**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(20) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0710(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(10) - 1005(10) - 1006(12) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(10) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(13) - 1103(36) - 1104(10) - 1105(5) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(13) - 1110(19) - 1111(22) - 1112(16)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(23) - 1205(22) - 1206(15) - 1207(18) - 1208(31) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(43) - 1304(30) - 1305(25) - 1306(29) - 1307(24) - 1308(28) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(23) - 1312(47)

2014 - 1401(39) - 1402(30) - 1403(34) - 1404(22)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1240] **viXra:1404.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:23:52*

**Authors:** Sergey I. Kuznetsov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The proposed model-independent solution to the dark energy problem requires only redefining the redshift parameter z with no special assumptions about the mechanism of cosmological redshifting.
The new definition of the redshift parameter finds its justification in cosmological models based on both special and general relativity.
In this paper a Hubble diagram is produced from a sample of the SNe1a observational data, after recalculating measured redshifts according to the new definition with no change in corresponding magnitudes (apparent luminosities).
A linear fit of the observational data obtained with the newly-defined redshift z* can be considered as an evidence for the non-accelerating Universe with no need for any dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1239] **viXra:1404.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:23:32*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 9 pages, 3 tables

In present paper we develop the description of massless fields on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. The generalized sedeonic second-order equation for unified gravito-electromagnetic (GE) field describing simultaneously weak gravity and electromagnetism is proposed. The relations for the GE field energy, momentum and Lorentz invariants are derived. The special case of GE field described by first-order sedeonic wave equation is also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1238] **viXra:1404.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-15 23:17:07*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov.

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The critical discussion of the theory of Big Bang is proposed. Methodological basis is the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics. It is proved that the theory of Big Bang contains three fundamental logical errors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1237] **viXra:1404.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-14 21:17:19*

**Authors:** J. C. Perez Ramos

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Spanish

We show how the theory of relativity disagrees with the isotropy of the expanding universe and with the experimental arguments in favour of the existence of a preferred frame. We postulate a new heuristic principle, the invariance of the radius of the universe, deriving new transformation equations. Then we develop the geometric scenario and we prove how the universe equals an anisotropic inhomogeneous hypersphere in four-space. The new model quite naturally incorporates the expanding universe, solves the cosmological horizon problem, explains the asymmetrical time dilation effect (for example, in the twin paradox) and describes the Big Bang in an original way by reducing the radius of the hypersphere to zero. The speed of light acquires a new geometrical meaning that justifies a varying speed of light (VSL) theory and clarifies unsolved problems in physics as the Pioneer anomaly, cosmological puzzles, the dark matter, the dark energy, the Loschmidt paradox and even the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1236] **viXra:1404.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-13 20:22:09*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This is an updated version of GKD.

This paper was written for the general public and it outlines the basics of General Keplerian Dynamics (GKD). GKD is a Grand Unified Theory that can be proven experimentally via the Tajmar effect, the DePalma effect, the spin origin of the Earth's electric field, and the predicted outcomes of quantum teleportation effects, the “reverse” precession of Venus, the spin-dependent precession of atomic systems, and the polar frequency of stellar bodies. If you are an experimental physicist who would like to prove/disprove GKD, please visit the pending predictions section within the Proof/Predictions/Resources/Affiliates link on our homepage www.gkdtheory.com. This document gets updated periodically. The latest date of publication was on 04/13/14.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1235] **viXra:1404.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 18:17:51*

**Authors:** Michael Harney, Julie Seal

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

By modeling the Universe as a quantum well for standing waves and solving Schrodinger’s equation for a particle trapped in this well, the solutions for the allowable rest-energies of all particles in the Universe are obtained, from the mass of the photon up to the mass of the Universe. The quantum numbers that predict the allowable rest-energies of all particles are also found to quantize the distance over which gravity acts, ranging from the Planck length to the radius of the universe. The potential that is derived from the quantum well model is validated for gravitational, strong, weak and electromagnetic forces by confirming the mass of the vector particle for each force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1234] **viXra:1404.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 20:43:51*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Preprint from: "The Physics of Reality: Space, Time, Matter,Cosmos" (2013) RL Amoroso, LH Kauffman, P. Rowlands (eds.) Singapore: World Scientific Publishers, pp. 504-509

The concept of time in the 'clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several
generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to
physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction
in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to
circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the
fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural
science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1233] **viXra:1404.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 08:51:18*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Twin Paradox is one of the most fascinating paradoxes in physics. In Special Relativity, the paradox arises due to the nonexistence of a preferred frame of reference, resulting in both twins observing that he or she is younger than the other twin. Nonetheless, it is commonly agreed that the "traveling" twin returns younger than the "staying" twin. The prevailing solution is obtained by deviating from the relativity principle and assuming that the "staying" twin's frame is preferred over the "traveling" twin's frame. Here I show that a relativity theory without the Lorentz Invariance Principle yields a commonsensical solution to the paradox, according to which the twins should age equally. The proposed solution is in full agreement with the essence of relativity, which prescribes the nonexistence of a preferred frame of reference.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1232] **viXra:1404.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-09 21:41:25*

**Authors:** Richard J. Benish

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Schiller has shown not only that a maximum force follows from General Relativity, he has also argued that General Relativity can be derived from the principle of maximum force. In the present paper an alternative derivation of maximum force is given. Inspired by the equivalence principle, the approach is based on a modification of the well known special relativity equation for the velocity acquired from uniform proper acceleration. Though in Schiller's derivation the existence of gravitational horizons plays a key role, in the present derivation this is not the case. In fact, though the kinematic equation that we start with does exhibit a horizon, it is not carried over to its gravitational counterpart. A few of the geometrical consequences and physical implications of this result are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1231] **viXra:1404.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-09 22:49:29*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 1 Page.

With respect to logarithmic scales spanning over 80 orders of magnitude of mass and over 70 orders of magnitude of density, this chart represents essentially all known bodies of matter in the Universe, including the Universe itself. A variety of essential cosmic relationships become immediately evident: the broad span of atomic matter, which branches toward increasing and decreasing density at the mass of stars; the Chandrasekhar limit mass; some curious ratios involving the fine structure constant; and the artificial, unnatural appearance of the Schwarzschild horizon line. Also displayed is a simple expression that defines Newton's constant G in terms of two key densities and three fundamental atomic constants.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1230] **viXra:1404.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-10 01:16:57*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

First, I refer you to two statements in "Solving the mystery of COSMIC RAYS" by Angela Olinto (Astronomy magazine - April 2014):
a) In 2013, scientists discovered that cosmic rays - charged particles travelling near the speed of light - get their energy by travelling back and forth over the edges of supernova remnants ... The origins of the highest-energy cosmic rays, though, remain a mystery."
b) "Or are they (ultra-high-energy cosmic rays) accelerated in the explosive deaths of the massive stars that create black holes and neutron stars?"
Then I ask if the theories of Einstein suggest the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays is, ultimately, gravitational?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1229] **viXra:1404.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-08 23:07:30*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Many galaxies have a concentration of mass at their center, which has come to be known as a "black hole". In the model presented here, the mass is attributed to a neutral gas of electrons and positrons. It is found that electron degeneracy pressure supports the smaller masses against gravity. The larger masses are supported by ideal gas and radiation pressure. Physical properties are calculated for the range 450 to 45 billion solar masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1228] **viXra:1404.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-08 01:59:59*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The metric outside a charged body is calculated. As part of the given approach it is shown that the gravitational and electromagnetic fields are equally involved in the formation of the metric tensor components. And the contribution of fields in the metric is proportional to the energy of these fields. From equations for the metric it follows that the metric tensor components are determined up to two constants.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1227] **viXra:1404.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-07 10:52:42*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the previous papers [1, 2] we presented the concept of the effective mass tensor the in General Relativity (GR). According to this concept under the influence of the gravitational field the bare mass tensor becomes the effective mass tensor. Assuming that there is a relationship between metric tensor and the effective mass tensor we obtained modified Einstein’s field equations, which gives new meaning to GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1226] **viXra:1404.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 13:30:19*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 32 Pages. English language.

It is shown that the Theory of Special Relativity is not a theory free of contradictions. Putting apart our ingenious idea about clocks in a point (infinitesimal clocks), it is proved there are contradictions deriving from the synchronism of clocks. Other contradictions refer to the concept of relativity of simultaneity. One of these contradictions is proved through the idea of idealized experience: a simultaneous emission of two photons. Simultaneity related to an inertial frame of reference (inertial system) considered in movement, but whose system in movement stops moving between the first and the second emissions with respect to the steadied system (stationary system), ending up the experience “beforehand”. Only one photon would have been emitted with respect to the system in movement, which would make our prior hypotheses contradictory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1225] **viXra:1404.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 13:56:22*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. English language.

Using the Lorentz Transformations between (x, y, z, t) and (X, Y, Z, T) and the fact that it is impossible to have clocks in a unique point (infinitesimal clocks), more exactly, the fact that time measured in a system does not depend on format, dimensions and internal mechanism of clocks and any periodical process adopted in measurement, it is proved the simultaneity of events E1, “Time measured at the stationary system (S) is t.” (Or “Clocks X1, X2, X3, …, Xn at rest at the stationary system indicate or set time t in this system”, i.e., no matter the position (x’, y, z) of measurement of time t in S, even to x’ <> x), and E2, “Time (or schedule, instant, time instant) measured at the moving system (S’), through a stationary clock at this system and at position (X, Y, Z), is given by T.”. Such simultaneity is related to the system considered stationary, of coordinates (x, y, z, t), as well as of the system considered in movement with respect to the first one, of coordinates (X, Y, Z, T). Of this simultaneity that is contained in the Lorentz Transformations of the time is easy to prove that is contradictory the definition of Synchronism of Clocks, used in the Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1224] **viXra:1404.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 14:10:58*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. English language.

Considering it is not possible to have infinitesimal clocks and based on the Lorentz’s Transformation between (x, y, z, t) and (X, Y, Z, T), it is proved there is a contradiction on Lorentz’s Transformation of Time used in the Theory of Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1223] **viXra:1404.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 09:29:14*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Portuguese language.

Is shown contradictions in special relativity theory related to the clocks synchronization, covariance of the equations of electromagnetism and time dilatation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1222] **viXra:1404.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 10:48:22*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Portuguese language.

It is shown that the special theory of relativity is not a theory free of contradictions, one of the contradictions related to the relativity of simultaneity. Another contradiction occurs when we calculate the speed of light relative to a moving reference frame by using the dilatation of the space and contraction of time, since it appears that the speed of light depends on the speed reference. Also shows that for low speeds, but large distances, the Lorentz transformation for time is not reduced to their respective transformation of Galileo, subject not explored in most science books, and even college.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1221] **viXra:1404.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 08:47:33*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Portuguese language. Article originally published in the Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física, vol. 19, No. 3, September, 1997.

It is critically exposed the deduction of Lorentz transformations made by Einstein in 1905. The Lorentz transformations are deduced following a similar method to that of Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1220] **viXra:1404.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 05:05:55*

**Authors:** Jan Helm

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov (TOV) equation is solved with a new ansatz: the external boundary condition with mass M0 and radius R1 is dual to the internal boundary condition with density rbc and inner radius ri , the two boundary conditions yield the same result.
The inner boundary condition is imposed with a density rbc and an inner radius ri, which is zero for the compact neutron stars, but non-zero for the shell-stars: stellar quasi-black-hole and galactic quasi-black-hole. Parametric solutions are calculated for neutron stars, stellar quasi-black-holes, galactic quasi-black-holes. From the results an M-R-relation and mass limits for these star models can be extracted. A new method is found for solving the Einstein equations for Kerr space-time with matter (extended Kerr space-time), i.e. rotating matter distribution in its own gravitational field. Then numerical solutions are calculated for several astrophysical models: white dwarf, neutron star, stellar quasi-black-hole, galactic quasi-black-hole. The results suggest that quasi-black-hole star models resemble the behaviour of abstract black holes, but have finite redshifts and escape velocity v<c and no singularity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1219] **viXra:1404.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-02 04:05:21*

**Authors:** R Santosh Kumar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The notion of a geodesic line (also: geodesic) is a geometric concept which
is a generalization of the concept of a straight line (or a segment of a straight line) in
Euclidean geometry to spaces of a more general type. In this paper I have derived the
geodesic equation for a 2 dimensional spherical surface following a local local minkowski
frame with the minkowski metric localized .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1218] **viXra:1403.0979 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-31 18:17:46*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** 3 pages; mostly font 11; A4 paper; UK English; Freelance scientist.

NEGATIVE ENERGY particles.
From S. Hawking:- “Particle Creation of Black Holes" two quotes.
“ Just outside the event horizon there will be virtual pairs of particles, one with negative energy and one with positive energy.”
AND
“It should be emphasized that these pictures of the mechanism responsible for the thermal emission and area decrease are heuristic only and should not be taken too literally"
From a “standard physics point of view" the hypothetical NEGATIVE energy particle has, necessarily, other associated properties.
# = breaks “standard physics point of view" laws.
[A] Negative energy :: (1) # negative Kelvin temperature!
[B] Negative mass :: (1) # negative mass, which cannot be anti-matter because it has positive mass!
[C] Negative velocity (The space distance & time is self-referenced to the NEGATIVE energy particle.)
[C1] Negative space :: (1) # negative space distance, where all “normal space" has positive space distances.
[C2] Negative time :: (1) # negative time difference, where all “normal time" has positive time difference.
I suppose that tacyons would fit into the [C] category, but I’m not aware of any observation confirming the existence of [A], [B] or [C]. Of course the “standard physics point of view" does not apply inside a black hole! Theoretically, nothing but tacyons could escape from a black hole!
NEGATIVE INERTIA particles.
I, somewhat cynically, posit a similar NON-“standard physics point of view" property of matter [impossible in my understanding of the laws of physics]:-
NEGATIVE INERTIA particles.
[BUT, it does have some predicted properties that are compatible with experimental observations!]
Basic consequences
[1] If a group of negative inertia “particles” were hit by another they would go flying off in all directions immediately. [Normal matter would tend to have a “stay in the same place" tendency.]
[2] From the above, the negative inertia matter would not “clump together.
[3] It would be spread evenly, like a gas, throughout the universe.
[4] The negative inertia would also apply to how easy it is to add [or remove] angular momentum to [or from] a spinning body.
Possible assumptions (A) & conclusions (C)
[A1] It would be pushed away by photon pressure from stars & the accretion discs of galactic black holes much easier than normal matter.
[C1] The inner parts of galaxies would be emptied of negative inertia matter. The outer reaches of galaxies would have the “I want to go faster” type of negative inertia and, hence move faster!
[A2] Because the the negative inertia matter is so evenly and, hence “thinly” spread throughout the universe, its influence only becomes more noticeable as cosmic expansion increases. From our “newest time = greatest expansion", “localised viewpoint" of our universe we would see the greatest cosmic expansion around us.
[C2] [The normal matter is “spread out thinner & thinner” with time and also the greatest effect of negative inertia, because the negative inertia matter is initially, spread out fairly evenly [like a gas.]. The “I want to go faster” type negative inertia matter could cause the increased expansion of the universe. It would have a “pushing apart”, “increased velocity” effect!
[C3] The negative inertia matter could account for increased star rotation speeds on edges of galaxies and dark energy too. It’s an unexplored aspect of exotic matter!
[C4] The negative inertia matter could be viewed as “dark matter” or “shadow matter”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1217] **viXra:1403.0978 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-31 21:51:21*

**Authors:** Shalender Singh, Vishnu Priya Singh Parmar

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Lorentz transformations and special theory of relativity have existed for more than a century and mathematics related to them has been used and applied for innumerous times. Relativistic energy and relativistic momentum equations have been derived and proven to be conserved if energy/momentum transaction is seen from different frames of reference. The set of permissible inertial reference frame velocities from where the energy and momentum of a closed system of particles may be observed to be conserved forms a ball in the velocity vector space. In this paper we use the existing equations of special theory of relativity and Lorentz transformations and the mathematical structure of the observation velocity space to prove that the conservation of kinetic energy implies the conservation of momentum. We also prove that the conservation of momentum implies the conservation of kinetic energy. We further derive many more linearly independent conservation equations directly from the conservation of energy/ momentum. The derivation of the conservation of kinetic energy from the conservation of momentum implies that either potential energy has a momentum thus made of inertial particles or there cannot be a net conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy. Furthermore the existence of many equations lead to extremely strict form of transfers of energy and momentum. It highly restricts the set of states particles in any closed system can assume without changing the overall energy of the system. This has a strong impact on the particle mechanics and as an example we show that the relativistic explanation of the elastic collision of particles striking each other as used by Einstein in the 1934 two blackboard derivation of mass and energy is itself inconsistent and wrong.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1216] **viXra:1403.0973 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-30 16:23:55*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

As a result of integration of the equations of motion with regard to the pressure field and acceleration field the system’s integral energy-momentum 4-vector is found. It is shown that this vector in the covariant theory of gravitation must be equal to zero. This allows us to explain the 4/3 problem and the problem of neutrino energy in an ideal spherical supernova collapse. At the same time, in order to describe the system’s state, instead of the integral 4-vector we must use the four-momentum, which is derived from the Lagrangian. The described approach differs substantially from the results of the general theory of relativity, in which the integral 4-vector serves as the system’s four--momentum, and the stress-energy tensor of the gravitational field is replaced by the corresponding pseudotensor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1215] **viXra:1403.0966 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-28 18:21:30*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

These notes constitute a supplement to my paper ‘The Theological Basis of Big Bang Cosmology and the Failure of General Relativity’ and should therefore be read after that paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1214] **viXra:1403.0961 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-28 10:23:00*

**Authors:** Leonid Filippov

**Comments:** 41 Pages. in Russian

Lorentz transforms are derived and electrodynamic and optical effects of Special theory of relativity. A known formula for centrifugal force of inertia, which is a consequence of the emergence of gravitational interaction of the test body with all bodies of the Universe, is deduced. This corresponds to Mach’s principle, explaining the equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1213] **viXra:1403.0953 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 19:22:55*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This paper appeared in WSPC - Proceedings THE PHYSICS OF REALITY: SPACE, TIME, MATTER, COSMOS, VIGIER VIII - BCS 2012

It is shown in this paper that the Big Bang Cosmology has its basis in theology, not in science, that it pertains to a Universe entirely filled by a single spherically symmetric continuous indivisible homogeneous body and therefore models nothing, that it violates the physical principles of General Relativity, that it violates the conservation of energy, and that General Relativity itself violates the usual conservation of energy and momentum and is therefore in conflict with experiment on a deep level, rendering Einstein’s conception of the
physical Universe and the gravitational field invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1212] **viXra:1403.0949 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 12:34:23*

**Authors:** Helmut Söllinger

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The author's starting point is the axiom that the product of particle masses and the gravitational constant is constant and that the masses of the proton and the electron would increase while the gravitational constant would reduce over time. With this assumption, the author manages to explain the cosmic redshift without presupposing an expansion of the cosmos.
He presents an underlying relation between the fundamental natural constants, the Hubble constant and the two particle masses, which would describe in quantitative terms not just the beginning, but also – and this is what is momentously new about this model – the end of the universe as we know it. Via a mathematical link, the temporal change in the gravitational constant and the particle masses is described in relation to the Hubble constant. In this context, attention must also be paid to the way in which the change of the electron mass affects the definition of the SI units for length and time.
In addition, the author uses an analogy between magnetism and electricity in which the electron and the proton are considered as the two ends of an electrical dipole string. He develops a model for the elementary unit of the so-called dark matter through which the rotation characteristics of galaxies can be explained.
On the basis of this assumed fundamental relation, the author quantifies the mass and length of the supposed elementary electrets, thus estimating the number of elementary electrets that should cross a typical galaxy. With his model, the author is the first to design a concrete and compact proposal for solving the greatest mysteries of cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1211] **viXra:1403.0938 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-26 05:11:46*

**Authors:** Wan-Chung Hu

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

This study is to describe the defintion of space, time, light, and development of grand unified theories. Space has its smallest unit. Time is actually the inverse of unit space oscillation. Light is electromagnetic wave as well as gravitational wave. Light frequency can decicide unit space oscillation. By linking Stefan's law to Larmor formula, we can get a grand unified theory including electric field, magnetic field, gravity field(acceleration), momentity field(spinity/impelity filed)(angular momentum/linear momentum) and heat/temperature field. This equation is also the equation for heat-light transformation. Yukawa field can replace the electromagnetic fields to explain strong and weak force. Thus, all force fields are united!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1210] **viXra:1403.0919 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 07:18:57*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 12 Pages. From 8th Vigier Symposium proceedings, "The Physics of Reality: Space, Time, Matter, Cosmos"

Newton claimed the influence of gravity is instantaneous; Einstein insisted no influence could propagate faster than the speed of light.
Recent experiments to test the speed of gravity have been controversial and inconclusive on technical grounds. Considerable effort is
currently expended in the search for a Quantum Gravity; but there is no a priori reason there should be one. We propose that is not the
regime of integration which instead occurs in the arena of the Unified Field, UF; further that a completed model of Geometrodynamics
inherently includes a Newton/Einstein duality which introduces shock effects in certain arenas. The unified theory predicts that there is
no graviton of the usual phenomenal form (an artifact of the incompleteness of Gauge Theory, i.e. gauge theory is only an approximation
suggesting new physics). A new Large Scale Additional Dimensional (LSXD) M-Theoretic topological charge alternative is presented.
We also attempt to show how the Titius-Bode Law for solar and exoplanetary configurations appears to provide indicia of this
multiverse gravitational model. Applications of the dual geometrodynamics formulation include an interpretation of quasar luminosity as
the result of gravitational shock waves in a manner countering explanations of large redshift, Z in Big Bang cosmology putatively based
on Doppler recession. Instead redshift occurs as the result of a periodic minute photon mass anisotropy caused by periodic coupling to a
covariant polarized Dirac vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[611] **viXra:1404.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-15 22:01:56*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Updated version.

This paper was written for the general public and it outlines the basics of General Keplerian Dynamics (GKD). GKD is a Grand Unified Theory that can be proven experimentally [ctrl+click to open in a new tab]. It's strongly recommended that you visit our blog before reading this document for a basic understanding of dilation-dependent angular velocity (DAV). This document gets updated periodically. The latest date of publication was on 04/15/14.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[610] **viXra:1404.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-14 14:07:00*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Updated version.

This paper was written for the general public and it outlines the basics of General Keplerian Dynamics (GKD). GKD is a Grand Unified Theory that can be proven experimentally [ctrl+click to open in a new tab]. This document gets updated periodically. The latest date of publication was on 04/14/14.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[609] **viXra:1404.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-14 11:53:02*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Updated version.

This paper was written for the general public and it outlines the basics of General Keplerian Dynamics (GKD). GKD is a Grand Unified Theory that can be proven experimentally via the Tajmar effect, the DePalma effect, the spin origin of the Earth's electric field, and the predicted outcomes of quantum teleportation effects, the “reverse” precession of Venus, the spin-dependent precession of atomic systems, and the polar frequency of stellar bodies. If you are an experimental physicist who would like to prove/disprove GKD, please visit the pending predictions section within the Proof/Predictions/Resources/Affiliates link on our homepage www.gkdtheory.com. This document gets updated periodically. The latest date of publication was on 04/13/14.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[608] **viXra:1404.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-11 10:00:36*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Twin Paradox is one of the most fascinating paradoxes in physics. In Special Relativity, the paradox arises due to the nonexistence of a preferred frame of reference, resulting in both twins observing that he or she is younger than the other twin. Nonetheless, it is commonly agreed that the "traveling" twin returns younger than the "staying" twin. The prevailing solution is obtained by deviating from the relativity principle and assuming that the "staying" twin's frame is preferred over the "traveling" twin's frame. Here I show that a relativity theory without the Lorentz Invariance Principle yields a commonsensical solution to the paradox, according to which the twins should age equally. The proposed solution is in full agreement with the essence of relativity, which prescribes the nonexistence of a preferred frame of reference.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[607] **viXra:1403.0979 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-01 10:35:56*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 11; UK English; Freelance scientist.

NEGATIVE ENERGY particles.
From S. Hawking:- “Particle Creation of Black Holes" two quotes.
“ Just outside the event horizon there will be virtual pairs of particles, one with negative energy and one with positive energy.”
AND
“It should be emphasized that these pictures of the mechanism responsible for the thermal emission and area decrease are heuristic only and should not be taken too literally"
From a “standard physics point of view" the hypothetical NEGATIVE energy particle has, necessarily, other associated properties.
# = breaks “standard physics point of view" laws.
[A] Negative energy :: (1) # negative Kelvin temperature!
[B] Negative mass :: (1) # negative mass, which cannot be anti-matter because it has positive mass!
[C] Negative velocity (The space distance & time is self-referenced to the NEGATIVE energy particle.)
[C1] Negative space :: (1) # negative space distance, where all “normal space" has positive space distances.
[C2] Negative time :: (1) # negative time difference, where all “normal time" has positive time difference.
I suppose that tacyons would fit into the [C] category, but I’m not aware of any observation confirming the existence of [A], [B] or [C]. Of course the “standard physics point of view" does not apply inside a black hole! Theoretically, nothing but tacyons could escape from a black hole!
NEGATIVE INERTIA particles.
I, somewhat cynically, posit a similar NON-“standard physics point of view" property of matter [impossible in my understanding of the laws of physics]:-
NEGATIVE INERTIA particles.
[BUT, it does have some predicted properties that are compatible with experimental observations!]
Basic consequences
[1] If a group of negative inertia “particles” were hit by another they would go flying off in all directions immediately. [Normal matter would tend to have a “stay in the same place" tendency.]
[2] From the above, the negative inertia matter would not “clump together.
[3] It would be spread evenly, like a gas, throughout the universe.
[4] The negative inertia would also apply to how easy it is to add [or remove] angular momentum to [or from] a spinning body.
Possible assumptions (A) & conclusions (C)
[A1] It would be pushed away by photon pressure from stars & the accretion discs of galactic black holes much easier than normal matter.
[C1] The inner parts of galaxies would be emptied of negative inertia matter. The outer reaches of galaxies would have the “I want to go faster” type of negative inertia and, hence move faster!
[A2] Because the the negative inertia matter is so evenly and, hence “thinly” spread throughout the universe, its influence only becomes more noticeable as cosmic expansion increases. From our “newest time = greatest expansion", “localised viewpoint" of our universe we would see the greatest cosmic expansion around us.
[C2] [The normal matter is “spread out thinner & thinner” with time and also the greatest effect of negative inertia, because the negative inertia matter is initially, spread out fairly evenly [like a gas.]. The “I want to go faster” type negative inertia matter could cause the increased expansion of the universe. It would have a “pushing apart”, “increased velocity” effect!
[C3] The negative inertia matter could account for increased star rotation speeds on edges of galaxies and dark energy too. It’s an unexplored aspect of exotic matter!
[C4] The negative inertia matter could be viewed as “dark matter” or “shadow matter”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology