**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(9) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(28) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(34) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(30)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(32) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(38) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(33) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(32) - 1605(30) - 1606(44) - 1607(21) - 1608(39) - 1609(45) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(32)

2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(46) - 1705(32) - 1706(31) - 1707(28) - 1708(29) - 1709(42) - 1710(34) - 1711(41) - 1712(49)

2018 - 1801(35) - 1802(41) - 1803(48) - 1804(30)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[2872] **viXra:1804.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-20 14:56:44*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Within the framework of the black-hole model of the Universe, I introduced the concept of Cherenkov radius, i.e. the distance from the center of the Universe, at which the speed of the orbiting test particle and the speed of light are the same. I showed that the radius of the Universe and the Cherenkov radius are in the golden ratio.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2871] **viXra:1804.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-20 02:19:42*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In Polish.

W ramach czarnodziurowego modelu Wszechświata wprowadziłem pojęcie promienia Czerenkowa, czyli odległości od centrum Wszechświata, przy której wartości prędkości cząstek i światła są takie same. Pokazałem, że iloraz promienia Wszechświata i promienia Czerenkowa jest złotą proporcją.
###
Within the framework of the black-hole model of the Universe, I introduced the concept of Cherenkov radius, i.e. the distance from the center of the Universe, at which the particle velocity and light velocity values are the same. I showed that the radius of the Universe and the Cherenkov radius are in the golden ratio.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2870] **viXra:1804.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-20 04:02:39*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 18 Pages. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 78, pp. 39-50 (2018). http://dx.doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILCPA.78.39.

For the relativistic uniform system with an invariant mass density the exact expressions are determined for the potentials and strengths of the gravitational field, the energy of particles and fields. It is shown that, as in the classical case for bodies with a constant mass density, in the system with a zero vector potential of the gravitational field, the energy of the particles, associated with the scalar field potential, is twice as large in the absolute value as the energy defined by the tensor invariant of the gravitational field. The problem of inaccuracy of the use of the field’s stress-energy tensors for calculating the system’s mass and energy is considered. The found expressions for the gravitational field strengths inside and outside the system allow us to explain the occurrence of the large-scale structure of the observable Universe, and also to relate the energy density of gravitons in the vacuum field with the limiting mass density inside the proton. Both the Universe and the proton turn out to be relativistic uniform systems with the maximum possible parameters. The described approach allows us to calculate the maximum possible Lorentz factor of the matter particles at the center of the neutron star and at the center of the proton, and also to estimate the radius of action of the strong and ordinary gravitation in cosmological space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2869] **viXra:1804.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-18 09:26:06*

**Authors:** Alexander P. Sobolev

**Comments:** 28 Pages. 1-28 english, 29-56 russian

The gravitational equations were derived in general relativity (GR) using the assumption of their covariance relative to arbitrary transformations of coordinates. It has been repeatedly expressed an opinion over the past century that such equality of all coordinate systems may not correspond to reality. Nevertheless, no actual verification of the necessity of this assumption has been made to date. The initial equations of a theory of gravity with general covariance restricted due to introduction of the constraint are formulated in the paper. The concept of the entropy density of space-time is defined, the constraint is interpreted from a physical point of view as a sufficient condition for the adiabaticity of the process of evolution of its metric. A basic model of evolution of the Universe is constructed on this basis which consistent with the observational astronomical data but without using of the hypotheses of the existence of a “dark energy”, “dark matter” and “inflatons". It is claimed that the maximum global energy density in the Universe was 64 orders of magnitude smaller the Planckian one, and the entropy density is 18 orders of magnitude higher the value predicted by GR.
Keywords: Gravitation, restricted covariance, nonsingular theory, entropy of space-time, evolution of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2868] **viXra:1804.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-15 10:13:09*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Submitted to Gravity Research Foundation, March 2018

The orthodox general theory of relativity (GR) predicts metric divergences, typically when the normalized gravitational potential &phi= -½, giving rise to event horizons. But all standard experimental tests are in the regime where |&phi|<<1/2, suggesting that alternative large-potential extrapolations should be considered. A simple alternative formulation of GR is presented which focuses on gravitational time dilation and length contraction by a factor of (1-&phi), which is always > 1 since &phi < 0. This formulation duplicates the predictions of the orthodox theory for weak potentials with |&phi| << ½, but avoids all divergences for larger values. Furthermore, this suggests “dim stars” rather than black holes, and provides an intuitive picture of large gravitational red shifts in cosmic expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2867] **viXra:1804.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-16 11:48:31*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 1 page

The mysterious phenomenon of dark energy has been explained by me in my previous papers on the basis of molecular diffusion model. In this paper I present an additional proof to further support the molecular diffusion model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2866] **viXra:1804.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-16 13:27:36*

**Authors:** Michael Singer

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In 1917 Einstein developed equations that described an ever-expanding universe. It is the nature of an electromagnetic universe to continually expand, although the term “ever-dilating universe” would be more appropriate given his other work. Later on, after the expansion of the universe was actually discovered, Georges Lemaitre proposed the “Big Bang” theory to account for that expansion rather than viewing it as being in the nature of an electromagnetic universe. So we seem to have two perfectly sensible reasons for the expansion of the Universe. Why?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2865] **viXra:1804.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-16 20:54:58*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This is a pre-print of a paper which will appear in physics essays in June 2018 vol. 31 number 2

The Sagnac effect, named after its discoverer, is the phase shift occurring between two beams of light, traveling in opposite directions along a closed path around a moving object. A special case is the circular Sagnac effect, known for its crucial role in GPS and fiber-optic gyroscopes. It is often claimed that the circular Sagnac effect does not contradict special relativity theory (SRT) because it is considered an accelerated motion, while SRT applies only to uniform, non-accelerated motion. It is further claimed that the Sagnac effect, manifested in circular motion, should be treated in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT). We counter these arguments by underscoring the fact that the dynamics of rectilinear and circular types of motion are completely equivalent, and that this equivalence holds true for both non-accelerated and accelerated motion. With respect to the Sagnac effect, this equivalence means that a uniform circular motion (with constant w) is completely equivalent to a uniform rectilinear motion (with constant v). We support this conclusion by convincing experimental findings, indicating that an identical Sagnac effect to the one found in circular motion, exists in rectilinear uniform motion. We conclude that the circular Sagnac effect is fully explainable in the framework of inertial systems, and that the circular Sagnac effect contradicts special relativity theory and calls for its refutation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2864] **viXra:1804.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-14 04:38:29*

**Authors:** Ulrich Berger

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

As described previously, the concept of a “Net Charged Universe” (NCU) assumes that the expansion of the universe is driven by a slight excess of positive charge in the universe’s matter. This excess charge comes into being by means of quantum fluctuations at the universe’s horizon. Excess protons experience electrostatic acceleration and therefore gain high relativistic mass, which is the source of the creation of neutral matter at the universe’s horizon. The present article investigates some consequences of that steady creation of space and matter in NCU history. The most important consequences are the following:
The gravitational constant G and the fine structure constant α are not constant but proportional to the historically decreasing mass density of the universe.
The commonality between G and α in terms of this proportionality seems to indicate a deep interdependency between both variables and between their related phenomena, i.e. the gravitational and electromagnetic properties of matter.
The historically decreasing value of G might be the real cause of anomalies of stars’ circling in galaxies, which led to the assumption of “Dark Matter” (DM) by current cosmology.
Because of a possibly holographic emergence of gravitation, newly created matter might immediately show its “gravitational presence” throughout the whole universe. In contrast to that, the “electromagnetic presence” of new matter propagates through space with the speed of light and cannot be immediately experienced in the inner universe. The value of α that varies with time and space can possibly be regarded as a measure for the fraction of all matter that is electromagnetically present at a certain place – e.g. our galaxy.
Calculations on the electromagnetic and the gravitational acceleration of matter in the NCU yield identical mathematical expressions although they were derived here in fully independent ways. Finally, those expressions do not contain any “constants” like G, α, particle masses, elementary charge etc. – except the speed of light. The electromagnetic and the gravitational acceleration of matter are both controlled solely by geometrical variables, i.e. variable radii. These radii and the equations containing them seem to be the only true fundamentals related to describing and understanding the NCU.
The deep interdependency between G and α (or, say, gravitational and electromagnetic properties of matter) based on the NCU concept revealed here might even point to a path to unification of relativity and quantum theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2863] **viXra:1804.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-15 03:36:16*

**Authors:** CuiHaiLong

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

To summarize some of the negative relativity experiments, and to make a reasonable explanation for some of these experiments, mainly to remind people that anti-relativity experiments can be seen everywhere.But people look at the problem with colored eyes and they just ignore it all the time,It also reflects the terrible power of man's faith,Just as believers ignore the myriad anti-religious realities, they remain fanatical about maintaining religion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2862] **viXra:1804.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-15 04:17:29*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

A profound analysis of the theory of relativity led to the creation of a new special theory of relativity (STR), in early papers 1-9. The new special theory of relativity 1-3 explained all the fundamental phenomena that occur in mechanical and electromagnetic processes, both in inertial motion systems and in the system in rest. However, the individual expositions in these works did not reveal a complete basic physical-philosophical approach to the description of these phenomena. In this work, these shortcomings is eliminating, and in addition, the shortcomings of Galileo's theory of relativity, based on which errors will made in further studies,
Having concluded these studies, the author puts forward both a new theory of relativity and the discovery of new laws of motion in a moving system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2861] **viXra:1804.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-13 06:40:08*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 150 Pages.

Podręcznik ten przeznaczony jest dla studentów wszystkich uczelni, na których wykładana jest fizyka. Może być przydatny dla nauczycieli fizyki w szkołach średnich. Mam nadzieję, że zostanie wykorzystany również przez zawodowych relatywistów.
###
This handbook is intended for students of all universities where physics is taught. It can be useful for physics teachers in secondary schools. I hope that it will also be used by professional relativists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2860] **viXra:1804.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-13 06:45:03*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 252 Pages.

Podręcznik ten przeznaczony jest dla studentów wszystkich uczelni, na których wykładana jest fizyka. Może być przydatny dla nauczycieli fizyki w szkołach średnich. Mam nadzieję, że zostanie wykorzystany również przez zawodowych relatywistów.
###
This handbook is intended for students of all universities where physics is taught. It can be useful for physics teachers in secondary schools. I hope that it will also be used by professional relativists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2859] **viXra:1804.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-13 06:47:39*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 124 Pages.

Prezentowana encyklopedia zawiera 144 portrety prekursorów, twórców i propagatorów teorii względności oraz informacje o wkładzie wniesionym przez nich w powstanie i rozwój tej dziedziny fizyki. Zamieszczono spis wszystkich prac Einsteina dotyczących szczególnej i ogólnej teorii względności oraz jednolitej teorii pola.
###
The presented encyclopedia contains 144 portraits of precursors, creators and propagators of relativity theory, as well as information about their contribution to the rise and development of this field of physics. A list of all Einstein's papers on special and general relativity and a unified field theory is provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2858] **viXra:1804.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-09 06:43:20*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 1 Page. Link to My New Theory of Everything : http://vixra.org/abs/1804.0100

This article aims to explain gravity theoretically according to my new theory of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2857] **viXra:1804.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-11 05:05:28*

**Authors:** Rainer Collier

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This short letter refers to Schmutzer´s 5-dimensional Projective Unified Field Theory as a new general-relativistic covariant unification of gravitation, electromagnetism and scalarism (a new phenomenon of nature) with some remarks to it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2856] **viXra:1804.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-07 15:22:25*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A proof of the gravitational dynamics developed here-in is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”, and a proof of the nature of the evolving continuum is IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. As Einstein’s Tensor is solely based on the time elements he calls his “energy components”, only the effects in time are considered in this paper. Though it is noted that although the stress-energy tensor is not considered here, it is also scaled by the time elements, T00. The spacetime continuum is the quantum continuum. The evolution of time is the primary, irresistible, force in the universe, as all space, and the densities embedded within, must evolve forward with the passage of time. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle allows for random fluctuations in time that create relative densities in space, due to length contraction in the faster areas. Even though GR is based on the Equivalence Principle, the constancy of c and Lorentz contractions, the apparent effects of the time elements also appear to manifest as a virtual flow in the forward direction of time down gravitational fields (dilation gradients) from areas of faster time. This is a relativistic gravitational direction of evolution, GDE. that evolves the densities down the dilation gradients, collecting them at the bottom of the gradients. Considering Einstein’s Fundamental Metric to represent the fundamental direction of evolution, FDE, experienced by each observer in his/her inertial frame, the GDE can only manifest orthogonal to the FDE as there is no space ahead of or behind the evolving continuum for the dilation gradient to appear in. The resultant of these two directions of evolution results in the curvature in evolution as per GR as the spacetime (here-in also quantum) continuum evolves forward. Densities are not evolving “through” a “pre-existing” space because there is no space “ahead” of the evolving continuum for densities to move into. The passage of time has an acceleration aspect of ~2.2686*10-18 s/s that manifests the Hubble shift through time dilation in older frames. Without the acceleration time would not appear to pass. This acceleration eliminates Big Bang singularities and infinite expansions when added to the time elements of Einstein’s field equations. Galactic rotation velocities are explained through the proper application of GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2855] **viXra:1804.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-08 03:12:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Combining the wave-particle duality of quantum mechanics with E=mc2 leads to the conclusion that the "speed of light" is nothing more than a convenient term to use (a convenience which this author also often adopts). There is actually no such thing – consequently, neither can there ever be a Variable Speed of Light. Special Relativity says the speed of light – all electromagnetic and gravitational waves "move" at this velocity – is the greatest speed in the universe. Combining quantum mechanics with general relativity – Einstein's theory of gravity - will result in a theory called quantum gravity. What is a theory integrating quantum mechanics with special relativity to be called? Perhaps quantum light …
Even when a successful quantum-light theory is developed, it will only be a step towards understanding reality. Special relativity, general relativity and quantum mechanics each represent a step towards comprehension of the universe. Quantum light will be another step, joining special relativity to the bizarre world of quantum mechanics via mathematics' E=mc2. And quantum gravity will be yet another, possibly uniting general relativity with quantum mechanics via other branches of mathematics – proposed by this article to be those of the electronic binary digits (base-2 maths) and the topology of the Mobius strip and figure-8 Klein bottle (with attention paid to the simply- and multiply-connected issues). It will be shown that the quantum theories of light and gravity have dramatic implications for the concepts of dark energy, dark matter and universal expansion. When the quantum theories become parts of life, unification of physics may be an accomplished fact. More likely, the quantum theories will continue to be refined for centuries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2854] **viXra:1804.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-08 06:30:16*

**Authors:** Yury Rabyshko

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The article gives a brief exposition of the solution of cosmological problems. The problem of stability and shortage of mass in galaxies, huge velocities of galactic clusters is solved. The law of formation of fundamental constants, the law of nonlinear expansion of the Universe, the law of gravitational interaction is found. Proof of the hypothesis of large Dirac numbers.
The original in Russian. The English version will be published in the near future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2853] **viXra:1804.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-08 12:20:45*

**Authors:** Jose P. Koshy

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Introduces a 'new concept' in biology, 'Deterministic Evolution', which is based on cosmology.

Natural selection cannot logically explain the direction of evolution of life – emerging from non-living things and evolving from simple to complex – unless nature also evolves suitably. The LCDM model provides only an approximate co-relation between 'evolution of nature' (expansion of universe) and 'evolution of life'. Based on an alternate model, I propose 'deterministic evolution', expansion guiding the evolution in a predetermined way. This resolves the only serious drawback of theory of evolution, 'complexity emerging on its own '.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2852] **viXra:1804.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-08 13:46:55*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The evaluation of the event GW170608 must be made new. During the “routine instrumental procedure” in Hanford the damping of the pendulum of the mirrors was obviously reduced. As a result, the GW signal became artificially longer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2851] **viXra:1804.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-04 17:38:45*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Arguments have been raised against several of the central ideas in theoretical physics, such as M-Theory's (MT's) inability to provide for the falsification necessary to avoid relegating it to the scientific dustbin of an anthropic principle based rationalization, such as the Multiverse. Along similar lines, ideas of a uniquely falsifiable inflation era after the Big Bang (BB) have also lost some of their traction. Recent major experimental results too have sent shock waves, such as the confirmation of the low Higgs mass constraining notions of super symmetry, and the Planck satellite's detail mapping of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) fixing the Hubble parameter at odds with other more traditional methods. Even the null results of major experimental apparatus are causing consternation, as in the search for particle based Dark Matter (DM). Thankfully, all this seems to be opening the door for a more serious investigation into alternative theories that attempt to answer the big questions related to the causal relationships between the Standard Model (SM), General Relativity (GR), and 95\% of the known Universe, namely cosmology's dark sector (Dark Energy (DE) and DM). This paper attempts to connect the dots between some of these alternative ideas as they relate to MOdified Newtonian Gravity (MOND), covariant emergent gravity (CEG), and the fundamental parameters used to fix Natural or Planck units-of-measure. The result is intended to point the way toward a fresh discussion in the directions available for unification of GR with SM while resolving the now more open problems in theoretical physics today.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2850] **viXra:1804.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-05 10:11:01*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Gravitational redshift is currently believed to be the result of the loss of energy of photons as they emerge from a gravitational field into a field of lesser strength. Conversely, gravitational blueshift is believed to be the result of an increase in energy of photons as they move into a gravitational field from a field of lesser strength. Cosmological redshift is believed to be the result of the loss of energy of photons as they travel cosmological distances through an expanding space.
I will argue that gravitational redshift is caused by time dilation of the source of radiation at the gravitational body. The redshift of the photons emitted by the source account in full for the measurement of redshift of those photons in a lesser gravitational field. The obverse works for the measurement of gravitational blueshift. The wavelength of the photons received in a stronger gravitational field is measured to be shorter than the emitted wavelength because of time dilation of the receiver. The measured blueshift is illusory and is a measurement artifact. Neither gravitational redshift nor gravitational blueshift results from changes in photon frequency. The frequency of a photon is not changed as the photon moves within a gravitational field to either a weaker or a stronger field.
The inherent frequency of a photon is the frequency at which the photon was emitted. The apparent decrease in frequency of the photon in the cosmological redshift results from the increased wavelength that is, in turn, the result of the expansion of space during the photon’s journey, not the result of a decrease in the inherent frequency of the photon. The effect is akin to the Doppler shift caused by the observer’s recessional velocity from the source of radiation.
The conclusion: Photon frequency is immutable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2849] **viXra:1804.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-03 16:42:52*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman, Szostek Karol

**Comments:** 17 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether.

In the article, a generalized Galilean transformation was derived. Obtained transformation is the basis for development of new physical theory, which we called the Special Theory of Ether
The generalized Galilean transformation can be expressed by relative speeds (26)-(27) or by the parameter delta(v) (37)-(38). Based on conclusions of the Michelson-Morley’s and Kennedy-Thorndike’s experiments, the parameter delta(v) was determined. This allows the transformation to take a special form (81)-(82), which is consistent with experiments in which velocity of light is measured.
On the basis of obtained transformation, the formulas for summing speed and relative speed were also determined.
The entire article includes only original research conducted by its authors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2848] **viXra:1804.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-03 20:06:53*

**Authors:** Stephen Wright

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A possible explanation for the distribution of Visible vs. Dark Matter. In explaining this I give a possible reason why Dark Matter is present and why it does not interact with Visible Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2847] **viXra:1804.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-03 05:16:53*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A general geometric apparatus extending the standard calculus on Riemannian manifolds in a coordinate independent way is developed. It is, moreover, obvious that all quantities involved give rise to the correct limits in such case when convergence is subtle enough. We finish by giving the correct equivalent of the Einstein tensor which approximately is covariantly conserved on a certain deformation scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2846] **viXra:1804.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-01 08:58:43*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2018 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.

Ongoing proliferation of interpretations of the formalism of quantum mechanics over the course of nearly a century originates in historical choices of wavefunction, and in particular with assignment of geometric and topological attributes to unintuitive internal intrinsic properties of point particle quarks and leptons. Significant simplification and intuitive appeal arise if one extends Dirac’s two-component spinors to the full eight-component Pauli algebra of 3D space, providing a geometric representation of wavefunctions and their interactions that is comparatively easily visualized. We outline how the resulting quantized impedance network of geometric wavefunction interactions yields a naturally finite, confined, and gauge invariant model of both the unstable particle spectrum and quantum gravity that is consistent with and clarifies interpretation of both special relativity and the equivalence principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2845] **viXra:1804.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-02 07:20:39*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. NA

In this work, the author has shown that THERE ARE SPHERICAL TRIANGLES WHOSE INTERIOR ANGLE SUM ADDS UP TO 540 DEGREES

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2844] **viXra:1804.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-02 08:40:41*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The entangled antipodal points on black hole surfaces, recently described by t’Hooft,
display an unnoticed relationship with the Borsuk-Ulam theorem. Taking into account this observation and other recent claims, suggesting that quantum entanglement takes place on the antipodal points of a S3 hypersphere, a novel framework can be developed, based on algebraic topological issues: a feature encompassed in an S2 unentangled state gives rise, when projected one dimension
higher, to two entangled particles. This allows us to achieve a mathematical description of the holographic principle occurring in S2. Furthermore, our observations let us to hypothesize that a) quantum entanglement might occur in a four-dimensional spacetime, while disentanglement might be achieved on a
motionless, three-dimensional manifold; b) a negative mass might exist on the surface of a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2843] **viXra:1804.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-02 09:14:49*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** Pages.

About 95% of the cosmos cannot be seen by any telescopes, because it is made of mysterious "dark matter" and "dark energy" that do not interact with light

But it is impossible for something to NOT interact with light.

● Stuff can absorb and emit light.

● Reflect light.

● Convey light

If light is traveling towards dark matter...

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ♣

...It has to absorb, reflect or pass through (convey) it.

There is nothing else. Bouncing off it is reflection..

If it is blocking light: it would not be invisible.

Most stuff written about mainstream physic is just nonsense.

Can anyone tell me what "non-interaction" would entail? No, you cannot. That is impossible.

Dark Energy = [DARK][M][L^2]/[T^2]

What could this be? Could space be filled with an unseen vibrating energy substance?

Yes, It is Quantum Thread Theory. Space is NOT empty. There is an all encompassing lattice-type gravity-centered thread particle network in space.

● The thread network has tension on it, that is a pulling force: Gravity

● The network is vibrating, that is energy, it's unseen: Dark Energy

● The network itself is a substance: Dark Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2842] **viXra:1803.0748 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-31 05:21:56*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ON THE EVE OF LHC RESTART.

DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY AND THE FUNDAMENTAL FORCES IN STANDARD MODEL.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2841] **viXra:1803.0747 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-31 06:22:55*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is possible that the relativist effects in the motion of the galaxies is the cause of the apparent dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2840] **viXra:1803.0741 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-31 15:46:03*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article presents the generalized Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration which can be applied in any inertial or non-inertial (uniform circular motion) frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2839] **viXra:1803.0733 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-30 19:41:19*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

The violation of energy conservation law is a death sentence for the General Relativity Theory (GRT). This paper investigates the correctness of the General Relativity Theory by studying the energy conservation during the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares predictions of energy conservation obtained from the GRT and from the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in the GRT is not correct, because this dependency leads to a prediction of violation of energy conservation while the MTG having a different gravitational mass dependency on velocity predicts correctly the energy conservation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2838] **viXra:1803.0721 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-29 19:40:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 19 Pages. This paper has been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

Around 14 years ago, one of these authors’s early paper was published in Apeiron Journal. The complete paper appeared on January 2004 edition, while a condensed version of CSV has been published earlier at July 2003. Among key ideas in those two papers are: (a) a nonlinear cosmology model based on Navier-Stokes turbulence equations, which then they are connected to superfluid turbulence, and (b) the superfluid turbulence can lead to superfluid quantized vortices, which can be viewed as large scale version of Bohr’s quantization rule, and (c) this superfluid quantized vortice interpretation of Bohr’s rule allow us to predict quantization of planetary orbits in solar system including new possible orbits beyond Pluto. This paper is intended as a retrospect of what happened after the publication of those papers, and also some related ideas we have developed since that time. The first author (VC) would like to express sincere gratitude to the late Prof. Robert M. Kiehn for spending precious time to read and suggest corrections to our first paper on Cantorian Superfluid Vortex model, during 2002-2003. And also to Mr. Roy Keys from Apeiron for publishing our three papers describing CSV model. It is our hope that the new proposed view will inspire younger physicists and cosmologists to develop more realistic nonlinear cosmology models, and we also hope the ideas presented here can be verified with observation data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2837] **viXra:1803.0709 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-29 11:41:33*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: It is noticed that the charm quark/strange quark mc^2 ratio is not equal to 13.5 (age of the eighth cyclic universe in billions of years but is close to it ((13.42). The small difference is now seen to be very important.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2836] **viXra:1803.0708 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-29 12:05:08*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Since the experimental event of abnormal speeds within galaxies was discovered; the so-called dark matter is incessantly sought. But all the experiments still do not find such a ghost. Its justification is supported, in the apparent, simplest explanation: the existence of a matter additional to the baryonic matter within the galaxies. But there is another possible explanation more natural and just as simple: A modification of the gravity due to the occurrence of effects of quantum gravity produced by the repulsive acceleration of the vacuum. A repulsion of the vacuum would produce, as we demonstrated with the experiments with magnets of equal polarity, a pressure towards the center of mass and, therefore, a fictitious increase in mass. In this short article; we calculate the average speed of rotation within the newly discovered ultradiffuse galaxy NGC1052-DF2. This calculation shows that the equation, type MOND, agrees perfectly with the estimated velocities. Therefore, some voices that too quickly have announced that this galaxy (almost without dark matter or anything of it) does not agree with the theories of modified gravitation (we refer to the quantum gravitation that would quantize the equations of Einstein's gravitation, or GR); they are simply avoiding the real explanation: effects of quantum gravity produced by the vacuum (very large masses of galaxies).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2835] **viXra:1803.0680 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-28 00:45:11*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 5 Pages. -

It is known that the global constant called the speed of light, which has the meaning of the limiting data transmission speed, is used in the theory of relativity. This rate is determined using the speed of light since no higher speed has been discovered.
The constant called Hubble’s constant is also used in research. It means the rate of Universe expansion due to variation in the metrics. This rate is calculated per 1 mega parsec, but it can be calculated for any small distance.
According to the axiomatic quantum field theory, there is a distance where axiomatic statements become ineffective when they are shorter. This variable is called distance quantum. Let us calculate Hubble’s constant according to this distance. In fact, the expansion rate is increased by this variable in transition from a distance quantum to the next one.
The expansion rate and speed of light yield true data transmission speed. We have calculated the difference in the expansion rates in the different local areas. This difference leads to the difference in the forces of interaction in the different local areas, which makes it possible to discover the force that always results in attraction in all electrical interactions. The proposed calculation gives the value the order of which is close to the force of gravitational interaction.
Other properties of this new force appear in explanations for the acceleration of Universe expansion and inertia.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2834] **viXra:1803.0665 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-27 02:02:25*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An example of how optical fibers can clarify the influence of a gravitational field on the propagation of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2833] **viXra:1803.0663 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-27 05:39:39*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A geometric version of gravity is submitted that can unify the natural dynamics of large and small scale systems. The relationship between the Gaussian gravitational constant and Planck's constant is given as a testable unified field equation. A perplexing discovery is deduced from a gravitoelectromagnetic equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2832] **viXra:1803.0656 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-25 17:50:40*

**Authors:** Zefram

**Comments:** 25 Pages. FRANCAIS

Le présent article revient sur la description relativiste du mouvement circulaire uniforme telle que donnée au paragraphe 3 de l’article «The Foudation of Général Relativity>>. Dans cette description, il n’y est pas fait mention de l’influence que peuvent avoir les phénomènes d’aberration de la lumière et l’effet Doppler sur la perception par l’observateur d’un train en rotation sur un circuit circulaire à une vitesse V c'est le modèle du circuit-looping.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2831] **viXra:1803.0653 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-25 22:16:34*

**Authors:** Jody A Geiger

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Unifying quantum and classical physics has proved difficult as their postulates are conflicting. Using the notion of counts of the fundamental measures—length, mass, and time—a unifying description is resolved. A theoretical framework is presented by which a conversion between expressions from quantum and classical physics can be made. With this framework dilation expressions for both special and general relativity are now possible that are valid for the entire measurement domain. This is accomplished with a new approach to equivalence that does not require the equivalence principle. As such, we recognize gravity as a special case of the existing laws of motion. In addition to the self-referencing measure expressions of the inertial frame, we also introduce a mathematical framework of self-defining expressions, measure defined against the universe as a system. With this, we may now describe dark energy, dark matter and the expansion of the universe. We also present expressions for the initial quantum fluctuation, inflation, the trigger event that causes inflation to cease and the integral role of relativity in the birth of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2830] **viXra:1803.0632 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-24 01:36:58*

**Authors:** Alexey V. Melkikh

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A model of the expansion of the universe is proposed, based on the assumption that the universe in its early stages was not in a hot state but in a pure, metastable quantum state. This assumption makes it possible to solve the basic paradoxes of standard cosmology from the unified positions and within the framework of the standard model, namely, the horizon problem, the flatness problem of the universe, the problem of the absence of monopoles, and the problem of the predominance of matter over antimatter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2829] **viXra:1803.0630 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-24 04:07:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

A team led by researchers María José Caturla and Carlos Untiedt, from the University of Alicante Department of Applied Physics, have studied the importance of relativistic effects on long-range interactions between objects. [27] The theory of the Breit-Wheeler process says it should be possible to turn light into matter by smashing two particles of light (photons) together to create an electron and a positron. However, past attempts to do this have required the addition of other high-energy particles. [26] Dr. Pascal Del'Haye and his team at NPL have created an optical version of a diode that transmits light in one direction only, and can be integrated in microphotonic circuits. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2828] **viXra:1803.0624 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-24 13:41:51*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A geometric version of gravity is submitted that can unify the natural dynamics of large and small scale systems. The relationship between the Gaussian gravitational constant, Planck's constant, and the speed of light is given as a unified field equation that can be tested with numerous predictions. A solution for dark matter is deduced and empirical evidence is provided. Anti-gravity is shown to be possible and a perplexing discovery is made in the conclusion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2827] **viXra:1803.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-22 02:13:09*

**Authors:** Eran sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s field equations , mass curves space time and curvature of space-time dictates the gravitational field around the mass. This article tries to show a paradox that leads to the conclusion that if the gravitational field increases in a local region of the universe ,anti –gravity must increase throughout the universe to prevent a catastrophe that might lead to the end of space-time and information.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2826] **viXra:1803.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-21 15:28:01*

**Authors:** Roger J Anderton

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Einstein’s Relativity is not well-defined; especially special relativity is not well-defined. I will deal with some examples of where it is not well-defined, but there are many other places it is not well-defined. Unfortunately, people seem predisposed that when they encounter a place in Einstein’s writings that is vague they then make different guesses as to what they think must have been meant; and so, come up with different interpretations of what they think Einstein’s relativity “is” instead of recognizing that it is not well-defined. Thus, when dealing with Einstein’s relativity what people engage in is mathematical modelling i.e. Einstein’s relativity is more a mathematical model than it is a theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2825] **viXra:1803.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-20 07:50:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

The theory of the Breit-Wheeler process says it should be possible to turn light into matter by smashing two particles of light (photons) together to create an electron and a positron. However, past attempts to do this have required the addition of other high-energy particles. [26] Dr. Pascal Del'Haye and his team at NPL have created an optical version of a diode that transmits light in one direction only, and can be integrated in microphotonic circuits. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2824] **viXra:1803.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-21 03:42:58*

**Authors:** Mitali

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The difference between observed and expected values of velocity discrepancy in mid 1930s gave
rise to the problem of missing mass in galaxies. Further extra mass calculated from the
gravitational lensing effect also supported strongly in favor of missing mass, called dark matter.
However, this non-baryonic matter has not been detected directly. Meanwhile, effect of
gravitational waves energy from galaxy and result of its angular momentum on rotational curve
of spiral arms in outskirts of galaxy is not taken into consideration. Here, it is discussed how
gravity waves energy can eliminate the necessity of dark matter and can explain the
observational facts which are thought to be purely effect of dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2823] **viXra:1803.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-18 15:25:25*

**Authors:** Jerzy Hanckowiak

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The possible conclusions resulting from the huge speed of massless
objects and certain remarks related to continuity in physics accompanying
revolutionary changes are presented. We also show the relationship of the
constant velocity of waves propagating in a vacuum with the principle of
relativity. We also mention abduction reasoning (retroduction) in science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2822] **viXra:1803.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-18 16:03:04*

**Authors:** Mohammed Abdelwhab

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is known that space expands at an increasing rate. In this paper we find that phenomenon of space expansion with accelerated rate can be well explained and understood if we postulate that "empty space have a velocity and its velocity is decreased or slowdown with time, this deceleration makes the meter in past is contracted with respect to the meter in present and second in past is dilated with respect to the second in present. The slowdown of space itself means that length contraction and time dilation are decreased with time, the decreasing in length contraction is observed as space expansion because the light travels from the more contracted space to the less contracted space, while decreasing in time dilation of the universe is observed as time speedup because the light travels from a space with more dilated time to another space with less dilated time. Motion of space itself with different velocities opens the door in front of a new branch of relativity called "empty space relativity" that is refer to change of scales of length and time of the empty space along the timeline of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2821] **viXra:1803.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-18 01:45:55*

**Authors:** Ranganath G. Kulkarni

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is found that mass and time are absolute quantities. If the psuedo force is acting, then the mass of the body is constant at all instants of time. We can distinguish the type of force acting on the body. Therefore equivalence principle is not correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2820] **viXra:1803.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-16 10:32:34*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

No abstract needed for this elementary proof.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2819] **viXra:1803.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-15 13:42:56*

**Authors:** Sergio Garcia Chimeno

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Two previous "letters" in vixra joined in an article

Demonstration of how to do that the light velocity c be the same independently of the velocity of the observer and obtain the mass-energy equivalence E = mc^2 using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics.
Demonstration of how to interpret it the time dilation/length contraction typical of the special relativity using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics.
Demonstration of how to obtain the typical waves equation with transmission velocity c and how to obtain it through the medium for transmission of light given by the zoom-universe model.
Demonstration of how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations without using the Stress-Energy Tensor, without using the Bianchi Identities and without using the Energy Conservation to obtain it.
Demonstration of how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations only using the Gauss Curvature and the zoom universe model characteristics.
Gravity in zoom universe model.
Special relativity zoom.
General relativity zoom.
Sphere and Hypersphere example to understand it better.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2818] **viXra:1803.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-15 09:47:56*

**Authors:** Bruce Nappi

**Comments:** 244 pages, 30 figures

Space Lattice Theory is a study of the fundamental structure of the universe. The study asks what that structure might be like if, instead of being mostly an empty void, space is a densely packed, crystal-like Lattice, and the existence and interaction of what we call matter is due to movable defects or dislocations in the Lattice. This theoretical study found that a dislocation model could produce a comprehensive set of simple, visualizable explanations for most of the concepts of physics, including many that are currently unanswered. It explains matter, time, cause and effect, energy, and how energy converts to matter. It explains gravity and electric and magnetic fields; how they can be physical realities, and how they could work.

Space Lattice Theory supports a “big bang”-like beginning for a 3-D “visible” universe, explaining how it could easily emerge from what appears to be the nothingness of space, but without having to change any laws of physics. Puzzles like the particle-wave nature of photons are explained. Problems with current theories for subatomic particles, cosmology and Special Relativity are discussed. New models are suggested.

Most significantly, Space Lattice Theory presents a comprehensive model for the Grand Unification of all forces and matter in the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2817] **viXra:1803.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-15 12:26:45*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

Using four variables, we replicate the logic in and confirm the refutation of Stephen J. Crothers for the special theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2816] **viXra:1803.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-15 12:47:07*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: A more complete and improved forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle shown.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2815] **viXra:1803.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-14 13:08:33*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Pythagorean Theorem, combined with the analytic geometry of a right circular cone, has been used by H. Minkowski and subsequent investigators to establish the 4-dimensional spacetime continuum associated with A. Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. Although the mathematics appears sound, the incorporation of a hyper-cone into the analytic geometry of a right triangle in Euclidean 3-space is in conflict with
the rules of pure mathematics. A metric space of n dimensions is necessarily defined in terms of n independent coordinates, one for each dimension. Any coordinate that is a combination of the others for a given space is not independent so cannot be an independent dimension. Minkowski-Einstein spacetime contains a dimensional coordinate, via the speed of light, that is not independent. Consequently, Minkowski-Einstein spacetime does not exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2814] **viXra:1803.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-14 20:57:49*

**Authors:** douG Snell

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Keywords: Cosmological Redshift, Hubble Expansion, Relativity, Gravity, covariance.

Abstract- This paper is an analysis of three data sets modeled to represent the physical processes of single mass points in a well defined geometric space. The First data set represents gravitational contraction modeled as derivative of Einstein Field Equation(s), a well confirmed accepted equation with theory. The Second data set modeled is a reverse of the First data set. This is a model of the physical processes of expansion of single mass points in well defined space using the reverse of First data set’s modeled physical processes. The Third data set represents the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project cosmological redshift data set modeled as single mass points, representing the Hubble expansion. All three data sets are modeled with respective physical processes, represented by 3 dimensional cubes with vector arrows plotted, then analyzed by comparison of three individual single dimension slices of each of the three data set models. The three dimensional slices are analyzed, comparing one slice from each of the x, y z axis with each of the three data sets. The Second data set when compared to the Third data set provides significant findings. The Third data set indicates physical processes limited to a single dimension, the z axis, giving a appearance of a self-centered expansion. The First and Second data set Point of View analysis indicate no contradiction, the Third data set Point of View analysis indicates a contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2813] **viXra:1803.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-14 10:31:10*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover new vacuum solution by Einstein’s gravity field equation in general relativity theory. We investigate the new coordinate in general
relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2812] **viXra:1803.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-14 12:54:14*

**Authors:** William JE Brown

**Comments:** 117 Pages.

Although mathematically basic, the geometrical principles enshrined within Edwin Abbott Abbott’s 1884 work, Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions are unyieldingly consistent, and although Albert Einstein did not directly credit EA Abbott in Part III of his 1916 popular work Relativity, he deployed the little Flatlanders to great effect assuring us that ‘the three-dimensional spherical space is quite analogous to the two-dimensional spherical surface’. In this series of 15 concise scientific essays we will follow through on the simplicity and consistency of Abbott’s approach. Deriving from Flatland a set of named principles [Appendix 1] which are held to be true of the geometrical relationships between (n-1)D, nD, and (n+1)D, these are brought to bear on the contemporary scientific paradigm with the aim of exploring the potential for a consistent dimensional structure for the whole of nature. Flatland extrapolation through 1/2/3/4D reveals the action of the temporal dimension to be a product of the dimensional viewpoint of the observer; time is therefore not intrinsic to the 4th Dimension. The dimensional structure thus derived exists as a fundamental framework for all of nature, of which combinations of length, width, height, and time merely exhibit properties. Within this structure the universe emerges at the level of the 3rd Dimension (observable) and 4th Dimension (global), adhering strictly to Flatland principles applied spherically throughout. The model described is the finite 3-sphere of Einstein, with the crucial difference that observer and origin are located at antipodean centres (poles) of the 3-hemispheres, rendering the whole ‘observer-centric’. Without altering constants, GR, or QM, the model solves the horizon problem of CMB uniformity, explains the 1998 distant SNe Ia light anomaly, shows the universe to have net zero gravity (explaining so-called dark energy), reveals the correct mechanism behind expansion, shows in terms of information transfer why both gravity and light exist at c, describes the mechanism by which the universe diminishes to a Big Bang singularity, and provides a theoretical basis for the Equivalence principle. In the process it dispenses with infinity, superluminality, Cosmic Inflation, the G/DE knife-edge, recent acceleration, and the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2811] **viXra:1803.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-11 21:53:47*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The universe is enormous and it looks endless, but a clue tells us that it also has a shell. That clue is the speed properties of light, they are similar to the properties of a transfer speed of a medium. A transfer speed of a medium is an internal speed that can only be found in a medium with a shell, and that tells us that the light in the universe is contained within that shell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2810] **viXra:1803.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-11 04:53:55*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Transformation of the new relativistic space-time theory based only on the single Galileo’s
relativity principle is derived using the method of academician Logunov A.A.
Keywords: New relativistic space-time theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2809] **viXra:1803.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-10 03:12:47*

**Authors:** Franz Unterleitner

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The focus of this work is on an integration constant which appears when the geodesic equations for the Schwarzschild solution are solved directly.
The constant has a dimension of speed-squared and is interpreted as vacuum energy.
When it is set to zero, the solution is Newtonian in the far limit, otherwise it causes orbital velocities to be constant in the long range, explaining flat rotation curves.
The literature is rich of examples where the four geodesic equations are solved, but the constant was not produced.
This is because the direct solution one of the geodesic equations was avoided and an `equivalent` equation was solved instead.
In this work the direct solution is achieved by using an integrating factor which results in the hitherto unknown integration constant.
The existence of fossile disks in the velocity profiles of galaxies is interpreted as a consequence of the vacuum energy decreasing in time.
Again, in short: The geodesic equations in their geometric form are second order differential equations.
They deliver additional integration constants when they are integrated to first order.
Not all of the constants survive, but one of them does and when it is not deliberately set to zero it saturates velocities at far distances.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2808] **viXra:1803.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-09 03:21:20*

**Authors:** Theophile caby

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We discuss the notion of perception, and describe a simple mechanism by which distortion
of observed distances occurs in a static universe, that is compatible with many cosmological
observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2807] **viXra:1803.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-07 00:31:21*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A stellar system of two identical stars in orbital motion
is chosen to manifest a physics law, conservation of momentum, in Special Relativity.
Both stars move around each other in a non-circular orbit.
The single gravitational force between two stars demands that total momentum of
this stellar system remains constant in any inertial reference frame in which
the center of mass moves at a constant velocity.
The calculation of total momentum in two different inertial reference frames shows that
the momentum expression from Special
Relativity violates conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2806] **viXra:1803.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-06 11:51:29*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. In German

A proposal of an experiment to check the validity of the Lorentz transformations. Lorentz's interpretation of the experiment by Michelson and Morley is logical in the sense of geometric optics. But the light consists of the electromagnetic waves. This leads to conflict, if we recall that the electromagnetic fields can interact with charged particles. A vivid experiment can leave the validity of the Lorentz transformations regardless of the existence of the ether wind. Fourth figure shows the experimental setup.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2805] **viXra:1803.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-05 21:17:37*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An aspect of the continuum paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2804] **viXra:1803.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-05 08:02:12*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

its about the dual properties of matter

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2803] **viXra:1803.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-05 00:51:20*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A physical system of a mechanical spring
is chosen to manifest a physics law, conservation of momentum, in Special Relativity.
Two identical objects are attached to the ends of this mechanical spring.
The single force between two identical objects demands that total momentum of
this physical system remains constant in any inertial reference frame in which
the center of mass moves at a constant velocity.
The calculation of total momentum in two different inertial reference frames shows that
the momentum expression from Special
Relativity violates conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2802] **viXra:1803.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-03 12:03:58*

**Authors:** R. G. Chester

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Tensegrity structures exhibit several counterintuitive behaviors. Among these is expansion resulting solely from internal tension. Replacing the physical tendons of a six-strut tensegrity icosahedron with classical gravitational attraction suggests that universal accelerated expansion may be due to ordinary gravity acting solely as an inverse second-power attractive force. Speculation is included on the ultimate fate of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2801] **viXra:1803.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-01 08:43:28*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Attempt to discredit the GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2800] **viXra:1803.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-02 01:45:47*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Is perfectly known, that the Einstein has disapproved the Black Hole solutions. It was horrible to have an divergence, the infinities (BH, BB) in the equations? The Einstein has assumed Matter conservation during the derivation of GR, but it is violated in the consequences: BH, BB. Thus, the GR is wrong. Recall, the Nikola Tesla (who was blessed by his father, Eastern Orthodox Christian) that Nikola was in disagreement with Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2799] **viXra:1803.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-02 02:01:09*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the history of physics, momentum has been represented by two expressions.
One from Issac Newton, the other from Special Relativity. Both expressions are expected
to describe a physical system that demands conservation of momentum. By examining
the gravitational force between two identical particles in two different inertial reference frames,
the momentum expression from Issac Newton
is found to obey conservation of momentum while the momentum expression from Special
Relativity is found to violate conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2798] **viXra:1803.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-02 04:35:36*

**Authors:** Ratikanta Das

**Comments:** 17 pages

Important features of our new four-dimensional model are - 1. Our universe is four dimensional filled with two kinds of four dimensional (4D) hyper spherical * particles. 2. Every object in universe moves as wave due to local transverse motion of these 4D particles 3. Fundamental particles are created from these 4D particles when our flat ** three-dimensional space deforms locally along fourth dimension. 4. Fundamental particles have special 4D structures with infinite extent which justifies action at a distance for electromagnetic and gravitational influences 5. Equal magnitude of charges (±e) of fundamental particles of different mass is due to their similar shape (shape and size determines the property of charge and mass respectively). 6. Schrödinger equation and de Broglie hypothesis can be obtained from 4D structure of fundamental particle. 6. The 4D wave pulse of a fundamental particle is more appropriate to resolve wave-particle duality of matter than that done by a wave packet of 3D model. 7. The net energy of the 4D structure of a fundamental particle that is formed satisfying some equilibrium conditions determines it’s mass). 8. The model also describes a four-dimensional classical technique (named as spiral transformation) for conversion of radiation into matter and vice versa. Standard model does not give us a classical picture of this phenomenon. 9. 4D Structures of fundamental particles are responsible for unifying Coulomb force and strong force. This explains why electron-positron pair annihilates but electron-proton pair forms a stable combination and why n-n or p-p combination is unstable in spite of strong attractive force but n-p combination (deuteron) is stable. 10. New model resolves the puzzle behind dual nature of radiation by assuming photon as a 4D hyper surface wave of finite length(There is no single classical picture in traditional physics to describe nature of light, we have to accept both photon model and wave model ).11. Existence of spin quantum number is consistent with extra space dimension. 12 New model also hints how neutron is created from electron and proton.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.
* A circle of area πr2 is enclosed by a line of length 2πr and sphere of volume 4/3πr3 is enclosed by a spherical surface of area 4πr2. Similarly a 4D hyper sphere of hyper volume ½ π2r4 is enclosed by a 3D hyper spherical surface of volume 2π2 r3.
** Straight line, plane surface and flat space (volume) have analogous meanings in one, two and three dimensions respectively.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2797] **viXra:1802.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-28 23:27:08*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher

**Comments:** 8 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812839312_0001

Critics of the Big Bang have said every time the Big bang fails an adjustment to the theory is made or a new parameter added to fix it. While a valid criticism it misses the mark in that this is the business of science, constant tinkering until truth is eventually found. Our complaint is in the quotes above. Others have said that there is no truth in science because a theory can never be proven true only falsified. However, there is another wrinkle in that respect; when a ‘best’ theory is finally found and later falsified what remains is Absolute Truth [3]. Absolute truth in science refers to a finite regime described by a theory that has been falsified. This somewhat rarefied condition is best said about Newton’s theories. They remain absolute truth in reference to the finite classical regimes they describe [4]. The aim of this work is to provide sufficient insight that Big Bang cosmology may finally be falsified.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2796] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-27 19:12:45*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article presents a reformulation of special relativity which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial frames and which can be applied in any frame without introducing fictitious forces. A simple solution to the twin paradox is presented and a new universal force is proposed too.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2795] **viXra:1802.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-27 07:22:32*

**Authors:** Amit Kumar Jha

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Thevariantofthequintessencetheoryisproposedinordertogetanaccelerated
expansionoftheFriedmannianUniverseintheframeworksofrelativistictheoryof
gravitation.Thesubstanceofquintessenceisbuiltupthescalarfieldofdarkenergy.
Itisshown,thatfunctionV(Φ),whichfactorisingscalarfieldLagrangian(isa
scalarfield)hasnoinfluenceontheevolutionoftheUniverse.Somerelations,
allowingtofindexplicitdependenceΦontime,werefound,providedgiven
function.V(Φ

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2794] **viXra:1802.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-27 10:40:08*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: An alternate forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2793] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-26 18:22:37*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction, which will be amended with the full text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2792] **viXra:1802.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-26 00:45:43*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the history of physics, kinetic energy has been represented by two expressions.
One from Issac Newton, the other from Special Relativity. Both expressions are expected
to describe a physical system that demands conservation of momentum. By examining
the expression of momentum in a projectile motion, the kinetic energy from Issac Newton
is found to obey conservation of momentum while the kinetic energy from Special
Relativity is found to violate conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2791] **viXra:1802.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-26 04:30:34*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In the unified theory of dynamic space the quantum time is identical to the elementary motion, traveled by electrically opposite elementary units (in short units) in the interval (click-shift) of the quantum dipole length at the speed of light. The quantum time in the units region is the Natural time, that replaced the conventional time, i.e. the second. Nature understands time, as a crowd of moving units, as a length traveled with click-shifts and as a volume occupied by the units. Therefore, time is reflected in the structures of space by the number of their units. However, motion is a form of space deformation, created by force that is reduced from the dynamic space
as motion force, which is accumulated on the spherical zone of the particle, due to the
difference of cohesive pressure in front of and behind it. This accumulation is made by force talantonion (oscillator) per quantum time in the formations region as quantum force, causing harmonic change to the difference of cohesive pressure in proximal space of the particle as a motion wave (wave-like form), the so-called, de Broglie's wave-particle. The Physical meaning of Planck's constant is interpreted as the product of three Nature's entities, namely the force talantonion (which is the foundation of
motion), the quantum dipole length and the quantum time in the formations region. The "relative" mass has now been proved and the proof is not based on the second postulate of relativity. So, the particle mass does not in fact increase, when it moves, but only the final force (of gravity and motion), which causes the new dynamics of particle motion, increases. This new dynamics appears as a tension of space, which is maintained in a different way for each uniform motion, resulting the change of the Physics Laws in different inertial systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2790] **viXra:1802.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-26 06:12:02*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal, Naresh Adhikari

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

Black holes are one of the fascinating objects in the universe with gravitational pull strong enough to capture light within them. Through this article we have attempted to provide an insight to the black holes, on their formation and theoretical developments that made them one of the unsolved mysteries of universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2789] **viXra:1802.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-25 08:51:42*

**Authors:** Shant Khlghatyan

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Studying evolution of angular momentum in Kerr field and obtained some conditions on the parameters of motion for different types of orbits

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2788] **viXra:1802.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 23:19:18*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 8 Pages. -

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. What makes it possible to set a correction to the limiting speed of information transfer, which is used in the theory of relativity. At the same time, the corrections in different local regions differ from each other. The amendments, albeit insignificantly small, can unexpectedly give some results, as shown in the example. And the example itself and subsequent conclusions can be exactly the step to a great unification of interactions.
ул. Софьи Ковалевской дом 14, корпус 1, квартира 70

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2787] **viXra:1802.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 14:35:33*

**Authors:** Michael R. Feyereisen

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A model of a quantum cosmology motivated from fundamental physical principles is proposed, in which the intrinsic spin of both matter and the vacuum explains the existence of a cosmological scale factor a with a constant H0, the existence and magnitude of the cosmological constant Λ, the thermal history of the Universe, and the nature of the Dark Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2786] **viXra:1802.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 00:22:26*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of gravitational force between two identical
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant as gravitational force accelerate both particles toward each other.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2785] **viXra:1802.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 21:27:07*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 66 Pages. Feedback is welcome, even where I am wrong it is usefull.

Einstein's Field Equations can be derived from a Lagrangian using Action Principles. This paper explores the possibility of gravity being the result of an Invariant Four Volume Action Density of Cosmic Wavelength Gravitons. Infinitesimal changes (at least locally) to the Energy Momentum Tensor are required, which can have profound effect at cosmic scale, such as exponentially increasing expansion with no need for Dark Energy. This may also relate with the present tension in the different ways of measuring the Hubble parameter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2784] **viXra:1802.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 23:25:05*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The derivation of the Lorentz transformation normally rests on two a priori demands, namely that reversing the direction of the transformation's constant-velocity boost inverts the transformation, and that the transformation leaves light-speed invariant. It is notable, however, that the simple light-clock concept, which is rooted entirely in light-speed invariance, immediately gives rise to special-relativistic reciprocal time dilation, whose existence implies that of special-relativistic length contraction as a
corollary. Reciprocal time dilation and length contraction are key consequences of the Lorentz transformation, so it would seem that demanding only inertial transformation-invariance of light-speed already uniquely implies the Lorentz transformation. We find that to indeed be so, but it can't be shown by solving directly for the undetermined parameters of a general x-direction inertial space-time transformation; one necessarily must work with the corresponding velocity transformation (that has the same undetermined parameters), which is pared down to equalities that refer as predominantly as is feasible to speed. In those equalities both untransformed and transformed speed are replaced by the constant c, after which the undetermined parameters of the inertial transformation are solved for, which shows it to be the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2783] **viXra:1802.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 08:20:25*

**Authors:** Jack Wenger

**Comments:** 126 Pages. The symbol for pi may not translate from pdf to this program.

Abstract: Try another way of looking at the universe. Consider spatial dimensions as measurements of interfaces. These interfaces can have two or more sides. We can see this if we think of thick oil spreading on water. We have three 3D substances, water, oil, and air. There is a water/oil 2D interface, an oil/air 2D interface and ahead of the oil intrusion a water/air 2D interface. Furthermore there is a linear or 1D interface at the front where the oil is advancing and all 3D substances touch. This interface
has three sides. This relationship could also be described this way: Where two 3D substances meet they form a (3-1)D interface and where three or more 3D substances meet they form a (3-2)D interface. This allows the speculation that all higher dimensional systems may form interfaces in this fashion when substances within those systems interact in a manner similar to that described above.
The pattern suggested is:
When N (as in ND) is a whole number greater than 1, two adjacent ND substances can form an (N-1)D interface between them and three or more ND substances can meet at a (N-2)D interface. This
interface has three or more sides.
This in turn allows the suggestion that there could be an infinite 5D sphere made up of infinitely small 5D units that have settled into concentric fluidic layers according to some analogs to gravity and density, and that a higher (or lower) layer, having undergone a change in density, is in the process of
reestablishing itself in the layer hierarchy. This could entail its intrusion between two layers having only slightly different densities.
If this were the case and the 5D substances followed the pattern described above, it would have two 4D (5-1) interfaces where it contacted the fluids on either side and a 3D (5-2) interface where all three fluids met, at the front of intrusion.
Infinitely small 5D substance units (5D molecules, 5D atoms) would allow the layers to be extremely thin, thinner than any observable 3D object at the 3D interface but still the size of these units
could have ratios to the layer's thickness similar to the ratio of a water molecule's size to the depth of the deepest ocean. Much would be allowed under these conditions.
When considering a great circle along the 3D interface, the speed of its expansion would be 2pi
times the rate of intrusion. That is the change in the radius will always equal 1/2pi the change in
circumference size.
If the circumferential expansion of the 3D interface was equal to the expansion rate of our cosmic horizon, the intrusion rate would be 1.007 times our light speed. If its circumference was greater, maybe many times the size of our cosmic horizon, the rate of intrusion would be many times light speed. We suggests that the speed of intrusion within the Shear Dependant Universe (SDU) would probably be many times light speed. These speeds would not need to be constant. They would be affected by the rate of fluid entry at the source.
The high speed of intrusion and perhaps other characteristic of the fluids could create shear. This shear could be expressed as vortices at all interfaces, if all fluids were similar in "density". If the 5D sphere were rotating, vortices at the upper 4D interface would rotate opposite those at the lower, when moving in the same direction along the 3D interface, therefore the 3D interface would contact vortices of
both rotations. The picture here is of dense chaotic vortex fields on all sides of all interfaces. In addition, vortices can merge or concentrate to form structures at the 3D interface as described below.
Vortices create wakes by applying torque to the 3D interface as they move over it. Those at the upper 4D interface create torque wakes that are opposite those at the lower. Vortices tend to draw closer
together or concentrate with others having similar torque wakes and move way from those with incompatible wakes when traveling in the same 3D direction. However vortices having opposite rotation can concentrate if they are traveling in opposite 3D directions. Vortices with incompatible wakes move away from each other.
Combined torque wakes of sufficient intensity can capture "swarms of vortices" on any or all sides of the 3D interface. These swarms can result in fields with various shapes. The shape of some of these fields is cyclonic with tubular centers or eyes, their bases attached to the 3D interface via compatible torque. Others have an anti cyclonic form with oppositely rotating eyes that are also attached to the 3D interface through appropriate torque contours. A single torque pattern at the 3D interface can accommodate several cyclonic or anti cyclonic swarms on any of its sides, these swarms will simply rotate in appropriate directions. Opposite rotation is allowed because these swarms are on opposing sides of the 3D interface and cannot conflict with each other.
These are diffuse columnar swarms with highly concentrated centers where there is maximum torque or deformation of the 3D interface. If a swarm conglomerate is set in motion, torque is increased on the side of motion direction by an increased encountering and accumulation of background shear. This increased vortex concentration and torque, ahead of the eye causes the whole swarm to shift in this direction which in turn reestablishes the higher vortex concentration and maintains the off center torque, constantly reinforcing the direction of travel. This feedback loop with background shear becomes the basis for inertial mass.
Those solo swarms that occupy only the outside of one the 4D interfaces (one quark) are swept
away by the backflow immediately. Swarm pairs that occupy both sides of a single 4D interface (two
quarks) and have some attachment with the 3D interface remain in contact a little longer but are also swept away. Swarm trios or quartets, that occupy all sides of the 3D interface (three quarks) and are anchored by a common torque pattern at the 3D interface, remain attached. They are still occupying only three fluid sectors so they could appear as only three objects (three quarks) from the 3D point of view.
These would be matter and anti matter.
Torque energy is never gained or lost. It is always recaptured by background shear forming
photonic structures, other transient swarms or it transforms complex swarms or alters their motion.
Vortices also cause indentations to form on the 3D interface via drag. Large swarms of vortices have considerable drag and tend to allow collections within the indentations. The indentations do not
need to be very deep to be highly "attractive" because the 3D interface at the indentations is no longer perpendicular to the direction of intrusion, so they acquire a tiny fraction of the intense back flow from the interface advancement, forming "virtual wells" which when present in accumulations are the foundation of SDU gravity. These shear vortices contribute both to mass and "virtual wells" (gravity and become the grounds for an SDU Equivalence principle
Photonic structures follow the same rules stated above but form perpendicular sheets in response
to waves of passing torque (which are a winding and then unwinding of the 3D interface). Shear
vortices become oriented in one direction as the interface winds up. They also tend to coalesce to a point in response to their tendency to merge. As the wave meets its maximum and begins to unwind, vortices in the first orientation escape up the connecting 4D interface and shear immediately provides a second generation of vortices in the new orientation which again coalesce and so the action is continuously repeated until all cycles of torque have passed. Thus the wave is maintained and confined to the 3D interface by background shear. This involvement with the background shear also limits the speed of passing torque waves.
The action of coalescing is never completed in any of these structures. In light, background shear
continues to move in the direction of the highest torque during the whole cycle, so there is a field of vortex motion extending for quite a distance on either side of the coalescing point. In matter there are also merging fields of vortex motion all around the cylindrical swarms. All of these structures can interfere with themselves under the right conditions.
In this setting, vortex swarms become the currency between matter and energy.
If each fluid is viewed as a 5D compartment around the 3D interface, the system is compatible with
either 16D or 18D spacetime scenarios depending on whether time is the extra dimension of the whole or of each compartment.
5D+5D+5D+1D of time=16D
5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time=18D
However the collision debris characteristics of each compartment could seem to come from different 5D (or 6D spacetime) systems if compartmentalization is not considered.
Thus the properties of the least dense fluid in the upper compartment are consistent with those of a "bottom quark" in that the collision debris would contain many more "particles" and therefore have greater mass than the other two quarks. These particles would also have shorter life spans then those of the intruder compartment because of the upper fluid's backwash. The lower compartment debris would also have shorter life spans because of the lower fluid's backwash but fewer particles because of its greater density and be viewed as a "top quark".
The intruder compartment would have properties of "strange quarks" in that its collision debris would be comprised of varying percentages of "positive and negative" charged particles depending on the nature of the colliding matter.
It is relatively easy to describe many physical phenomena in these terms such as the four known
forces (gravitational, strong, weak, and electromagnetic) and the many quantum phenomena. Light speed is dependent upon the rate of shear creation. The universal expansion rate varies with fluid input at the source. Dark matter simply becomes a variant swarm configuration. Faster than light, waveforms are allowed within the fluids between the interfaces.
The above description becomes the scenario for a universe very similar to ours.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2782] **viXra:1802.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 21:32:41*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The classical theories making up modern physics are: Newtonian mechanics, Maxwell’s equations, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, special relativity and general relativity. We also mention nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Excluding Maxwell’s equations the Newtonian concept of mass plays a fundamental role in each of these theories even though no one really knows what mass is. Starting with relativistic mass we will reason our way to the conclusion that mass is an illusion, and tidal effects are local. That is, behind the illusion of mass lay the mass-free foundations of a mass-free paradigm of Relativity that transcends all the theories mentioned and shows just why general relativity does not go far enough. Further, the true significance of Planck’s four-dimensional constant is to be found in this new paradigm of Relativity. The maths employed here have been used in [1] and [2].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2781] **viXra:1802.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 23:19:08*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical charged
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
during the collision in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2780] **viXra:1802.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 00:36:57*

**Authors:** Chou Yu-Ching

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Einstein's general relativistic eld equation is a nonlinear partial dierential equation that lacks an easy way to obtain exact solutions. The most famous examples are Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole solutions. The Kerr metric has astrophysical meaning because most of cosmic celestial bodies are rotating. The Kerr metric is even more diffcult to derive than the Schwarzschild metric specically due to off-diagonal term of metric tensor. In this paper, a derivation of Kerr metric was obtained by ellipsoid coordinate transformation, which causes elimination a large amount of tedious derivation. This derivation is not only physics enlightening, but also further deducing some
characteristics of the rotating black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2779] **viXra:1802.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 06:17:18*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

This author has already proposed a new theory, Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), that can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect, the Silvertooth experiment, the Roland De Witte experiment, the Venus planet radar range data anomaly ( analyzed and reported by Bryan G Wallace ) and other experiments. According to AST, there will be an apparent change in position of a light source as seen by the observer, for absolutely co-moving source and observer. The 'null' result of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) is explained as follows. The effect of absolute motion is just to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the detector. There will be no (significant) fringe shift in the MMX for the same reason that there will be no (significant) fringe shift if the source position was actually, physically shifted slightly. The fringe shift in Sagnac effect is explained as follows. The source will be apparently shifted away relative to the detector when looking in the backward direction and shifted towards the detector when looking in the forward direction, hence creating a path difference. Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light' ) is re-interpreted and used as one of the foundational arguments in this paper. The new interpretation is that it is the phase velocity of light that is always constant irrespective of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source (absolute) velocity but depends on observer and mirror velocity. For an observer moving near the speed of light away from a light source, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light while the group will be at rest relative to the observer. The new theoretical framework consists of two theories: 1. Apparent Source theory 2. Exponential Doppler Effect of light theory . The results of many light speed experiments can be derived from these two theories. Apparent Source Theory determines the phase and group delay of light, whereas Exponential Doppler Effect theory determines the frequency/wavelength of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2778] **viXra:1802.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 07:50:14*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 4 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times larger than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant, known as the cosmological constant problem would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very high, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as distribution of molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the manuscript emphasizes upon the recession of large-scale structures upon a stationary space-time continuum. Since the discrepancy with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. Instead of considering distant Type 1a supernova as a standard candle, I have considered the Sun as the standard candle. The study shows that the large-scale structures are receding at a constant rate, instead at an accelerated rate. The actual or the finite recessional velocity that a massive galaxy cluster attains by the virtue of its finite energy has also been unravelled in this paper along with the corresponding value of their “true” redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2777] **viXra:1802.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 17:16:26*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We test counter examples of conditions for the speed of light as s:
If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.2)
If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.3)
If possibly c is equivalent to s, or possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.4)
The result is that E=mc^2 not tautologous after all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2776] **viXra:1802.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 11:09:01*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

In its basic form, the Special Relativity’s famous mass-energy equivalence equation doesn’t seem to hold for massless particles. To get around this deficiency, another form (energy-momentum relation) of the same equation incorporating a momentum term has been introduced by the physics mainstream. The adopted mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is based on certain assumptions using Minkowski spacetime four-momentum, forcing a solution towards the energy-momentum relation. This form of the mass-energy equivalence equation appears to hold for massless particles. However, in this paper, an analysis of the mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is carried out, highlighting the made assumptions, and revealing a resulting contradiction. It is clearly shown, through a straight forward derivation, that the energy-momentum relation still doesn’t hold for massless particles. Consequently, the energy-momentum relation requires that a photon must have an infinitesimal rest mass, for which its speed only approaches c. Thus, the speed of light will no longer be invariant with respect to all inertial reference frames, as postulated by Einstein in his formulation of the Special Relativity!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2775] **viXra:1802.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 01:15:56*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Review and re think.

Re look cosmology observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2774] **viXra:1802.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 14:42:23*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Last paper in the author's series on Theory of Everything

Members of the public and intellectuals do appreciate that the universe appears to be something
beyond explanations. It is a colossal miracle, because there is no evidence of any kind, capable
of indicating how such an impossible reality could have arisen, without attributing it to superintelligent
induction, based on nothing like the science and physics we know of. We should not
use the limitation of human knowhow, to claim that it all of existence arose from nothing, or from
a few grams of vacuum energy, based on science which did not exist. This third article is the last,
before the author publishes his Theory of Everything, in his coming book, later this year, 2018.
Elaborating a genuine Theory of Everything (TOE) is obviously a very demanding proposition. To
start with, you can never be certain it has been correctly formulated, because we are just humans,
created without the capacity to possess supernatural knowledge. The TOE remains the only
universal unified concept having a future, after Glashow two years back openly admitted that the
Grand Unified Theory of his and Georgi, of 1974, was dead. To start with, the TOE should be an
all-encompassing model that provides answers to many questions from scientists and the public
about the origin and nature of our universe. Historically, the seeds of a theory of our universe
were sown in efforts to produce a field unification theory, in 1864, when Maxwell published his
dynamical theory of electromagnetic field. This influenced Einstein in 1905 to use Maxwell’s
constancy of the speed of light to unify space and time into the concept of spacetime. Later
Einstein conceived of curved four-dimensional spacetime to describe gravity in his General
Relativity. Some years later Weyl in 1919 came up with the gauge electromagnetic field theory,
which eventually led to the concept of Grand Unified Theory, which was believed to be one in
which all forces would merge into a single force, due to different fields being able to “merge” into
a unified one.
2
Kaluza in 1921 envisaged General Relativity as a 5-dimensional entity in which Klein, in 1926,
suggested that the fourth dimension could be curled up to illustrate gravitational force. These
varied developments were the earliest attempts at trying to understand the universe in unified
field theories, and it was in this rather confused context, as from 1930, that Einstein embarked on
an ambitious journey into a 25 year-dedication to formulate a classical Unified Field Theory, which
never materialised, and he was still scribbling some equations on his last day in 1955. A decade
later, there started a new realisation about unifying the electromagnetic force with the Weak
Interaction, arising from the work of Higgs, Glashow, Weinberg and Salam that produced the
unified Electroweak Theory, the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces. This trend
encouraged physicists to contemplate that perhaps at very high energies, not yet possible under
contemporary technologies, all forces might unify into one grand unified theory, the GUT, which
when unified with gravity, would produce a theory of everything. Recent data suggest that a Grand
Unified Theory is either a theoretical curiosity, misunderstood, or a mirage. Speculations went
much further, for there have been suggestions that a GUT, championed by Salam and others,
would produce at the highest energy a single combined field of all forces, from which would
emerge evidence of the occurrence of superparticles, for each of the standard particles in today’s
physics. The important questions are why the universe requires such physical entities and how
do they fit into the final explanations of the realities of our laws of nature, for instance the nature
of consciousness and other phenomena of existence, like Darwin’s theory of evolution or black
holes or the Big Bang theory, or even about the origin of our universe.
This being so, several efforts, in the physics and cosmology domains, try to dig into the strata of
universal knowledge to search for our ultimate relevance and future, but the topic of finding a TOE
was seen to be even more elusive. However, scientists were convinced that the Theory of
Everything was first and foremost a concept of our ultimate realities and of existence. It is believed
it would harbour major components of physics in intimacy with philosophy. You need philosophical
inspiration to see the physics, which then tells you how the philosophy should be like, or you need
to see the philosophy to understand why the physics is as it is. The physics is pure physics and
the philosophy pure philosophy, but they might both be imperative towards understanding the
origin and the meaning of existence.
What we have currently is a collection of narratives about the origin of our universe, all spinning
around contrasting centres of philosophical influence. Even here in intellectual work, there is an
implication of entropy for once the culture of defining various theories of everything has reached
a certain maximum, the true Theory of Everything could find a greater likelihood to emerge. In
3
entropy, including intellectual entropy, there will be factors of determinism and indeterminism,
such that they would interplay in the process of the evolution of ideas, where entropy would ensure
we always move from maximum order, with loads of data, to maximum disorder, in framed
concepts on which little more conceptual work is possible, a fact which means that the Theory of
Everything, describing the most evolved universal tenets of existence, would represent the most
disorderly intellectual system, at the highest intellectual entropy. That would be the universal
explanatory key conceived by humans for humans, based on philosophy and physics, to unlock
the mysteries of the universe that was masterminded by a Supernatural Power.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1983] **viXra:1804.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-13 04:30:46*

**Authors:** Rainer Collier

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The publication list has been corrected and supplemented.

This short letter refers to Schmutzer´s 5-dimensional Projective Unified Field Theory as a new general-relativistic covariant unification of gravitation, electromagnetism and scalarism (a new phenomenon of nature) with some remarks to it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1982] **viXra:1804.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-05 11:30:20*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Gravitational redshift is currently believed to be the result of the loss of energy of photons as they emerge from a gravitational field into a field of lesser strength. Conversely, gravitational blueshift is believed to be the result of an increase in energy of photons as they move into a gravitational field from a field of lesser strength. Cosmological redshift is believed to be the result of the loss of energy of photons as they travel cosmological distances through an expanding space.
I will argue that gravitational redshift is caused by time dilation of the source of radiation at the gravitational body. The redshift of the photons emitted by the source account in full for the measurement of redshift of those photons in a lesser gravitational field. The obverse works for the measurement of gravitational blueshift. The wavelength of the photons received in a stronger gravitational field is measured to be shorter than the emitted wavelength because of time dilation of the receiver. The measured blueshift is illusory and is a measurement artifact. Neither gravitational redshift nor gravitational blueshift results from changes in photon frequency. The frequency of a photon is not changed as the photon moves within a gravitational field to either a weaker or a stronger field.
The inherent frequency of a photon is the frequency at which the photon was emitted. The apparent decrease in frequency of the photon in the cosmological redshift results from the increased wavelength that is, in turn, the result of the expansion of space during the photon’s journey, not the result of a decrease in the inherent frequency of the photon. The effect is akin to the Doppler shift caused by the observer’s recessional velocity from the source of radiation.
The conclusion: Photon frequency is immutable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1981] **viXra:1803.0741 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-17 12:22:54*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Version 5 in English.

This article presents the generalized Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration which can be applied in any inertial or non-inertial (non-rotating) frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1980] **viXra:1803.0741 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-15 14:38:55*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Version 4 in Spanish.

This article presents the generalized Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration which can be applied in any inertial or non-inertial (non-rotating) frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1979] **viXra:1803.0741 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-05 10:21:29*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article presents the generalized Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration which can be applied in any inertial or non-inertial (non-rotating) frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1978] **viXra:1803.0741 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-03 16:29:20*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article presents the generalized Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration which can be applied in any inertial or non-inertial (uniform circular motion) frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1977] **viXra:1803.0709 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-30 12:27:40*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: It is noticed that the charm quark/strange quark mc^2 ratio is not equal to 13.5 (age of the eighth cyclic universe in billion years but is close to it (13.42). The small difference is now seen to be very important.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1976] **viXra:1803.0708 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-30 04:58:00*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Corrected transcription error of the mass of the galaxy NGC1052-DF2 (2 x 10E8 solar masses) of the article reviewed.

Since the experimental event of abnormal speeds within galaxies was discovered; the so-called dark matter is incessantly sought. But all the experiments still do not find such a ghost. Its justification is supported, in the apparent, simplest explanation: the existence of a matter additional to the baryonic matter within the galaxies. But there is another possible explanation more natural and just as simple: A modification of the gravity due to the occurrence of effects of quantum gravity produced by the repulsive acceleration of the vacuum. A repulsion of the vacuum would produce, as we demonstrated with the experiments with magnets of equal polarity, a pressure towards the center of mass and, therefore, a fictitious increase in mass. In this short article; we calculate the average speed of rotation within the newly discovered ultradiffuse galaxy NGC1052-DF2. This calculation shows that the equation, type MOND, agrees perfectly with the estimated velocities. Therefore, some voices that too quickly have announced that this galaxy (almost without dark matter or anything of it) does not agree with the theories of modified gravitation (we refer to the quantum gravitation that would quantize the equations of Einstein's gravitation, or GR); they are simply avoiding the real explanation: effects of quantum gravity produced by the vacuum (very large masses of galaxies).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1975] **viXra:1803.0663 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-28 00:30:04*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A geometric version of gravity is submitted that can unify the natural dynamics of large and small scale systems. The relationship between the Gaussian gravitational constant and Planck's constant is given as a testable unified field equation. A perplexing discovery is deduced from a gravitoelectromagnetic equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1974] **viXra:1803.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-21 15:03:20*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Static gravity alone accounts for the observation of the double tides on opposite sides of the earth and the different range of the lunar and solar tides. When the centrifugal acceleration of the Earth’s orbital speed is added to the gravitational accelerations, the HelioC theory is exposed as fictitious. There is no evidence of a centrifugal acceleration ...or force... in the tidal behavior. This agrees with other GC tests, like Newton’s Bucket, Sagnac’s rotor and R. Wang’s linear Sagnac version. Conversely, there are no proofs by scientific method testing or realistic interpretation that the Earth orbits the Sun. The rise and fall of the tides around the world is a semi-diurnal repetitive demonstration of the Earth’s central position in the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1973] **viXra:1803.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-15 19:50:42*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The universe is enormous and it looks endless to us, but a clue tells us that it must also have a shell. That clue is the speed properties of light, they are similar to the properties of a transfer speed of a medium. A transfer speed of a medium is an internal speed that can only be found in a medium with a shell, and that tells us that the universe is a medium with some kind of a shell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1972] **viXra:1803.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-12 16:31:45*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The universe is enormous and it looks endless, but a clue tells us that it must also have a shell. That clue is the speed properties of light, they are similar to the properties of a transfer speed of a medium. A transfer speed of a medium is an internal speed that can only be found in a medium with a shell, and that tells us that the universe has a shell as well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1971] **viXra:1803.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-16 04:32:40*

**Authors:** Theophile Caby

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We discuss the notion of perception, and describe a simple mechanism by which distortion
of observed distances occurs in a static universe, that is compatible with many cosmological
observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1970] **viXra:1803.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-11 12:27:43*

**Authors:** Theophile Caby

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We discuss the notion of perception, and describe a simple mechanism by which distortion
of observed distances occurs in a static universe, that is compatible with many cosmological
observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1969] **viXra:1803.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-06 10:07:08*

**Authors:** Theophile Caby

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1968] **viXra:1803.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-13 13:13:20*

**Authors:** Theophile Caby

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1967] **viXra:1803.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-12 12:43:29*

**Authors:** Theophile Caby

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1966] **viXra:1803.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-10 11:51:12*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon, S.A.Podosenov, A.A.Potapov, E.Menkova

**Comments:** 135 Pages.

In present article the original proposition is a generalization of the Einstein's world tensor g ij by the introduction of pure inertial field tensor g ac ij such that R α μνλ (g ac ij )≠0 .Bimetric theory of gravitational-inertial field is considered for the case when the gravitational-Inertial field is governed by either a perfect magnetic fluid.In a series of papers published during the past decade with respect to Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system [71]-[75],it has been experimentally shown that the relative energy shift ΔE/E between the source of resonant radiation (situated at the center of the rotating system) and the resonant absorber (located on the rotor rim) is described by the relationship ΔE/E=−ku 2 /c 2 , where u is the tangential velocity of the absorber, c the velocity of light in vacuum, and k some coefficient, which -- contrary to what had been classically predicted equal 1/2 (see for example [35]) -- turns out to be substantially larger than 1/2. It cannot be stressed enough that the equality k=1/2 had been predicted by general theory of relativity (GTR) on account of the special relativistic time dilation effect delineated by the tangential displacement of the rotating absorber, where the "clock hypothesis" by Einstein (i.e., the non-reliance of the time rate of any clock on its acceleration [35]) was straightly adopted. Hence, the revealed inequality k>1/2 indicates the presence of some additional energy shift (next to the usual time dilation effect arising from tangential displacement alone) between the emitted and absorbed resonant radiation. By using Bimetric Theory of Gravitational-Inertial Field [76] we obtain k=0.625 in a good agreement with experimental result k=0.69 [75].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1965] **viXra:1803.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-31 23:59:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 68 Pages. For book lovers, the printed version is available at https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/unification-of-science/isbn/978-613-9-57823-8

A MONOGRAPH DEALING WITH UNIFICATION IN RELATION TO DARK ENERGY, DARK MATTER, COSMIC EXPANSION, E= mc2, QUANTUM GRAVITY, "IMAGINARY" COMPUTERS, CREATION OF THE INFINITE AND ETERNAL UNIVERSE USING ELECTRONIC BITS + PI + "IMAGINARY" TIME, EARTHLY EDUCATION, SCIENCE-RELIGION UNION, THE HUMAN CONDITION, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, PLANETARY FIELDS, HOW GRAVITATION CAN BOOST HEALTH, SPACE-TIME PROPULSION FROM THE EMDRIVE TO THE BROUWER FIXED-POINT THEOREM, "LIGHT MATTER", ETC. THESE EFFECTS WERE ORIGINALLY DISCUSSED IN SEVERAL SHORT INTERNET ARTICLES.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1964] **viXra:1803.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-15 14:01:56*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

We report a mathematical construction that is autological, universal and tautological. The autological property allows the derivation of the laws of physics from the construction, while the other two properties explain why the construction is universally and necessarily applicable to the world. As such, we find that the world admits a necessarily implied and self-explaining description of itself ---namely, the construction. The construction is formulated as a statistical ensemble of feasible mathematics (similar to a Gibbs ensemble of statistical physics) and its domain is the set of all analytical statements of logic (here they take the role of the permissible facts of the world). The familiar laws of physics are emergent from the ensemble as entropic laws; this includes special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, quantum field theory, the speed of light as a maximal speed, and the space-time background. Furthermore, the construction provides tentative solutions in regard to the quantum measurement problem, the unification of physics and the arrow of time. In this context, the laws of physics are interpreted as the limits applicable to the feasible verification of the elements of the universal set of all analytical facts (they limit the actual facts of the world). The scope is universal (applies to the whole world), it is constructed tautologically (is irrefutable) and it is autological (allows the derivation of the laws of physics) ---thus, it is a tentative final theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1963] **viXra:1803.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-07 09:56:20*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 63 Pages.

We report a mathematical construction that is autological, universal and tautological. The autological property allows the derivation of the laws of physics from the construction, while the other two properties explain why the construction is universally and necessarily applicable to the world. As such, we find that the world admits a necessarily implied and self-explaining description of itself ---namely, the construction. The construction is formulated as a statistical ensemble of feasible mathematics (similar to a Gibbs ensemble of statistical physics) and its domain is the set of all analytical statements of logic (here they take the role of the permissible facts of the world). The familiar laws of physics are emergent from the ensemble as entropic laws; this includes special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, quantum field theory, the speed of light as a maximal speed, and the space-time background. Furthermore, the construction provides tentative solutions in regard to the quantum measurement problem, the unification of physics and the arrow of time. In this context, the laws of physics are interpreted as the limits applicable to the feasible verification of the elements of the universal set of all analytical facts (they limit the actual facts of the world). The scope is universal (applies to the whole world), it is constructed tautologically (is irrefutable) and it is autological (allows the derivation of the the laws of physics) ---thus, it is a tentative final theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1962] **viXra:1803.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-05 14:07:58*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 63 Pages.

We report a mathematical construction that is autological, universal and tautological. The autological property allows the derivation of the laws of physics from first principles as consequences of the construction, while the other two properties explain why the construction universally and necessarily applies to the world. As such, we find that the world admits a necessarily implied and self-explaining description of itself ---namely, the construction. The construction is formulated as an ensemble of statistical physics over the set of all analytical statements of logic (here they take the role of the permissible facts of the world). The familiar laws of physics are emergent from the ensemble as entropic laws; this includes special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, quantum field theory, the speed of light as a maximal speed, and the space-time background. Furthermore, the construction provides tentative solutions in regard to the quantum measurement problem, the unification of general relativity with quantum field theory and the arrow of time. The construction suggests a computational/informational interpretation of the world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1961] **viXra:1803.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-31 21:25:47*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

We report the discovery of an autological construction that is universal and tautological. It's autological property allows the derivation of the laws of physics from first principles as properties of the construction. As such, we find that the world admits a necessarily implied and self-explaining description of itself. We first explain and derive the construction, then we explicitly recover the major laws of physics as its properties, including: special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, the arrow of time, quantum field theory, the speed of light as a maximal speed and the space-time background. Furthermore, the construction provides insights in regards to the quantum measurement problem, to the unification of general relativity with quantum field theory and to the arrow of time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1960] **viXra:1803.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-02 14:53:45*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the history of physics, momentum has been represented by two expressions.
One from Issac Newton, the other from Special Relativity. Both expressions are expected
to describe a physical system that demands conservation of momentum. By examining
the gravitational force between two identical particles in two different inertial reference frames,
the momentum expression from Issac Newton
is found to obey conservation of momentum while the momentum expression from Special
Relativity is found to violate conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1959] **viXra:1803.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-26 12:18:00*

**Authors:** Ratikanta Das

**Comments:** 17 pages

Important features of our new four-dimensional model are -
1. Four-dimensional cosmology and physics go together. 2. Our universe is four dimensional filled with two kinds of four dimensional (4D) hyper spherical particles. 3. Fundamental particles are created from these 4D particles when four-dimensional space deforms locally. 4. Every object in universe moves as wave due to local transverse motion of these 4D particles. 5. Fundamental particles have special 4D structures with infinite extent which justifies electromagnetic and gravitational influence of one fundamental particle on another at very large distance from it (there is no such device in our 3D model to justify mechanism of action at a distance) . 6. Schrödinger equation is related to the 4D structure of fundamental particle which justifies its successful applications in physics. 7. The 4D wave pulse of a fundamental particle is more appropriate to resolve wave-particle duality of matter than that done by a wave packet of 3D model. 8. The equation of 4D wave pulse is used for a short derivation of de Broglie hypothesis (our traditional physics does not derive this). 9. The net energy of the 4D structure of a fundamental particle that is formed satisfying some equilibrium conditions determines its mass (explanation of origin of mass by Higgs mechanism is not free from criticism). 10. The model also describes a four-dimensional classical technique (named as spiral transformation) for conversion of radiation into matter and vice versa. Standard model does not give us a classical picture of this phenomenon. 11. Addition and removal of matter-energy along a 4D spiral path ensures reversibility of spiral transformation process which explains reversible nature of emission with absorption and pair production with annihilation. 12. The model also gives an expression for unified Coulomb and strong force. It explains why electron-positron pair annihilates but electron-proton pair forms a stable combination and why n-n or p-p combination is unstable in spite of strong attractive force but n-p combination (deuteron) is stable. 13. As per our new model charge is not a quantity that can be distributed over a fundamental particle. Concept of charge arises from the Coulomb force on the fundamental particle which is found to be independent of its size and dependent on its shape. This new concept is responsible for equal magnitude of charges (±e) of fundamental particles of different masses shape being similar for all. 14. New model resolves the puzzle behind dual nature of radiation by assuming photon as a 4D hyper surface wave of finite length(There is no single classical picture in traditional physics to describe nature of light, we have to accept both photon model and wave model ).15. Existence of spin quantum number is consistent with extra space dimension. 16 New model also hints how neutron is created from electron and proton.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1958] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-03 09:18:34*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Version 9 in English.

This article presents a new formulation of special relativity which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial (non-rotating) frames. Additionally, a simple solution to the twin paradox is presented and a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1957] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-02 11:09:30*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Version 8 in Spanish.

This article presents a new formulation of special relativity which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial (non-rotating) frames. Additionally, a simple solution to the twin paradox is presented and a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1956] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-31 07:32:33*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Version 7 in English.

This article presents a new formulation of special relativity which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial (non-rotating) frames. Additionally, a simple solution to the twin paradox is presented and a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1955] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-28 07:11:21*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Version 6 in Spanish

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1954] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-25 19:04:47*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1953] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-18 20:28:35*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1952] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-17 09:12:05*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1951] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-08 07:00:59*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1950] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-06 18:20:30*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Dedicated to His Resurrection, Easter 2018.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction (draft version), which will be amended with the final text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1949] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-03 08:19:17*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Dedicated to His Resurrection, Easter 2018.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction (draft version), which will be amended with the final text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1948] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-30 13:06:53*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Dedicated to His Resurrection, Easter 2018

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction (draft version), which will be amended with the final text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1947] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-24 13:46:58*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Typos corrected and references added.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1946] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-20 11:01:05*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Text expanded and references added.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1945] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-14 12:37:31*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Dedicated to 139th birthday of Albert Einstein, 14 March 2018.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction, which will be amended with the full text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1944] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-11 17:58:31*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Text expanded and references added.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction, which will be amended with the full text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1943] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-08 16:51:47*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Text expanded for clarity.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction (5 pages), which will be amended with the full text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1942] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-05 01:19:26*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction (4 pages), which will be amended with the full text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1941] **viXra:1802.0372 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-03 02:12:12*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In the unified theory of dynamic space the quantum time is identical to the elementary motion, traveled by electrically opposite elementary units (in short units) in the interval (click-shift) of the quantum dipole length at the speed of light. The quantum time in the units region is the Natural time, that replaced the conventional time, i.e. the second. Nature understands time, as a crowd of moving units, as a length traveled with click-shifts and as a volume occupied by the units. Therefore, time is reflected in the structures of space by the number of their units. However, motion is a form of space deformation, created by force that is reduced from the dynamic space
as motion force, which is accumulated on the spherical zone of the particle, due to the
difference of cohesive pressure in front of and behind it. This accumulation is made by force talantonion (oscillator) per quantum time in the formations region as quantum force, causing harmonic change to the difference of cohesive pressure in proximal space of the particle as a motion wave (wave-like form), the so-called, de Broglie's wave-particle. The Physical meaning of Planck's constant is interpreted as the product of three Nature's entities, namely the force talantonion (which is the foundation of
motion), the quantum dipole length and the quantum time in the formations region. The "relative" mass has now been proved and the proof is not based on the second postulate of relativity. So, the particle mass does not in fact increase, when it moves, but only the final force (of gravity and motion), which causes the new dynamics of particle motion, increases. This new dynamics appears as a tension of space, which is maintained in a different way for each uniform motion, resulting the change of the Physics Laws in different inertial systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1940] **viXra:1802.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-27 05:37:27*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal, Naresh Adhikari

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

Black holes are one of the fascinating objects in the universe with gravitational pull strong enough to capture light within them. Through this article we have attempted to provide an insight to the black holes, on their formation and theoretical developments that made them one of the unsolved mysteries of universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1939] **viXra:1802.0307 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-19 20:43:04*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 65 Pages. Any feedback is welcome even where I may be wrong it can be very helpfull

Einstein's Field Equations can be derived from a Lagrangian using Action Principles. At a different level, this paper explores the possibility of gravity being connected to an Invariant Four Volume Action Density of Cosmic Wavelength Gravitons. Infinitesimal changes (at least locally) to the Energy Momentum Tensor are required. This can have profound effect at cosmic scale, such as flatness without Inflation and exponentially increasing expansion with no need for Dark Energy. This may also relate with the present tension in the different ways of measuring the Hubble parameter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1938] **viXra:1802.0304 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-11 19:47:18*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The derivation of the Lorentz transformation normally rests on two a priori demands, namely that reversing the direction of the transformation's constant-velocity boost inverts the transformation, and that the transformation leaves light-speed invariant. It is notable, however, that the simple light-clock concept, which is rooted entirely in
light-speed invariance, immediately implies reciprocal time dilation, and it has been demonstrated that reciprocal time dilation implies length contraction. Reciprocal time dilation and length contraction are the pivotal consequences of the Lorentz transformation, so demanding only inertial transformation-invariance of light-speed apparently already uniquely produces the Lorentz transformation. We show that the demand of x-direction inertial transformation-invariance of the light-cone space-time locus uniquely produces the x-direction Lorentz transformation, and also that the demand of x-direction inertial transformation-invariance of light speed itself has the same consequence; in the latter case the velocity, instead of the space-time, version of the general x-direction inertial transformation must be used. The x-direction Lorentz transformation is also uniquely produced by the reciprocal time dilation and length contraction implications of light clocks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1937] **viXra:1802.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-05 14:12:57*

**Authors:** Jack Wenger

**Comments:** 126 Pages.

Abstract: Try another way of looking at the universe. Consider spatial dimensions as measurements of interfaces. These interfaces can have two or more sides. We can see this if we think of thick oil spreading on water. We have three 3D substances, water, oil, and air. There is a water/oil 2D interface, an oil/air 2D interface and ahead of the oil intrusion a water/air 2D interface. Furthermore there is a linear or 1D interface at the front where the oil is advancing and all 3D substances touch. This interface has three sides. This relationship could also be described this way: Where two 3D substances meet they form a (3-1)D interface and where three or more 3D substances meet they form a (3-2)D interface.
This allows the speculation that all higher dimensional systems may form interfaces in this fashion when substances within those systems interact in a manner similar to that described above.
The pattern suggested is:
When N (as in ND) is a whole number greater than 1, two adjacent ND substances can form an (N-1)D interface between them and three or more ND substances can meet at a (N-2)D interface. This interface has three or more sides.
This in turn allows the suggestion that there could be an infinite 5D sphere made up of infinitely small 5D units that have settled into concentric fluidic layers according to some analogs to gravity and density, and that a higher (or lower) layer, having undergone a change in density, is in the process of reestablishing itself in the layer hierarchy. This could entail its intrusion between two layers having only slightly different densities.
If this were the case and the 5D substances followed the pattern described above, it would have two 4D (5-1) interfaces where it contacted the fluids on either side and a 3D (5-2) interface where all three fluids met, at the front of intrusion.
Infinitely small 5D substance units (5D molecules, 5D atoms) would allow the layers to be extremely thin, thinner than any observable 3D object at the 3D interface but still the size of these units could have ratios to the layer's thickness similar to the ratio of a water molecule's size to the depth of the deepest ocean. Much would be allowed under these conditions.
When considering a great circle along the 3D interface, the speed of its expansion would be 2 times the rate of intrusion. That is the change in the radius will always equal 1/2the change in circumference size.
If the circumferential expansion of the 3D interface was equal to the expansion rate of our cosmic horizon, the intrusion rate would be 1.007 times our light speed. If its circumference was greater, maybe many times the size of our cosmic horizon, the rate of intrusion would be many times light speed. We suggests that the speed of intrusion within the Shear Dependant Universe (SDU) would probably be many times light speed. These speeds would not need to be constant. They would be affected by the rate of fluid entry at the source.
The high speed of intrusion and perhaps other characteristic of the fluids could create shear. This shear could be expressed as vortices at all interfaces, if all fluids were similar in "density". If the 5D sphere were rotating, vortices at the upper 4D interface would rotate opposite those at the lower, when moving in the same direction along the 3D interface, therefore the 3D interface would contact vortices of both rotations. The picture here is of dense chaotic vortex fields on all sides of all interfaces. In addition, vortices can merge or concentrate to form structures at the 3D interface as described below.
Vortices create wakes by applying torque to the 3D interface as they move over it. Those at the upper 4D interface create torque wakes that are opposite those at the lower. Vortices tend to draw closer together or concentrate with others having similar torque wakes and move way from those with incompatible wakes when traveling in the same 3D direction. However vortices having opposite rotation can concentrate if they are traveling in opposite 3D directions. Vortices with incompatible wakes move away from each other.
Combined torque wakes of sufficient intensity can capture "swarms of vortices" on any or all sides of the 3D interface. These swarms can result in fields with various shapes. The shape of some of these fields is cyclonic with tubular centers or eyes, their bases attached to the 3D interface via compatible torque. Others have an anti cyclonic form with oppositely rotating eyes that are also attached to the 3D interface through appropriate torque contours. A single torque pattern at the 3D interface can accommodate several cyclonic or anti cyclonic swarms on any of its sides, these swarms will simply rotate in appropriate directions. Opposite rotation is allowed because these swarms are on opposing sides of the 3D interface and cannot conflict with each other.
These are diffuse columnar swarms with highly concentrated centers where there is maximum torque or deformation of the 3D interface. If a swarm conglomerate is set in motion, torque is increased on the side of motion direction by an increased encountering and accumulation of background shear. This increased vortex concentration and torque, ahead of the eye causes the whole swarm to shift in this direction which in turn reestablishes the higher vortex concentration and maintains the off center torque, constantly reinforcing the direction of travel. This feedback loop with background shear becomes the basis for inertial mass.
Those solo swarms that occupy only the outside of one the 4D interfaces (one quark) are swept away by the backflow immediately. Swarm pairs that occupy both sides of a single 4D interface (two quarks) and have some attachment with the 3D interface remain in contact a little longer but are also swept away. Swarm trios or quartets, that occupy all sides of the 3D interface (three quarks) and are anchored by a common torque pattern at the 3D interface, remain attached. They are still occupying only three fluid sectors so they could appear as only three objects (three quarks) from the 3D point of view. These would be matter and anti matter.
Torque energy is never gained or lost. It is always recaptured by background shear forming photonic structures, other transient swarms or it transforms complex swarms or alters their motion.
Vortices also cause indentations to form on the 3D interface via drag. Large swarms of vortices have considerable drag and tend to allow collections within the indentations. The indentations do not need to be very deep to be highly "attractive" because the 3D interface at the indentations is no longer perpendicular to the direction of intrusion, so they acquire a tiny fraction of the intense back flow from the interface advancement, forming "virtual wells" which when present in accumulations are the foundation of SDU gravity. These shear vortices contribute both to mass and "virtual wells" (gravity) and become the grounds for an SDU Equivalence principle
Photonic structures follow the same rules stated above but form perpendicular sheets in response to waves of passing torque (which are a winding and then unwinding of the 3D interface). Shear vortices become oriented in one direction as the interface winds up. They also tend to coalesce to a point in response to their tendency to merge. As the wave meets its maximum and begins to unwind, vortices in the first orientation escape up the connecting 4D interface and shear immediately provides a second generation of vortices in the new orientation which again coalesce and so the action is continuously repeated until all cycles of torque have passed. Thus the wave is maintained and confined to the 3D interface by background shear. This involvement with the background shear also limits the speed of passing torque waves.
The action of coalescing is never completed in any of these structures. In light, background shear continues to move in the direction of the highest torque during the whole cycle, so there is a field of vortex motion extending for quite a distance on either side of the coalescing point. In matter there are also merging fields of vortex motion all around the cylindrical swarms. All of these structures can interfere with themselves under the right conditions.
In this setting, vortex swarms become the currency between matter and energy.
If each fluid is viewed as a 5D compartment around the 3D interface, the system is compatible with either 16D or 18D spacetime scenarios depending on whether time is the extra dimension of the whole or of each compartment. 5D+5D+5D+1D of time=16D 5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time=18D
However the collision debris characteristics of each compartment could seem to come from different 5D (or 6D spacetime) systems if compartmentalization is not considered.
Thus the properties of the least dense fluid in the upper compartment are consistent with those of a "bottom quark" in that the collision debris would contain many more "particles" and therefore have greater mass than the other two quarks. These particles would also have shorter life spans then those of the intruder compartment because of the upper fluid's backwash
. The lower compartment debris would also have shorter life spans because of the lower fluid's backwash but fewer particles because of its greater density and be viewed as a "top quark".
The intruder compartment would have properties of "strange quarks" in that its collision debris would be comprised of varying percentages of "positive and negative" charged particles depending on the nature of the colliding matter.
SDU baryons would have swarms within all three partitions (three quarks). SDU mesons would have two swarms, one each on two sides of the 3D interface (one quark and one antiquark). SDU lepton swarms would occupy only one partition and would not be perceived as quarks.
It is relatively easy to describe many physical phenomena in these terms such as the four known forces (gravitational, strong, weak, and electromagnetic) and the many quantum phenomena. Light speed is dependant upon the rate of shear creation. The universal expansion rate varies with fluid input at the source. Dark matter simply becomes a variant swarm configuration. Faster than light, waveforms are allowed within the fluids between the interfaces.
The above description becomes the scenario for a universe very similar to ours.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1936] **viXra:1802.0286 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-25 00:36:31*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The classical theories making up modern physics are: Newtonian mechanics, Maxwell’s equations, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, special relativity and general relativity. We also mention nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, which is considered to be a nonclassical theory. Excluding Maxwell’s equations the Newtonian concept of mass plays a fundamental role in each of these theories even though no one really knows what mass is. Starting with relativistic mass we will reason our way to the conclusion that mass is an illusion, and tidal effects are local. That is, behind the illusion of mass lay the mass-free foundations of a mass-free paradigm of Relativity that transcends all the theories mentioned, and shows just why general relativity does not go far enough. Further, the true significance of Planck’s four-dimensional constant is to be found in this new paradigm of Relativity. The maths employed here have been used in [1] and [2].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1935] **viXra:1802.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-21 13:51:46*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical charged
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
during the collision in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1934] **viXra:1802.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-21 00:10:12*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical charged
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
during the collision in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1933] **viXra:1802.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-26 07:29:06*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 5 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times larger than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant, known as the cosmological constant problem would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very high, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as distribution of molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the manuscript emphasizes upon the recession of large-scale structures upon a stationary space-time continuum. Since the discrepancy with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. The study shows that large-scale structures will attain a constant recessional velocity in distant future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1932] **viXra:1802.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-20 04:44:41*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 4 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times larger than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant, known as the cosmological constant problem would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very high, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as distribution of molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the manuscript emphasizes upon the recession of large-scale structures upon a stationary space-time continuum. Since the discrepancy with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. The study shows that the large-scale structures are receding at a constant rate, instead at an accelerated rate. The actual or the finite recessional velocity that a massive galaxy cluster attains by the virtue of its finite energy has also been unravelled in this paper along with the corresponding value of its “true” redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology