The force of gravitation arises of electromagnetism – inherently much stronger – divided by the cosmological space-time. The radius of space-time belongs to the family of electromagnetic waves: the wavelength is the radius of the universe and the period is its cosmological age. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated into a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter, and space. It sets up a mathematical model allowing us to interpret dark energy (or cosmological constant) as being both "negative" and "tired" energy. In fact, it is an equation of quantum cosmology that operates the reconciliation between the macrocosm and the microcosm to draw up a coherent view of the behavior of matter through space and time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1720] viXra:1709.0033 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-04 08:47:07

The Equation of the Universe

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 31 Pages.

A new equation is found in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter, and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electro-gravitation. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated into a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter and space. It sets up a mathematical model allowing us to interpret dark energy (or cosmological constant) as being both "negative" and "tired" energy. In fact, it is an equation of quantum cosmology that operates the reconciliation between the macrocosm and the microcosm to draw up a coherent view of the behavior of matter through space and time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1719] viXra:1708.0265 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-23 07:46:44

Michelson-Morley Experiment Contains a Hidden Error

Authors: Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, I endeavour to show why Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result and to show that their disappointment was due to a hidden error in their assumptions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1718] viXra:1708.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 13:45:02

Understanding the Limit of Relativity, Dark Matter and the Hubble Shift

Authors: Capt. Joseph H. Forrington
Comments: 17 Pages.

There is fundamental misnomer about what General Relativity describes. This is why Einstein’s field equations do not explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. Dilation fields have two different shapes, spherical and flat. Stellar systems are spherical and have only one shape gradient, and events are evolved forward and accelerated sequentially as the dilation gradient deepens. Flattened spiral galaxies have two types of interacting gradients. From above and below the disk, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. Along the edge the effect is spherical and this causes the circular orbits, as in General Relativity. This paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of the continuum, how events and spaces evolve forward together and how relative velocities equate to forward evolution within the continuum rather than movement through pre-existing, static, spaces. This approach also allows the Hubble shift to be described in terms of time dilation. Since events are always being accelerated in the rate of time, older frames have progressively slower rates the older they are, creating a time dilation gradient. As we are always being accelerated in time and space, objects in older frames must appear to be accelerating away from us. This eliminates the need for Dark Energy. The theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMBR is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at C through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna, translating the force in time into “real” energy. Also, IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 14 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like, which is where the difference in the rate of time between frames, the dRt, = 1 s/s, both looking into a gravity well, and looking outward to the limits of perception.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1717] viXra:1708.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 05:49:26

Euler-Lagrange Equations of the Einstein-Hilbert Action

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 7 Pages.

I applied the method of the second variations of the Calculus of Variations to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Since the Einstein-Hilbert’s Lagrangian for a gravitational field is proportional to the Ricci curvature scalar construction of the Euler-Lagrange equations requires dealing with the tensor quantities from which the Ricci curvature scalar is composed rather than the Ricci curvature scalar itself. As the result of applying this method two Euler-Lagrange equations emerged; both equations yielded the same Einstein’s field equations in absence of energy-momentum fields.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1716] viXra:1708.0055 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-15 17:07:22

Special Relativity: its Inconsistency with the Standard Wave Equation

Authors: Stephen J Crothers
Comments: 3 Pages. v.2 corrects a typo in one of the eqs. 5

By means of the Lorentz Transformation, Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity purports invariance of the standard wave equation. Counter-examples, satisfying the Lorentz Transformation, and hence Lorentz Invariance, prove that the Lorentz Transformation does not in fact produce invariance of the standard wave equation. Systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers are Galilean and necessarily transform by the Galilean Transformation. Einstein's insistence that systems of Galilean observers transform, not by the Galilean Transformation, but by the non-Galilean Lorentz Transformation, is logically inconsistent. The Special Theory of Relativity is therefore logically inconsistent. Therefore, it is false. The Lorentz Transformation is meaningless.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1715] viXra:1708.0013 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-31 04:48:39

Dual Natures of Light and Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 3 Pages.

The wave-particle dual nature of light was discovered from experimental observations and from theoretical works of Max Planck and Albert Einstein during the beginning of the twentieth century. This paper reveals that wave-particle duality is just one aspect of the all dual nature of light (electromagnetic waves) and electromagnetic fields and that light and electromagnetic fields manifest dual natures in other ways also. For example, light is not only a local phenomenon as conventionally viewed, but also a non-local phenomenon. Light behaves both according to ether theory and emission theory. The speed of light is both constant (c) and variable ( c ± V). The phase velocity of light is independent of source and observer velocity and is always constant c, while the group velocity of light varies with observer velocity but is independent of source velocity. Light acts as if it travels both in a straight line and in curved path, at the same time! Electrostatic lines of force behave as if they are both straight and curved lines. Electrostatic fields behave as if they ‘propagate’ both at the speed of light and with infinite speed, at the same time! This paper is a summary of the findings reported in previous papers published by this author. An extensive theoretical research carried out by this author in an attempt to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and other light speed experiments led to uncovering of the broader and more fundamental nature of duality in electromagnetism.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1714] viXra:1708.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-12 12:15:20

E=mc2

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

The formula E=mc2, which states that the energy content of a massive object is equal to that object's mass times the speed of light squared, is incorrect. Why?, because that formula implies that a mass requires an infinite amount of energy to reach the speed of light. The term "infinite" is often used by physicists but they don't seem to realize that it's unrealistic/unnatural, it tells us that E=mc2 is a mistake and I can explain why.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1713] viXra:1708.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-05 17:03:46

E=mc2

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

The formula E=mc2, which states that the energy content of a massive object is equal to that object's mass times the speed of light squared, is incorrect. Why?, because that formula implies that a mass requires an infinite amount of energy to reach the speed of light. The term "infinite" is often used by physicists but they don't seem to realize that it's unrealistic/unnatural, it tells us that E=mc2 is a mistake and I can explain why.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1712] viXra:1708.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-02 18:00:30

E=mc2

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

The formula E=mc2, which states that the energy content of a massive object is equal to that object’s mass times the speed of light squared, is incorrect. Why?, because that formula implies that a mass requires an infinite amount of energy to reach the speed of light. The term "infinite" is often used by physicists but they don't seem to realize that it's unrealistic/unnatural, it tells us that E=mc2 must be a mistake.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1711] viXra:1707.0376 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-04 15:37:38

Schwarzschild Cosmology

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 16 Pages.

The internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. An examination of the Hubble parameter and redshift is made and it is shown that the model agrees with cosmological data in predicting the transition redshift when the expansion of the Universe changes from deceleration to acceleration. Distance modulus is plotted against redshift and compared to cosmological data. The consequences for an observer in freefall in a local gravitational field are then examined in the context of this model. It is shown that the model predicts an accelerated expansion that agrees with current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1710] viXra:1707.0376 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-17 12:54:51

Schwarzschild Cosmology

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 16 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The expanding Universe is likened to a collapsing star in this context, where the future spacetime of the Universe is empty (justifying the vacuum solution) and the present is a 3-sphere boundary akin to the 2-sphere surface of a collapsing star. Because the present time of the Universe is the boundary, it sees the vacuum solution just as the surface of a collapsing star sees the vacuum solution. It is shown that the model predicts an accelerated expansion that agrees with current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, perhaps causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle. An examination of the Hubble parameter and redshift is made and it is shown that the model agrees with cosmological data in predicting the transition redshift when the expansion of the Universe changes from deceleration to acceleration. Distance modulus is plotted against redshift and compared to cosmological data. The consequences for an observer in freefall in a local gravitational field are then examined in the context of this model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1709] viXra:1707.0376 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-29 11:26:03

Schwarzschild Cosmology

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 12 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The expanding Universe is likened to a collapsing star in this context, where the future spacetime of the Universe is empty (justifying the vacuum solution) and the present is a 3-sphere boundary akin to the 2-sphere surface of a collapsing star. Because the present time of the Universe is the boundary, it sees the vacuum solution just as the surface of a collapsing star sees the vacuum solution. It is shown that the model predicts an accelerated expansion that agrees with current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. With a simple coordinate change we get a metric resembling the FRW metric for flat space with a time dependent scale factor. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, perhaps causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle. The consequences for an observer in freefall in a local gravitational field are then examined in the context of this model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1708] viXra:1707.0356 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 14:28:25

Do Universal Turing Machines Imply Special Relativity?

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 8 Pages.

My purpose with this paper is to show that the theory of special relativity is derivable from universal Turing machines. Specifically, I construct a partition function of Ω such that the program-runtime and the program-size are observables of a prefix free universal Turing machine. This partition function implies a maximum speed in bits per iterations of the UTM, which has a similar interpretation as the speed of light does in special relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1707] viXra:1707.0356 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 10:11:29

On an Entropic Universal Turing Machine Isomorphic to Physics

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 8 Pages.

My purpose with this paper is to show that the theory of special relativity is derivable from universal Turing machines. Specifically, I construct a partition function of Ω such that the program-runtime and the program-size are observables of a prefix free universal Turing machine. This partition function implies a maximum speed in bits per iterations of the UTM, which has a similar interpretation as the speed of light does in special relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1706] viXra:1707.0300 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-02 07:00:37

The Special Relativity Theory and Energy

Authors: Tsuneaki Takahashi
Comments: 3 Pages.

Considering Special Relativity Theory, energy has been derived through the case of mass points’ collision applying the equation from the theory. But the difference of space distance and the difference of time distance are based on the different view for each frame of references. So relativistic mass and energy quantity assumed real quantity should be tried to derive directly and deductively from the same assumption for the theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1705] viXra:1707.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-30 10:01:14

Dialogues Between Two Universes

Authors: Bandaru Ramu
Comments: 10 Pages.

I. Accelerating aspects can follow General relativity? II. Dialogues between : 1.Acceleration by dark energy and Acceleration by gravitation 2. Expanding Universe and Rotating Universe 3. Finite space and infinite space
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1704] viXra:1707.0190 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-09 12:47:15

Demonstration of Existence of Superlight Speeds

Authors: Mamaev A.V.
Comments: 4 Pages. The article is published in the journal "The Scientific Heritage" # 14 (14) 2017

This paper introduces an idea of experimental demonstration of electrons superluminal speed existence or non-existence in vacuum of near-Earth space of Universe. As according to Einstein’s special relativity theory superlight speeds of both particles having non-zero mass and particles with zero mass are forbidden, such an experiment will either confirm Einstein’s special relativity theory in the part of absence in Nature of superlight speeds of any particles or disprove Einstein’s theory clearly, crudely and seeably.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1703] viXra:1707.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-26 11:06:39

Effects of Coordinate Curvature on Integration

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, the integration of a function over a curved manifold is examined in the case where the curvature of the manifold results in a varying density of coordinates over which the function is being integrated where the upper bound of the of integration is infinity. It is shown that when the coordinate density varies in such a case, the true area under the curve is not correctly calculated by traditional techniques of integration. This situation is then applied to the Schwarzschild metric and geodesic equation of General Relativity to examine the proper time taken for a freefalling observer to reach the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1702] viXra:1707.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-06 09:26:52

Integration Over Manifolds with Variable Coordinate Density

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper, the integration of a function over a curved manifold is examined in the case where the curvature of the manifold results in a varying density of coordinates over which the function is being integrated where the upper bound of the of integration is infinity. It is shown that when the coordinate density varies in such a case, the true area under the curve is not correctly calculated by traditional techniques of integration, but must account for the varying coordinate density. This integration technique is then applied to the Schwarzschild metric of General Relativity to examine the proper time taken for a freefalling observer to reach the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology