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2015 - 1501(40) - 1502(28) - 1503(27) - 1504(30) - 1505(29) - 1506(32) - 1507(2)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1680] **viXra:1507.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-02 07:25:19*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

With simple, but vivid argument I am proving, what the Universe has the Beginning, will have the End and is finite in volume. Tell the others on Facebook, Twitter, etc, to make this world a better place to live and think.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1679] **viXra:1507.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 03:40:35*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Satisfied all possible experimental misses of General Relativity by simple and logical modification of Einstein equations. Namely to the left hand is added besides the cosmological constant the Dark Matter tensor. Hereby the Dark Matter is not discovered as the material one, because it is the phantomic matter: just the modification of the geometry rules. Tell the others on Facebook, Twitter, etc, to make this world a better place to live and think.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1678] **viXra:1506.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-29 01:42:05*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 67 Pages. New Trends in Physics /book, elementes pictures, spheres in nuclei, forecasted nuclei, ZOO-3D editorfor interactive inspecting of nuclei spheres/, Academic Electronic Press, Bratislava, 2000, CD- ROM, ISBN 80-88880-38-6. http://www.trendsinphysics.info

Coming out from the motto we are going to revalue the experiments of Fizeau, Harres, Kaufmann, Michelson-Morley, which gave rise to Einstein's special and general theory of relativity. All these experiments are revalued from the point of view of the submitted new theory of relativity based on the new definition of medium, the new generalized law of inertia, the new law of propagation of light (waves, intensity), the new definition of equivalent coordinates system, the new principle of relativity. It has been derived the asymmetric form of intensity of the electric field of moving charge at the velocity of 0.001c-c. The theoretical values resulting from the new theory are compared with the experimental Kaufmann's values. It is affirmed the general validity of Maxwell's equations (not only in statics).
The results of Fizeau's and Harres' experiments prove the theory of non-linear form of interference field in moving medium without the drag coefficient. There are mentioned the correct relations for Doppler's effect. In the results of the theory there is outlined the possible generalization for the fields, in which the speed of propagation is finite. For the gravitational field there is outlined the way of getting off the Earth by means of rotation. It is explained the new determination of energies and velocities of particles for nuclear field. There are mentioned the relations for energy and the calculations of the radius of moving particles force reach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1677] **viXra:1506.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-29 02:50:52*

**Authors:** Christian Corda, R. Katebi, N. O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Paper dedicated to the 80th birthday of Mr. Ruggero M. Santilli, hoping that this will permit Santilli to understand how GTR and Lambda-CDM cosmology really work and, in turn, will permit him to withdraw his very wrong claims in gravitation and cosmology

In a series of papers, Santilli and collaborators released various strong statements against the general theory of relativity (GTR) and the stan-
dard Lambda-CDM model of cosmology. In this paper we show that such claims are due to fundamental misunderstandings of very basic concepts of gravitation and cosmology. In other words, we show that Santilli and collaborators demonstrated nothing. In particular, they demonstrated neither that the GTR is wrong, nor that the Universe is not expanding. We also show that the so-called iso-gravitation theory (IGT) of Santilli is in macroscopic contrast with geodesic motion and, in turn, with the Equivalence Principle (EP) and must therefore be ultimately rejected. Finally, we show that, although the so called iso-redshift could represent an interesting alternative
(similar to the tired light theory historically proposed by Zwicky) to the Universe expansion from a qualitative point of view, it must be rejected from a quantitative point of view because the effect of iso-redshift is 10^−6
smaller than the effect requested to achieve the cosmological redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1676] **viXra:1506.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 15:08:41*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper I introduce the General Lorentz transformations which are a generalization of the original Lorentz transformations. These new transformations are the foundations of a new theory of relativity that I call: General Special Relativity (or Special Relativity based on the General Lorentz transformations). In this paper (a) I derive the formula for time dilation, (b) the formula for length contraction, (c) a new relativistic velocity addition formula which encompasses Einstein's
counterpart, and finally (d) I prove that Newton's law of Universal Gravitation is invariant under a General Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1675] **viXra:1506.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 08:59:24*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 7 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

In general, the modification of our understanding of space and time undergone through Einstein's relativity theory is indeed a profound one. But even Einstein's relativity theory does not give satisfactory answers to a lot of questions. One of these questions is the problem of the ‘true’ tensor of the gravitational field. The purpose of this publication is to provide some new and basic fundamental insights by the proof that the gravitational field and time is equivalent even under conditions of the general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1674] **viXra:1506.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 15:58:43*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: People everywhere are awaiting with bated breath the discovery of supersymmetry at the LHC. We already have made the discovery - the ttH process entity by the ATLAS collaboration. There is no compelling reason why a proof of supersymmetry requires finding a partner pair particle. It should suffice to show that a supersymmetric force exists bringing bosons and fermions together in violation of the teachings of quantum mechanics, and this has been accomplished.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1673] **viXra:1506.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-23 16:13:53*

**Authors:** Pavel Voráček

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

We present here a model for a common explanation of the phenomena of the dark energy and dark matter, which is lying outside the General relativity theory, yet still compatible or, perhaps, even complementary to it.
We discuss the principal results of the method of the *Causal dynamical triangulations*, when applied under the assumption of topology *S ^{3}* of our world,

[1672] **viXra:1506.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-23 01:20:36*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Based on materialist dialectics, both`time and space have the duality, namely absoluteness and relativity. If absolute time and absolute space cannot exist, then relative time and relative space cannot exist too; vice versa. However, they aren’t equal. Absolute time and absolute space are more important, because they are the reference systems of relative time and relative space respectively. In addition, the absolute space is flat, while the relative space may be flat also may be curving. As for the dimensions of time and space, it is an extremely complicated question, we need to discuss the complicated time and the complicated space. The absolute space is three-dimensional, the absolute time is one-dimensional that is formed by the three-dimensional absolute time. For the relative space, it may have the multi-dimensional space, fractal dimensional space, plural dimensional space, variable dimensional space. For the relative time, it may have the multi-dimensional time, fractal dimensional time, plural dimensional time, variable dimensional time too, they are corresponding to the relative spaces. In other words, the relationship between space and time is the one by one corresponding relations. It is different to the general viewpoint that space is three-dimensional and time is one-dimensional, according to the viewpoints of self-similarity and similarity of fractal theory, three-dimensional time is derived. With the Lorentz transformation of Relativity, this paper presents the special form of three-dimensional time for a special case, which is also written as the form of variable dimension fractal. The examples given in this paper show that to establish the frames of multi-dimensional time, multi-dimensional space and the like, not only are possible but also necessary in some cases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1671] **viXra:1506.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-22 12:14:25*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I derive the classical formula for the kinetic energy of a particle from Einstein's
relativistic kinetic energy without the use of the binomial expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1670] **viXra:1506.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-20 07:03:08*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 10 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

A proper discussion of the various philosophical views of the nature of time and gravitational field and the different issues related to time as such would take us far beyond the scope of this article. For our purposes, time and gravitational field are related somehow. In any case, especially due to Einstein’s relativity theory, there is a very close relationship between time the gravitational field and vice versa. The aim of this publication is to work out the interior logic between gravitational field and time. As we will see, the gravitational field is equivalent to time and vice versa, both are equivalent or identical.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1669] **viXra:1506.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-19 16:42:54*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 7 journal pages

The ‘relativistic” mass concept is rooted in the problematic longitudinal and transverse mass equations emerging from the Lorentz transformation, as presented by Einstein in his 1905 paper on Special Relativity. These equations, although actual outcomes of the Special Relativity, and verified in this paper through both simplified dimensional analyses and conservation of energy principle, had later been implicitly dropped and replaced by an ad-hoc relativistic mass equation, needed to maintain the consistency of the Special Relativity with the conservation of momentum law—although it results in its violation of the law of conservation of energy. Maintaining the latter law, results in the same transverse mass equation as obtained in Einstein’s said paper. The relativistic mass adopted in the literature is but an attempt to conceal contradictions in the Special Relativity, and a convenient means for arriving at the relativistic kinetic energy formula implying the desired mass-energy equivalence equation E = mc2. In this paper, the incoherence of the Special Relativity emerging from its established mass formulae is revealed through simplified physical demonstrations. Depending on the force definition and the “moving” mass equation used, four different formulae for the relativistic kinetic energy are obtained, all validated from the Special Relativity perspective, creating a detrimental incoherence in the theory. All these formulae are reduced to the classical kinetic energy equation for v << c (v = velocity, c = speed of light). It is revealed that the energy equation E = mc2 is not a valid consequence of the Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1668] **viXra:1506.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-19 12:04:12*

**Authors:** Octavian Balaci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Reassert the old twin paradox in a new light leading to conclusion that theory of relativity is inconsistent with physical reality. Symmetric twin paradox using two clocks in a special designed setup.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1667] **viXra:1506.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-18 09:28:07*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic field transformation and the electro-magnetic field equation (Maxwell equation) in Rindler spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1666] **viXra:1506.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-18 04:33:52*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Unification? The high energy formulation of the Maxwell's equations that permit the gravity quantization with gravitoelectromagnetism

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1665] **viXra:1506.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-17 15:35:21*

**Authors:** Peter CM Hahn

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The following article describes a unique and innovative design for a gravitational wave detector. Unlike current interferometer-based detectors that claim to measure distortions of space caused by gravitational waves, a Time Variance - Gravitational Wave Detector (TV-GWD) measures changes in the rate of flow of time. Details of the design are presented, as well as photos of an actual working prototype.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1664] **viXra:1506.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-17 11:45:04*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Spanish

In 1919 Einstein published an article in which he stated that the charged particles were stable as a result of a force of gravitational origin. Einstein modified the equation of general relativity, changing the numerical coefficient 1/2 by 1/4. The new theory satisfies all the results of General Relativity, and introduced naturally the cosmological constant, explaining the tension of Poincare as a gravitational effect. We analyze this theory of Einstein and check that there are no spherical particles and static.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1663] **viXra:1506.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 15:58:51*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This is the French version of «RECYCLED RELATIVITY» on http://viXra.org/abs/1506.0125

Les vérifications expérimentales de certaines formules de la théorie de la relativité concernant les idées d’Einstein sur le temps et l'espace relatifs ne peuvent être remises en cause. Mais il en est autrement pour ce qui est d’affirmer la validité de l’interprétation d’Einstein. Bien que temps et longueur propres soient aussi essentiels dans la théorie de la relativité générale que la loi d’isotropie et la constance de la vitesse de la lumière dans les systèmes galiléens de la relativité restreinte, cela n’empêche pas de signaler trois antinomies qui apportent des contradictions, écorchent les invariances et projettent une lumière crue sur les insuffisances de la théorie einsteinienne : l’effet Allais qui semble faire varier le potentiel gravitationnel et donc le temps propre ; l’effet Pioneer qui indique que l’énergie diminue avec la distance ; le neutrino apparemment superluminique qui emprunte un chemin plus court que le photon, ce que nous dénommons « oscillations temporelles du neutrino ». Plusieurs physiciens nient l’existence de ces anomalies, d’autres les attribuent à des bris techniques ou à des erreurs d’expérience. Nous traitons ces trois cas avec les formules de la relativité avec des points de vue forcément différents d’Einstein, sans toutefois remettre en cause la constante de la vitesse de la lumière.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1662] **viXra:1506.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 08:11:53*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. no comments

In this paper the Kepler’s third law is derived for circular orbits using the two different metrics. The resulting formulas are compared with the formula for the Kepler’s third law derived from the Newtonian physics. The derivation is using the Lagrange formalism, but comments are made on error in derivation that has appeared in previous publication. It is found that the Kepler’s third law derived using the Schwarzschild metric results in an identical formula obtained from the Newtonian physics of a flat spacetime geometry. This clearly illustrates a problem for the Schwarzschild metric and consequently for the General Relativity Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1661] **viXra:1506.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 09:18:15*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The experimental verification of certain formulas of the theory of relativity concerning Einstein's ideas about relative time and space cannot be called into question. But it is otherwise with respect to assert the validity of the interpretation of Einstein. Although proper time and length are as essential in the theory of general relativity as the isotropic law and the constancy of the speed of light in the Galilean systems of special relativity, this does not preclude to stress three antinomies that bring contradictions, scratch the invariances and cast a harsh light on the shortcomings of Einstein's theory: the Allais effect that seems to make vary the gravitational potential and therefore the proper time; the Pioneer effect indicating that the energy decreases with distance; the apparent superluminal neutrino which takes a shorter path than the photon, what we term "neutrino’s temporal oscillations". Several physicists deny the existence of these anomalies, others attribute them to technical failures or to experiment errors. We treat these three cases with the formulas of relativity with necessarily different points of views than Einstein, without, however, questioning the constant nature of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1660] **viXra:1506.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-13 10:24:19*

**Authors:** Gocho V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

This article closes one important page of the 20th century physics – the “Theory of Relativity”. A thorough analysis of the Theory of Relativity was started with the publications of the articles “The Speed of Light and Uncertainty Principle of the Macro-world” and “Awareness of Special and General Relativity and Local and General Physical Reality”. The present article is expressly written in comprehensible language and starts with the awareness of the essence of the Special Relativity. The formulated “MODEL OF UNCERTAINTY OF THE UNIVERSE” and “THESIS ABOUT THE BEHAVIOR OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IN GRAVITATIONAL FIELD”, which actually replaces the postulate of invariance of the speed of light formulated by Albert Einstein. On the base of this thesis, all the “unexpected” and “inexplicable” results of the most famous experiments related to the measurement of the speed of light obtain its genuine explanations. The conclusion of the theory of relativity is given as a result of the awareness of the physical reality (based as well and on a Einstein’s quotation about the validity of the theory of relativity). However, the final and complete conclusion about the Theory of Relativity will be given only by the readers and the time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1659] **viXra:1506.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-13 04:30:52*

**Authors:** Jung Lee

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

A new paradigm is now needed to disprove the common perception of Heisenberg’s experimental observations. A theoretical framework which will replace uncertainty with knowledge. One in which both the velocity and location of any particle can be determined with exact certainty. That the mathematical and logical paradox of singularity do not exist, as well as explain the apparent behavior of photons as both particles and waves is an easily understood and calculable phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1658] **viXra:1506.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-12 16:34:26*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: For supersymmetry, many new partner matter particles are expected. But because E8 x U(1) is the symmetry of our universe, however, we allow only 2 more particles (250 total). These would be ttH and ttZ type fermibosonic supersymmetric entities for use in transporting mass from an earlier old universe to a newer universe without violating flatness.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1657] **viXra:1506.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-11 10:06:36*

**Authors:** Valery Zhukov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Author present the calculation of the absorption cross section by Lyman alpha line depending on the concentration of neutral hydrogen in intergalactic medium (IGM), different from the calculation, proposed by J. Gunn and B.Peterson. The method proposed by Y. B. Zel'dovich and Y. P. Rajzer serves as a basis for calculation. The calculation shows that the concentration of neutral hydrogen in the IGM can reach 10 ⁻³ cm³ and more, in this case the Gunn-Peterson effect will not be observed. The probable mechanism of "blueing" of the galaxies spectrum is examined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1656] **viXra:1506.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-11 03:23:56*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Further developments on the paper will be communicated

The paper investigates the possibility of continuous variation of a manifold starting from a given one. Theoretical investigation engenders the fact that such a continuous passage is not possible provided you start from a given manifold specified by its metric coefficients. You have to move in discrete steps starting from the given one, satisfying some equations discussed in the paper. A manifold surface can always be constructed using arbitrary continuous and differentiable functions as metric coefficients. The ensuing Ricci tensor and Ricci scalar will always satisfy the Bianchi Identity and hence the field equations. The functionals in the general Relativity use the Ricci scalar [ensuing from the metric coefficients] as arguments. Different surfaces[manifolds ] are generated by varying the metric coefficients [in order to vary the Ricci scalar or such functions as dependent on it]. In each case the manifold satisfies the Bianchi identity and hence the Field Equations prior to the application of the stationary action principle. This perhaps induces a motivation for discretization. Discretization will modify all the principles involved in General Relativity making them of a suitable nature in the present context. This may open up the gates for including the General Relativity Lagrangians in a more rigorous manner.[Basic calculations have been incorporate in the red lighted section: Variation of the Action]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1655] **viXra:1506.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-10 09:35:08*

**Authors:** W. B. Belayev

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2015 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.

The existence of negative pressure of vacuum follows from the
cosmological models, based on the results of observations. But, is
it possible to detect the pressure of the vacuum as per the
geometry of the space around the local bodies? The gravitational
mass of bodies placed in confined volume, is less than the sum of
the gravitational masses of these bodies, dispersed over infinite
distance. It interprets into the transfer of energy to the vacuum,
which becomes apparent from its deformation. We determine the
gravitational impact of matter on the vacuum, equal in value and
opposite in the sign of pressure, in case of weakly gravitating
spherical bodies. We have evaluated a possibility to extend the
obtained result to arbitrary gravitational systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1654] **viXra:1506.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-10 09:58:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

“Sloppy copying” is all that is needed to preserve physics as we know it, Black holes aren’t exactly the monolithic cosmic nether regions that theoretical physicists once thought. Sci-fi visions of black hole ‘event horizons’ through which all incoming matter — and the information that goes with it — simply disappears are now a bit out of date. In fact, black holes even obey known laws of physics, says the lead author a new study that arguably solves a decades-old conundrum known as the ‘black hole information paradox.’ [10]
That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9]
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1653] **viXra:1506.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-08 00:56:27*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This paper has been submitted for review to Indonesian Journal of Theology. Comments are welcome.

This article discusses an outline of a new Cosmology model based on my interpretation
of the Johannine Prologue. The objective of this article is to propose a new Cosmology model which is biblically sound and scientifically verifiable, inspired by Cosmic Christology of the Johannine Prologue. Because this is only an outline, it should be obvious that this is not a complete and working cosmology model. More research is needed to develop it further and also to test this idea. New experiments may be expected in the future to verify this proposal.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1652] **viXra:1506.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-07 03:35:22*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In article is presented the Creation Hypothesis without Big-Bang and without any other coherent energy-level . An extend elucidation has been previously done for some very important definitions as that of Quanta of Space and the Quanta of Energy .The expansion of the universe occurs by THE rolling, of the light velocity Moving Dark-Matter-Energy Heap mixture , on the Rest Gravity-Field-Energy Base , which consists a parallel motion and not parallel universes as said . It has been elucidated the Origin and the Nature of Particles Fermions and Bosons , what is Gravity - field , Gravity – force , Dark – matter and Dark-energy. It was analyzed that Gravity–field is a Rest of two opposite signed elements which consist the minimum energy quanta Spinning space and this because of dipole nature , and jointed by the Gravity-force which is the Maxwell`s-Gravity`s Displacement current , and which acts on any other moving or not particle. Because Dark-matter moves with the constant velocity ,c, and is composed of the two opposite signed elements also , and Dark-energy moves also with velocity of light , so is continually effecting on the two fragments separately and are slinging them further , formulating the Infinite and attracting Geometrical Universe , i.e. the mixture of the spherical and opposite signed elements which highlights, and the dipole from them which form the heavy and massive invisible Dark matter , the dipole energy blobby volumes are the massive Dark Fringes which repel .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1651] **viXra:1506.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-05 03:56:39*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Field-theoretical arguments are advanced which question the validity of the theory of General Relativity. In particular, we expect that retardation effects will substantially modify it's result for the perihelion shift of Mercury.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1650] **viXra:1506.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-03 09:55:33*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Spanish

The first serious attempt by Einstein to construct a unified field theory was developed during the year 1923 when he published several articles on the purely affine theory which was quickly forgotten. In the next two years, Einstein continued working in this field and the result was a metric-affine theory published in 1925 and which we present in this article. We continue the investigation of Einstein detailing all subsequent calculations and adding contributions from other authors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1649] **viXra:1506.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-03 04:04:45*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper let us consider the general law of motion with regard to two particular fields of force with central symmetry: the static gravitational field for massive systems and the electrostatic field for charged systems. The general law of motion in both cases is defined by a linear differential equation of the first order with respect to the speed and by a linear differential equation of the second order with respect to position. The solution of the motion law is researched here whether when prospective external resistences to motion are neglected or when those resistant forces, due to the resistence of medium where motion happens, are actually present. Besides we will consider the variation of mass with the speed relative to those physical systems that present this characteristic during motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1648] **viXra:1506.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-01 11:20:32*

**Authors:** Doug Marett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Since the introduction of fiber optic gyroscope in the late 1970’s 1, the need for accurate inertial navigational instruments has driven the evolution of the device into complex open or closed loop designs manufactured with expensive polarization maintaining fibers and fused fiber optic elements. Our goal herein is to describe a novel fiber optic Sagnac interferometer design made with readily available single mode (SM) components. The device utilizes a unique manual phase control method based on a single paddle fiber optic loop. This method allows the interferometer to be manually adjusted to the anti-phase condition prior to any measurements. Also described is the implementation of a wireless data logger whose output can be displayed in Excel. Since the output voltage verses rotation rate is not linear, we further develop an equation predicting the expected voltage output verses angular velocity which matches a physical model of the superimposition of the counter-propagating waves at the photo-detector. We demonstrate a lack of Doppler shift in the rotating frame consistent with a classical explanation of the Sagnac effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1647] **viXra:1505.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-29 15:35:36*

**Authors:** Todd Sicklinger

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Is the Universe expanding? No, the Universe is contracting!! When we observe light from distant Galaxies, the light has longer wavelengths and its photons have less energy than the light emitted by identical objects located closer to us. Additionally, the observations of type 1A supernovas indicates that the amount of redshift is increasing with time. The concept of Dark Energy has been postulated to explain this apparent acceleration. However, the observations have been misinterpreted and the Universe is actually contracting. The action of a contracting Universe is applied to objects in the universe through a change in the metric tenser and this change causes all objects in the Universe to have increased velocity with respect to an observer when the energy density of the Universe increases. Additionally, the contraction of the Universe causes the physical size (volume) of every massive object in space to decrease and the energy density of every object to increase, where this change in size is explained by an intimate unification relationship between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics caused by the uncertainty factor. Essentially, we change size at the same relative rate as the universe, but we observe the Universe as Contracting because our rate of time has also increased.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1646] **viXra:1505.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-29 14:09:19*

**Authors:** Randolf Rolff

**Comments:** 12 pages; German language – Deutsch: Theorie der 4-dimensionalen Materiewellen

This paper describes relativistic effects in the absolute, but 4-dimensional geometric space and with an absolute world time.
According to the special relativity theory (SRT) matter moves continuously in the space-time-continuum, in case of zero kinetic energy along the time axis. This is illustrated clearly in the Epstein-diagram [Epstein, Lewis C. Relativitätstheorie anschaulich dargestellt. Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag, 1988]. Hence an absolute base point doesn’t exist. All movements are relative.
In contrast to this motion, the theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave presented here postulates a particle (e.g. an electron) is as a real matter wave in a 4-dimensional and absolute space. In accordance to this theory matter is moving always as a wave with the speed of light. In case of zero kinetic energy this movement runs along the 4th geometric dimension.
The resulting relativistic effects of movement in the space-time-continuum versus movement in the 4-dimensional space are nearly identical due to the similarity of these movements. However the theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave postulates a 4-dimensional and always Euclidean space.
The result of this work is an alternative but still mathematically exact point of view of relativistic physics. In contrast to the SRT, it is not dominated by abstract, mathematical axioms. Typical difficulties for intuitive understanding of SRT like the inhomogeneity of the time-axis in comparison with the space-axes or the curved space are avoided in this theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1645] **viXra:1505.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-27 09:47:33*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the present note, we consider the relativistic effects, according to SR, on the "travelling" twin's spatial body dimensions and weight.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1644] **viXra:1505.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 17:36:05*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Recent work (see ref. 1) of the ATLAS collaboration indicates that fermibosonic entities basic to the new theory of a cyclic universe of E8 symmetry exist (ttH process entities). It may be impossible to show the negative mc^2 character of the Higgs component crucial to a complete theory, however.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1643] **viXra:1505.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 11:33:16*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Unpublished, unfinished draft published now because posterity, diagrams and stuff, etc.

It is widely accepted that a new paradigm is needed to unify the standard cosmological model (SCM) and the minimal standard model (MSM). The purpose of this article is to construct a modified cosmological model (MCM) that can serve as an entirely new paradigm in physics. Following the program of Penrose, geometry rather than differential equations will be the mathematical tool. Where possible, well-defined thought experiments are employed. Analytical methods from loop quantum cosmology are examined in the context of the Poincare conjecture. A new boundary condition is proposed for perturbative gauge theory as a string theory in twistor space. This new degree of freedom allows a reformulation of string theory without reference to any dimensionful parameter. An external time with which to evolve quantum gravity is derived. The MCM predicts dark energy, parity violation, finite vacuum energy density, and a preferred cosmological axis. Observable predictions specific to the MCM are offered for unified investigative effort.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1642] **viXra:1505.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 11:22:27*

**Authors:** Javier Bootello

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Comments are welcome

This article checks a perturbing gravitational potential, with the energy of elliptic orbits. This potential produces a permanent decrease of the eccentricity and the semi-major axis however it is a conservative angular momentum motion. Results have consistent accuracy with the detected increase of the Astronomical Unit and also with eccentricity of the Moon, but only in the perigee. Perturbing potential is also consistent with the relativistic precession of planets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1641] **viXra:1505.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 07:45:53*

**Authors:** Juergen Eibisch

**Comments:** 14 Pages. in german

Abstract
Contrary to the big bang theory a model is introduced starting out from a
universe with coherent energy level. The start of the material cosmos took place
by forming one seed with subsequent growth. Necessary elementary particles are
defined. The well-known natural laws hold on the basis of Planck length, Planck
time, and Planck mass. The cosmic background radiation is used to determine
more precisely the value of the Hubble’s parameter (Hubble’s constant). Coming
into being and passing away of cosmoses in the universe can be understood as a
cyclic process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1640] **viXra:1505.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 16:13:55*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 8 Pages; 4 References

Since its final version and publication in 1916, it is widely reported in several specialized
textbooks and research articles that General Relativity theory reduces to Newton's theory of gravity in the limit of a weak gravitational field and slowly moving material bodies. In the present paper, the so-called reducibility of Einstein's geodesic and field equations, to Newton's equation of motion and Poisson's
gravitational potential equation, respectively, is scrutinized and proven to be mathematically, physically and dimensionally incorrect, and that the geometrization of gravity is unnecessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1639] **viXra:1505.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-24 09:23:56*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, if we use Einstein’s gravity field equation, we can discover the General Robertson-Walker solution and new solution in the cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1638] **viXra:1505.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 14:35:07*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is well known that stars oscillate perpendicular to their axis of rotation as they orbit galactic nuclei[1]. Since stellar orbits are not strictly elliptical, modifications to Kepler's laws will be introduced. It will be shown that the observed consistency in a star's orbital velocity is simply due to the law of conservation of angular momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1637] **viXra:1505.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 11:29:29*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Some of the massless fermibosonic entity fundamental to E8 symmetry universe theory failed to develop its fully massless character (i.e. the ttH process entity) during the prior unbroken E8 symmetry epoch before the big bang and now be observed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1636] **viXra:1505.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 22:27:07*

**Authors:** Sasongko Raharjo

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Velocity of an object can affect the gravitational acceleration. Black hole is an example where the light can form a circular orbit in the strong gravitational field. This light is moving around that causes the observer where is not in the path of the light orbit see the black hole as total darkness. In addition, when there is a high velocity of an object has been interacting with the gravitational acceleration, the object is in the micro or zero gravity relative to massive object therefor the gravitational acceleration does no longer exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[970] **viXra:1506.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 13:38:54*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper I introduce the Symmetric Lorentz transformations. These new transformation
equations are the foundations of a new theory of relativity that I call: Symmetric Special Relativity. In this paper I derive: (a) the formula for time dilation, (b) the formula for length contraction, (c) a new relativistic velocity addition formula which encompasses a part of Einstein's counterpart, and finally I prove that Newton's law of Universal Gravitation is invariant under a Symmetric Lorentz
transformation. It seems that the Symmetric Lorentz transformations can indicate whether a given mathematical description of nature is acceptable (e.g. Newton's Gravity Law). On the other hand, the Lorentz transformations, can indicate whether a mathematical description of a law of nature is, strictly speaking, true or false (e.g. The Maxwell equations).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[969] **viXra:1506.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-27 15:03:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I derive the classical formula for the kinetic energy of a particle from Einstein's
relativistic kinetic energy formula without the use of the binomial expansion. This method is
suitable to be taught in secondary schools' physics senior courses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[968] **viXra:1506.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-26 16:12:38*

**Authors:** Octavian Balaci

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Reassert the twin paradox in a new light, leading to the conclusion that the theory of relativity is inconsistent with the physical reality. Symmetric clocks paradox using two clocks in a special setup, in which both clocks are in inertial movement on the entire duration of experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[967] **viXra:1506.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 07:52:15*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic field transformation and the electro-magnetic field equation (Maxwell equation) in Rindler spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[966] **viXra:1506.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-20 07:44:06*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic field transformation and the electro-magnetic field equation (Maxwell equation) in Rindler spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[965] **viXra:1506.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-18 02:31:08*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Spanish

In 1919 Einstein published an article in which he stated that the charged particles were stable as a result of a force of gravitational origin. Einstein modified the equation of general relativity, changing the numerical coefficient 1/2 by 1/4. The new theory satisfies all the results of General Relativity, and introduced naturally the cosmological constant, explaining the tension of Poincare as a gravitational effect. We analyze this theory of Einstein and check that there are no spherical particles and static.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[964] **viXra:1506.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-18 12:13:25*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

In this paper the Kepler’s third law is derived for circular orbits using the two different metrics. The resulting formulas are compared with the formula for the Kepler’s third law derived from the Newtonian physics. The derivation is using the Lagrange formalism, but comments are made on error in derivation that has appeared in previous publication. It is found that the Kepler’s third law derived using the Schwarzschild metric results in an identical formula obtained from the Newtonian physics of a flat spacetime geometry. This clearly illustrates a problem for the Schwarzschild metric and consequently for the General Relativity Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[963] **viXra:1506.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-21 05:35:25*

**Authors:** Gocho V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

This article closes one important page of the 20th century physics – the “Theory of Relativity”. A thorough analysis of the Theory of Relativity was started with the publications of the articles “The Speed of Light and Uncertainty Principle of the Macro-world” and “Awareness of Special and General Relativity and Local and General Physical Reality”. The present article is expressly written in comprehensible language and starts with the awareness of the essence of the Special Relativity. It represents a new “MODEL OF UNCERTAINTY OF THE UNIVERSE” and “THESIS ABOUT THE BEHAVIOR OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IN GRAVITATIONAL FIELD”, which actually replaces the postulate of invariance of the speed of light formulated by Albert Einstein. On the base of this thesis, all the “unexpected” and “inexplicable” results of the most famous experiments related to the measurement of the speed of light obtain its genuine explanations. The conclusion of the theory of relativity is given as a result of the awareness of the physical reality (based as well and on a Einstein’s quotation about the validity of the theory of relativity). However, the final and complete conclusion about the Theory of Relativity will be given only by the readers and the time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[962] **viXra:1506.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-11 18:17:46*

**Authors:** Valery Zhukov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Author present the calculation of the absorption cross section by Lyman alpha line depending on the concentration of neutral hydrogen in intergalactic medium (IGM), different from the calculation, proposed by J. Gunn and B.Peterson. The method proposed by Y. B. Zel'dovich and Y. P. Rajzer serves as a basis for calculation. The calculation shows that the concentration of neutral hydrogen in the IGM can reach 10⁻³ cm³ and more, in this case the Gunn-Peterson effect will not be observed. The probable mechanism of "blueing" of the galaxies spectrum is examined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[961] **viXra:1506.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-09 07:51:26*

**Authors:** Sandro Antonelli

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Publ.Date 23 may 2015 IJP Sciepub

The need of extending the theory of relativity has led M.Tailherer to the hypothesis of a new fundamental equation and constant, embodying in a unique wave equation for the graviton the link between gradient of curvature and deformation of metric. As direct continuation of a preceding work, here a new assessment of the constant S in the Vortex Theory of gravitation is given in a more direct approach than 1st approximation yielding S =(2.5±1.2)E-19 m-1. Issues are concerned fitting by Maple four binary systems data, also allowing to assign a meaningful inertial mass to the graviton (5.5±2.6)E-61 Kg confirming known heuristic bounding. In Appendix an easy way of getting the vortex’s gradient formula is shown along with the whole action of the model and the description of the tide effect on a test mass with respect to a x polarized gravitational wave in the case of an asymmetric source. Keywords: Alternative theories to General Relativity (TGR), Gravitational waves, Vorticity Tensor, Binary Star Systems, massive gravity. PACS. 04.30

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[960] **viXra:1506.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-06 03:13:45*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Spanish

The first serious attempt by Einstein to construct a unified field theory was developed during the year 1923 when he published several articles on the purely affine theory which was quickly forgotten. In the next two years, Einstein continued working in this field and the result was a metric-affine theory published in 1925 and which we present in this article. We continue the investigation of Einstein detailing all subsequent calculations and adding contributions from other authors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[959] **viXra:1505.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-09 13:36:49*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In Part I of this paper, a geometric interpretation of the expression Z_1 〖[Z_0]〗^(Z_2 ), where Z_0, Z_1, and Z_2 are complex numbers is investigated. The term real number in the context of this paper is defined as any number Z=ri^θ where r and θ are rational quantities and i^θ=e^(π/2 iθ) (the angular unit in which θ is measured is defined as the iota). It is proposed that real numbers as well as the bases in which the numbers are represented can be understood as pairs of helical structures with one helix representing the angular component of the number and the other helix representing the magnitude of the number. It is shown that exponentiation by a complex number can be view as interactions between these two helices.
In Part II, the results of Part I are applied to frames of reference free-falling into a black hole as well as the co-moving reference frames in expanding Universes. It is found that the radial space dimension inside the black hole is the imaginary time dimension outside the black hole; likewise, the time dimension in the black hole is the imaginary space dimension outside of it. Combining this with the findings of Part I, a description of the space and time inside, outside and at the event horizon is provided, and the resulting consequences are investigated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[958] **viXra:1505.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-27 13:30:24*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the present note, we consider the relativistic effects, according to SR, on the "travelling" twin's body dimensions and weight.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[957] **viXra:1505.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-05 14:11:55*

**Authors:** Javier Bootello

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Comments are welcome

This article checks a perturbing gravitational potential, with the energy of elliptic
orbits. This potential produces a permanent decrease of the eccentricity and the semi-major axis
however it is a conservative angular momentum motion. Results have consistent accuracy with the
detected magnitudes of the unexplained perturbations of the Astronomical Unit and also with
eccentricity of the Moon, but with the opposite sign. Perturbing potential is also consistent with the
relativistic precession of planets

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology