**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(20) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0710(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(10) - 1005(10) - 1006(12) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(10) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(13) - 1103(36) - 1104(10) - 1105(5) - 1106(12) - 1107(16) - 1108(5) - 1109(13) - 1110(19) - 1111(22) - 1112(16)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(23) - 1205(22) - 1206(14) - 1207(17) - 1208(31) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(30) - 1305(25) - 1306(28) - 1307(23) - 1308(28) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(23) - 1312(46)

2014 - 1401(36) - 1402(30) - 1403(33) - 1404(32) - 1405(39) - 1406(36) - 1407(46) - 1408(32) - 1409(26) - 1410(22)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1434] **viXra:1410.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 10:34:29*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 35 Pages. develops the Puthoff analysis published in the Journal of British Interplanetary Society.Vol.63.pgs 82-89.2010,arXiv:1204.2184 for the Natario warp drive arXiv gr-qc/0110086

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory.
\newline
Some years ago the American physicist Harold Puthoff published a
very interesting work in the Journal of the British Interplanetary
Society.He theorized about the possibility of the modification of
the spacetime geometry by arbitrary advanced civilizations able to
generate the so-called metric engineering and such a modification
would be supposed to "allow" the propulsion of spaceships at
superluminal velocities.However Puthoff used only diagonalized
metrics for his analysis and he even quotes the Schwarzschild
metric.In this work we reproduce the Puthoff analysis for the
Natario warp drive spacetime and due to the fact that the Natario
warp drive is a non-diagonalized metric due to the presence of
both the shift and Natario vectors our results are different than
the ones obtained by Puthoff.However his idea of a spacetime
metric engineering able to distort the spacetime geometry
"allowing" superluminal interstellar spaceflight is perfectly
possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1433] **viXra:1410.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 02:47:28*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez

**Comments:** 29 Pages. 29P.

The abstract
The new special theory of relativity is given in work. It gives the new ideas of the processes occurring in systems of movement . In it is developed the new universal transformation for classical mechanics and electrodynamics. All experimental practice of the wide range of moving systems shows the integrity of the findings in this work.
The postulate which the potential energy of the moving system depends on its velocity with the conservation law of energy of the moving system are sufficient enough to achieve a consistent theory of special relativity with only absolute time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1432] **viXra:1410.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 12:00:12*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We present in this first part of the article a summary of the theories of Le Verrier, Stockwell and Laplace on the secular precession of the perihelion of the planets, especially Mercury, leaving part 2 a review of the theory of Mercury from Le Verrier, comments Newcomb on anomalies of Mercury and a description of how the observed values were obtained by Clemence, important reference cited by Weinberg. Also shown is one more hypothesis for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, a decrease in the mass of the Sun, rather than an increase in the mass of the planets, similar to what has been done with the assumption of the solar wind. This new assumption, however, appears to be unnecessary before most important fact here presented. An exact theoretical value was classically obtained following the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: we find 5600'',84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding to the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1431] **viXra:1410.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:10:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1430] **viXra:1410.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 03:34:32*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The curvature of the space is the Gravitation Constant G.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1429] **viXra:1410.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-16 11:34:12*

**Authors:** Alexander N. Balatsky

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The radius of a void particle is proposed as a basic invariant scale of the universe; analytically defined, this invariant allows us to reveal: (i) an analytical relation describing the interaction of fundamental forces of nature on both quantum and cosmological scales; (ii) the analytical form and cosmological meaning of the fine structure constant; (iii) the origin of time, and the role of gravity as regards entropy dissipation. On the basis of the latter claim, it is argued that inevitable entropy growth does not necessarily result in ultimate chaos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1428] **viXra:1410.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-16 12:17:13*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 1 Page. do review; I am author in Physical Review

Perhaps is found mistake in most reputable journal (after the "Nature"), therefore the Doomsday can be more far away. Objection "there is Dark Matter, so General Relativity is wrong" is rejected in "Dmitri Martila, "Simplest Explanation of Dark Matter and Dark Energy", LAP LAMBERT, 2013.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1427] **viXra:1410.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 16:22:37*

**Authors:** Paris S. Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Rough finalized draft of paper.

There exist scales in the descriptions of both quantum mechanics and general relativity. For instance there is the quantity hbar in quantum mechanics and the quantity c in special and general relativity. The general invariance of these quantities is important to the given theories, as it sets a scale for physics.
It is hypothesized that general relativity and quantum mechanics possess mutually independent, covariant representations with these quantities setting scales of evolution. In spaces of constant curvature, particles in inertial freefall either separate or come together as an aspect of these scales and the given energy momentum in quantum mechanics and general relativity. This topic is discussed in the context
of inertial eigenstates for a system with a background spin field. This results in a generally covariant like behavior of the electromagnetic interaction, which has properties analogous to a gravitational system. The implication of this is the appearance of a gap to excitations and other features strongly related to
superconductivity, as well as features appropriate to the treatment of separation of two hydrogen atoms in space and time. It is shown that a flat apparently expanding space is a consequence of these contributions, and that an energy momentum gap is predicted from this theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1426] **viXra:1410.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 23:20:45*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article is the transcript of the audio-visual presentation titled ‘Wormholes: Science Fiction or Pure Fantasy?’ [7] prior to Hollywood’s release of the movie ‘Interstellar’, the plot of which involves astronauts travelling through a wormhole to save the Human Race. It is explained in simply terms why the wormhole has no relation to reality, just as the black hole has no relation to reality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1425] **viXra:1410.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 08:51:55*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Successful repeats of Roger Shawyer’s emdrive experiment, originally conducted at SPR Ltd. in the UK, present General Relativity with a paradox of action without equal and opposite reaction. The results from this experiment will find their simplest explanation in Mach’s Principal if we can resolve the interaction between electrical conduction in its reflectors and acceleration of remote charges. Special Relativity establishes that the emission and absorption of a photon occurs when those events are synchronous in complex time. Photons exist as independent entities from a point perspective in real time but from the covariant perspective they are not separate from the matter emitting and absorbing their energy. This allows the possibility that Shawyer’s emdrive may be gaining traction from the remote universe by induction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1424] **viXra:1410.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 20:37:52*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that the assumption that the rate at which our clocks are running is decreasing with the cosmological time in a universe with steady expansion rate is preferable to the assumption of the accelerating expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1423] **viXra:1410.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 00:58:57*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A historical experiment by Kündig on the transverse Doppler shift in a rotating system measured with the Mössbauer effect (Mössbauer rotor experiment) has been recently first re-analyzed and then replied by an experimental research group. The results of re-analyzing the experiment have shown that a correct re-processing of Kündig's experimental data gives an interesting deviation of a relative redshift between emission and absorption resonant lines from the standard prediction based on the relativistic dilatation of time. That prediction gives a redshift \frac{\nabla E}{E}\simeq-\frac{1}{2}\frac{v^{2}}{c^{2}}
where v
is the tangential velocity of the absorber of resonant radiation, c
is the velocity of light in vacuum and the result is given to the accuracy of first-order in \frac{v^{2}}{c^{2}}
. Data re-processing gave \frac{\nabla E}{E}\simeq-k\frac{v^{2}}{c^{2}}
with k=0.596\pm0.006
. Subsequent new experimental results by the reply of Kündig experiment have shown a redshift with k=0.68\pm0.03
instead.
Abstract By using Einstein Equivalence Principle, which states the equivalence between the gravitational "force" and the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial frame of reference (included a rotating frame of reference) here we re-analyze the theoretical framework of Mössbauer rotor experiments directly in the rotating frame of reference by using a general relativistic treatment. It will be shown that previous analyses missed an important effect of clock synchronization and that the correct general relativistic prevision in the rotating frame gives k\simeq\frac{2}{3}
in perfect agreement with the new experimental results. Such an effect of clock synchronization has been missed in various papers in the literature with some subsequent claim of invalidity of relativity theory and/or some attempts to explain the experimental results through “exotic” effects. Our general relativistic interpretation shows, instead, that the new experimental results of the Mössbauer rotor experiment are a new, strong and independent, proof of Einstein general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1422] **viXra:1410.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 06:30:38*

**Authors:** J. Foukzon, Podosenov S A, Potapov A A, Menkova ER

**Comments:** 83 Pages.

Quantum cosmology space-time negative fractal dimension and quantum-perturbative model of vacuum Einstein-Gliner-Zel'dovich and Sakharov induced gravity in a Riemannian space of negative fractal dimension is developed
J. Foukzon,Podosenov S.A, Potapov A.A, Menkova E.R
Nonholonomic, fractal and related structures in the relativistic continuous media, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and cosmology: Asymptotic methods in problems of classical and fractal pulse electrodynamics and quantum cosmology in the space. Vol.3
2015 paperback. In press.
ISBN 978-5-9710-1525-3
http://translate.google.co.il/translate?hl=en&sl=ru&u=http://urss.ru/cgi-bin/db.pl%3Flang%3DRu%26blang%3Dru%26page%3DBook%26id%3D191199&prev=/search%3Fq%3D%25D0%259F%25D0%25BE%25D0%25B4%25D0%25BE%25D1%2581%25D0%25B5%25D0%25BD%25D0%25BE%25D0%25B2%2B%25D0%25A1.%25D0%2590.,%2B%25D0%259F%25D0%25BE%25D1%2582%25D0%25B0%25D0%25BF%25D0%25BE%25D0%25B2%2B%25D0%2590.%25D0%2590.,%2B%25D0%25A4%25D0%25BE%25D1%2583%25D0%25BA%25D0%25B7%25D0%25BE%25D0%25BD%2B%25D0%2594%25D0%25B6.,%2B%25D0%259C%25D0%25B5%25D0%25BD%25D1%258C%25D0%25BA%25D0%25BE%25D0%25B2%25D0%25B0%2B%25D0%2595.%25D0%25A0.%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D599

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1421] **viXra:1410.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-11 09:53:33*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** In portuguese. 2 pages of print computer.

Fortunately I found the classical proof of the unexplained precession of the perihelion of Mercury.
It is completely given by the Laplace theory, the same used by Stockwell, but with current values of the planetary masses, added to the satellites, and a calculation in longer series, done by computer. That is, recalculated the coefficients (0, k) e [0, k] and used the coefficients of adjustments mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1420] **viXra:1410.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 22:19:00*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This short note posits the indisputable physical law prescribing that distance = velocity x time, and shows that this proposition contradicts Special Relativity, such that the above proposition is correct and Special Relativity is incorrect, or vice versa.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1419] **viXra:1410.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-07 17:39:11*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The method of physical analogy is used to generate general explanations to the structure of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1418] **viXra:1410.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-07 13:49:42*

**Authors:** D.G. Taylor

**Comments:** Pages.

This is a table confirming the equations in "The Relativistic Space-Time Perspective" at |http://vixra.org/abs/1306.0104|
The table examines 39 velocity values, ranging from |1.000~000E-500| m/s to
c-|1.000~000E-500| m/s, all calculated to 2000 decimal places .
velocitySRPD = velocitynoSRPD/(1- velocitynoSRPD^2/ c^2)^½
velocitynoSRPD = velocitySRPD/(1+ velocitySRPD^2/ c^2)^½
This table is for Relativistic Velocity values only, but they are completely applicable for the Relativistic Length, Time, and Mass equations as well. Tables on those equations are available on request. The occasional tiny difference between the VelocitynoSRPD (the velocity with no Relativistic Distortion) and the VelocitynoSRPDBack (the “Real||noSRPD” velocity calculated from the distorted VelocitySRPD) is simply due to irrational numbers (like square roots). You can never determine a value like 2½ exactly because it is irrational - the answer always has an infinite number of decimal places in random digits. The maximum error for calculations done to 2000 decimal places was found to be 1.0E-1992. But the maximum error for calculations done to 1000 decimal places was 1.0E-992; the maximum for calculations done to 100 decimal places was 1.0E-92.
The software used was Advanced Smart Math Calculator, a product available from the Software firm RUNITER COMPANY, and their site at http://calculator.runiter.com/math-calculator/. The owner, Saeid Nourian [president@runiter.com], has seen both the tables and an earlier text of the theory, so can confirm the numeric validity of the tables.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1417] **viXra:1410.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-04 14:52:44*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

This conjecture supports the notion of a temporal-inertial (TI) field, a field that is subject to gravity and, in response to the acceleration of gravity, transmits its own acceleration to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles. The relation between the Higgs field or the Higgs mechanism and what I designate as the TI field is undefined. I may attribute properties to the TI field (such as the particles of the field being subject to gravity) that do not obtain for the Higgs field. The flux model posits that in a gravitational field, the velocity of the TI field combines with that of the gravitons emitted by the gravitational body to increase the flux of gravitons relative to the TI field. Thus the response of the TI field to gravity adds to the force of gravity. Equations defining the acceleration and velocity profiles about a gravitational body are developed for the flux model. The flux model describes a system in which particles of the TI field fall radially toward the central gravitational mass. The flux model may offer an explanation for the unexpected changes in velocity seen by the so-called flyby spacecraft in their gravity assist maneuvers past Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1416] **viXra:1410.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-04 02:07:31*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Progress in Physics 10, 236-242, 2014

Space speed fluctuations, which have a 1/f spectrum, are shown to be the cause of solar flares. The direction and magnitude of the space flow has been detected from numerous different experimental techniques, and is close to the normal to the plane of the ecliptic. Zener diode data shows that the fluctuations in the space speed closely match the Sun Solar Cycle 23 flare count, and reveal that major solar flares follow major space speed fluctuations by some 6 days. This implies that a warning period of some 5 days in predicting major solar flares is possible using such detectors. This has significant consequences in being able to protect various spacecraft and Earth located electrical systems from the subsequent arrival of ejected plasma from a solar flare. These space speed fluctuations are the actual gravitational waves, and have a significant magnitude. This discovery is a significant application of the dynamical space phenomenon and theory. We also show that space flow turbulence impacts on the Earth's climate, as such turbulence can input energy into systems, which is the basis of the Zener Diode Quantum Detector. Large scale space fluctuations impact on both the sun and the Earth, and as well explain temperature correlations with solar activity, but that the Earth temperatures are not caused by such solar activity. This implies that the Earth climate debate has been missing a key physical process. Observed diminishing gravitational waves imply a cooling epoch for the Earth for the next 30 years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1415] **viXra:1410.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-01 12:26:48*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Despite uncountable claims to the contrary, Special Relativity (SR) is an unbroken theory of Nature. All attempts to refute its basis or observable consequences have failed and will likely continue to fall short as time goes by. The latest SR confirmation at Darmstadt was carried out with an unprecedented level of experimental accuracy. It ought to give serious pause for reflection to all refusing to accept its legitimacy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1414] **viXra:1409.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-30 21:57:28*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 21 Pages. contact Gene at genebarbee@msn.com

Black holes are interesting to the scientific community. Observations indicate that remnants of stars that become black holes range from about 4 solar masses through about 20 solar masses. A supermassive black hole with mass 4.2e40 Kg has also been observed. Astronomers use x-ray emission and the bending of light around massive objects to study them and observations to date challenge physicists to extend their knowledge.
A layer by layer model of pressure, temperature, density and fusion power (MeV/sec) of the sun was developed and compared to a supermassive black hole with similar density and fusion kinetics. To simulate smaller black holes, the author developed a method of determining the pressure and density as a function of radius. Conditions at the core of small black hole are extreme enough to cause degenerate (relativistic) behavior of know forces. It was unknown however, whether collapse actually occurs. The author uses a cellular model of gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic and potential energy at the quantum level [6]. Quantum gravity indicates that black holes do not involve a singularity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1413] **viXra:1409.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-29 18:24:30*

**Authors:** James R Johnson

**Comments:** 13 Pages. email jrj2222@aol.com

Discovering hidden relationships, relationships that may reveal the secrets of nature, is a difficult if not impossible goal. This is primarily because the models of the two worlds, the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SMPP) and the Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC) have no elements in common, they are completely disjoint. Thus, relationships are hidden and finding them, may prove to be unattainable. However, attempts to identify "hidden relationships" must be based on dimensionless numbers and include constants and equations from both models. This article, by defining the dimensional and dimensionless constants within the SMPP and the SMC, illustrates the difficulty of finding relationships. Familiar ratios and a select group of ratios using Planck and Hubble constants are analyzed. The Schwarzschild black hole equation explains key relationships.
Keywords: Particle Physics, Cosmology, Dimensionless Numbers, Constants of Nature, Black Hole

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1412] **viXra:1409.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-29 06:45:21*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The general relativity might be ruled out using the Fatio-Le Sage idea with the cosmic microwave background radiation. The special relativity might be ruled out because in it the wave equation for the light in the vacuum cannot be used.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1411] **viXra:1409.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-29 06:28:49*

**Authors:** Mahgoub Salih

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this work we found a correction of special relativity and verified the relation between inertial mass, gravitational mass and rest mass. Also we found a generalization of Newton’s law of gravitation and the Logarithmic gravitational potential responsible for the flat tendency of the rotation curves in spiral galaxies. We found the cosmological constant and the vacuum energy density in term of gravitational radius .we found spatial mass distribution of dark matter haloes and the condition appears in the circular velocity curve predicted from Navarro–Frenk–White, and the planets mass defect (sun-earth). We found new equation to Hawking radiation in term of curvature. We found the geodetic drift of the planets and the value of θ=6.67528 arc sec for the earth. Finally we explained the notion of Hypermass and Hyperscale and how it can be used to find MOND.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1410] **viXra:1409.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-27 15:37:45*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In view of some fairly recent comments in the literature, well-known facts concerning systems capable of achieving both positive and negative absolute temperatures are reviewed. These considerations are shown to raise serious unanswered questions concerning the widely accepted expression for the entropy of a Schwarzschild black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1409] **viXra:1409.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 15:26:27*

**Authors:** Mahgoub Salih

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This model shows the relation between microscopic scale and macroscopic scale and the idea of time and mass in both scales. The equations of energy time equivalence and mass time equivalence are verified. Also we found the equation of cosmic microwave background radiation temperature (CMBRT). The diagram shows the multiverse and how it can be constructed in seven loops and eleven dimensions without a big bang dogma.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1408] **viXra:1409.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:47:14*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

BICEP2 team has announced a detection of gravitational waves via the effects of gravitational waves on the spectrum on polarization of cosmic microwave background (CMB). The findings - if true - have powerful implications for cosmological models. In this article the findings are discussed in the framework of TGD based cosmology in which the flatness of 3-space is interpreted in terms of quantum criticality
rather than inflation. The key role is played by gradually thickening cosmic strings carrying magnetic monopole flux, dark energy as magnetic energy and dark matter as large h_{eff} phases at cosmic strings. Very thin cosmic strings dominate the cosmology before the emergence of space-time as we know it and quantum criticality is associated with the phase transition between these two phases. Later cosmic strings serve as seeds of various cosmological structures by decaying partially to ordinary matter somewhat like inflaton fields in inflationary cosmology. Cosmic strings also explain the presence of magnetic fields in cosmos difficult to understand in standard approch. The crucial point is that - in contrast to ordinary magnetic fields - monopole fluxes do not require for their creation any currents coherent in long scales.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1407] **viXra:1409.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-23 15:54:41*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 12

If the orbits of close binary stars are circular, and the light speed is NOT influenced by the speed of the stars, we have to expect that the light curves are symmetrical between moments of eclipse or even conjunction.
However, This is mostly not the case and still an ongoing debate in astronomy and called the
“O ‘Connell effect”.
According to Quantum FFF Theory, however I assume that the local light speed around the stars is gravity related for a mass related distance from the source (star) called LASOF ellipsoid, (Local Asymmetrical Oscillating vacuum Frame)
As a result the so called O ‘Connell effect can easily be explained as a logic result of additional redshift or blueshift by the local lightspeed variation.
At the same time also planets should show such lightspeed extinction effects, which is already measured but not understood by I.I.Shapiro (see “radar astronomy” edition by Evans and Hagfors, 1964).
As a consequence, Einstein’s Special relativity rules do not hold.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1406] **viXra:1409.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-23 05:55:20*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, the cosmological Lithium problem and solar neutrino problem are solved within the scale-symmetric physics. There is a similarity between these two problems. The solar neutrino problem we can solve assuming that in the sun-like stars acts the GASER (the Gamma Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) and that there are in existence only two species of stable neutrinos (i.e. four different stable neutrinos) and one very unstable “neutrino” composed of three confined different stable neutrinos (the tau “neutrino”). The four-neutrino symmetry concerning the stable neutrinos, which solves the solar neutrino problem for the sun-like stars, solves as well the cosmological Li problem for dwarf stars.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1405] **viXra:1409.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-21 21:42:59*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Requesting an unbiased review....

If one is willing to consider the current cosmic microwave back ground temperature as a quantum gravitational effect of the evolving primordial cosmic black hole general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics can be combined into a ‘scale independent’ true unified model of quantum gravity. It can be suggested that, universe may or may not be a black hole, Hubble volume can be considered as a growing and light speed rotating black hole at 99% confidence level. With this proposal galactic rotational curves, cosmic dynamic stability can be understood. By considering the ‘Stoney mass’ as the initial mass of the baby Hubble volume, past and current physical and thermal parameters of the cosmic black hole can be understood. Isotropy and anisotropy of CMB can be understood. If rate of decrease in current ‘Hubble’s constant is very small and is beyond the scope of current experimental verification, then the two possible states are: a) current ‘Hubble’s constant is decreasing at a very slow rate and current universe is expanding at a very slow rate and b) at present there is no ‘observable’ cosmic expansion or acceleration. To understand the ground reality of current cosmic rate of expansion, sensitivity and accuracy of current methods of estimating the magnitudes of current CMBR temperature and current Hubble constant must be improved and alternative methods must be developed. If it is true that galaxy constitutes so many stars, each star constitutes so many hydrogen atoms and light is coming from the excited electron of galactic hydrogen atom, then considering redshift as an index of 'whole galaxy' receding may not be reasonable. During cosmic evolution, at any time in the past , in hydrogen atom emitted photon energy was always inversely proportional to the CMBR temperature. Thus past light emitted from older galaxy’s excited hydrogen atom will show redshift with reference to the current laboratory data. As cosmic time passes, in future, the absolute rate of cosmic expansion can be understood by observing the rate of increase in the magnitude of photon energy emitted from laboratory hydrogen atom. Past cosmic high temperature may be the root cause of observed super novae dimming. Like ILLUSTRIS, with advanced mathematics and computer simulation technology this model can be virtually developed for further study and analysis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1404] **viXra:1409.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-18 22:22:20*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper has been published by Bulletin of Society of Mathematical Services and Standards (www.ijmsea.com)

As we know there are two main paradigms concerning the origin of the Universe: the first is Big-Bang Theory, and the other is Creation paradigm. But those two main paradigms each have their problems, for instance Big Bang Theory assumes that the first explosion was triggered by chance alone, therefore it says that everything emerged out of vacuum fluctuation caused by pure statistical chance. By doing so, its proponents want to avoid the role of the Prime Mover (God). Of course there are also other propositions such as the Steady State theory or Cyclical universe, but they do not form the majority of people in the world.
On the other side, Creation Theory says that the Universe was created by God in 6x24 hours according to Genesis chapter 1, although a variation of this theory says that it is possible that God created the Universe in longer period of thousands of years or even billions of years. But such a proposition seems not supported by Biblical texts.
To overcome the weaknesses of those main paradigms, I will outline here another choice, namely that the Universe was created by Logos (Christ in His pre-existence). This is in accordance with the Prolegomena of the Gospel of John, which says that the Logos was there in the beginning (John 1:1).
I describe 3 applications of the classical wave equation according to Shpenkov, i.e. hydrogen energy states, periodic table of elements, and planetary orbit distances. For sure, Shpenkov derived many more results beside these 3 phenomena as discussed in his 3 volume books and many papers, but these 3 phenomena are selected to give clear examples of what can be done with the classical wave equation. And then I extend further the classical wave equation to fractal vibrating string.
While of course this outline is not complete, this article is written to stimulate further investigations in this direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1403] **viXra:1409.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 13:05:54*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This paper relates to http://vixra.org/abs/1409.0072

Professor Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate in Physics, Editor-in-Chief of the journal Foundations of Physics, has again brought attention to my work on black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and General Relativity, by means of his personal website, providing me thereby with the opportunity to address his most recent comments, particularly on black holes. Black hole universes are either asymptotically flat or asymptotically curved, by definition, and so there can be no universe containing multiple black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1402] **viXra:1409.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 05:48:32*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The vacuum field equations for the modified Higgs field are the most fundamental equations. The Kasner solution leads to virtual Higgs cyclones and virtual loops with toroidal and poloidal motions. Additional conditions lead to phase transitions of the modified Higgs field and quantization of the virtual Higgs cyclones which are free or overlap with the new structures. Due to the four succeeding phase transitions (their number is limited by the size of our Cosmos), there are in existence the four scales i.e. the superluminal-quantum-entanglement scale, luminal Planck scale concerning the Einstein-spacetime components, observed-particles scale and cosmological scale. Due to the quantum entanglement, there as well appear virtual cyclones and virtual loops in the Einstein spacetime. The negative pressure and characteristic motions (and the quantum entanglement) in the virtual structures cause that there appears the advection that rules the motions of matter. It leads to the “dark-matter” motions i.e. to the spin speeds of normal cold matter in galaxies almost independent from distances from the centers of galaxies. The dark energy consists of the additional Einstein-spacetime components which appeared due to the phenomena associated with the cosmological scale. The Feigenbaum constant delta follows from the internal structure of proton so this structure leads to the chaos theory. We can see the sequence: from vacuum field equations, via Kasner solution, to the virtual Higgs cyclones and loops, to phase transitions of the modified Higgs field, to quantum entanglement which via the virtual structures in the Einstein spacetime leads to the “dark-matter” motions. The chaos theory concerns particle physics and cosmology. The quantum physics appears on higher level of Nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1401] **viXra:1409.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-16 15:29:21*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I explain the elementary differences between energy and mass. When we consider the famous Einstein's formula E = mc2 these two concepts might look the same with the only differnce of a proportionalyty constant, c2 , between them. However when we explore these two concepts more meticouslosly we discover that they differ in several aspects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1400] **viXra:1409.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-15 09:35:28*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 174 Pages. Spanish

El libro "Teoría de campo relativista" expone de forma clara las técnicas físico-matamáticas usadas en el estudio de los campos clásicos relativistas.
Este libro cumple una función pedagógica, estando dirigido a aquellos, que teniendo un conocimiento básico de electromagnetismo y relatividad, quieran profundizar en los aspectos formales de la teoría de campo.
Índice
Introducción
1.- Geometría diferencial
2.- Formulación lagrangiana de la teoría de campos
3.- Campo electromagnético
4.- Campo gravitatorio
5.- Teoría de campo unificado de Weyl
Apéndice 1
Apéndice 2

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1399] **viXra:1409.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 12:42:17*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Along with presently the believed black holes that are expected to be formed by gravitational collapse of a massive star, there may exist primordial evolving black holes. By absorbing the hidden vacuum energy primordial evolving black holes become massive. Planck mass can be considered as the basic mass of any black hole and can be called as the baby Planckion. Very high temperature of the baby Planckion is the heat source for the evolving black hole’s or evolving Planckion’s decreasing temperature. Considering the current cosmic microwave back ground temperature as a quantum gravitational effect of the evolving primordial cosmic black hole, general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics can be combined into a ‘scale independent’ true unified model of quantum gravity. Considering cosmic black hole’s light speed rotation and galactic revolution, observed galactic rotational curves can be understood. In the past, decreasing high cosmic black hole temperature forced hydrogen atom to emit increasing photon energy resulting in the observed redshift. Aged super novae dimming may be due to the effect of past high cosmic black hole temperature. As cosmic time passes, decreasing current cosmic black hole temperature makes hydrogen atom to emit increased quanta of energy causing the future redshift. In future, with reference to laboratory hydrogen atom, decreasing current cosmic temperature and measured rate of increase in emitted photon energy - true rate of future cosmic expansion can be understood. With reference to the decreasing current Hubble constant and decreasing current cosmic black hole temperature, true rate of future cosmic expansion can also be understood. Foundations of Quantum mechanics and General theory of relativity may be reviewed in this unified way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1398] **viXra:1409.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 06:18:51*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Relationship for kinetic energy derived from the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge. To derive it we do not need Lorentz's transformations equations, we do not need SPACE-TIME.
We do not need local time, or covariant equations or physical simultaneity definition or invariant interval. In other words, in physics we do not need Einstein's theory of relativity. From the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge we can derive Gauss law, Faraday's law and derive the 4th Maxwell's equation ( fictional by Maxwell and up to now was not derived).Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: in direction of motion as own kinetic energy of charge and against direction of motion of charge represents the wave energy, which charge creates in transmision medium.
Kaufmann's experiment, Fizeau's experiment, Harres's Experiment, Kirchner, Perry, Chaffee experiments are reviewed.
Three objections to modern physics:
1. Form of the interference field is non-linear,
2.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field is asymmetrical,
3. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values:
Kinetic energy of electron , (proton)
Tkin id =mc2 [ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c) / (1-v/c) ] in direction of motion of electron, (proton)
where v is velocity of electron, (proton).
Kinetic energy of electron , (proton)
Tkin ad = mc2 [ln |1+v/c|- (v/c) / (1+v/c) ] against direction of motion of electron, (proton)
where v is velocity of electron, (proton).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1397] **viXra:1409.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 05:56:15*

**Authors:** Ángel Blanco Nápoles

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Language is not english. Refers to John A. Gowan.

Where we from, where we go? or how we are travel back to future looking only to past. New theory of everything. Gravity is the most powerful and unique "force" in the Universe. New dimension in our present virtual reality and new dimension in our actual present. Origin of all electromagnetics forces. Quantum theory. Geometry of Space-time in our present past. Big-Crunch. New entity named alpha, origin of everything. New vectors for Physic, new velocity and acceleration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1396] **viXra:1409.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-10 22:52:17*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 40 pages of text. 60 pages of mathematical appendices and references. The text is comprehensible alone.

I extend my thanks to Professor Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate in Physics, for making more widely known my work on black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, by means of his personal website, and for providing me thereby with the opportunity to address the subject matter - supported by extensive references to primary sources for further information - in relation to his many comments, by means of this dedicated paper. The extensive mathematical appendices herein are not prerequisite to understanding the text.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1395] **viXra:1409.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-09 04:22:54*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We determine nonlinear transformations between coordinate systems which are mutually
in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion. The maximal acceleration limit follows from
the kinematical origin and it is an analogue of the maximal velocity in special relativity. We
derive the dependence of mass, length, time, Doppler effect, Cherenkov effect and transition
radiation angle on acceleration as an analogue phenomena in special theory of relativity. The
last application of our method is the Thomas precession by uniform acceleration which can
play the crucial role in modern particle physics and cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1394] **viXra:1409.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-07 15:17:09*

**Authors:** Serge Miatovich

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Physical matter has certain apparent information content. We explore here the amount and the role of this information content. The method of doing so will minimize the role of presently known laws of physics, in order to explore the effects of information content alone, and thus avoid potentially isomorphic conclusions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1393] **viXra:1409.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 14:07:24*

**Authors:** Victor Vaguine

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is recognized that foundational science is the key for the development of applied science and technology. In the final analysis, foundational science is the driving force for the progress and transformation of mankind. As a "compass", four Pointers are proposed to validate any particular direction in foundational science research. The Pointers are: P1 (Philosophy and Mindset), P2 (Mankind as an Emerging Intelligence), P3 (The Principle of Fine Tuning), and P4 (The General Copernican Principle). The Pointers are subjected to a verification test in four specific foundational situations: fundamental nature of quantum laws, unification of fundamental forces, the string theory, and the multiverse theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1392] **viXra:1409.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-04 04:36:31*

**Authors:** Jacky Jerome, Paul Amoros, Al Bacconnier

**Comments:** Main article = 9 pages, mathematical demonstration = 73 pages

Eintein’s General Relativity does not explain recent enigmas of astrophysics such as dark
energy or accelerating universe. A thorough examination of the Einstein Field Equations (EFE)
highlights four inconsistencies. Solving these inconsistencies and bringing closer the EFE to
the Higgs mechanism fully explains the mass and gravity phenomena. The main interest of this
study is to propose a formula of mass in 4D, m=f(x,y,z,t), that solves several basic enigmas
fully demonstrated with mathematics but still not explained with logic and good sense, such as
“How spacetime can be curved by mass?”, or ‘What is the nature of the gravitational force?”, or
“What is the mechanism of conversion of mass into energy (E =mc2)?”. This paper also solves
the main enigmas of astrophysics and leads to interesting explanations of quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1391] **viXra:1409.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-02 06:49:37*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan

**Comments:** Short Communication Article in English and 4 pages

By using the principle of relativity (first postulate), together with new defined nature of the universal speed (our second postulate) and homogeneity of time-space (our third postulate), we derive the most general transformation equation of relativity in one dimensional space. According to our new second postulate, the universal (not limited) speed c in Armenian Special Theory of Relativity is not the actual speed of light but it is the speed of time which is the same in all inertial systems. Our third postulate: the homogeneity of time-space is necessary to furnish linear transformation equations. We also state that there is no need to postulate the isotropy of space. Our article is the accumulation of all efforts from physicists to fix the Lorentz transformation equations and build correct and more general transformation equations of relativity, which obey the rules of logic and fundamental group laws, without internal philosophical and physical inconsistencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1390] **viXra:1409.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-02 04:18:54*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The physical behavior of elementary particles, massive and energetic, in force fields is studied in this paper. In particular let us consider the gravitational field and the electrostatic field and relative to the electrostatic field, as already it was done for the gravitational field, we demonstrate the theoretical validity of an electrostatic perturbation due to the motion of an electric charge into the electrostatic field generated by a pole charge. This electrostatic perturbation, on a pair with the gravitational perturbation, has characteristics of continuity differently from electromagnetic radiation, emitted by accelerated charges, free or constrained in complex structures, that instead has quantum characteristics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1389] **viXra:1408.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 19:26:52*

**Authors:** Liu Taixiang

**Comments:** 12 Pages. e-mail:taixiang.l@126.com

The Theory of System Relativity is based on the premise of the assumption of the quantization of matter and introduces a brand new view of matter in terms of "monism and dualism". In view of the serious contradictions existing among the current different branches of physical theories, the author conducts a preliminary study from the perspective of the Theory of System Relativity and attempts to incorporate the different branches of physical theories into the theoretical framework of the Theory of System Relativity. Especially to the general relativity and the quantum theory, the author takes his unique view that the two different theories may achieve unity although the serous contradictions existing between them.
This book is a brand new way for matter principle. It can be used as a reference book for philosophy and fundamental physics research, and also be available for physics enthusiasts and relevant personnel.
e-mail:taixiang.l@126.com

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1388] **viXra:1408.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 23:51:55*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The crucial role of the Birkhoff theorem in Oppenheimer and Snyder's treatment of gravitationally contracting dust is psychologically difficult to reconcile with their exclusive utilization of position-independent dust energy density: on its face the latter excludes the existence any empty-space region whereas the Birkhoff theorem applies only to such regions. Their use of position-independent dust energy density was due to lack of known nonuniform-dust analytic solutions for spherically-symmetric "comoving coordinate systems". This article fills that gap for nonuniform dust which is initially momentarily stable, but in so doing reveals that its behavior in the "comoving coordinate system" always owes more to Newton than to Einstein: the metric periodically singularly contravenes the Principle of Equivalence due to its Newtonian-signature time cycloid component, and it manifests no trace of gravitational redshift. The now justifiable application of the Birkhoff theorem turns out to effect the physically correct inclusion of gravitational redshift; it singularly stretches the "comoving" dust system's time-cycloid first half-period to infinite time duration. The unfamiliar lesson here is that "comoving coordinate systems" are inherently bereft of crucial relativistic gravitational physics: this must be incorporated by a singular transformation to a physically more appropriate coordinate system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1387] **viXra:1408.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 13:42:28*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 10 pages. «Ondes de choc lumineuses cosmiques» is the French version of «Cosmic Luminous Shock Waves» on viXra.org/abs/1408.0232

Nous émettons l’hypothèse de l’existence d’ondes de choc lumineuses susceptibles de participer à la formation de nuages et d’événements atmosphériques sévères. Ces ondes auraient la particularité d’être créées et modulées par le choc des rayons cosmiques galactiques avec les particules de la couronne solaire : les particules énergétiques du rayonnement cosmique, en collision avec les atomes de l’atmosphère solaire, les disloquent, avec le résultat que la vitesse de l’électron ultra-relativiste dans le plasma solaire peut être supérieure à la vitesse de la lumière dans ce milieu. Ce qui produirait un rayonnement secondaire d’intensité supérieure analogue à celui des ondes rayonnantes dans les liquides par effet Tcherenkov. Leur existence pourrait être liée à un phénomène visuel appelé « expérience de flashes lumineux » auquel tous les astronautes sont confrontés.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1386] **viXra:1408.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 09:48:30*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We hypothesize the existence of cosmic luminous shock waves which might participate in the formation of clouds and severe weather events. These waves would have the peculiarity to be created and modulated by the shock of the galactic cosmic rays with the particles of the solar corona: the energetic particles of cosmic rays collide with atoms of the solar atmosphere, shatter them, with the result that the velocity of the ultra-relativistic electron in the solar plasma might be greater than the speed of light in this medium. What would produce a secondary radiation of higher intensity analogous to that of the shock waves radiating in liquids by Cherenkov effect. Their existence may be linked to a visual phenomenon called «experience of bright light flashes» with which all the astronauts are confronted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[801] **viXra:1410.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-14 08:56:01*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Fortunately I found the classical proof of the unexplained precession of the perihelion of Mercury.
It is completely given by the Laplace theory, the same used by Stockwell, but with current values of the planetary masses, added to the satellites, and a calculation in longer series, done by computer. That is, recalculated the coefficients (0, k) e [0, k] and used the coefficients of adjustments mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[800] **viXra:1410.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-13 12:40:45*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** In portuguese. 3 pages, with 2 pages of print computer´s.

Fortunately I found the classical proof of the unexplained precession of the perihelion of Mercury.
It is completely given by the Laplace theory, the same used by Stockwell, but with current values of the planetary masses, added to the satellites, and a calculation in longer series, done by computer. That is, recalculated the coefficients (0, k) e [0, k] and used the coefficients of adjustments mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[799] **viXra:1410.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-15 21:50:36*

**Authors:** D. G. Taylor

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

This is a table confirming the equations in "The Relativistic Space-Time Perspective" at |http://vixra.org/abs/1306.0104|
The table examines 39 velocity values, ranging from |1.000~000E-500| m/s to
c-|1.000~000E-500| m/s, all calculated to 2000 decimal places .
velocitySRPD = velocitynoSRPD/(1- velocitynoSRPD^2/ c^2)^½
velocitynoSRPD = velocitySRPD/(1+ velocitySRPD^2/ c^2)^½
This table is for Relativistic Velocity values only, but they are completely applicable for the Relativistic Length, Time, and Mass equations as well. Tables on those equations are available on request. The occasional tiny difference between the VelocitynoSRPD (the velocity with no Relativistic Distortion) and the VelocitynoSRPDBack (the “Real||noSRPD” velocity calculated from the distorted VelocitySRPD) is simply due to irrational numbers (like square roots). You can never determine a value like 2½ exactly because it is irrational - the answer always has an infinite number of decimal places in random digits. The maximum error for calculations done to 2000 decimal places was found to be 1.0E-1992. But the maximum error for calculations done to 1000 decimal places was 1.0E-992; the maximum for calculations done to 100 decimal places was 1.0E-92.
The software used was Advanced Smart Math Calculator, a product available from the Software firm RUNITER COMPANY, and their site at http://calculator.runiter.com/math-calculator/. The owner, Saeid Nourian [president@runiter.com], has seen both the tables and an earlier text of the theory, so can confirm the numeric validity of the tables.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[798] **viXra:1410.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-04 07:22:53*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is shown that , an easy answer to the flatness problem is given if we abandon an unjustified assumption used usually in application of Einstein's Field Equation in the large scale universe .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[797] **viXra:1410.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-08 21:21:00*

**Authors:** Valery Zhukov

**Comments:** 3 Pages. removed metric

Gravitational waves cause the curvature of space. The curvatures of space lead to the conclusion that the nature of cosmological redshift and time dilation, is the same effect as the gravitational redshift and time dilation in a gravitational field. This is confirmed by the fact that the ratio between redshift and time dilation is the same for both gravitational and cosmological redshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[796] **viXra:1410.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-02 19:00:22*

**Authors:** Valery Zhukov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Gravitational waves cause the curvature of space. The curvatures of space lead to the conclusion that the nature of cosmological redshift and time dilation, is the same effect as the gravitational redshift and time dilation in a gravitational field. This is confirmed by the fact that the ratio between redshift and time dilation is the same for both gravitational and cosmological redshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[795] **viXra:1410.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-01 20:12:07*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Despite uncountable claims to the contrary, Special Relativity (SR) is an unbroken theory of Nature. All attempts to refute its basis or predictions have failed and will continue to fall short as time goes by. The latest SR confirmation in Darmstadt was carried out with an unprecedented level of experimental accuracy. It ought to give serious pause for reflection to all those rejecting SR and the Poincaré symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[794] **viXra:1409.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-02 14:44:37*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 22 Pages. contact genebarbee@msn.com

Black holes are interesting to the scientific community. Observations indicate that remnants of stars that become black holes range from about 4 solar masses through about 20 solar masses. A supermassive black hole with mass 4.2e40 Kg has also been observed. Astronomers use x-ray emission and the bending of light around massive objects to study them and observations to date challenge physicists to extend their knowledge.
A layer by layer model of pressure, temperature, density and fusion power (MeV/sec) of the sun was developed and compared to a supermassive black hole with similar density and fusion kinetics. To simulate smaller black holes, the author developed a method to determine the pressure and density as a function of radius. Conditions at the core of small black holes are extreme enough to cause degenerate (relativistic) behavior of know forces. It was unknown however, whether collapse actually occurs. The author uses a cellular model of gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic and potential energy at the quantum level [6]. Quantum gravity indicates that black holes do not involve a singularity. Gravitational kinetic energy resists the pressure at the core of black holes similar to the way electromagnetic kinetic energy controls the thermodynamics of gases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[793] **viXra:1409.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-02 19:41:52*

**Authors:** Valery Zhukov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The application of the Poisson’s equation solutions in the Neumann-Seeliger paradox for an infinite universe is incorrect. Also it is incorrect to use the metric and all the equations of the Big Bang theory for distances greater than the age of the universe, i.e. outside the event horizon for any point of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[792] **viXra:1409.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 03:50:25*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 12

If the orbits of close binary stars are circular, and the light speed is NOT influenced by the speed of the stars, we have to expect that the light curves are symmetrical between moments of eclipse or even conjunction.
However, This is mostly not the case and still an ongoing debate in astronomy and called the
“O ‘Connell effect”.
According to Quantum FFF Theory, however I assume that the local light speed around the stars is gravity related for a mass related distance from the source (star) called LASOF ellipsoid, (Local Asymmetrical Oscillating vacuum Frame)
As a result the so called O ‘Connell effect can easily be explained as a logic result of additional redshift or blueshift by the local lightspeed variation.
At the same time also planets should show such lightspeed extinction effects, which is already measured but not understood by I.I.Shapiro (see “radar astronomy” edition by Evans and Hagfors, 1964).
As a consequence, Einstein’s Special relativity rules do not hold.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[791] **viXra:1409.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 06:36:56*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This paper pertains to: http://viXra.org/abs/1409.0072

Professor Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate in Physics, Editor-in-Chief of the journal Foundations of Physics, has again brought attention to my work on black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and General Relativity, by means of his personal website, providing me thereby with the opportunity to address his most recent comments, particularly on black holes. Black hole universes are either asymptotically flat or asymptotically curved, by definition, and so there can be no universe containing multiple black holes. All alleged big bang universes are not asymptotically anything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[790] **viXra:1409.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-16 02:16:49*

**Authors:** Ángel Blanco Nápoles

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Language is not English. Refers to works of John A. Gowan

Where we from, where we go? or how we are travel back to future looking only to past. New Theory of everything or Super Relativity, Final Theory. Gravity is the most powerful force in the Universe. New dimensions in our present past virtual reality and new dimensions in our Universe. Real Origin of all "electromagnetics forces". Quantum theory. Real Geometry of Space-time in our Universe. There is not Big-Bang and/or Big-Crunch, only Black Holes. What is Black Hole? What is the function of Black Holes? New entities named alpha and beta, origin of everything. New vectors for Physic, new velocities and accelerations. Final Model: two entities and one Force. Our Universe is 12-D: 8 spatial dimensions and 4 time. The most important 2 time dimensions. Antigravity is possible. Inertial and gravitational mass is the same. Origin of mass. Travels to Star is possible. Travel in Time is Theoretical possible. Parallel Universes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[789] **viXra:1409.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-11 13:07:35*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 40 pages of text. 60 pages of mathematical appendices and references. Version 2 corrects some typos.

I extend my thanks to Professor Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate in Physics, for making more widely known my work on black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, by means of his personal website, and for providing me thereby with the opportunity to address the subject matter - supported by extensive references to primary sources for further information - in relation to his many comments, by means of this dedicated paper. The extensive mathematical appendices herein are not prerequisite to understanding the text.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[788] **viXra:1409.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-02 13:09:27*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper , a new and very simple cosmological model is introduced . It is shown how the model can explain some observations including Habble's law and dark energy and affect our understanding of some concepts .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[787] **viXra:1408.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-19 09:58:14*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The crucial role of the Birkhoff theorem in Oppenheimer and Snyder's treatment of gravitationally contracting dust is psychologically difficult to reconcile with their exclusive utilization of position-independent dust energy density: on its face the latter excludes the existence of any empty-space region whereas the Birkhoff theorem applies only to such regions. Their use of position-independent dust energy density was due to lack of known nonuniform-dust analytic solutions for spherically-symmetric "comoving coordinate systems". This article fills that gap for nonuniform dust which is initially momentarily stable, but in so doing reveals that its behavior in the "comoving coordinate system" always owes more to Newton than to Einstein: the metric periodically singularly contravenes the Principle of Equivalence due to its Newtonian-signature time cycloid component, and it manifests no trace of gravitational redshift. The now justifiable application of the Birkhoff theorem turns out to effect the physically correct inclusion of gravitational redshift; it singularly stretches the "comoving" dust system's time-cycloid first half-period to infinite time duration. The unfamiliar lesson here is that "comoving coordinate systems" are inherently bereft of crucial relativistic gravitational physics: this must be incorporated by a singular transformation to a physically more appropriate coordinate system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[786] **viXra:1408.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-17 09:12:09*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We present in this first part of the article a summary of the theories of Le Verrier, Stockwell and Laplace on the secular precession of the perihelion of the planets, especially Mercury, leaving part 2 a review of the theory of Mercury from Le Verrier, comments Newcomb on anomalies of Mercury and a description of how the observed values were obtained by Clemence, important reference cited by Weinberg. Also shown is one more hypothesis for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, a decrease in the mass of the Sun, rather than an increase in the mass of the planets, similar to what has been done with the assumption of the solar wind. This new assumption, however, appears to be unnecessary before most important fact here presented. An exact theoretical value was classically obtained following the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: we find 5600’',84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding to the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[785] **viXra:1408.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-15 08:22:20*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Procuramos esclarecer que o movimento do periélio dos planetas não é algo que possa ser observado diretamente. Embora seja um importante elemento orbital, o periélio é um conceito teórico, que varia no tempo sob a influência de perturbações e não acompanha o movimento do planeta. Há de se ter um encontro periódico entre o planeta e seu periélio, uma igualdade entre a longitude da posição do planeta e a longitude do seu periélio, mas estes momentos também não são evidentes, nem possíveis de serem observados em todas as ocorrências e sem dúvida alguma. Se observarmos o trânsito de Mercúrio pelo disco do Sol não conseguiremos discernir com a precisão necessária se ele se aproxima ou se afasta do Sol, se sua distância diminui ou aumenta, se ele atingiu a distância mínima ou máxima do Sol, apenas saberemos que ele percorre uma linha aproximadamente reta sobre o Sol, segundo determinado ângulo e em determinado intervalo de tempo. Além deste fato, que pode ser óbvio para uns e uma revelação para outros, também apresentaremos um resumo das teorias de Le Verrier e Stockwell, comentários de Newcomb e a maneira como foram obtidos os valores observados de Clemence, referência importante citada por Weinberg. São também mostradas mais algumas hipóteses para a precessão do periélio de Mercúrio, como uma diminuição na massa do Sol, ao invés de um acréscimo na massa dos planetas, parecido com o que já se fez com a hipótese do vento solar. Um valor teórico exato obtido classicamente também será mostrado durante o desenvolvimento deste artigo. Seguindo a teoria de Stockwell, baseada na Mécanique Céleste de Laplace, encontramos 5600’’,84 de arco por século para a velocidade angular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, dw/dt.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[784] **viXra:1408.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-06 05:48:03*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

(==> Artigo em Construção <==) Procuramos esclarecer que o movimento do periélio dos planetas não é algo que possa ser observado diretamente. Embora seja um importante elemento orbital, o periélio é um conceito teórico, que varia no tempo sob a influência de perturbações e não acompanha o movimento do planeta. Há de se ter um encontro periódico entre o planeta e seu periélio, uma igualdade entre a longitude da posição do planeta e a longitude do seu periélio, mas estes momentos também não são evidentes, nem possíveis de serem observados em todas as ocorrências e sem dúvida alguma. Se observarmos o trânsito de Mercúrio pelo disco do Sol não conseguiremos discernir com a precisão necessária se ele se aproxima ou se afasta do Sol, se sua distância diminui ou aumenta, se ele atingiu a distância mínima ou máxima do Sol, apenas saberemos que ele percorre uma linha aproximadamente reta sobre o Sol, segundo determinado ângulo e em determinado intervalo de tempo. Além deste fato, que pode ser óbvio para uns e uma revelação para outros, também apresentaremos um resumo das teorias de Le Verrier e Stockwell, comentários de Newcomb e a maneira como foram obtidos os valores observados de Clemence, referência importante citada por Weinberg. São também mostradas mais algumas hipóteses para a precessão do periélio de Mercúrio, como uma diminuição na massa do Sol, ao invés de um acréscimo na massa dos planetas, parecido com o que já se fez com a hipótese do vento solar. Um valor teórico exato obtido classicamente também será mostrado durante o desenvolvimento deste artigo.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology