**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(20) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(10) - 1005(10) - 1006(12) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(10) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(36) - 1104(10) - 1105(5) - 1106(12) - 1107(16) - 1108(5) - 1109(12) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(16)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(23) - 1205(22) - 1206(14) - 1207(17) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(30) - 1305(25) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(28) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(36) - 1402(29) - 1403(33) - 1404(32) - 1405(38) - 1406(35) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(41) - 1411(32) - 1412(31)

2015 - 1501(41) - 1502(29)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1568] **viXra:1502.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 06:08:52*

**Authors:** Brett A Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I postulate the existence of a second time dimension, making five dimensions, three space dimensions and two time dimensions. I will postulate some basic properties based on a smoking gun and then use these basic properties to derive the time dilation equations of "Special Relativity", which helps defne additional properties of the second time dimension. The conclusion being that the Universe has five dimensions but that we only perceive four dimensions. Further more I will demonstrate that Newton's second law of motion still holds if you ignore the time contribution from the second time dimension and additionally as a result of this paper we will understand a little bit more about the very nature of time. I believe this to be quiet a significant paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1567] **viXra:1502.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-26 12:34:18*

**Authors:** Juergen Altenbrunn

**Comments:** 16 Pages. needs Theory of relativity without singularities

The cosmologic red shift is an effect of general relativity. It is possible to calculate cosmologic red shift of light, passing through a transparent continuum with mass. It is necessary to consider the mass variation caused caused from variation of potential energy demonstrated in [3] for this calculation. Result of this calculation is also an intensified increasing of cosmologic red shift at very long distances. Accelerated expansion of our universe or dark energy is not needed for this calculation, only pure theory of general relativity. It is possible to calculate the average density of our universe, if you know Hubble-constant. Calculated average density is 1.76*10^-26kg/m^3 by using a Hubble-constant of 21km/s per million light years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1566] **viXra:1502.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-26 15:00:00*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

An attempt is made to explain the Allais effect, the anomalous behavior of pendulums during a total solar eclipse, by Poisson diffraction of gravitational waves into the lunar shadow, with the waves emitted through large mass motion in the center of the sun by a thermonuclear fusion reaction driven magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Thermomagnetic currents in the tachocline shield the strong magnetic field in the solar core.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1565] **viXra:1502.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-26 12:04:28*

**Authors:** Juergen Altenbrunn

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Singularities are avoidable in theory of relativity by consideration of mass variation. Mass varies not only by changing of kinetic energy but also by changing of the potential energy of the mass. This variation of the mass follows the relation E = m * c^2. The mass will be lighter, it decreases in the same way as potential energy of this mass decreases. This will be very clearly by consideration of distances in the same range like Schwarzschild radius. Standstill mass is the potential energy against infinity.
The dissemination of the gravitational field varies near the mass also by consideration of mass variation. Also red shift varies near a heavy dense mass by consideration of mass variation. The event horizon disappears. Physics are possible inside of Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1564] **viXra:1502.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-24 07:58:41*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Astronomical observations of cosmological red-shift are currently interpreted in terms of ‘expansion of universe’ and ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’. Whereas a straight forward derivation presented here suggests that: it is not the universe, which is expanding, rather it is the photon which is decelerating, at the rate of H0 c; here H0 is Hubble’s constant, and c is the speed of light. (As soon as a new mechanism for the ‘cosmological red-shift’ is proposed, it is argued that: tired-light interpretations of cosmological red-shift’ are not compatible with the observations of ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. So in a paper titled: “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic ‘length-contraction’ and ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’” [1] it has been already shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. Therefore, we now need not remain confined to the Big Bang Cosmology, to understand the universe.) Since, as per this new interpretation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’, the ‘reduction-in-energy of the photon’ (h Δν) goes on reducing with every subsequent unit distance traveled by the photon; so the Red-shift-Distance-Curve automatically becomes non-linear, which has been creating an impression of ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’. As a supportive evidence for this proposal, it is shown that even the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses too did decelerate at the same rate H0 c [2]. And to counter-balance this deceleration, the accelerations at the boundaries of: the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies and the galactic-clusters too, are of the same order as H0 c. This coincidence was numerically found by Sivaram [3]; and is explained here, in terms of equilibrium between self-gravitational-acceleration of structures and the acceleration of the un-manifest-energy contained in space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1563] **viXra:1502.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-23 12:12:17*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, if we use Einstein’s gravity field equation, we can discover the General Schwarzschild solution. We obtain new solution in the General Schwarzschild solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1562] **viXra:1502.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 20:37:09*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

There are 4 particles Intrinsically (mc^2) more energetic than the copious tetraquark (4.430 GEV): The top quark (173 GEV), the Z particle (91.2 GEV), and the two W particles (80.4 GEV each). These are all much more energetic than the tetraquark and should be considered as a class of particle by themselves and as a group signaled by the copious tetraquark. The group is partly responsible for the E8-symmetry breaking at the time of the Big Bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1561] **viXra:1502.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-21 05:23:36*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Through the work of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Compton, Niels Bohr, and many others, current scientific theory holds that all particles also have a wave nature (and vice versa).[1] This phenomenon has been verified

Einstein's theory of relativity can not explain ...
1. Movement principles of the fast-spinning pulsars,
2. Nuclear Fusion ,
3. Wave - Particle Duality as Kinetic Energy Against and In Direction of Motion
4. the 4th Maxwell's equation,
5. Lorentz equals without the help of Space-Time,
6.Confinement of quarks
7. Great Table of Elementary Particles
8. Spectral line Hα
9. Neutrino Oscillations
10. Form of the interference field must be non-linear.
11.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field must be asymmetrical.
12.Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave
Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]
Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle
Tkin id = mc2[ln|1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)]
13. Yukawa potential

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1560] **viXra:1502.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-18 04:28:03*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article, which is a continuation of [36] and [37], we analyze the third of the purely affine theories Schrödinger (Schrödinger-III), where he used a connection asymmetric capable of accommodating the unification of the three fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1559] **viXra:1502.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 12:35:20*

**Authors:** Sjaak UItterdijk

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract – This article shows, from several points of view, why the equation E=mc2 must be an untenable equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1558] **viXra:1502.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 09:57:53*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

In this paper, the conclusive origin of the Special Relativity (SR) mathematical conflicts identified in the author’s prior related works will be presented and linked to these various conflicts. It is shown that for inertial reference frames in relative motion, the constancy of the speed of light postulate inherently results in time transformations independent of the spatial coordinates. The time of events occurring along the longitudinal coordinate axis is transformed with a different scaling factor than that of events occurring along the transverse coordinate axes. The incorporated x coordinate (considering that the relative motion is in the X-direction) in the Lorentz transformation time equation is the result of the assumption forcing the transformation to take a linear form as a function of the time and x coordinate. The SR derived Lorentz transformation time equation takes the assumed form by the aid of the imposed constancy of the speed of light equation, resolving itself as x’=ct’ and x=ct to supply the x’ and x terms to the assumed time transformation and its inverse, respectively. The resulting time transformation equation (and its inverse) dependence on the x’ (and x) coordinate is therefore fake, since x’ (x) in the transformation is nothing but ct’ (ct) making the transformation time-dependent only, yet contradicting the time transformation for events in the transverse Y-Z plane.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1557] **viXra:1502.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 09:04:27*

**Authors:** Jan Slowak

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Big Bang is the most accepted cosmological theory of the universe's origin and evolution. The most famous argument for this theory is so-called galactic escape. Analysis of the data contradicts this so important argument for the Big Bang theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1556] **viXra:1502.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-14 16:55:10*

**Authors:** D.G. Taylor

**Comments:** Pages.

Direct mathematic reasoning is used to show Escape velocity can never be greater than light speed||“c”. The White radiations from the Abell 2261 Galaxy Cluster should be much more Red-Shifted, because a large part of the signal would be generated at the border of that object. That is not observed.
For a theoretic ideal Schwarzschild object with Sagittarius A mass distortion ranges from infinity at the border to 7.49E44 one Planck length farther, to 1.21E10 a full metre from the border.
The gravity values range from:
3.71177227489019958645677741714417017372776536834702E6 m/s^2 – at the border.
To
3.71177227489019958645677741714417017372776535843664E6m/s^2 – one Planck length farther.
Then
3.71177227427702911490298860538514634565064802791866E6m/s^2 – at 1 full metre from the border.
The total range downward for DIFFERENCE gravity is less than - 6.13170471553788811759023828077117340428362310702818E-4
Whereas the PROPORTIONAL range downward for Relativistic distortion is infinite.
Even allowing for the fundamental arithmetic difference between Gravity and Escape velocity logic, the above values are not consistent

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1555] **viXra:1502.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-14 18:09:06*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We determine the relations of power product of physical quantities (PQs) by the generalized relation. Assuming the relations with two, three and four PQs to generalized relation separately, we find the corresponding general formulas. By ordering the exponent of physical constant in relations being zero or fit number, we gain many famous equations without factors such as mass-energy relation, formula of event horizon temperature of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH), equation of holographic dark energy (HDE) model, Casimir effect equation, Planck black body radiation formula, Stefan-Boltzmann law, Einstein field equation, Newtonian attraction law, Schr?dinger equation, Coulomb law, Newtonian second law, Clapeyron equation, formula of superconducting thin film, centrifugal force formula, etc. Some new relations are given including square of total energy with energy density of HDE, square of energy with its density of SBH, energy density with sextic radii of SBH, pressure in SBH centre and entropy density of SBH center. We show that the generalized relation can determine the relations of power product of two, three and four PQs, it is useful and significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1554] **viXra:1502.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-14 08:24:41*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Five-page paper

Accepting Einstein’s General Relativity Theory, that the changes in gravitational field can propagate at the speed of light, it is proposed here that: before an electron in an atom emits a photon, the energy (h f0) of the photon was a part of total energy of the atom; contributing to establishing the gravitational-field around the atom. As soon an electron in that atom emits a photon of energy h f0 , and the photon starts moving away from the atom, the gravitational-field around the atom partly reduces, proportional to the photon’s energy h f0 , and this wave of ‘reduced gravitational field’ propagates radially-outwards at the speed of light. And a part of energy of the photon gets spent in “filling” the ‘gravitational potential-well’ produced by its energy, when it was a part of energy of the atom. From the derivation presented here we find that the energy spent by the photon to “fill” the ‘gravitational potential-well’, during its inter-galactic journey manifests as the ‘cosmological red-shift’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1553] **viXra:1502.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-14 01:23:48*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We investigate the relations between the physical quantities and the physical constants by the dimensional analysis. From normal form of uncertainty relations (URs), we propose an assumption which the physical quantities have the formal symmetry with the physical constants; and find three basic formulas. A physical quantity has a corresponding Planck scale and many physical quantities have the same Planck scales because of the same dimensions. All Planck scales can be classified by two methods, one is the basic Planck scale and derived Planck scale, and another is Femi-Planck scale, Bose-Planck scale and other-Planck scale. The basic formulas can be rewritten as the ones of corresponding Planck scales. We find the generalized relation which the power products of physical quantities are equivalent to the ones of corresponding Planck scales. Heisenberg UR is part of the generalized relation when the reduced Planck constant ? appears. We also find the Big Bang UR between its temperature and volume by the generalized relation, and the Schwarzschild black holes (SBH) UR between its mass and volume. These suggest no singularity at Big Bang and in SBH with the quantum effect. We show that the generalized relation is interesting and significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1552] **viXra:1502.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-13 09:29:09*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Accepting Einstein’s theory, that the changes in gravitational field can propagate at the speed of light, it is proposed here that: before an electron in an atom emits a photon, the energy (h f0) of the photon was a part of total energy of the atom; contributing to establishing the gravitational-field around the atom. As soon an electron in that atom emits a photon of energy h f0 , and the photon starts moving away from the atom, the gravitational-field around the atom partly reduces, proportional to the photon’s energy h f0 , and this wave of ‘reduced gravitational field’ propagates radially outwards at the speed of light. And a part of energy of the photon gets spent in “filling” the ‘gravitational potential-well’ produced by its energy when it was a part of energy of the atom. From the Gauss’s law for gravity we find that the energy spent by the photon to “fill” the ‘gravitational potential-well’ during its inter galactic journey manifests as the ‘cosmological red-shift’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1551] **viXra:1502.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-12 09:26:57*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

The Neo-classical Theory of Relativity uses concepts of Classical Mechanics and Classical Electromagnetism to describe the relativity of inertial motion better than it is described in the Special Theory of Relativity conceived by Albert Einstein in 1905.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1550] **viXra:1502.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-12 09:04:46*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. In portuguese

We transform the Schwarzschild metric in spherical coordinates to rectangular, confirming that the conclusion obtained by Einstein for rules disposed perpendicular to a gravitational field remains unchanged when using the exact solution of Schwarzschild, obtained under the conditions of static field in vacuum and with spherical symmetry. Beyond this transformation also talked again about the speed of light in radial and perpendicular directions measures in the Earth's surface, we recall tests for the verification of the principle of the constancy of the speed of light and calculate the acceleration of light and bodies in generally, in a radial static gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1549] **viXra:1502.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-11 07:45:24*

**Authors:** Sjaak UItterdijk

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity (STR) is based on two, in 1905 not yet existing, postulates: one regarding the property of the velocity of light, the other regarding the phenomenon ‘time’. In this article it is demonstrated that both postulates are wrong. This must lead to the unavoidable conclusion that the STR is invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1548] **viXra:1502.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-10 12:07:24*

**Authors:** Mohammad Bahrami, Mehdi Zareie, Davood Hashemian

**Comments:** 13 pages, 3 figures and 1 table

We found out that force in nature cannot be infinite and by deriving Lorentz factor of force, we were able to obtain the relativistic form of the gravitation law and the second law of Newton. These relativistic equations are compatible with special relativity. We also propose a procedure for solving the dark matter problem in which the validity of these equations can be tested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1547] **viXra:1502.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-09 21:00:19*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Calculate the acceleration of light and bodies in general under the influence of a static gravitational field with spherical symmetry, in the vacuum and in a radial movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1546] **viXra:1502.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-09 09:40:00*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The consistency and, hence, validity of the theory of General Relativity is questioned.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1545] **viXra:1502.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-07 05:31:30*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Two-page priliminary note

Inverse square-law is followed by electric charges, gravity, and light. Light has shown even an unexpected property, of double-slit-interference of single photons. So it is not unreasonable to expect inverse-square-law to be followed by single photons. Assuming that the single photon is emitted either from the surface of an electron, or a globular-cluster, or a galaxy, the derivation presented here suggests that even a single photon seems to follow the inverse square-law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1544] **viXra:1502.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 23:33:41*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This was adapted by me from my entry in the Foundational Questions Institute’s (FQXi’s) 2015 contest, “Trick or Truth: the Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics”. My entry is “Explaining The Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics By Reconciling the Unified Field and Anthropic Principle” (http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2312). I’ve tried to make the article below understandable without referring to the FQXi entry, though it may well be recommended to view FQXi at times for more information. The article below touches on the following -
1) 3 POSITIVES OF SPACE-TIME, BLACK HOLES AND GRAVITY BALANCED BY A NEGATIVE HIGHER DIMENSION,
2) PARTLY REVISED GRAVITY REQUIRES THE IDEA OF NEWTON AND KEPLER THAT THE MOON CAUSES THE TIDES, TO BE JOINED WITH GALILEO’S PARTLY CORRECT IDEA THAT THE EARTH’S MOVEMENTS SLOSH ITS WATER
3) MICROWAVE BACKGROUND WITHOUT A BIG BANG, AND ALTERNATIVE TO INFLATION,
4) SUPERPOSED ELECTROMAGNETISM AND GRAVITY, QUANTUM SUPERPOSED PHOTON AND GRAVITON,
5) COSMIC EXPANSION VIA BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS,
6) RELATING MASS GENERATION BY PHOTON-GRAVITON INTERACTION TO BLACK HOLES, THE SOLAR NEBULA AND THE HIGGS BOSON,
7) HOLOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE, 5TH-DIMENSIONAL HYPERSPACE, AND DARK ENERGY

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1543] **viXra:1502.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-05 14:16:23*

**Authors:** Martin Erik Horn

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Dirac operator is the general relativistic generalization of Minkowski’s Lorentz operator and describes the geometric derivative in general relativity. But while the Dirac operator is discussed in length in books about Geometric Algebra, the discussion of the Lorentz operator usually is avoided. This leads to a huge didactical gap, as a discussion of the geometric derivative in special relativity becomes impossible without reciprocal frames.
These didactical problems are a consequence of three shocks special relativity suffered in its youth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1542] **viXra:1502.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-03 15:26:06*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 41 pages, 2 tables, 5 figures, 127 references

This paper provides an overview of the World – Universe Model (WUM). The World – Universe Model unifies and simplifies existing Cosmological models and results into a single coherent picture, and proceeds to compare the origin, evolution, structure, ultimate fate, and parameters of the World to the Big Bang Model.
WUM explains the experimental data accumulated in the field of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics over the last decades: the size and age of the World; critical energy density and the gravitational parameter; temperatures of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the peak of the far-infrared radiation; observed expansion of the World and cosmological redshift; gamma-ray background and macrostructure of the World. Additionally, the Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter particles, photons, axions, and neutrinos; proposes new types of particle interactions (Super Weak and Extremely Weak) and the fundamental physical parameters of the World; explains “Pioneer Anomaly” and the rise of the solar luminosity steadily from about 70% of its current value during the last 4.6 x 109 yr.
The Model proposes to introduce a new fundamental parameter Q in the CODATA internationally recommended values for calculating time dependent parameters of the World.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1541] **viXra:1502.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-02 06:24:35*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper reveals a mysterious exponential law governing the observed behavior of light. A new term is introduced: eV/c . Existing theories of light involve the terms like c + V, c - V, c2 - V2, (c2 - V2)1/2 . No existing theory of light gives a complete, clear and explicit explanation for values of V ≥ c and the significance. Special Relativity Theory (SRT) imposes an artificial constraint that nothing can move faster than the speed of light. Ether and emission theories do not address the case of V ≥ c . In emission theory, V ≥ c implies a bizarre consequence of light being dragged by its source. A formula of a true law of nature should return valid values representing real physical quantities for all valid values of its variables. It should allow all valid values of its variables. This has never been the case for light. For material waves, the condition V ≥ cm represents real physical quantities and phenomena. For sound waves, this represents shock waves and supersonic flight. Therefore, a true theory of light should at least fulfill the following conditions: 1. should be able to explain all conditions: V = 0 , V< c , V = c , V > c , V = ∞ , both for receding and approaching source observer relative motions, with a single formula. 2. Doppler effect: λ’ = λ for V = 0 , λ’ = ∞ for V = ∞ (receding) , λ’ = 0 for V= ∞ (approaching) 3. Constant phase velocity: λ . f = λ’. f’ = c . I already proposed the following theories in my previous paper[1]: 1. Both notions of motion and space (absolute and relative) are valid. But the ether doesn’t exist. 2. A universe without matter (massive cosmic objects) is Galilean space and Galileo’s principle of relativity applies to such a space. 3. Our real universe contains billions of stars and galaxies. Every massive cosmic object ( galaxies, stars, planets, ..) defines the space in its vicinity, with its influence diminishing with distance. Thus all cosmic objects in our universe have collectively created an absolute space. Many experiments have already detected absolute motion, including the Silvertooth, Marinov, CMBR frequency anisotropy measurement, Ronald de Witte experiments. 3. The effect of absolute motion is to create a change in path length, and not the speed, of light. The speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source, not relative to the real source. The effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the past position of the light source, relative to an observer. This theory reveals the fallacy in the conventional and modern Michelson-Morley experiments. 4. This theory explains why the measured speed of light was always independent of the velocity of its source, for source and observer in relative motion. The effect of absolute motion of the source is exactly canceled by the change in path length of light. 5. The phase velocity of light is always constant, both in Galilean space and in absolute space, where as the group velocity is variable. These theories explained most of the century old problem of absolute vs. relative and the puzzle of the speed of light. However, a few experiments and facts remained ‘anomalous’ . One of this is the red shift in the Ives Stillwell experiment. Related ones are the ‘GPS correction’ and ‘time dilation’ experiments. The effort to resolve this anomaly led to the discovery of the problem with the terms such as c + V, c - V, c2 - V2, (c2 - V2)1/2 in existing theories of light. It has been discovered that it is impossible to explain all possible conditions mentioned above ( i.e. 0 ≤ V≤ ∞ , .. ) with theories and formulas involving these terms. Search for the alternative single formula finally led to the discovery of the term: e V/ c governing all observed behavior of the speed of light.
Doppler effect: f ‘ = f . e V/ c , λ’ = λ . e V/ c
Absolute motion: D’ = D . e V/ c
For V ˂˂ c , the above formulas give the same result as conventional formulas containing the terms c + V , c – V , c2 – V2 , ( c2 – V2 )1/2 , with a typical error of 0.00017 % ( for absolute velocity Vabs = 390 Km/s ) . The new formula for Doppler effect predicts exactly the same red shift as Special Relativity : ½ β2 , in the Ives Stillwell experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1540] **viXra:1502.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 09:10:45*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** Français, 7 pages, site web: http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/index.html , English at: http://vixra.org/abs/1501.0255

Nous faisons un retour sur l’expression de la loi de Hubble, réduisons Ho à trois constantes fondamentales et définissons la surface de Hubble
σH.
We review Hubble’s law formulation, we reduce Ho to a combination of three fundamental constants and define the Hubble surface σH .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1539] **viXra:1501.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-31 13:07:08*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** English, 7 pages, also in French, Web site: http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/index.html .

We review Hubble’s law formulation, we reduce Ho to a combination of three fundamental constants and define the Hubble surface σH.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1538] **viXra:1501.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 21:42:43*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: the article presents the purpose of creation and the original principle of PI-Theory of fundamental physical constants.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1537] **viXra:1501.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 10:10:14*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. in the next version a necessary translation into English

We emphasize the need for more experiments to measure the variation of the speed of light in a gravitational field. Indicate an experimental procedure on the surface of the Earth that can provide a reasonable estimate of the true value of the speed of light in the absence of gravitational field. The speed of light in the absence of gravitational field is either infinite or very large (greater than we now know), and in the presence of gravitational field can vary throughout the day, like the Earth's surface, this according to General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1536] **viXra:1501.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-26 17:47:16*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Informally we explain the concept of space-time, we calculate the changes in space and time in a static gravitational field and with spherical symmetry (Schwarzschild solution) and, the most importantly, we obtained the corresponding variability of the speed of light in this field. Can be great the loss of speed of light in a gravitational field, which may explain the dark matter. More experiences with the speed of light must be made.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1535] **viXra:1501.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-25 04:34:01*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Submitted to EJP

The dependence of free fall acceleration on speed in the Schwarzschild space-time is obtained. It is confirmed that gravitation mass coincides with inertial mass

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1534] **viXra:1501.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-24 23:57:21*

**Authors:** Lutz Kayser

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The Einstein Postulates of Special Relativity (SR), namely the invariance of the speed of light c relative to the observer, the symmetry of relative velocities, and the Galilean Principle independent of velocity and gravitational potential are falsified. The replacement is Law 1: There exists an absolute universal velocity reference (Cosmic Velocity Reference, CVR) and Law 2: The speed of light c is invariant and isotropic only relative to absolute universal space CVR. Experimental evidence like Smoot’s anisotropy of the cosmic microwave radiation background CMB and the one-way measurements of the speed of light are given. From the new Laws it follows (in vector notation) c_rel = c - v_CVR This results in the elimination from physics the Minkovski four-vector spacetime symmetry, time dilation, length contraction, velocity and acceleration symmetrical Lorentz transformation, Einstein vector addition, covariance, invisible and unphysical net of monolithic worldlines, and other weird mathematical constructs without physical meaning resulting from Special Relativity SR and General Relativity GR. The mass increase of particles with speed by the so-called Lorentz Factor 〖ϒ=(1-v^2 /c^2 )〗^(-1/2) is so often cited by Relativists as empirical proof of SR. ϒ was fraudulently smuggled into SR without mathematical proof applying it to relative velocities which gives wrong results. We show that the Lorentz Factor is a simple part of the system of classical dynamic equations. But it is only valid with absolute cosmic velocity v_CVR . The increases of mass, momentum, and energy with an object’s velocity are correct but not part of or caused by SR. This is true also for the change of clock rate as a function of velocity and Newtonian gravity potential.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1533] **viXra:1501.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-24 11:19:26*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 9 pages. This paper is the French version of «MARS BLUE CLEARING AND ALLAIS EFFECT» on viXra.org/abs/1501.0219.

Une flambée de luminosité et des tempêtes se produisent sur Mars lorsque la Terre se trouve entre le Soleil et Mars. L’atmosphère et les nuages peuvent alors être vus et photographiés à la lumière bleue par des télescopes sur Terre équipés d’un filtre Wratten 47. Il arrive que l’écran bleu du filtre se mette soudain à disparaître et que la surface martienne devienne visible. Nous estimons que l’« effet Allais de syzygie » peut expliquer ce phénomène appelé « blue clearing ». L’opposition causerait une « tension gravito-électromagnétique ». Ce qui provoquerait des fluctuations dans le potentiel gravitationnel de Mars. En supposant que la gravité martienne diminue un tant soit peu, une diffusion Raman Stokes se manifesterait au niveau intramoléculaire de l’atmosphère martienne. Dès lors, ce sont surtout les ondes qui correspondent aux régions spectrales jaune, orange ou rouge qui sont diffusées, ce qui écarte les ondes courtes. On déduit que les dimensions des inhomogénéités résultant de l’animation thermique s’avèrent supérieures à la longueur des ondes lumineuses des régions violette ou bleue du spectre.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1532] **viXra:1501.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 16:21:09*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An outbreak of brightness and storms occur on Mars when the Earth is between the Sun and Mars. The atmosphere and clouds can then be seen and photographed at short wavelengths by Earth-based telescopes equipped with a Wratten 47 filter. It happens that the blue screen of the filter suddenly begins to disappear and that the Martian surface becomes visible. We believe that the "Allais syzygy effect" may explain this phenomenon known as "blue clearing". The opposition would generate a "gravito-electromagnetic tension", which would spawn fluctuations in the gravitational potential of Mars. Assuming that the Martian gravity decreased slightly, a Stokes Raman scattering would manifest at intramolecular level of the Martian. Therefore, it is mainly the waves corresponding to the spectral regions yellow, orange or red that are diffused, what eliminates short wavelengths. We deduce that the size of the inhomogeneities resulting from thermal excitation turns out to be greater than the length of the light waves of blue or purple regions of the spectrum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1531] **viXra:1501.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 17:20:04*

**Authors:** Timkov V. F., Timkov S.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Sources and physical nature of dark energy and dark matter can be explained, to find and to determine if it is assumed that after the Big Bang expanding spherical space of the Universe revolves around one of their central axes. Under this condition, loses its meaning and the concept of dark energy, and the imaginary phenomenon of divergence of the objects of the Universe, which is registered as a red shift based on the Doppler effect due to the increase of the linear velocity of these objects with increasing distances from the observer in a rotating spherical space of the Universe. The kinetic energy of the rotating Universe may be the source of dark matter. The energy of the accelerated expansion of the Universe by the pressure of the vacuum does not depend on the absolute value of the vacuum pressure, but it depends on the relative value. Relative value vacuum pressure is equal to the difference between the values of vacuum pressure at the boundary of the Universe to expand and beyond. Since this difference is equal to zero, then does not exist of dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1530] **viXra:1501.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 14:59:02*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of
a current. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern energy flow. Classical or quantum impedances, geometric or topological, scale invariant or scale dependent,
fermionic or bosonic, mechanical or electromagnetic or gravitational - impedance matching governs the flow of energy. This is a universal principle. As such, it is not surprising to find that quantized impedances provide an interesting sensibility when taken as a template for the Big Bang, presenting a detailed perspective on the first few zeptoseconds.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1529] **viXra:1501.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-20 14:52:58*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In portuguese

We examined the variations of space and time that occur under the influence of a gravitational field produced by a mass M, following the Foundations of General Relativity, by Einstein (1916). We conclude that when we use the conventional units for the speed of light resulting values are very different from those obtained by adopting the speed of light equal to 1, and that certainly could not be in agreement with the experimental values. The shortening of the rulers (scales) and slowness of the clocks would be much higher, as would no longer divided by the square of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1528] **viXra:1501.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-20 08:32:37*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Six page letter

Louis Marmet, in a paper titled: “On the Interpretation of Red-Shifts: A quantitative comparison of red-shift mechanisms-II” Dated 4th December 2014, [1] has briefly compiled around 59 candidate mechanisms, including the standard Big Bang Cosmology, attempting to explain the observation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’. This paper proposes some criteria for short-listing the most likely explanations; and adds some more explanations to the list. The need for considering alternative mechanisms arises because the Big Bang cosmology is based on the assumption of homogeneity and isotropy of space at 100 M pc scale, for the explanation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’, whereas linear Hubble law is observed even at 1 M pc distances, where distribution of matter and energy is clearly not homogeneous. And Big Bang Cosmology demands 95 % ‘dark-energy’ which is not yet found. Alternative explanations for ‘cosmological red-shift’ are rejected under a pre-text that they are not compatible with the observation of ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’; but a paper by Tank, titled “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic Length-contraction and Time-dilation of Super novae Light-curves” [2] has shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’, so every possible mechanism needs to be considered without any bias. The criteria for short-listing proposed here is: that the loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon is proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces ( G me mp / e^2), which suggests that the energy of inter-galactic photon seems to get branched-out into gravitational and electrostatic potential-energy parts, and gravitational potential-energy-part is getting subtracted from the energy of the photons. Then this paper proposes some new mechanisms adding to the list.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1527] **viXra:1501.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 09:29:03*

**Authors:** Tomer Shushi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Quantum field theory and general relativity are considered very successful theories that together describe the four fundamental forces in the universe. However, it is difficult to combine them into one unified theory. We propose a novel model, based on two postulates, which provides a new perspective on the fundamental forces using special and general relativity concepts. Many studies address the relations between the particles and the spacetime manifold, and the latter's physical structure, whether it is Continuous or Discrete. In the proposed model the properties of the particles are classical in the sense of general relativity, whereas their quantum properties arises due to the experiments, the differences of the inertial reference frames and energy values between the measurement device and the particles. We consider all of the discrete values of the particles to be constructed by an interference between fields. Under this approach we show that the model dismisses hidden variables. The model provides general field equations for the interactions of the particles, and their Lagrangian density, where the Lagrangian densities of Yang-Mills theory for SU(n), n=1,2,3,4, and of general relativity theory arises as a special cases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1526] **viXra:1501.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 09:46:47*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 3 pages

The relativistic Doppler shift formula is shown to be based on a contradictory equation, revealing the unviability of the Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1525] **viXra:1501.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 11:39:48*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 28 Pages. an original paper on dark matter origin

In the present work a different view is advanced on the origin of this new field at reheating, respectively, a primordial magnetic field. For its creation, it has been proposed that at the end of Inflation, a spectrum for blackbody radiation of temperature when photons creation as quanta takes place,. The opacity (equilibrium of following Thomson scattering) begins to be very thick ( ), that means not all the photons escape as radiation. Simultaneously, but following Breit-Wheeler photons pairs collisions it remain available only two photons pairs which transform in (quark) pair, from as were been produced. This pair generates an electrical field , that being of string type and supercritical , it captures the vacuum gluons-monopoles pairs, thus, generating the first primordial electromagnetic ( ) vortex called as , and by using a simple QCD analytical model are calculated their components and dimensions. Thus, the by Schwinger effect at the end of the reheating period of Hubble length , or when the symmetry between the weak and electromagnetic interactions breaks, it generates directly different kinds of particles but of a precise number as: fermions (quarks, electrons), gluons with structure of gluons-monopoles (abelian in extra-core and nonabelian in core), photons.
This process continues till the cosmological time at curvature radius , when , after that it ceases since .
Later, at CMB time and after, the PMF reactivates with creation of a new type of composed particle called polariton of very small mass , which, recently it was very much investigated experimentally in semiconductors. It is shown that the PMF construction permits the existence of Quantum Well (QW) as necessarily for polaritons production.
Also, it is demonstrated that the scaled at the CMB time, generates pattern of the same values as obtained in BICEP2 and Planck Mission, mostly probable due of the polarized photoluminescence (blueshift light!) of polaritons. Also, it will be shown, that in fact, the total mass of the created polaritons sustains the accelerated expansion of Universe, or in other words, these particles play the role of the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1524] **viXra:1501.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-17 11:23:46*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

I agree with the Hartranft's (see viXra 1501.0163) that a cosmological model based on + and - mass symmetry is entirely possible but only under unbroken E8 symmetry conditions. Unfortunately in the present epoch E8 symmetry is now broken by U(1) with the result that negative mass-energy can no longer be produced. Nevertheless its real effects in our epoch including the effects of dark energy and dark matter are observable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1523] **viXra:1501.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-16 17:24:18*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. History of submitting is presented

It is shown that the Einstein-Eddington-Tolman's concept of gravitation energy is wrong as a whole because their pseudotensor contributes a POSITIVE term to the total energy of an isolated system, and therefore this standard pseudotensor breaks the conservation law. The original result is the proving of the positiveness, which buries the Einstein-Eddington-Tolman's pseudotensor. So, no works using the pseudotensor can provide a well-defined notion of the gravitational energy no matter what conditions are considered. The Tolman's formulas are demonstrated in the paper as formulas containing arithmetic mistakes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1522] **viXra:1501.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-16 12:57:14*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, first, I derive the formulas for the phase velocity and group velocity as a function of the total relativistic energy and the momentum of a particle. Then, I derive similar formulas as a function of the de Broglie and the Compton wavelengths of the particle. Finally an additional meaning of the Compton wavelength is derived from the equation of the group velocity in terms of the de Broglie and the Compton wavelengths.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1521] **viXra:1501.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-16 08:43:46*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 14

Abstract
In this paper, it is proposed the phenomenon of contradiction of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Lorentz Transformations .This contradiction is resolved by new special theory of relativity viXra: 1501.0037. A new interpretation of experiment proposed. The paper gives a historical overview of the development of interpretation of this experiment. The contradiction is resolved by this new theory and this may lead to understanding clear its postulates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1520] **viXra:1501.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-15 15:06:05*

**Authors:** Robert M. Hartranft, Scott W. Hartranft

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Just as the universe contains balanced positive and negative electric charges and balanced north and south magnetic poles, so it also has balanced amounts of positive and negative mass-energy. Understanding this allows consistent and natural explanations for the birth, early behavior, growth, present appearance, and future of the universe. Cosmic inflation and dark energy, while intellectually clever, are unnecessary and non-existent in the real universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1519] **viXra:1501.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-14 18:16:03*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The limits of applicability of Planck's constant are brought into question in the context of the framework of quantum mechanics. The possibility is raised that gravitational quanta may be scaled by a more diminutive "action" whose detection requires sensitivities beyond the standard quantum limit. An experiment that could unequivocally test this possibility is suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1518] **viXra:1501.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-14 15:20:25*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Lorentz transformation will always remain only as an abstract mathematical transformation that cannot be successfully incorporated into any theory of physics. The reason being there is no natural principle that ensures real physical space positions and time be also mapped onto real positions and time. Under the projection, space would be contracted and time would be dilated; so the space and time co-ordinates cannot be associated with real physical quantities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[910] **viXra:1502.0155 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-18 10:16:50*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article, which is a continuation of [36] and [37], we analyze the third of the purely affine theories Schrödinger (Schrödinger-III), where he used a connection asymmetric capable of accommodating the unification of the three fields

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[909] **viXra:1502.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-18 04:02:37*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages - [v2] minor editing

In this paper, the conclusive origin of the Special Relativity (SR) mathematical conflicts identified in the author’s prior related works will be presented and linked to these various conflicts. It is shown that for inertial reference frames in relative motion, the constancy of the speed of light postulate inherently results in time transformations independent of the spatial coordinates. The time of events occurring along the longitudinal coordinate axis is transformed with a different scaling factor than that of events occurring along the transverse coordinate axes. The incorporated x coordinate (considering that the relative motion is in the X-direction) in the Lorentz transformation time equation is the result of the SR assumption forcing the transformation to take a linear form as a function of the time and x coordinate. The SR derived Lorentz transformation time equation takes the assumed form by the aid of the imposed constancy of the speed of light equation, resolving itself as x=ct and x’=ct’ to supply the x and x’ terms to the assumed time transformation and its inverse, respectively. The resulting time transformation equation (and its inverse) dependence on the x (and x’) coordinate is therefore fake, since x (x’) in the transformation is nothing but ct (ct’) making the transformation time-dependent only, yet contradicting the time transformation for events in the transverse Y-Z plane.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[908] **viXra:1502.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 14:52:15*

**Authors:** D.G. Taylor

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Direct mathematic reasoning is used to show Escape velocity can never be greater than light speed||“c”. The White radiations from the Abell 2261 Galaxy Cluster should be much more Red-Shifted, because a large part of the signal would be generated at the border of that object. That is not observed. For a theoretic ideal Schwarzschild object with Sagittarius A mass distortion ranges from infinity at the border to 7.49E44 one Planck length farther, to 1.21E10 a full metre from the border. The gravity values range from:
3.71177227489019958645677741714417017372776536834702E6 m/s2
– at the border.
3.71177227489019958645677741714417017372776535843664E6m/s2
– one Planck length farther.
3.71177227427702911490298860538514634565064802791866E6m/s2
– at 1 full metre from the border.
The total arithmetic range downward is less than
- 6.13170471553788811759023828077117340428362310702818E-4
Even allowing for the fundamental arithmetic difference between Gravity and Escape velocity logic, the above values are not consistent

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[907] **viXra:1502.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 02:44:27*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Six-page letter

Accepting Einstein’s General Relativity Theory, that the changes in gravitational field can propagate at the speed of light, it is proposed here that: before an electron in an atom emits a photon, the energy (h f0) of the photon was a part of total energy of the atom; contributing to establishing the gravitational-field around the atom. As soon an electron in that atom emits a photon of energy h f0 , and the photon starts moving away from the atom, the gravitational-field around the atom partly reduces, proportional to the photon’s energy h f0 , and this wave of ‘reduced gravitational field’ propagates radially-outwards at the speed of light. And a part of energy of the photon gets spent in “filling” the ‘gravitational potential-well’ produced by its energy, when it was a part of energy of the atom. From the derivation presented here we find that the energy spent by the photon to “fill” the ‘gravitational potential-well’, during its inter-galactic journey manifests as the ‘cosmological red-shift’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[906] **viXra:1502.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-14 14:27:30*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. In portuguese

We transform the Schwarzschild metric in spherical coordinates to rectangular, confirming that the conclusion obtained by Einstein for rulers disposed perpendicular to a gravitational field remains unchanged when using the exact solution of Schwarzschild, obtained under the conditions of static field in vacuum and with spherical symmetry. Beyond this transformation also talked again about the speed of light in radial and perpendicular directions measures in the Earth's surface, we recall tests for the verification of the principle of the constancy of the speed of light and calculate the acceleration of light and bodies in generally, in a radial static gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[905] **viXra:1502.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-07 08:11:46*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Two-page letter

Inverse square-law is followed by electric charges, gravity, and light. Light has shown even an unexpected property, of double-slit-interference of single photons. So it is not unreasonable to expect inverse-square-law to be followed by single photons. Assuming that the single photon is emitted either from the surface of an electron, or a globular-cluster, or a galaxy, the derivation presented here suggests that even a single photon seems to follow the inverse square-law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[904] **viXra:1501.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-06 05:10:38*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We emphasize the need for more experiments to measure the variation of the speed of light in a gravitational field. Indicate an experimental procedure on the surface of the Earth that can provide a reasonable estimate of the true value of the speed of light in the absence of gravitational field. The speed of light in the absence of gravitational field is greater than we now know, and in the presence of gravitational field can vary throughout the day, for example in the Earth's surface, this according to General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[903] **viXra:1501.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-02 19:33:05*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We emphasize the need for more experiments to measure the variation of the speed of light in a gravitational field. Indicate an experimental procedure on the surface of the Earth that can provide a reasonable estimate of the true value of the speed of light in the absence of gravitational field. The speed of light in the absence of gravitational field is greater than we now know, and in the presence of gravitational field can vary throughout the day, for example in the Earth's surface, this according to General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[902] **viXra:1501.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-30 04:30:33*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We emphasize the need for more experiments to measure the variation of the speed of light in a gravitational field. Indicate an experimental procedure on the surface of the Earth that can provide a reasonable estimate of the true value of the speed of light in the absence of gravitational field. The speed of light in the absence of gravitational field is greater than we now know, and in the presence of gravitational field can vary throughout the day, like the Earth's surface, this according to General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[901] **viXra:1501.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-02 18:09:07*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Informally we explain the concept of space-time, we calculate the changes in space and time in a static gravitational field and with spherical symmetry (Schwarzschild solution) and, the most importantly, we obtained the corresponding variability of the speed of light in this field. Can be great the loss of speed of light in a gravitational field, which may explain the dark matter (and perhaps also complement the theory of sunspots). More experiences with the speed of light must be made.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[900] **viXra:1501.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-27 11:59:43*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Informally we explain the concept of space-time, we calculate the changes in space and time in a static gravitational field and with spherical symmetry (Schwarzschild solution) and, the most importantly, we obtained the corresponding variability of the speed of light in this field. Can be great the loss of speed of light in a gravitational field, which may explain the dark matter. More experiences with the speed of light must be made.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[899] **viXra:1501.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-21 21:35:12*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We examined the variations of space and time that occur under the influence of a gravitational field produced by a mass M, following the Foundations of General Relativity, by Einstein (1916). We conclude that when we use the conventional units for the speed of light resulting values are very different from those obtained by adopting the speed of light equal to 1, and that certainly could not be in agreement with the experimental values. The shortening of the rulers (scales) and slowness of the clocks would be much higher, because would no longer divided by the square of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[898] **viXra:1501.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-20 21:25:50*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We examined the variations of space and time that occur under the influence of a gravitational field produced by a mass M, following the Foundations of General Relativity, by Einstein (1916). We conclude that when we use the conventional units for the speed of light resulting values are very different from those obtained by adopting the speed of light equal to 1, and that certainly could not be in agreement with the experimental values. The shortening of the rulers (scales) and slowness of the clocks would be much higher, as would no longer divided by the square of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[897] **viXra:1501.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-21 05:33:04*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Ten page paper

Louis Marmet, in a paper titled: “On the Interpretation of Red-Shifts: A quantitative comparison of red-shift mechanisms-II” Dated 4th December 2014, [1] has briefly compiled around 59 candidate mechanisms, including the standard Big Bang Cosmology, attempting to explain the observation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’. This paper proposes some criteria for short-listing the most likely explanations; and adds some more explanations to the list. The need for considering alternative mechanisms arises because the Big Bang cosmology is based on the assumption of homogeneity and isotropy of space at 100 M pc scale, for the explanation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’, whereas linear Hubble law is observed even at 1 M pc distances, where distribution of matter and energy is clearly not homogeneous. And Big Bang Cosmology demands 95 % ‘dark-energy’ which is not yet found. Alternative explanations for ‘cosmological red-shift’ are rejected under a pre-text that they are not compatible with the observation of ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’; but a paper by Tank, titled “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic Length-contraction and Time-dilation of Super novae Light-curves” [2] has shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’, so every possible mechanism needs to be considered without any bias. The criteria for short-listing proposed here is: that the loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon is proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces ( G me mp / e^2), which suggests that the energy of inter-galactic photon seems to get branched-out into gravitational and electrostatic potential-energy parts, and gravitational potential-energy-part is getting subtracted from the energy of the photons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[896] **viXra:1501.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-20 08:36:06*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages. [v2] added further contradictions emerging from the speed of light principle.

The relativistic Doppler shift formula is shown to be based on a contradictory equation, revealing the unviability of the Special Relativity. In addition, the light speed postulate is shown to result in contradictions with the Special Relativity equations, when expressed in terms of the light wave characteristics, with the relativistic Doppler shift formula being applied in the resulting expression. An absurd relation between the wave frequency and wave period would emerge to satisfy the Special Relativity time dilation. An actual time dilation factor emerging from the speed of light principle is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[895] **viXra:1501.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 13:05:44*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 26 Pages. very much improved version

In the present work a different view is advanced on the origin of the Inflaton Potential, as been a primordial quantum potential (QP) , since, the temperature is all times below the Bose-Einstein condensate(BEC) temperature, along the entire Universe evolution. Therefore, for example, at reheating there is a spectrum for blackbody radiation of temperature when the macroscopically photons creation as quanta (bosons condensate) take place. Then, the opacity (equilibrium of following Thomson scattering) begins to be very thick ( ), that means not all the photons escape as radiation. Simultaneously, but following Breit-Wheeler photons pairs collisions it result that remain available only two photons pairs that transform in two (quark) pair, from as were been produced, that being the chance of Universe creation. This pairs generates in turn an electrical field , that being of string type (boson, because of a pair-up) and supercritical , it captures the vacuum gluons-monopoles pairs as bosons (BEC), thus, generating the quantum magnetic ( ) vortex called as , and by using a simple QCD analytical model are calculated their components and the dimensions. That has permitted to apply the Schwinger effect for particles barrier penetration ( ), , as for example, later when the Hubble length becomes , and the QP arrives at , or when the symmetry between the weak and electromagnetic interactions breaks. Then, the real particles are generated with near the same rate ( ) along the duration as “one-by-one sequence (photon»quarks pair»gluons)” without any accumulation into a soup , but directly as confined (otherwise disappear by annihilation!) in mesons-nucleons of a finally precise number , of fermions (quarks, electrons), gluons with structure of gluons-monopoles (abelian in extra-core and nonabelian in core), and finally nucleons.
This process can continues with other type of particles, as for example when, the cosmological time at curvature radius is , and when , after that it ceases to create particles with mass greater than electrons, since .
It is demonstrated, that at near cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) times, the as becomes an Quantum Well ( ), where, the photons create and interact with the ad-hoc created excitons (we suppose by the same Schwinger effect), making possible the production of a new type of composed particles called polaritons of very small mass , that when its decay leak infrared light. The same process appears till today when the polaritons decay as microwaves (CMBR). Recently, this kind of process it was very much experimentally investigated in some semiconductors. Also, it is shown that the PQMF construction inherently permits the existence of a such QW inside, as to be necessarily for polaritons production in order to push continuously the space-time till the today curvature, and finally, to obtain the exact value of the cosmological constant as based on the polariton energy today: .
Also, it is demonstrated that at the CMB time, the light polarization by is , and today (no pattern! ), the radiation frequencies at CMB is ; ; (infrared), and today , , and (microwaves).
Also, it will be shown, that in fact, the total mass of the created polaritons sustains the expansion of Universe, or in other words, these particles play the role of the dark matter and of dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[894] **viXra:1501.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-01 11:55:25*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 29 Pages. a new version!

In the present work a different view is advanced on the origin of the field at reheating, respectively, a primordial magnetic field. For its creation, it has been proposed that at the end of Inflation, a spectrum for blackbody radiation of temperature when photons creation as quanta takes place. The opacity (equilibrium of following Thomson scattering) begins to be very thick ( ), that means not all the photons escape as radiation. Simultaneously, but following Breit-Wheeler photons pairs collisions it remain available only two photons pairs which transform in (quark) pair, from as were been produced, that being the chance of Universe creation. This pair generates an electrical field , that being of string type and supercritical , it captures the vacuum gluons-monopoles pairs, thus, generating the first primordial electromagnetic ( ) vortex called as , and by using a simple QCD analytical model are calculated their components and dimensions. Thus, the by Schwinger effect at the end of the reheating period of Hubble length , , or when the symmetry between the weak and electromagnetic interactions breaks, it generates directly different kinds of particles but of a precise number as: fermions (quarks, electrons), gluons with structure of gluons-monopoles (abelian in extra-core and nonabelian in core).
This process continues till the cosmological time at curvature radius , when , after that it ceases to create electrons, since .
Later, before of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) time and after, the PMF activates with creation of a new type of composed particle called polariton of very small mass , which, recently it was very much investigated experimentally in semiconductors. It is shown that the PMF construction inherently permits the existence of Quantum Well (QW) inside, as to be necessarily for polaritons production.
Also, it is demonstrated that at the CMB time, the light polarization is , and today (no pattern! ), the radiation frequencies are: at CMB ; (infrared), and today , and (microwaves). Also, it will be shown, that in fact, the total mass of the created polaritons sustains the accelerated expansion of Universe, or in other words, these particles play the role of the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[893] **viXra:1501.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-20 07:52:36*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 28 Pages. I do some small corrections.

In the present work a different view is advanced on the origin of this new field at reheating, respectively, a primordial magnetic field. For its creation, it has been proposed that at the end of Inflation, a spectrum for blackbody radiation of temperature when photons creation as quanta takes place,. The opacity (equilibrium of following Thomson scattering) begins to be very thick ( ), that means not all the photons escape as radiation. Simultaneously, but following Breit-Wheeler photons pairs collisions it remain available only two photons pairs which transform in (quark) pair, from as were been produced. This pair generates an electrical field , that being of string type and supercritical , it captures the vacuum gluons-monopoles pairs, thus, generating the first primordial electromagnetic ( ) vortex called as , and by using a simple QCD analytical model are calculated their components and dimensions. Thus, the by Schwinger effect at the end of the reheating period of Hubble length , or when the symmetry between the weak and electromagnetic interactions breaks, it generates directly different kinds of particles but of a precise number as: fermions (quarks, electrons), gluons with structure of gluons-monopoles (abelian in extra-core and nonabelian in core), photons.
This process continues till the cosmological time at curvature radius , when , after that it ceases since .
Later, at CMB time and after, the PMF reactivates with creation of a new type of composed particle called polariton of very small mass , which, recently it was very much investigated experimentally in semiconductors. It is shown that the PMF construction inherently permits the existence of Quantum Well (QW) inside, as to be necessarily for polaritons production.
Also, it is demonstrated that the scaled at the CMB time, generates pattern of the same values as obtained in BICEP2 and Planck Mission, mostly probable due of the polarized photoluminescence (blueshift light!) of polaritons. Also, it will be shown, that in fact, the total mass of the created polaritons sustains the accelerated expansion of Universe, or in other words, these particles play the role of the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[892] **viXra:1501.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 09:22:24*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, first, I derive the formulas for the phase velocity and group velocity as a function of the total relativistic energy and the momentum of a particle. Then, I derive similar formulas as a function of the de Broglie and the Compton wavelengths of the particle. Finally an additional meaning of the Compton wavelength is derived from the equation of the group velocity in terms of the de Broglie and the Compton wavelengths.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[891] **viXra:1501.0158 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-01 10:57:52*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The limits of applicability of Planck's constant are brought into question in the context of the framework of quantum mechanics. The possibility is raised that gravitational quanta may be scaled by a more diminutive "action" whose detection requires sensitivities beyond the standard quantum limit. An experiment that could unequivocally test this possibility is suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[890] **viXra:1501.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-26 09:59:18*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A replacement; derivation of time dilation added.

The Lorentz transformation will always remain only as an abstract mathematical transformation that cannot be successfully incorporated into any theory of physics. The reason being there is no natural principle that ensures real physical space positions and time be also mapped onto real positions and time. Under the projection, space would be contracted and time would be dilated; so the space and time co-ordinates cannot be associated with real physical quantities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology