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2016 - 1601(32) - 1602(21)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1940] **viXra:1602.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 11:26:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1939] **viXra:1602.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 18:25:02*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Continuation Of Series On Polarizable Vacuum At High Speed

Lorentz Transformations of flat space were found to be inappropriate at high speed in deep space transport. Curvature of vacuum stress energy was predicted to accumulate from prolonged acceleration boosting of a space vehicle. Support was found for previous work on modifications of Polarizable Vacuum theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1938] **viXra:1602.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 15:22:03*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** Pages.

One of the biggest mysteries in cosmology is why do we see only matter and no antimatter. Staying with Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity this paper explores other pair productions models beside matter-antimatter to explains why we see no antimatter. The type of energy that made the matter universe is unknown and there is no scientific explanation as why we only see matter and no antimatter. Rather than proposing a symmetry breaking between matter and antimatter the other solution is that Einstein’s mass-energy equation can produce different pair productions outside of matter-antimatter when imaginary mass is introduced into his equations. By modeling the big bang as a slower than light matter and FTL Tachyon matter pair production (for example) rather than matter-antimatter doesn't violate Special Relativity as long as the Tachyons created never slow down to the speed of light. The principle idea is that Einstein’s mass-energy equation can come in 3 different flavors coinciding to the three different space curve geometries. In which pair production is not limited to matter-antimatter pairs but can also be expressed as Tachyon-anti tachyon pairs and a hybrid pair of slower than light matter-Tachyon pairs. In doing so it will allow Einstein’s mass-energy equation to produce different pair production partners. The reason why we have no antimatter is that the pair production was matter-antimatter but Tardon matter-Tachyon matter based on one of the 3 flavors of Einstein's mass-energy equation. This expansion of pair productions also expands the pressure states of General Relativity. Based on this new cosmological model, positive, negative and neutral pressure work together to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies and the expansion/acceleration of our universe. This new cosmological model that explains the missing antimatter and explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies and the expansion/acceleration of our universe is called Modified Einsteinian Dynamics (MOED) Cosmology. It is a unique theory that explains the missing the missing antimatter and explain Dark Matter without needing Dark Matter or MOND(Modified Newtonian Dynamics).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1937] **viXra:1602.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 12:07:16*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Until the perfect connection between gravitational and electric forces in known, it is advisable to pay attention to various coincidences and clues. With this philosophy in mind this letter points out some interesting correlations among cosmological parameters, like Hubble’s constant H0, radius of the universe R0 and total-mass of the universe M0 which may be a clue to deeper understanding of the gravitational and electric forces. Earlier, this writer had presented some expressions of gravity without the gravitational constant big G [1]. This letter reports some further thinking in this direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1936] **viXra:1602.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 04:41:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Scientists are set to make a major announcement Thursday on efforts to pinpoint the existence of gravitational waves, or ripples of space and time that transport energy across the universe. [6] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1935] **viXra:1602.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 08:28:11*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

MOED (Modified Einsteinian Dynamics) is the first theory to only use General Relativity to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies. Rather than adding Dark matter or changing gravity as in MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) this paper only use General Relativity to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies. MOED is based on the concept of using all 3 pressures states of General Relativity while staying consist with the Special Theory of Relativity. Extending GR rather than trying add different theories to it can fully explain the flat rotational curve and expansion/acceleration of our universe. The paper first explores different big bang pair production models within the Special theory of Relativity. No one can explain the missing antimatter in the universe. It leads to the idea that Einstein’s mass energy equation can produce different pair productions rather than matter-antimatter. It was discovered that Einstein’s E-mc2 can produce 3 different types of pair productions coinciding with the 3 basic space curve geometries (-,0.+). Based on this expansion of the mass-energy equation (3 different type of possible pair productions) the pressure states of GR can also be expanded to coincide with the 3 possible pair production configuration of Einstein’s mass energy equation. All 3 pressure states of GR work together to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies and the expansion and acceleration of the universe. This expanded or Modified Einsteinian Dynamics (MOED) can be tested in particle accelerators, observations and computer experiments. The paper gives methods to prove the MOED theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1934] **viXra:1602.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 16:42:53*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This monograph reexamines the basics on the motional properties of light and of material particles in an attempt to resolve as many of the questions and paradoxes posed by the different interpretational scenarios of Special Relativity (SR). The observational process is clarified and defined in terms of measurements by the use of standard rulers. Motion invariant rulers vs. motion variant rulers are considered under different interpretational scenarios of SR. The isotropy of the speed of light and particle trajectories in general are then considered under the different interpretational scenarios of SR to clarify their implications together with the behavior of de Broglie matter-waves, in reference to their motional geometry. In conclusion, a 3D spherical manifold (S3 hypersurface) is proposed for the motional geometry of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1933] **viXra:1602.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 06:24:26*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** Pages.

Newton's gravitational constant Big G, appearing in both Newton's law of gravity and Einstein's general relativity, is essential for our todays understanding of gravity. Thus far, despite of the very long history of measurements of Newton's gravitational constant Big G, a definite value is still not in sight. Surprisingly, the results of different experiments have varied by much more than would be expected due to systematic or random errors. Why do measurements of Newton's gravitational constant Big G vary so much? It is the purpose of this publication is to provide a logically and mathematically self-consistent theoretical proof that Newton's gravitational constant Big G is not a constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1932] **viXra:1602.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 22:00:34*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The fourteenth paper based on Reality.

The galaxy-clusters move outwards in a synchronous manner, their speeds increasing at the expense of their internal energies; the process is self-limiting and reversible, and this puts the universe in an infinite-loop of pulsations. The model is based on the hypothesis that motion at speed 'c' is the fundamental property of matter, and hence the clusters can move at very high speeds. The model is complete in all respects, is in agreement with observational evidences, does not require any dark matter or dark energy, and predicts the Earth-moon distance correctly. Based on these, I claim that the proposed model is better than the existing LCDM model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1931] **viXra:1602.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 10:58:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Physicists in England claim they have discovered how to create matter from light, by smashing together individual massless photons– a feat that was first theorized back in 1934, and has been considered practically impossible until now. If this new discovery pans out, the final piece of the physics jigsaw puzzle that describes how light and matter interact would be complete. No one's quite sure of the repercussions if matter can indeed be produced from photon-photon collision, but I'm sure something awesomely scientific will emerge before long. [4] This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1930] **viXra:1602.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 21:28:46*

**Authors:** Marcelo Carvalho

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We give a categorical interpretation for a model we have previously developed,
which combines aspects of the Galilei and the special relativity and that is based
on a broad class of transformations - the Generalized
Lorentz transformation. Particularly, we show how the standard Lorentz
transformation of the special relativity satisfies a kind of universal property
factoring out the Generalized Lorentz transformation through a certain redefinition
of velocity. We also show how the Galilei transformation and the Generalized Lorentz
transformation are related in terms of a multi-valued natural transformation that
in some sense unify both relativities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1929] **viXra:1602.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 08:18:36*

**Authors:** Tibor Endre Nagy

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

When applying the formula of light propagation in moving systems to the motion of the Earth (as a component of the Milky Way Galaxy), the radius of the universe and the time period required for the development of the cosmos can be estimated. With the rate of this expansion and the alterations in surface gravity, tilt, and motion of the Earth, a ‘short evolving distance’ can be determined. Knowledge of the entire plane angle (2π) and the deviating angle of a light beam (α) passing through different value of Earth’s surface gravity renders it possible to determine large distances by utilizing the rules of trigonometry. This ‘long evolving distance’ can be converted into ‘evolving time’ by dividing it by the speed of light. Based upon this dating method, at a figure of 3.1415 redshift, the universe may have been formed 13.6879 to 13.8498 billion years ago, with a mean value of around 13.7536 billion years. In this model the alterations in the parameters of the Earth affects the radius of cosmos, modifying its size and shape.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1928] **viXra:1602.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 01:04:52*

**Authors:** Steven Sesselmann

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The anomalous galaxy rotation curve is a well known problem in physics today and has given rise to speculation that some form of gravitating dark matter might exist within galaxies, providing the additional force required to explain the flat non Keplerian rotation curve. In this paper an alternative explanation for the flat rotation curve arising from incompatible measurement origins.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1927] **viXra:1602.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 01:21:22*

**Authors:** Hilmi Yanar, Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu, Irfan Acikgoz, Erol Yasar

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Mod. Phys. Lett. A 31(6), 2016, 1650038

We use a Kaluza-Klein model with variable cosmological and gravitational terms to
discuss the nature of galactic entropy function. For this purpose, we assume a universe filled with dark fluid and consider five-dimensional field equations using the Gamma law equation. We mainly discuss the validity of the first and generalized second laws of galactic thermodynamics for viable Kaluza-Klein models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1926] **viXra:1602.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 09:07:12*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 17 Pages. For the readers of this paper (old version) this new one it is very much improved, please see it.

It will be shown how the Micro-black-holes particles produced at the horizon entry into a number of and of total Universe energy , by quantum fluctuation as virtual micro-black holes pairs like creation, stay at the base of: the origin and evolution of Universe, the pure gravity Dark Matter particles, of the free photons creation of near mass-less as by radiation decay that condensate later at Confinement into the structure of gauge bosons (gluons) . Also, these ex-Micro-black-holes which adjust its dimensions to remains after theirs decay of all free photons as pure gravity Dark Matter particles , or if kipping someone else, as electrons, others leptons (quarks) and uncharged particles (neutrinos). After radiation decay, the heritage of gravitational charge (gravitons) quantized as inside (or on event horizon) into equilibrium with the inner field like electrostatic Coulomb field as being generated by the few photons remained, finally give the mass. Thus, is explained how the gravity is embedded in matter particles, and in the pure gravity Dark Matter particles of gravitational charge only (gravitons), an old waited answer.
Also, in this context it results that a equal part of the ex-Micro-black-holes generated are frozen at horizon entry that correspond to Reheating period during Universe evolution (2.4x1013 ÷8.85x109 GeV) keeps only the gravitational charge, so becoming Dark Matter particles of very low mass and of huge dimension ~ 2.6[m] and of low frequency 108Hz. Thus, these particles interact only gravitationally with others including that of the gravitational charges embedded in matter particles, thus, slow downing the initially fast Universe expansion. A proof of the model is done by applying it to light bending due of Earth.
A very stranger result is obtained if we divide the gravitational charge to the Compton length for every particle, or in other words the gravitational energy of the particle distributed in their Compton length is just the particle energy or the “mass”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1925] **viXra:1602.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 09:10:06*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 24 Pages. For the readers of this paper (old version) this new one it is very much improved, please see it.

In the work we have advanced another scenario for Universe creation and its evolution, respectively, when the decay of a huge number of Micro-black-holes (micro-virtual black holes) as generated due of Quantum fluctuations at Reheating (at 2.4x1013 ÷8.85x109 GeV ), and when themselves till the Confinement epoch (~10-6s; V=2.1GeV; T=1015K) adjust theirs dimensions to that of pairs (quarks), by radiating soft free (mass less) photons and keeping a gravitational charges (mass less gravitons) in event horizon as has recently agreed by Hawking et all (2016). Later at Confinement or Hadrons epoch (~10-6s; V=2GeV; T=1013K), these generate an electrical field ( ) that produces a Meissner effect at the interface between normal phase of quarks tubes and the superconducting phase a superconductor magnetic field ( ) generated by the soft free photons as color gluons condensate the. The inverse value of the penetration length of is just mass at high densities ( ) and, the effective non-abelian color gluon mass ( ) at QCD.
After the Ionization time (9.8 billions years), the existing free photons and electrons together form Quantum Wells where are generated excitons, called polaritons as in Earth’s experiments. These polaritons sustains the accelerated expansion of Universe, their mass and energy verifies the cosmological constant, that one can consider them as dark energy. During matter creation (+dark matter) a fix number of particles and a total mass of are obtained, that it is a spectacular result, which it could be the essential prove of the entirely model. Also, is proposed a new test for the finally proof of the model as the deduction of the lifetime value of the decay of the free neutron.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1924] **viXra:1602.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 18:15:26*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

They used to think light needed a medium to propagate. That is actually correct.
The only mistake they made was thinking the medium was fixed in space and the Earth must be rushing through it (that is what they call an erroneous constraint).

Everyone believes the MM experiment without question and they pass the information on through generation after generation.

It is actually bringing modern physics to a standstill.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1923] **viXra:1602.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 21:55:14*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Observation: Treating the observable universe as the surface volume of a 3-sphere allows us to produce a simple equation for the radius of the observable universe. By taking the ratio of the standard three dimensional volumes for the observable universe to the Hubble volume, and setting it equal to the ratio of the corresponding volumes derived using the equations for the surface volume of a 3-sphere, we can solve for the radius of the observable universe. We find that this radius to be the cube root of 12 pi, times the Hubble radius, or 46.27 billion light years, which matches the accepted figures. The volume of the observable universe is shown to be larger than the Hubble volume by a factor of 12 pi. This gives us a simple expression for the radius and volume of the observable universe, derived from the geometry of a 3-sphere.
Explanation: But the whole universe is vastly larger than the observable, and the observable universe is not a 3-sphere, forcing us to explain how this artificial 3-sphere, clearly smaller than what the true 3-sphere would be, can show such behavior. We use the argument from another hyperverse paper, on quantum time, that the relative increase in the unit of quantum time cancels the rapidly increasing growth rate of the whole hyperverse, resulting in a constant, 2c radial expansion rate. This allows the observable universe to be treated, in many respects, as a stand-alone hyperverse, a time-scaled version of the whole. This time-scaling gives the observable universe many of the properties of a 3-sphere.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1922] **viXra:1602.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 02:31:07*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: an introduction and appreciation of spacetime rainbow

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1921] **viXra:1602.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 09:22:47*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Submitted for publication

In this paper was presented a description of the gravitational phenomena in the new medium, different than the curved spacetime, which merges the Minkowski spacetime and the mass density into the single idea. The new description of the gravitational phenomena is kept in the spirit of Mach, in opposite to the Newtonian gravity and GR. All phenomena of gravity are expressed in terms of the relationship between a bodies and not between the body and surrounding the spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1920] **viXra:1602.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 06:22:37*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Lorentz transformation of special relativity theory has been derived inductively based on the constancy of light velocity for every inertia systems. The equation predicts fruitful possible results. But many might feel it is hard to understand these intuitively.
The cause of it may be it has not been derived deductively from basic nature laws for over hundred years. This may mean we don’t know any basic nature laws for special relativity theory yet. Here we try to find these.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1919] **viXra:1601.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-31 10:08:53*

**Authors:** John Linus O'Sullivan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: This report will graphically depict the coupling between Quantum Gravity and General Relativity. Space is from two types of energy in standing waves; energy with mass which is finite energy and energy without mass which is infinite. Given light speed is equal to frequency times wavelength where C = f λ then photons must be twice light speed on half wavelengths before mass is created. Light speed is a constant relative to mass in Special Relativity but photon half waves are twice light speed from harmonic oscillations. Standing half waves on total harmonics are twice light speed and finite only at light speed with mass on reversal expansion. The total force behind harmonic reversal is photon half wave energy at twice light speed creating mass and constant C in full wavelengths. Infinity is defined as photon energy without any effects from mass and time. This report is to help simplify quantum particles and gravity with the understanding that the brief should be read three times over to get the full concept.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1918] **viXra:1601.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 05:46:37*

**Authors:** Jae-Kwang Hwang

**Comments:** 147 Pages. extended standard model

Three-dimensional quantized spaces are newly introduced. Four three-dimensional quantized spaces with total 12 dimensions are used to explain the universes including ours. The warped three-dimensional quantized spaces with the quantum time width (t=tq) (see Fig. 4B) are applied to explain the origin of the charges and evolution of the universe. Also, the warped quantized time with the quantum space size (x=xq) of the three-dimensional spaces (see Fig. 4C) is used to explain the magnetic charges. In the present work, the positive energy has the positive time momentum (E/c>0) flowing toward the positive time direction and the negative energy has the negative time momentum (-E/c<0) flowing toward the negative time direction (see section 17). The birth of our positive energy matter universe is justified from the production of the positive and negative energy warped space pair. This birth is the beginning of the physical universe with the big bang. The energy is newly defined as the space-time volume of E = ctV in the present work. It is shown that the quantum length (xq) and time (tq) of our universes are 2x_p^2 = 5.223 10-70 m and xq/c = 1.7422 10-78 s, respectively, which give the present masses of the elementary particles. The time is originated from the unobservable quantum space fluctuation.
There are many physical problems which we do not know how to solve. Based on the present model, those problems are discussed in the present work. Those problems are including the matter universe question, three generations of the leptons and quarks, the quark confinement, the proton decay, Majorana particle, dark matter, dark energy, dark flow, magnetic monopoles, graviton, hadronization, time before the big bang, a black hole, relative theory, very high energy cosmic rays, hard x-rays, high temperature superconductor, quantum entanglement, quantum wave function collapse, neutrino oscillations, CP violations and proton spin crisis. Also, it is shown for the first time that the wave function in the quantum mechanics is closely connected to the energy of the warped space caused by the moving elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1917] **viXra:1601.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-28 11:01:26*

**Authors:** Andrew Banks

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An experiment is proposed in Special Relativity (SR) such that two given coordinate systems are in relative motion and a light pulse is emitted from the origins along the positive x-axis when they are common. In a specific configuration of the two coordinate systems, it will be shown that the output of the Lorentz transformations (LT) for the position of light in the primed frame does not match the position of light according to the light postulate (LP) in the primed frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1916] **viXra:1601.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-28 09:32:48*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Oral presentation, PMS_002, Andhra Pradesh Academi of Sciences, 1st Science Congress, Tirupati, AP, India. (27/29-Jan-2016)

In an optimistic approach, some of the modern cosmologists believe that, during cosmic evolution, Planck scale quantum gravitational interactions might have an observable effect on the current observable cosmological phenomena. Clearly speaking, with respect to ‘Quantum gravity’ and Planck scale early universal laboratory, current universe can be considered as a low energy scale laboratory. If so, cosmological quantum gravity can be considered as scale independent. If one is willing to consider the current observable universe as a low energy scale laboratory, currently believed cosmic microwave back ground temperature can be considered as the low energy quantum gravitational effect. At any time in the past, i.e as the operating energy scale was assumed to be increasing; past high cosmic back ground temperature can be considered as the high energy quantum gravitational effect. Thinking in this way, starting from the Planck scale, quantum cosmology can be considered as ‘scale independent model’ and the universe can be considered as the best quantum gravitational object. With reference to the current concepts of modern cosmology, probability of ‘this’ to happen may be zero, but its possibility cannot be ruled out. By considering the current observable universe as an evolving primordial black hole, many fundamental issues of cosmology can be resolved. Proceeding further, observed deep space redshift nonlinearity can be expected to be connected with cosmological gravitational and relativistic effects and cannot be considered as a major criterion of cosmic evolution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1915] **viXra:1601.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-27 12:01:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Deviations in the shadow of our Galaxy’s supermassive black hole could reveal violations of general relativity. [10]
That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9]
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1914] **viXra:1601.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-25 16:51:23*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

A new hypothesis for stellar Discrete-transitional Mechanics (DTM) is presented based on the Infophysical Spacetime Model (ISM). The concept of spatiotemporal scale-constants is explained using familiar computer jargon and later applied to the stellar scope of Reality. The DTM are used to derive the de Broglie matter-wave relativistic relations by means of the stellar spatial density (frequency) spectrum (SDS) in the Fourier spatial density domain. A tentative value for the stellar spatiotemporal scale-constant is also postulated. The energy, mass and momentum de Broglie relativistic relations are derived, by the same means, without resorting to four dimensional Minkowsky spacetime or to the isotropy of the speed of light, resulting in novel implications such as, discrete-transitional motion and its kinematical properties, natural uniform circular motion in the absence of gravity, universal 3-sphere motional geometry, interscopal coupling, wave-particle equivalence, apodization/containment functions, transitional variables, transactional particles, etc., thus resulting in a novel Discrete-transitional Mechanics (DTM) hypothesis which encompasses Quantum Mechanical concepts, de Broglie matter-waves, Special Relativity and Classical Mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1913] **viXra:1601.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-26 03:09:11*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this paper, we will present a new perspective of certain dimensions that manifest physically
and therefore can be studied. Theoretical ground work will be set within General Relativity since
it provides the highest accuracy in cosmology, but we will also “bridge” to quantum mechanics
near the end of the paper.
Using the notion of “physical dimensions” we will explain some aspects that have puzzled
physicists so far, including what is known as “the arrow of time”. It will be proven theoretically
that there is no such thing and that time has no direction since temporal motion requires only
expansion and a velocity of that expansion, time expands in all directions and influences the
expansion of space, hence inflating space and forming the spacetime continuum from the earliest
age of the Universe, the Big Bang, to present time.
We will first take a relatively short part of the paper to introduce the reader in the necessary
subjects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1912] **viXra:1601.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-25 10:12:06*

**Authors:** M. Hassan, Ayman A. Aly, M.M. Maghraby, H. Motaweh

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this work we study the interacting dark energy (DE) models with Garnda-Oliveros cutoff (LGO) within the work of Kaluza-Klein (KK) universe. We established mathematical formulas for the equation of state parameter wA the decelaration parameter q and the geometrical statefinder parameters r and s. The results show that the universe is in an expansion mode for the model under study.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1911] **viXra:1601.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-24 16:08:33*

**Authors:** Gary Nash

**Comments:** Pages.

A first principles approach was used to derive the non-relativistic Schrödinger's equation from a generalized wave equation with a spatially dependant phase velocity. The Planck-Einstein relation $E=h\nu$ and the de Broglie relation $\lambda=\frac{h}{p}$ were used as postulates to derive the fundamental equation $(\nabla^{2}+\frac{p^2}{\hbar^2})\Psi=0$ from which Schrödinger's equation was obtained. The well known quantum equation in tensor form $\partial_{\alpha}\partial^{\alpha}\Psi=k^{2}\Psi$ follows naturally from special relativity. A symmetrized second rank tensor $N^{\alpha\beta}$ was formulated from the quantum equation with real vector components in curved (3+1) spacetime. A new tensor describing dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor from the orthogonal decomposition theorem. Being divergenceless, the symmetric part of $N^{\alpha\beta}$ hides general relativity and dark energy in the quantum equation. The antisymmetric part of $N^{\alpha\beta}$ yielded the Proca equation for a massive vector boson of spin 1 which could describe neutral dark matter. When the rest mass of the boson is zero, dark matter gives rise to electrodynamics or dark photons, if they exist. The dark energy tensor is dynamic, and with positive energy density and pressure, tends to accelerate the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1910] **viXra:1601.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-24 14:50:30*

**Authors:** Kim YoungCheol

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Because I felt paradox from the universe's age explanation from current cosmology, I have
calculated the universe's age to compare with it based on special relativity. As result, I found
another cosmology in spite they must converge when in the flat and the constantly expanding
universe. The remarkable point is result of the special relativistic calculation seems as if an
accelerating expansion than the current calculation. If the data analysis results are consistent with
the calculation then they would correct an old error of cosmology, or if consistent with current
cosmology then they would be important evidences of the unique point of the current cosmology.
However, my theoretical conclusion is that my calculation is an examination for any kind cosmology
for the case of flat and constant expansion. Therefore, the current cosmology must be verified its
validity because this implies that the theory includes some unproven assumption.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1909] **viXra:1601.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-24 07:51:06*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The well known Planck Constants Length, Time and
Mass will be extended by the Planck Acceleration. This paper shows howto solve Einstein's Field Equations evaluated in Robertson Walker metric, within the Planck Era context

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1908] **viXra:1601.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-22 00:51:29*

**Authors:** Tobias Wowereit

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

The Einstein equations are completed. The electromagnetic nature of energetic phenomena is derived. Alternative units are introduced.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1907] **viXra:1601.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-20 00:36:54*

**Authors:** Rongchao Ma

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Baryogenesis, or the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, is one of the major unsolved problems in physical cosmology. Here we present a new interpretation to the baryogenesis based on the theory of packaged entanglement states in which the particles are indeterminate and hermaphroditic. A measurement or an external perturbation to these packaged entanglement states will cause the wave function to collapse and therefore break the system's C-symmetry. This process satisfies the Sakharov conditions. By further proposing an entanglement selection principle, we can give a self-consistent interpretation to the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry produced in early universe. Thus, the collapse of packaged entanglement states with C-symmetry breaking could be or at lease contribute to the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1906] **viXra:1601.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-19 08:35:42*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Ensuing from first principles, the theory of spacetime and its metaphysical axioms are
introduced as prerequisites to physical theology and the so-called relative scale
spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1905] **viXra:1601.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-16 06:45:08*

**Authors:** Mohammad H Khan

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Time presents to us in many different ways. We measure time, keep time, meet and greet in time and our daily lives are completely wrapped around the onward rush of time. We perceive time as past present and future. In physics time plays a major role in the measurement of motion and forces. Time also gives us a place like feeling to it suggesting that time is a dimension. This has sprung a whole culture around the concept of time travel leading to numerous science fiction stories, and movies. The many facets of time suggest that time is an emergent phenomenon that is arising from some underlying process that we need to identify.
The greatest breakthrough in understanding of time occurred about a hundred years ago with Einstein’s theories of Special and General relativity which introduced the concept of slowing of time with motion and in gravity. Einstein also showed that large masses curve space and there is increase in mass with acceleration by application of a force. These discoveries of Einstein provide the necessary clues to solving the riddle of time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1904] **viXra:1601.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-14 20:29:42*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Dark energy is expansion of space generated by annihilation of redundant spin 0/spin 1 negative-energy mass in our after-big bang broken-E8 symmetry epoch in which new negative-energy matter is not possible. Expansion of space in this way minimizes big bang radiation energy loss outside the universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1903] **viXra:1601.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-11 09:52:48*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this article it is shown that it is possible to explain the thrust generated by the EM Drive as a reaction force of emitted gravitational waves. This eliminates the controversy that surrounds the experiments performed with this device showing positive results that seemingly violate the Newton’s third law of action and reaction.
Keywords: EM Drive, Hubble constant, dark matter mass density, dark matter mass quantum, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation temperature, finite space model of the universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1902] **viXra:1601.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-10 16:01:57*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Orbits are parameterized with the space−time dimensions of the gravitational constant. Novel solutions for dark matter and the gravitational lensing effect are deduced. Observable evidence is provided with experimental predictions to test the model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1901] **viXra:1601.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 07:28:07*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Pavlovich Telnin

**Comments:** 3 Pages. look to the viXra paper 1407.0190

Two ideas : 1) The existence of H – the Hubble constant, and 2) The possibility of tachyons existence. They gives me the hope to try to describe the motion of galaxies on the other side of the border between visible and invisible parts of the Universe. And also how to expand the visible Universe part with the help of the tachyons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1900] **viXra:1601.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-08 07:57:34*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The following is an attempt to explain that time dilation in relativity is an apparent phenomenon only, i.e., when one frame moves relative to another at a constant speed, it only appears that its clock runs slower than the other. In the first (simple) case, the box remains stationary. In the second, it moves horizontally at speed = 0.5c. By having lights flash simultaneously at the ends of the box, the ‘photos’ that reach the observers (at positions = 0 in each frame) record simultaneous positions for comparison to determine the ‘true’ box length because both photos are taken at the same time, even though they do not reach the observers simultaneously. Each photo records the light flash and the corresponding positions and times in both frames when the flash occurred. The conclusion drawn from this analysis is that, whether or not reference frames are moving relative to one another, time does not vary – any such variation is apparent only.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1899] **viXra:1601.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-08 07:59:16*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley Interferometer Experiment of 1887 is often cited as one of the cornerstones (and perhaps THE cornerstone) upon which Einstein built his theory of special relativity. Allegedly, it “proved” there was no aether. Once Einstein postulated that the speed of light was invariant, the only explanation that became accepted was that time slowed and length contracted due to relative motion according to the Lorentz Transformation formulae, adopted by Einstein as tenets of his special relativity. Despite subsequent experiments contradicting the alleged “null result,” reanalysis of the results indicating positive (“non-null”) results, and even maintaining the validity of the null result but explaining it via classical physics, the M&M Interferometer Experiment remains a special relativity foundation. However, if the limitation of the invariance of the speed of light is removed, the “null result” can be easily explained without resort to special relativity and its postulates of time dilation and length contraction. Yet this is seldom done.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1898] **viXra:1601.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-08 08:01:09*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Linked with the concept of a cosmological Doppler red-shift is an expanding universe with rapidly receding stars, galaxies, etc. Assuming no form of matter, especially a reasonably macroscopic and tenuous one like a star, let alone an entire galaxy, could possibly travel at speeds approaching that of light and remain ‘intact’ (except, perhaps, something as dense as a neutron star), the only possible way for such an entity to exhibit recession speeds approaching that of light would be for space itself to be expanding. And whether one accepts the traditional or Galilean Doppler red-shift as the correct explanation, one is still left to conclude that ‘something’ is ‘racing away.’ I endeavor to cast doubt on the traditional explanation of a cosmological Doppler red-shift due to universe expansion. A Galilean Doppler red-shift may be an equally plausible explanation for those who adhere to the premise of stars, galaxies, etc., receding for whatever reason.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1897] **viXra:1601.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-08 08:03:09*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Einstein’s relativity contends that time, as measured by clocks, slows with increasing speed, becoming especially noticeable as the speed of light is approached. Discussions of this usually focus on constant speeds, albeit near the speed of light, and phenomena such as muon decay (near light speed), or even the Hafele-Keating experiment (at much slower speeds), are cited as ‘proof.’ Dissident scientists often contend that time remains invariant, although clocks may appear to run slower at increasing speeds. At least one such scientist contends that accelerated clocks can run both slower and faster, an interesting departure that I decided to examine via some examples. To the extent that my examples are correct, I too would agree with this conjecture, namely that, while time remains invariant, clocks can run faster and slower when accelerated (but not at constant velocity).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1152] **viXra:1602.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-10 15:33:30*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

One of the biggest mysteries in cosmology is why do we see only matter and no antimatter. This paper solves the mystery of missing antimatter, and doing so explains the flat rotational curve of galaxies. Staying with Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity this paper explores other pair productions models beside matter-antimatter to explains why we see no antimatter. Different pair productions explains the flat rotational curve of galaxies. The type of energy that made the matter universe is unknown and there is no scientific explanation as why we only see matter and no antimatter. Rather than proposing a symmetry breaking between matter and antimatter the other solution is that Einstein’s mass-energy equation can produce different pair productions outside of matter-antimatter when imaginary mass is introduced into his equations. By modeling the big bang as a slower than light matter and FTL Tachyon matter pair production (for example) rather than matter-antimatter doesn't violate Special Relativity as long as the Tachyons created never slow down to the speed of light. The principle idea is that Einstein’s mass-energy equation can come in 3 different flavors coinciding to the three different space curve geometries. In which pair production is not limited to matter-antimatter pairs but can also be expressed as Tachyon-anti tachyon pairs and a hybrid pair of slower than light matter-Tachyon pairs. In doing so it will allow Einstein’s mass-energy equation to produce different pair production partners. The reason why we have no antimatter is that the pair production was matter-antimatter but Tardon matter-Tachyon matter based on one of the 3 flavors of Einstein's mass-energy equation. This expansion of pair productions also expands the pressure states of General Relativity. Based on this new cosmological model, positive, negative and neutral pressure work together to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies and the expansion/acceleration of our universe. This new cosmological model that explains the missing antimatter and explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies and the expansion/acceleration of our universe is called Modified Einsteinian Dynamics (MOED) Cosmology. It is a unique theory that explains the missing the missing antimatter and explain Dark Matter without needing Dark Matter or MOND(Modified Newtonian Dynamics).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1151] **viXra:1602.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-04 16:11:16*

**Authors:** Steven Sesselmann

**Comments:** 1 Page. Revision

The anomalous galaxy rotation curve is a well known problem in physics today and has given rise to speculation that some form of gravitating dark matter might exist within galaxies, thereby providing the additional force required to explain a flat non Keplerian rotation curve. In this paper an alternative explanation for a flat rotation curve is proposed, where the anomaly is caused by comparing incompatible measurement techniques.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1150] **viXra:1602.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-02 08:06:44*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

They used to think light needed a medium to propagate. That is actually correct.

The only mistake they made was thinking the medium was fixed in space and the Earth must be rushing through it (that is what they call an erroneous constraint).

Everyone believes the MM experiment without question and they pass the information on through generation after generation.

It is actually bringing modern physics to a standstill.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1149] **viXra:1601.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-06 06:44:24*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Comments are welcomed.

Ensuing from first principles, the theory of spacetime and its metaphysical axioms are introduced as prerequisites to physical theology and the so-called relative scale spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1148] **viXra:1601.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-04 05:01:07*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Three references added, typos corrected, and text expanded.

Ensuing from first principles, the theory of spacetime and its metaphysical axioms are introduced as prerequisites to physical theology and the so-called relative scale spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1147] **viXra:1601.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-28 12:02:02*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Comments are welcomed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1146] **viXra:1601.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-25 05:41:12*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Text expanded and two references added.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1145] **viXra:1601.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-21 07:54:36*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Text expanded, four references added.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1144] **viXra:1601.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-19 10:46:04*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Orbits are parameterized with the space−time dimensions of the gravitational constant. Novel solutions for the flyby anomaly, dark matter, and the gravitational lensing effect are deduced from first principles. Observable evidence is provided with several experimental predictions to test the modified Keplerian dynamics (MoKD) hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1143] **viXra:1601.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-22 00:48:36*

**Authors:** Mohammad H Khan

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

In the next few pages you will understand “time” from a totally new perspective and discover the real cause of time. This will bring to light the reason behind many predictions of Special and General Relativity. By knowing what is time and what is its cause you will discover why time slows with motion and in gravity? You will understand the cause of gravity and why it is only attractive? Why space is curved by gravitational fields? Why objects gain mass when accelerated by a force but do not gain mass when falling in gravity? What is the cause of inertia and length contraction? I am presenting here a clear solution to the enigma of time. The concepts are simple so that anyone with knowledge of high school physics and math should be able to follow.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1142] **viXra:1601.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-16 19:46:33*

**Authors:** Mohammad H Khan

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Time presents to us in many different ways. We measure time, keep time, meet and greet in time and our daily lives are completely wrapped around the onward rush of time. We perceive time as past present and future. In physics time plays a major role in the measurement of motion and forces. Time also gives us a place like feeling to it suggesting that time is a dimension. This has sprung a whole culture around the concept of time travel leading to numerous science fiction stories, and movies. The many facets of time suggest that time is an emergent phenomenon that is arising from some underlying process that we need to identify.
The greatest breakthrough in understanding of time occurred about a hundred years ago with Einstein’s theories of Special and General relativity which introduced the concept of slowing of time with motion and in gravity. Einstein also showed that large masses curve space and there is increase in mass with acceleration by application of a force. These discoveries of Einstein provide the necessary clues to solving the riddle of time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1141] **viXra:1601.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-16 09:12:42*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

In this article it is shown that it is possible to explain the thrust generated by the EM Drive as a reaction force of emitted gravitational waves. This eliminates the controversy that surrounds the experiments performed with this device showing positive results that seemingly violate the Newton’s third law of action and reaction.
Keywords: EM Drive, Hubble constant, dark matter mass density, dark matter mass quantum, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation temperature, finite space model of the universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1140] **viXra:1601.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-25 06:23:53*

**Authors:** H. Kubel

**Comments:** 3 pages

With Einstein’s interpretation, “everything is relative”, the so-called twin experiment discloses what is called a paradox, when the travelling twin returns and they compare watches (and aging). Some assign the solution to acceleration, which they claim should be taken into account so that the paradox evaporates. However, it’s easy to construct an experiment in which any acceleration lays outside the considered part of the experiment, so that within the measured part we have only constant velocities. We can then have one observer at rest, and two travelers who run through the travelling twin’s route, but without acceleration. Within a hypothetical absolute underlying medium, particles oscillate slower for an observer who moves through the Aether than they do for an observer at rest. An acceleration free experiment can be made in which all three agree on that. The conflict appears if the traveling ‘twins’ measure how fast the first observers clock runs, based on their respective lines of simultaneity, because then the travelling ‘twins’ then insist that A’s particles oscillate slower than their own. Even without the physical experiment, the thought experiment itself discloses that the twin-paradox is a product of the “everything is relative” interpretation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1139] **viXra:1601.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-11 09:54:19*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Orbits are parameterized with the space−time dimensions of the gravitational constant. The origin of dark matter and the gravitational lensing effect are deduced from first principles. The kinematics of macroscopic systems are shown to be homogeneous with the kinematics of quantum systems. Observable evidence is provided with experimental predictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1138] **viXra:1601.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-11 06:49:55*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Orbits are parameterized with the space−time dimensions of the gravitational constant. Novel solutions for dark matter and the gravitational lensing effect are deduced. Observable evidence is provided with experimental predictions to test the model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology