**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(9) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(28) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(35) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(33) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(30)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(32) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(39) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(32) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(33) - 1605(30) - 1606(44) - 1607(21) - 1608(40) - 1609(45) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(32)

2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(46) - 1705(32) - 1706(31) - 1707(28) - 1708(30) - 1709(42) - 1710(34) - 1711(41) - 1712(52)

2018 - 1801(35) - 1802(28)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2790] **viXra:1802.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 08:20:25*

**Authors:** Jack Wenger

**Comments:** 126 Pages. The symbol for pi may not translate from pdf to this program.

Abstract: Try another way of looking at the universe. Consider spatial dimensions as measurements of interfaces. These interfaces can have two or more sides. We can see this if we think of thick oil spreading on water. We have three 3D substances, water, oil, and air. There is a water/oil 2D interface, an oil/air 2D interface and ahead of the oil intrusion a water/air 2D interface. Furthermore there is a linear or 1D interface at the front where the oil is advancing and all 3D substances touch. This interface
has three sides. This relationship could also be described this way: Where two 3D substances meet they form a (3-1)D interface and where three or more 3D substances meet they form a (3-2)D interface. This allows the speculation that all higher dimensional systems may form interfaces in this fashion when substances within those systems interact in a manner similar to that described above.
The pattern suggested is:
When N (as in ND) is a whole number greater than 1, two adjacent ND substances can form an (N-1)D interface between them and three or more ND substances can meet at a (N-2)D interface. This
interface has three or more sides.
This in turn allows the suggestion that there could be an infinite 5D sphere made up of infinitely small 5D units that have settled into concentric fluidic layers according to some analogs to gravity and density, and that a higher (or lower) layer, having undergone a change in density, is in the process of
reestablishing itself in the layer hierarchy. This could entail its intrusion between two layers having only slightly different densities.
If this were the case and the 5D substances followed the pattern described above, it would have two 4D (5-1) interfaces where it contacted the fluids on either side and a 3D (5-2) interface where all three fluids met, at the front of intrusion.
Infinitely small 5D substance units (5D molecules, 5D atoms) would allow the layers to be extremely thin, thinner than any observable 3D object at the 3D interface but still the size of these units
could have ratios to the layer's thickness similar to the ratio of a water molecule's size to the depth of the deepest ocean. Much would be allowed under these conditions.
When considering a great circle along the 3D interface, the speed of its expansion would be 2pi
times the rate of intrusion. That is the change in the radius will always equal 1/2pi the change in
circumference size.
If the circumferential expansion of the 3D interface was equal to the expansion rate of our cosmic horizon, the intrusion rate would be 1.007 times our light speed. If its circumference was greater, maybe many times the size of our cosmic horizon, the rate of intrusion would be many times light speed. We suggests that the speed of intrusion within the Shear Dependant Universe (SDU) would probably be many times light speed. These speeds would not need to be constant. They would be affected by the rate of fluid entry at the source.
The high speed of intrusion and perhaps other characteristic of the fluids could create shear. This shear could be expressed as vortices at all interfaces, if all fluids were similar in "density". If the 5D sphere were rotating, vortices at the upper 4D interface would rotate opposite those at the lower, when moving in the same direction along the 3D interface, therefore the 3D interface would contact vortices of
both rotations. The picture here is of dense chaotic vortex fields on all sides of all interfaces. In addition, vortices can merge or concentrate to form structures at the 3D interface as described below.
Vortices create wakes by applying torque to the 3D interface as they move over it. Those at the upper 4D interface create torque wakes that are opposite those at the lower. Vortices tend to draw closer
together or concentrate with others having similar torque wakes and move way from those with incompatible wakes when traveling in the same 3D direction. However vortices having opposite rotation can concentrate if they are traveling in opposite 3D directions. Vortices with incompatible wakes move away from each other.
Combined torque wakes of sufficient intensity can capture "swarms of vortices" on any or all sides of the 3D interface. These swarms can result in fields with various shapes. The shape of some of these fields is cyclonic with tubular centers or eyes, their bases attached to the 3D interface via compatible torque. Others have an anti cyclonic form with oppositely rotating eyes that are also attached to the 3D interface through appropriate torque contours. A single torque pattern at the 3D interface can accommodate several cyclonic or anti cyclonic swarms on any of its sides, these swarms will simply rotate in appropriate directions. Opposite rotation is allowed because these swarms are on opposing sides of the 3D interface and cannot conflict with each other.
These are diffuse columnar swarms with highly concentrated centers where there is maximum torque or deformation of the 3D interface. If a swarm conglomerate is set in motion, torque is increased on the side of motion direction by an increased encountering and accumulation of background shear. This increased vortex concentration and torque, ahead of the eye causes the whole swarm to shift in this direction which in turn reestablishes the higher vortex concentration and maintains the off center torque, constantly reinforcing the direction of travel. This feedback loop with background shear becomes the basis for inertial mass.
Those solo swarms that occupy only the outside of one the 4D interfaces (one quark) are swept
away by the backflow immediately. Swarm pairs that occupy both sides of a single 4D interface (two
quarks) and have some attachment with the 3D interface remain in contact a little longer but are also swept away. Swarm trios or quartets, that occupy all sides of the 3D interface (three quarks) and are anchored by a common torque pattern at the 3D interface, remain attached. They are still occupying only three fluid sectors so they could appear as only three objects (three quarks) from the 3D point of view.
These would be matter and anti matter.
Torque energy is never gained or lost. It is always recaptured by background shear forming
photonic structures, other transient swarms or it transforms complex swarms or alters their motion.
Vortices also cause indentations to form on the 3D interface via drag. Large swarms of vortices have considerable drag and tend to allow collections within the indentations. The indentations do not
need to be very deep to be highly "attractive" because the 3D interface at the indentations is no longer perpendicular to the direction of intrusion, so they acquire a tiny fraction of the intense back flow from the interface advancement, forming "virtual wells" which when present in accumulations are the foundation of SDU gravity. These shear vortices contribute both to mass and "virtual wells" (gravity and become the grounds for an SDU Equivalence principle
Photonic structures follow the same rules stated above but form perpendicular sheets in response
to waves of passing torque (which are a winding and then unwinding of the 3D interface). Shear
vortices become oriented in one direction as the interface winds up. They also tend to coalesce to a point in response to their tendency to merge. As the wave meets its maximum and begins to unwind, vortices in the first orientation escape up the connecting 4D interface and shear immediately provides a second generation of vortices in the new orientation which again coalesce and so the action is continuously repeated until all cycles of torque have passed. Thus the wave is maintained and confined to the 3D interface by background shear. This involvement with the background shear also limits the speed of passing torque waves.
The action of coalescing is never completed in any of these structures. In light, background shear
continues to move in the direction of the highest torque during the whole cycle, so there is a field of vortex motion extending for quite a distance on either side of the coalescing point. In matter there are also merging fields of vortex motion all around the cylindrical swarms. All of these structures can interfere with themselves under the right conditions.
In this setting, vortex swarms become the currency between matter and energy.
If each fluid is viewed as a 5D compartment around the 3D interface, the system is compatible with
either 16D or 18D spacetime scenarios depending on whether time is the extra dimension of the whole or of each compartment.
5D+5D+5D+1D of time=16D
5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time=18D
However the collision debris characteristics of each compartment could seem to come from different 5D (or 6D spacetime) systems if compartmentalization is not considered.
Thus the properties of the least dense fluid in the upper compartment are consistent with those of a "bottom quark" in that the collision debris would contain many more "particles" and therefore have greater mass than the other two quarks. These particles would also have shorter life spans then those of the intruder compartment because of the upper fluid's backwash. The lower compartment debris would also have shorter life spans because of the lower fluid's backwash but fewer particles because of its greater density and be viewed as a "top quark".
The intruder compartment would have properties of "strange quarks" in that its collision debris would be comprised of varying percentages of "positive and negative" charged particles depending on the nature of the colliding matter.
It is relatively easy to describe many physical phenomena in these terms such as the four known
forces (gravitational, strong, weak, and electromagnetic) and the many quantum phenomena. Light speed is dependent upon the rate of shear creation. The universal expansion rate varies with fluid input at the source. Dark matter simply becomes a variant swarm configuration. Faster than light, waveforms are allowed within the fluids between the interfaces.
The above description becomes the scenario for a universe very similar to ours.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2789] **viXra:1802.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 21:32:41*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The classical theories making up modern physics are: Newtonian mechanics, Maxwell’s equations, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, special relativity and general relativity. We also mention nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Excluding Maxwell’s equations the Newtonian concept of mass plays a fundamental role in each of these theories even though no one really knows what mass is. Starting with relativistic mass we will reason our way to the conclusion that mass is an illusion, and tidal effects are local. That is, behind the illusion of mass lay the mass-free foundations of a mass-free paradigm of Relativity that transcends all the theories mentioned and shows just why general relativity does not go far enough. Further, the true significance of Planck’s four-dimensional constant is to be found in this new paradigm of Relativity. The maths employed here have been used in [1] and [2].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2788] **viXra:1802.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 23:19:08*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical charged
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
during the collision in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2787] **viXra:1802.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 00:36:57*

**Authors:** Chou Yu-Ching

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Einstein's general relativistic eld equation is a nonlinear partial dierential equation that lacks an easy way to obtain exact solutions. The most famous examples are Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole solutions. The Kerr metric has astrophysical meaning because most of cosmic celestial bodies are rotating. The Kerr metric is even more diffcult to derive than the Schwarzschild metric specically due to off-diagonal term of metric tensor. In this paper, a derivation of Kerr metric was obtained by ellipsoid coordinate transformation, which causes elimination a large amount of tedious derivation. This derivation is not only physics enlightening, but also further deducing some
characteristics of the rotating black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2786] **viXra:1802.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 06:17:18*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

This author has already proposed a new theory, Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), that can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect, the Silvertooth experiment, the Roland De Witte experiment, the Venus planet radar range data anomaly ( analyzed and reported by Bryan G Wallace ) and other experiments. According to AST, there will be an apparent change in position of a light source as seen by the observer, for absolutely co-moving source and observer. The 'null' result of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) is explained as follows. The effect of absolute motion is just to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the detector. There will be no (significant) fringe shift in the MMX for the same reason that there will be no (significant) fringe shift if the source position was actually, physically shifted slightly. The fringe shift in Sagnac effect is explained as follows. The source will be apparently shifted away relative to the detector when looking in the backward direction and shifted towards the detector when looking in the forward direction, hence creating a path difference. Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light' ) is re-interpreted and used as one of the foundational arguments in this paper. The new interpretation is that it is the phase velocity of light that is always constant irrespective of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source (absolute) velocity but depends on observer and mirror velocity. For an observer moving near the speed of light away from a light source, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light while the group will be at rest relative to the observer. The new theoretical framework consists of two theories: 1. Apparent Source theory 2. Exponential Doppler Effect of light theory . The results of many light speed experiments can be derived from these two theories. Apparent Source Theory determines the phase and group delay of light, whereas Exponential Doppler Effect theory determines the frequency/wavelength of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2785] **viXra:1802.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 07:50:14*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 4 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times larger than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant, known as the cosmological constant problem would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very high, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as distribution of molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the manuscript emphasizes upon the recession of large-scale structures upon a stationary space-time continuum. Since the discrepancy with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. Instead of considering distant Type 1a supernova as a standard candle, I have considered the Sun as the standard candle. The study shows that the large-scale structures are receding at a constant rate, instead at an accelerated rate. The actual or the finite recessional velocity that a massive galaxy cluster attains by the virtue of its finite energy has also been unravelled in this paper along with the corresponding value of their “true” redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2784] **viXra:1802.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 17:16:26*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We test counter examples of conditions for the speed of light as s:
If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.2)
If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.3)
If possibly c is equivalent to s, or possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.4)
The result is that E=mc^2 not tautologous after all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2783] **viXra:1802.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 11:09:01*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

In its basic form, the Special Relativity’s famous mass-energy equivalence equation doesn’t seem to hold for massless particles. To get around this deficiency, another form (energy-momentum relation) of the same equation incorporating a momentum term has been introduced by the physics mainstream. The adopted mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is based on certain assumptions using Minkowski spacetime four-momentum, forcing a solution towards the energy-momentum relation. This form of the mass-energy equivalence equation appears to hold for massless particles. However, in this paper, an analysis of the mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is carried out, highlighting the made assumptions, and revealing a resulting contradiction. It is clearly shown, through a straight forward derivation, that the energy-momentum relation still doesn’t hold for massless particles. Consequently, the energy-momentum relation requires that a photon must have an infinitesimal rest mass, for which its speed only approaches c. Thus, the speed of light will no longer be invariant with respect to all inertial reference frames, as postulated by Einstein in his formulation of the Special Relativity!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2782] **viXra:1802.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 01:15:56*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Review and re think.

Re look cosmology observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2781] **viXra:1802.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 14:42:23*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Last paper in the author's series on Theory of Everything

Members of the public and intellectuals do appreciate that the universe appears to be something
beyond explanations. It is a colossal miracle, because there is no evidence of any kind, capable
of indicating how such an impossible reality could have arisen, without attributing it to superintelligent
induction, based on nothing like the science and physics we know of. We should not
use the limitation of human knowhow, to claim that it all of existence arose from nothing, or from
a few grams of vacuum energy, based on science which did not exist. This third article is the last,
before the author publishes his Theory of Everything, in his coming book, later this year, 2018.
Elaborating a genuine Theory of Everything (TOE) is obviously a very demanding proposition. To
start with, you can never be certain it has been correctly formulated, because we are just humans,
created without the capacity to possess supernatural knowledge. The TOE remains the only
universal unified concept having a future, after Glashow two years back openly admitted that the
Grand Unified Theory of his and Georgi, of 1974, was dead. To start with, the TOE should be an
all-encompassing model that provides answers to many questions from scientists and the public
about the origin and nature of our universe. Historically, the seeds of a theory of our universe
were sown in efforts to produce a field unification theory, in 1864, when Maxwell published his
dynamical theory of electromagnetic field. This influenced Einstein in 1905 to use Maxwell’s
constancy of the speed of light to unify space and time into the concept of spacetime. Later
Einstein conceived of curved four-dimensional spacetime to describe gravity in his General
Relativity. Some years later Weyl in 1919 came up with the gauge electromagnetic field theory,
which eventually led to the concept of Grand Unified Theory, which was believed to be one in
which all forces would merge into a single force, due to different fields being able to “merge” into
a unified one.
2
Kaluza in 1921 envisaged General Relativity as a 5-dimensional entity in which Klein, in 1926,
suggested that the fourth dimension could be curled up to illustrate gravitational force. These
varied developments were the earliest attempts at trying to understand the universe in unified
field theories, and it was in this rather confused context, as from 1930, that Einstein embarked on
an ambitious journey into a 25 year-dedication to formulate a classical Unified Field Theory, which
never materialised, and he was still scribbling some equations on his last day in 1955. A decade
later, there started a new realisation about unifying the electromagnetic force with the Weak
Interaction, arising from the work of Higgs, Glashow, Weinberg and Salam that produced the
unified Electroweak Theory, the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces. This trend
encouraged physicists to contemplate that perhaps at very high energies, not yet possible under
contemporary technologies, all forces might unify into one grand unified theory, the GUT, which
when unified with gravity, would produce a theory of everything. Recent data suggest that a Grand
Unified Theory is either a theoretical curiosity, misunderstood, or a mirage. Speculations went
much further, for there have been suggestions that a GUT, championed by Salam and others,
would produce at the highest energy a single combined field of all forces, from which would
emerge evidence of the occurrence of superparticles, for each of the standard particles in today’s
physics. The important questions are why the universe requires such physical entities and how
do they fit into the final explanations of the realities of our laws of nature, for instance the nature
of consciousness and other phenomena of existence, like Darwin’s theory of evolution or black
holes or the Big Bang theory, or even about the origin of our universe.
This being so, several efforts, in the physics and cosmology domains, try to dig into the strata of
universal knowledge to search for our ultimate relevance and future, but the topic of finding a TOE
was seen to be even more elusive. However, scientists were convinced that the Theory of
Everything was first and foremost a concept of our ultimate realities and of existence. It is believed
it would harbour major components of physics in intimacy with philosophy. You need philosophical
inspiration to see the physics, which then tells you how the philosophy should be like, or you need
to see the philosophy to understand why the physics is as it is. The physics is pure physics and
the philosophy pure philosophy, but they might both be imperative towards understanding the
origin and the meaning of existence.
What we have currently is a collection of narratives about the origin of our universe, all spinning
around contrasting centres of philosophical influence. Even here in intellectual work, there is an
implication of entropy for once the culture of defining various theories of everything has reached
a certain maximum, the true Theory of Everything could find a greater likelihood to emerge. In
3
entropy, including intellectual entropy, there will be factors of determinism and indeterminism,
such that they would interplay in the process of the evolution of ideas, where entropy would ensure
we always move from maximum order, with loads of data, to maximum disorder, in framed
concepts on which little more conceptual work is possible, a fact which means that the Theory of
Everything, describing the most evolved universal tenets of existence, would represent the most
disorderly intellectual system, at the highest intellectual entropy. That would be the universal
explanatory key conceived by humans for humans, based on philosophy and physics, to unlock
the mysteries of the universe that was masterminded by a Supernatural Power.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2780] **viXra:1802.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 14:18:02*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. none

This paper investigates the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares the predictions of energy loss, perhaps by radiation, in a free fall obtained from the GRT and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in GRT is not correct, because it predicts a negative loss of energy while the MTG predicts correctly a positive loss.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2779] **viXra:1802.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 01:01:27*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The related articles are available at http://vixra.org/author/wei_xu

By discovering *Asymmetric World Equation*, we formulate the astonishing results: the *Third Universal Motion Equations, *which produce a consequence of laws of conservations and commutations, and characterize universal evolutions of *Ontology* and *Cosmology*:

- Flux Commutations and classical General Relativity,
- Animation and Reproduction of Physical Ontology,
- Creation and Annihilation of Virtual Ontology
- Motion Dynamics of Cosmology, and
- Field Equations of Cosmology.

Finally, the philosophical terminology is outlined as the inspirational highlights of “*Universal and Unified Field Theory”*.

[2778] **viXra:1802.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 09:03:56*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 20th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, GR-20, Sydney Australia Jan 29-30, 2018. Conference Proceedings

As is well known, the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitational field allow you to calculate the total mass of a body and its gravitational field. We performed such a calculation and found a positive contribution of the pseudotensor to the mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2777] **viXra:1802.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 08:46:18*

**Authors:** John Hunter

**Comments:** 5 pages + references and appendices, total 14 pages.

In order to deal with the coincidence problem a new scalefactor-redshift relation is considered. With the new relation a constant rate of expansion with no cosmological constant matches observations well. There is thus the possibility that the dark energy phenomenon is an illusion caused by the use of an incorrect relation.
The new relation arises naturally in a cosmological model which expands - yet appears static, incorporating the perfect cosmological principle. It is found that the new relation also leads to a natural resolution of the tension between Hubble constant values from the distance ladder and Cosmic Background Radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2776] **viXra:1802.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 01:34:32*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 58 Pages.

The estimation obtained in this work convincingly confirms that, due to the errors previously committed in Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity, the resulting mathematical transformation is erroneous and the two physical systems described in the special theory of relativity are not inertial systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2775] **viXra:1802.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 02:22:05*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 15 Pages. In 2000 I published in Russian a brochure "Memoir on the Theory of Relativity and a Unified Field Theory": http://viXra.org/abs/1801.0305. Now I present the English translation of version II of the brochure with minor differences from the version 2000 (

Lorentz transformations in their originally more general form, i.e. with the scale factor are considered. It is shown, that H. Lorenz, A. Poincare, and A. Einstein put this factor equal to one without proper foundations. It is clarified the physical sense of this factor – he describes the Doppler effect. As the result the paradoxes of the special theory of relativity are removed, grandiose simplifications occur in GR and the natural path to the construction of unified field theory is opening.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2774] **viXra:1802.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 20:35:42*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract
The creation of the universe is described in a form of conversation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2773] **viXra:1802.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 22:29:30*

**Authors:** Jody A Geiger

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Unifying quantum and classical physics has proved difficult as their postulates are conflicting. Using the notion of counts of the fundamental measures—length, mass, and time—a unifying description is resolved. A theoretical framework is presented in a set of postulates by which a conversion between expressions from quantum and classical physics can be made. Conversions of well-known expressions specific to gravitation, special and general relativity exemplify the approach and mathematical procedures. The postulated integer counts of fundamental measures changes our understanding of length and allows a straight-forward application of the principles of relativity to a gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2772] **viXra:1802.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 01:09:49*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. What makes it possible to set a correction to the limiting speed of information transfer, which is used in the theory of relativity. At the same time, the corrections in different local regions differ from each other. The amendments, albeit insignificantly small, can unexpectedly give some results, as shown in the example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2771] **viXra:1802.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 14:40:16*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Non

This paper investigates the possibility of testing the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The constant improvements in technology lead to increased precision of measurements, which opens up new possibility of testing the GRT. The paper compares the free fall predictions obtained from the Newtonian physics theory, the GRT, and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that it might be possible to distinguish between the GRT and the MTG theories with a reasonable confidence and thus determine by experimental methods which theory is actually correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2770] **viXra:1802.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 02:26:11*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and
during the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2769] **viXra:1802.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 07:34:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In deep space, accurate timekeeping is vital to navigation, but many spacecraft lack precise timepieces on board. [5] Physics is sometimes closer to philosophy when it comes to understanding the universe. Donald Chang from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China, attempts to elucidate whether the universe has a resting frame. [4] This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2768] **viXra:1802.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 13:32:20*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ever since the Laser Interferometer Gravitational–Wave Observatory (LIGO), one each at Hanford, Washington, and Livingston, Louisiana, allegedly detected gravity waves from merging binary black holes on September 14, 2015, there have been numerous challenges to the claim (and to subsequent claims for further detections, including even gravity waves from merging binary neutron stars on August 17, 2017). These challenges range from denying the very existence of black holes to “liberties” taken with the interpretation of the signals received at the different sites, especially the fact that these signals were pre-simulated to align with the theory of gravitational waves themselves, such that their “detection” was no more than a self-fulfilling prophecy. One particularly astute challenge stems from the claim that, if a gravity wave were to distort space-time, then not only light waves, but also the physical dimensions of LIGO itself, would be distorted, such that any alleged “perturbation” claimed to be a gravity wave due to generation of an interference pattern from the LIGO lasers could not be due to gravity waves. This possibility is examined here, with an alternative as aether disturbances included as what LIGO actually has detected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2767] **viXra:1802.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 21:24:31*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of inelastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest before collision. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and after the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2766] **viXra:1802.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 16:17:51*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Paper submitted to Frontiers in Science

It is shown that galaxies close to galactic sheets are attracted towards them with an approximate Hooke’s law force. Thus, as they get closer to the sheets, the more their velocities increase, and the more the magnitude of their accelerations decrease. Therefore, the so-called acceleration of the Universe is completely misleading. A sort of molecular potential exists for galaxies inside voids. It is suggested that the Universe is a new kind of amorphous solid. For the first time it is estimated that the universal expansion is of the order of one trillion years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2765] **viXra:1802.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 15:43:26*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman, Góralski Paweł, Szostek Kamil

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Gravity waves in Newton's gravitation and test proposition of Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave (LIGO) (in Polish)

W artykule wykazane zostało, że z prawa ciążenia Newtona wynika istnienie fal grawitacyjnych.
W artykule pokazane zostały różnice pomiędzy przebiegiem fal grawitacyjnych wynikających z grawitacji Newtona oraz przebiegiem fal grawitacyjnych wynikających z Ogólnej Teorii Względności, których pomiar został ogłoszony przez zespół LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory).
Według obu teorii fale grawitacyjne są cyklicznymi zmianami natężenia pola grawitacyjnego.
W artykule zaproponowana została metoda testowania interferometru laserowego do pomiaru fali grawitacyjnej używanego w obserwatorium LIGO.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2764] **viXra:1802.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 22:17:09*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We define the twin paradox without resort to stopping because we assume that instant velocity commences and terminates at an instant state of rest.
Twins occupy the same fiducial point from which one twin obtains an instant velocity to a non-fiducial point, then obtains another instant velocity back to the fiducial point. The question is are the twins the same at the fiducial point before and after the separation and travel of the one twin. This is the state of affairs without special relativity.
We also test the above as the counter example for the state of affairs with special relativity.
[T]he twin paradox is not a paradox, but rather something else, namely, a state of affairs that is not tautologous and not contradictory.
What follows is that special relativity is suspicious.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2763] **viXra:1802.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 01:36:32*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the
conservation of momentum in two inertial reference frames. In the first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest.
The second frame is created by a temporary
acceleration from the first frame. By applying both
velocity transformation and
conservation of momentum to this isolated system, mass transformation
is derived precisely.
The result shows that the mass of an object is independent of its motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2762] **viXra:1801.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 23:50:32*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Rejected by Internattional Knowledge Press because "we are unable to conclude that these findings would warrant publication in this journal."

This letter is suggesting that dark energy, dark matter and universal expansion are intimately related. However, they aren't viewed as revolutions in cosmology which are essential to a complete understanding of the modern universe. They are instead viewed as properties which need to be added to the cosmos when Einstein's theory of gravity (General Relativity) is apparently still not thoroughly comprehended a little over a century since it was published.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2761] **viXra:1801.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 07:20:18*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Famous dissident physicist, Bill Gaede, has a unique theory as to the nature of light. He postulates that light consists of electromagnetic “ropes” where electric and magnetic “threads” intertwine to connect all atoms in the universe. This is akin to a concept I have entertained that the “aether,” if it exists, can be viewed as standing waves making similar connections. Such “waves” may consist of contiguous “aether particles,” each the size of the electron or smaller (neutrino?). At least on a cursory level, it appears that these two independent concepts may be consistent with light speed being constant with respect to its source, but variable with respect to an observer when the observer or the source (or both) are in motion. Of course, in the presence of an all-pervading aether whose perturbation constitutes light itself and limits its speed to c, this variation in light speed would not occur, but would be manifest instead as Doppler shifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2760] **viXra:1801.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 11:15:57*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the paper a number of existent solutions of the twin paradox are considered. It is shown, that any solutions aren’t and cannot be principally the solutions, if they are in accordance with the special relativity theory; the unique correct solution is possible only provided that Matter’s spacetime is absolute.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2759] **viXra:1801.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 15:14:45*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

All relevant experiments that disagree with static or entrained ether vice versa that led to the historical breakthrough of Special Relativity will be revised from the scratch. It will be shown that an alternative model based on rightly understood gravitational dragging of light is able to explain the notorious phenomena. Invariance of light speed, time dilation and Lorentz contraction will become obsolete. Focus is laid on the most problematic subjects as there are: Stellar and terrestrial aberration, anomaly of Mercury orbit shift, Sagnac effect and Michelson/Gale/Pearson/Pearson versus Michelson/Morley experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2758] **viXra:1801.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-27 02:42:00*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 101 Pages.

This paper details a “time-relativity” theorem, the golden ratio algorithm effecting a unified theory of time and space, the calculations of which are entirely consistent with all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena, atomic to cosmological; “time” is presented as the fundamental “quality” of reality through which space, defined as 0-scalar space, is given its characteristics. Six key preceding papers [1-6] are streamed in sections 1-6, following which section 7 presents all the key concepts of the new relativity of time and associated cosmological model into a “one theory” for time and space; flowcharts are forwarded highlighting the idea of time as this new algorithm linking all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena. From this, it demonstrated that all key concepts of space-time have been addressed, with all relevant equations derived thereof, all central to the new algorithm for time. Finally, three key mechanisms of proof, well within scientific research capability of the near future, are proposed, detailing here how to emerge a gravitational field from electromagnetism in a laboratory setting.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2757] **viXra:1801.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 07:27:47*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity ( STR ) provides a formula for the Doppler effect of light that differs from conventional formulas based on ether theory and emission theory. The relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined for source-observer relative velocities greater than the speed of light. Since STR asserts that no ( relative ) velocity can ever reach or exceed the speed of light, this has never been seen as a problem. However, it will be shown in this paper that relative velocities greater than the speed of light can be attained even within the framework of STR, i.e. without violating the universal light speed limit. Imagine a light source and an observer at rest relative to each other and located close to each other. Light emitted by the source travels to a distant mirror and reflects back to the observer, while the mirror is moving towards the observer and the source with velocity equal to ( close to ) the speed of light. In this case the relative velocity between the mirror image of the source and the observer is equal to twice the speed of light, 2c. Since it is the relative velocity of the mirror image of the source and the observer that determines the Doppler effect, which is equal to 2c in this case, the relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined because β = V/c = 2c/c = 2, which is greater than 1, resulting in a square root of negative number in the relativistic Doppler effect formula. This disproves relativistic Doppler effect, and hence the Special Theory of Relativity. According to STR the usual analysis is that the mirror image of the source never attains the speed of light because of the relativistic velocity addition formula. Since STR has been disproved logically, experimentally and theoretically, this assertion is not valid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2756] **viXra:1801.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 15:38:00*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Essay submitted to Fundamental Questions Institute (FQXi) 2018 Essay Contest

After the physicality of existence, gravity's role in the Universe is the most fundamental thing. This role has various manifestations which, it is argued, have been largely misinterpreted by modern physics. An alternative conception of gravity---one that agrees with firmly established empirical evidence---is most compactly characterized by its definition of Newton's constant in terms of other fundamental constants. This expression and supporting arguments largely fulfill the long-standing goal of unifying gravity with the other forces. Phenomena spanning atomic nuclei to the large-scale cosmos and the basic physical elements, mass, space, and time, are thereby seen as comprising an interdependent (unified) whole. Meanwhile, a virtual industry of fanciful, far-from-fundamental mathematical distractions clog up the literature of what is still called fundamental physics. By contrast with this dubious activity---most importantly---the new conception can be empirically tested by probing gravity where it has not yet been probed: inside (through the center) of every body of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2755] **viXra:1801.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 16:39:02*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Time in an inertial reference frame can be obtained from the definition of velocity
in that inertial reference frame.
Velocity depends on coordinate and time. Therefore, coordinate transformation and
velocity transformation between inertial reference frames can lead to
time transformation.
Based on this approach, the time transformation between two arbitrary inertial
reference frames in one dimensional space is derived. The result shows that the
elapsed time is identical in all inertial reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2754] **viXra:1801.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 22:45:10*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The theory of Special Relativity does not truly show symmetry in the phenomenon of stellar aberration, and hence is no better than ether theory in this respect. Only emission theory conforms to such symmetry, which is a requirement of the principle of relativity. In this paper, it will be proposed that the phenomenon of stellar aberration is in fact symmetrical with respect to motion of the light source and motion of the observer. According to Apparent Source theory (AST), the phenomenon of stellar aberration occurs not only in the case of light source at rest and observer in motion, but also in the case of light source in absolute motion and observer at rest. The phenomenon of stellar aberration occurs in the latter case because of an apparent change in the past position of a light source in absolute motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2753] **viXra:1801.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 06:14:40*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In the brochure (in Russian) "Memoir on the Theory of Relativity and Unified Field Theory" (2000)it is shown that the generally accepted Lorentz transformations have an erroneous form: they lack a scale factor (therefore the whole SRT is incorrect). It is well known, that at first Lorentz considered a more general form of transformations (with a scale factor), but then he, and after him, Poincare and Einstein equated it 1 without due cause. We have revealed the physical meaning of the scale factor -- it characterizes the Doppler effect.
A new kind of transformations (with Doppler factor) immediately removes paradox of twins and Ehrenfest's paradox. The interval is no longer an invariant -- only the condition that the interval is zero rests invariant. As a consequence, we get that the laws of nature are scale invariants.
In GR there will be a grandiose simplification: the gravitational equation will be reduced to the d'Alembert equation. It seems that the way to the construction of a unified field theory is opening

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2752] **viXra:1801.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-20 14:20:30*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article section 1 and 2 of Einstein’s article about his Special Theory of Relativity have been scrutinized. The conclusion is that Einstein spent a lot of text on the concepts simultaneousness, synchronousness and time, without bringing forth any relevant information. Besides that he made two fundamental mistakes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2751] **viXra:1801.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 12:28:27*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An alternative interpretation of Special Relativity Theory is offered, according to which light clocks of identical design (with aboslutely identical distance between parallel mirrors of light clocks), moving each with respect the other uniformly and rectilinearly, may be synchronised each with other because they have equal time measurement units and do not retard each from other, retardation of a moving clock with respect a stationary one is absent and superlight speeds of motion are not forbidden.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2750] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 20:37:31*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This article presents an alternative theory of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Time dilation and Lorentz transform are deduced from postulates that are fundamentally different from those used by Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2749] **viXra:1801.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 09:37:19*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this theory I have described the electricity force as a gravitational force.
For read this article is necessary consulting
Vixra 1711.0299, 1711.0362 Author: Piscedda Giampaolo

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2748] **viXra:1801.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 06:20:20*

**Authors:** Giacomo Roccaforte

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The “Absolute Time Theory” is the natural result of the analysis of specific situations that the Special Theory of Relativity does not take in consideration, or for which it does not provided information about them.
These situations are listed as critical points, scenarios that would lead to ambiguous, contradictory or unexplained conclusions, using the same principles as the theory itself.
Using the same experimental data as the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, and which are normally used to confirm the theory itself, we comes to a solution where these critical points would be eliminated.
We then come to a theory where the results would be unambiguous, not dependent by arbitrary choice, in line with data experiences and established theory principles, such as the constancy of the speed of light and its independence from the motion of the source , means the same elements that are in Special Theory of Relativity, but interpreted in a different way.
The entire theory is now divided into chapters and translate in English in order to be more clear and readable.
Each chapter can be a theory itself or unexplained scenario, all of them with their conclusion, till to arrive to the final conclusion that means the final theory.
The following first chapter is the analysis of the same experimental data used for the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, the Michelson/Morley experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2747] **viXra:1801.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 11:08:58*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: A revised and improved forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2746] **viXra:1801.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 02:55:26*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Space gravity look more in line with early thougts of Newton.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2745] **viXra:1801.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 09:08:32*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The x-direction Galilean and Lorentz space-time transformations are both effectively two-dimensional matrix transformations, so a simple four-parameter general framework of which both are special cases is easily devised. Moreover, passing from the general space-time transformation to its velocity counterpart uniquely singles out one of those four parameters as the general transformation's intrinsic x-direction constant velocity. This allows the "principle of relativity" to be extended to such general transformations; it applies when the transformation's inversion is accomplished by reversing the sign of its intrinsic velocity. Both the Galilean and Lorentz transformations abide by the "principle of relativity", and the Galilean transformation in addition refrains from altering the time coordinate. The Michelson-Morley null result, however, motivates the Lorentz transformation to refrain from changing the speed of light, which is readily shown to be outright incompatible with transformation-invariant time. The Lorentz transformation's pairing of invariant light speed with the "relativity principle" is closely allied to its
preservation of the Minkowski quadratic form.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2744] **viXra:1801.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 12:02:30*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article presents a new interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.
This theory postulates that :

** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c **

**
Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rubs into each other.
**

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron already shows that the spatial speed of intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then time-sharing between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time.
An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal state, and therefore does not contribute to measurable time.

Speed of light is constant regardless of the speed of the observer because light advances with respect the observer only for the duration of its intrinsic motion (i.e. during the relativistic time). During spatial motion, the observer moves with the light. Consequently the spatial advance of light divided by the relativistic time (i.e. the observed relative speed) is always c. Hence constancy of speed of light, which is a postulate for Einstein's relativity, is a deduced result here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2743] **viXra:1801.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 06:26:44*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The explanation of Michelson-Morley experiment is based on both actual and apparent reduction (equal) of light speed. The actual reduction of light speed happens only when the light is transmitted on moving material systems, on which the cohesive pressure of the proximal space is reduced. The apparent reduction of
light speed happens due to the aberration of light, which can be used as a detection criterion of the absolute motion. Lorentz factor of special relativity is the tool for the mathematical expression of the problem that had arisen from the Michelson-Morley
experiment. Of course, the time dilation was an ingenious and pioneering idea, which
has been accepted, ignoring, though, the real cause of the slowing of the moving clock,
i.e. the phenomenon of motion. However, this same reduction factor appears as
well in the unified theory of dynamic space with the Galilean transformations, by
calculating the actual reduction of the light speed on moving material systems, not
based on the second postulate of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2742] **viXra:1801.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 12:13:07*

**Authors:** Lex Neale

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Integral Relativity, as an extension of General Relativity, Special Relativity and Advanced Relativity, has four proposed Tenets: (1) The Equation of Energy with Awareness; (2) The Conservation of Awareness; (3) The Continuum of Energy, Consciousness, Mind and Matter via the Kosmic Constant; (4) The Integral Relativity between Observers and the Observed in Hilbert Spaces as specified Frequency Domains. It is corroborated by the Observer Effect in all the related double slit and interferometer experiments, most notably those of Dean Radin’s Sigma 5.7 rated results (2016); by the Unified Spacememory Network, modeled by Nassim Haramein and William Brown (2016); by Elizabeth Rauscher’s Complex Eight Dimensional Model of Minkowsky Space; and is modeled by an extension of Ken Wilber’s All Quadrants, All Levels (AQAL) Integral model called the “AQAL Cube” (Neale, 2011), which correlates non- physical existence with physical existence.
Integral Relativity predicts that the Observer and observed are a mutually inclusive Consciousness/Mind/Energy/Matter continuum. We propose that the terms Consciousness and Mind be no longer used synonymously in the scientific community, but differentiated as an integral Awareness/Energy continuum between Hilbert Spaces, where Consciousness is non-local or Subtle awareness, and Mind is its correlated local or Concrete awareness and means of en-action.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2741] **viXra:1801.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 17:26:03*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 16 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Russian).

Широко распространено мнение, что эксперименты Майкельсона-Морли с 1887 года и эксперимент Кеннеди-Торндайка с 1932 года показали, что нет универсальной системы отсчета (эфир) и что скорость света в вакууме абсолютно постоянна. Анализ этих экспериментов привел к созданию Специальной Теории Относительности (СТО).
В статье объясняется, почему с помощью экспериментов Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка не могла быть обнаружена универсальная система отсчета.
Кроме того, в этой статье мы выводим на основе геометрического анализа экспериментов Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка другое преобразование координат и времени, чем преобразование Лоренца. Мы выводим преобразование, предполагая, что существует универсальная система отсчета (universal frame of reference - UFR, эфир). UFR является системой отсчета, которая отличается тем, что скорость света в ней постоянна в любом направлении. В инерциальных системах отсчета, движущихся относительно UFR, скорость света может быть разной.
В статье мы получаем формулу для относительной скорости и формулы для максимальной и минимальной скорости света, которая может быть измерена в инерциальной системе. В конце, используя представленную теорию, объясняется явление анизотропии микроволнового фонового излучения. Согласно модели кинематики тел, представленной в этой статье, аберрация микроволнового фонового излучения для наблюдателя, движущегося относительно UFR, обусловлена эффектом Доплера.
Вся статья содержит только оригинальные исследования авторов публикации.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2740] **viXra:1801.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 17:34:44*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed. (in Russian)

В статье представлен наш новаторский метод вывода многочисленных динамик в Специальной Теории Относительности. Этот метод позволяет выводить бесконечно много динамик в релятивистской механике. Мы показали пять примеров таких выводов. Таким образом, мы доказали, что динамика, известная сегодня как динамика Специальной Теории Относительности, является только одной из бесконечно многих возможных. Также нет никаких оснований, ни по экспериментальным, ни по теоретическим причинам, чтобы считать эту, действующую релятивистскую динамику, исключительной. В связи с этим решение, какая из возможных динамик релятивистской механики является правильной, остаётся открытой проблемой физики.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2739] **viXra:1801.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-13 04:48:12*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 3 pages, 1 figure

Dark energy, a mysterious and unknown form of energy is rightfully considered as the reason for causing the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Universe expanding at an accelerated rate instead of slowing down or even coming to a stop seems extremely uncanny. In this paper I present a theory/model as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the mysterious accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this theory/model, the large-scale structures are receding away from each other at an accelerated rate instead of space undergoing accelerated expansion. The reason why a cosmic structure recedes into the cosmic wilderness has also been unravelled in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2738] **viXra:1801.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 22:19:15*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract
Newton’s Bucket has been an enigma since being published in the Principia in 1687.
It was the source of debate between Newton’s absolute space and Ernst Mach’s concept of relative rotation with respect to distant objects.
Wikipedia’s rendition of the Bucket argument provides no solution but just confusion by ignoring some basic facts which will be pointed out in the detailed edits below.
•Relativity is assumed true instead of being proven true
•Kinematics and dynamics are not distinguished
•Arguing against discarded theories is pointless
•Switching reference frames during observations is fatal
•Missing the crucial role of the lab frame
•Fictitious forces are symbols of fictitious physics.
The key is to recognize that:
water at rest in the bucket frame => no rotation => no centrifugal force => no covariance => laws of dynamics are invalid in a non-lab frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2737] **viXra:1801.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 13:03:11*

**Authors:** Jorge Martinez Fernandez

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to present a new
cosmological model, based on the union of the Wilhelm
De Sitter Model applying the equations of the Russian
physicist Anatoli Logunov in the Relativistic Theory of
Gravitation (TRG).
The general ideas of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation
(GRT) are based on the ideas of Poincaré, Minkowski,
Einstein and Hilbert, all within the framework of Special
Relativity (SR).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2736] **viXra:1801.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 01:09:16*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 221 Pages. This book is distributed freely. Published by the Second Coming Institute, www.sci4God.com

This book is a compilation of some rather old papers and some new papers, by myself and also Prof. Florentin Smarandache. In some papers, we also join working with other colleagues, e.g. Dr. Volodymyr Krasnoholovets from IOP Ukraine, and Dr. Yunita Umniyati.
This compilation is inspired from a series of prophetic seminars by Rev. Jan Friso from Kingdom Impact , and also a discussion with Minister Dr. Robby Chandra.
All in all, we are also grateful to a number of colleagues, including Prof. Thee Houw Liong, Prof. Liek Wilardjo, Prof. Atmonobudi Soebagyo, Dr. David Widihandojo, Sujarwo Silas & Linda, Dr. Wonsuk Ma, Minister Gatut Budiyono, Minister Gani Wiyono, Dr. Yonky Karman, Dr. Joas Adiprasetya, Dr. Paskalis Edwin Nyoman Paska, Minister Yulia Oeniyati, Prof. Akira Kanda, Dr. Carmen Wrede, Mrs. Hiroko Morioka, Prof. Jose Carlos Tiago Oliveira and Prof. Gusto Gadama, and many others, who often encouraged and reminded us to keep on being faithful Christians in this darkness time.
As a last note, we also thank to Holy Spirit who always guide us in our way, especially whenever we were lost of our path to find the truth. That is why this book with title: Let The Wind blows is dedicated to Holy Spirit. Let us pray that the Holy Spirit will be poured once again in our time, as prophesied by Joel.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2735] **viXra:1801.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 02:32:19*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A moving object in one inertial reference frame always moves at a different speed in another
inertial reference frame. To determine this different speed, a temporary acceleration
is applied to a duplicate of the first inertial reference frame in order to match
the second inertial reference frame. The velocity transformation between two inertial
reference frames is precisely derived based on the applied acceleration. The result shows that
velocity transformation depends solely on the relative motion between inertial
reference frames. Velocity transformation is independent of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2734] **viXra:1801.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 12:04:26*

**Authors:** Sergio Garcia Chimeno

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Comments welcome

Demonstration how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations without using the Stress-Energy Tensor, without using the Bianchi Identities and without using the Energy Conservation to obtain it.
Demonstration how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations only using the Gauss Curvature and the zoom universe model characteristics.
Gravity in zoom universe model.
Sphere and Hypersphere example to understand it better.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2733] **viXra:1801.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 07:32:30*

**Authors:** Peter C Morris

**Comments:** Pages.

Prof. Reg Cahill has reported that Random Event Generator (REG) devices can detect passage of dynamical 3-space waves. Herein we describe additional evidence for this discovery obtained by applying correlation analysis to a year of data from a REG located in Perth, Australia and from another in Muenster, Germany, recorded between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013.
The results obtained are consistent with results that we obtained earlier by applying the same analysis to data obtained from a REG located in Manchester UK and the REG in Perth. Consequently evidence for dynamical space is mounting.
For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by fitting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination and speed for the waves of each day.
A probability density plot of the incoming directions exhibited a peak near RA = 4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations of incoming 3-space flow direction by Cahill and Dayton Miller. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inflow velocities from the observed velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with predictions of Dynamical 3-Space theory. The peak indicated a most probable average galactic flow direction of RA = 4.49 h, dec = -80.4 deg, and wave speed of 508 km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2732] **viXra:1801.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 20:47:43*

**Authors:** Hanna Edwards

**Comments:** Pages. Formal publication (Results in Physics, 2017): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2017.09.053 ; Audio-slides: https://youtu.be/mFgYrEj28Es

The present manuscript aims to clarify why motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable sense, and how this relates to relativistic effects caused by motion. A fresh analysis of motion, build on first axiom, delivers proof with its result, from which significant new understanding and computational power is gained.
A review of experimental results demonstrates, that unaccelerated motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable, observer independent sense. Whilst focusing on this absolute effect, the present manuscript clarifies its context to relativistic effects, detailing their relationship and incorporating both into one consistent picture. The presented theoretical results make new predictions and are testable through suggested experiment of a novel nature. The manuscript finally arrives at an experimental tool and methodology, which as far as motion in ungravitated space is concerned or gravity appreciated, enables us to find the absolute observer independent picture of reality, which is reflected in the comparable display of atomic clocks.
The discussion of the theoretical results, derives a physical causal understanding of gravity, a mathematical formulation of which, will be presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2731] **viXra:1801.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 04:47:03*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 87 Pages.

About Time and Relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2730] **viXra:1801.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 06:03:34*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

This conscious theory of everything (TOE) also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory.
Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum rigid stringy fully entangled particles.
Each particle is supposed to be entangled with 8 or 12 CP symmetric particles located inside 8 or 12 universal bubbles at long distance.
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic big bang nucleus as the creation of a limited symmetrical multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity (CP) mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2729] **viXra:1801.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 12:24:50*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Lorentz transformations rotate the vectors of the electric and magnetic fields referring
to the current position of the source. But there is no physical basis for this.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2728] **viXra:1801.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-01 18:49:13*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, I’ll propose an exact solution for the Pioneer anomaly and the flyby
anomaly. My solution interprets inertia from an asymmetric Casimir effect, and it
interprets why inertial is related to Unruh effect and a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. My
solution of the Pioneer anomaly and the flyby anomaly is depending on my new
transformation and my equivalence principle. According to my transformation, the
reality is observer dependent as a result of translating the retardation according to the
invariance by the entanglement which is leading to the wave-particle duality and the
uncertainty principle by the vacuum fluctuation. In this case by translating the
retardation according to my transformation, it is resulted the relativistic ether as
observer dependent, and thus in this case the reality in my transformation is observer
dependent. This relativistic ether is not classical, but it is depending on the energy of
the vacuum by translating the retardation according to my transformation. My
transformation expresses about field by the vacuum fluctuation, and that explains also
why field is observer dependent, and that explains also why Unruh effect is observer
dependent.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2727] **viXra:1801.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 00:38:54*

**Authors:** Dan Ivan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Distances are the result of sensory perception. Physics is based on images created by us through observation and transmitted for mathematical or experimental confirmations. In modern physics and cosmology, what could not be noticed, being below or above the limit of observation of our instruments, are simple hypotheses that mathematical sciences have to confirm. We evaluate the cosmic space in terms of objects, bodies and particles, dividing the universe into the macrocosm and microcosm and establishing absolute results for relative distances, which is illogical.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2726] **viXra:1801.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-01 09:04:53*

**Authors:** Philip J. Carter

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

With scant regard for conventional paradigms we look squarely at the evidence and derive a space-time framework accounting for quantum non-locality and retro-causality. On this basis we gather insight into the origins of time, space and mass. We derive the mass-transformation formula according to Special Relativity and provide a context for the internal symmetries of the Standard Model. To provide a philosophical context we derive the central structure of the esoteric cosmological model from first principles while demonstrating its consistency with the framework. As a result of this unification, consciousness enters physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2725] **viXra:1801.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-01 11:37:54*

**Authors:** A.Hughmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages

Abstract We previously demonstrated that it is possible to describe the Gravitational Constant in terms of a simple mathematical function and in this paper we examine the first order consequences of that fact. We demonstrate that we can successfully model gravitational acceleration, escape velocity and the Schwarzchild radius without employing the Gravitational Constant or indeed any requirement for an external force. We conclude that Gravity is entirely an effect of the presence of mass, and that the applicable quantity of Gravity is directly proportional to both the quantity and density of local mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2724] **viXra:1712.0673 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-30 13:15:48*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper the “conventions problem” in physics is considered, first of all in application to mechanics .
Key words: Space, Time, mechanics, Lorentz transformations, relativity theories, conventions

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2723] **viXra:1712.0665 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-29 14:17:56*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2722] **viXra:1712.0651 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-28 20:50:03*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The well-known Lorentz transformations are controversial and misunderstood.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2721] **viXra:1712.0646 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-28 23:39:00*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

ALFA theory has been tested successfully against many classic motion problems in physics—from Newton’s Bucket to Ruyong Wang’s FOC. Here we pick up the story by applying ALFA to the train gedanken experiment and then the light clock device of rel-ativity, with the same results as before. A practical implementation of the light clock is suggested to validate claims made herein. The analysis again supports a mobile aether that can be dragged along by ambient matter motion and a laboratory frame anywhere on the ground that can—and must—serve as an absolute frame, if the physics laws of motion are to be covariant. It’s strange that the effect of a wind vector on sound speed is well known to be ; yet the same effects—like Doppler shifts and time de-lays—are seen when …and ignored or rejected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2720] **viXra:1712.0638 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-27 15:12:41*

**Authors:** Sergio Garcia Chimeno

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Comments welcome

Demonstration how to do the light velocity c it to be the same independently of the velocity of observer and obtain the mass-energy equivalence E=mc^2 using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics.
Demonstration how to interpret it the time dilation/length contraction typical of the special relativity using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics.
Demonstration how to obtain the typical waves equation with transmission velocity c and how to obtain it through the medium for transmission of light given by the zoom-universe model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2719] **viXra:1712.0635 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-27 20:32:40*

**Authors:** Fredrick W. Cotton

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The proposed modifications of the Einstein-Maxwell equations include: (1) the addition of a scalar term to the electromagnetic side of the equation rather than to the gravitational side, (2) the introduction of a 4-dimensional, nonlinear electromagnetic constitutive tensor and (3) the addition of curvature terms arising from the non-metric components of a general symmetric connection. The scalar term is defined by the condition that a spherically symmetric particle be force-free and mathematically well-behaved everywhere. The constitutive tensor introduces two auxiliary fields which describe the particle structure. The additional curvature terms couple both to particle solutions and to electromagnetic and gravitational wave solutions. This paper corrects and expands earlier work.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2718] **viXra:1712.0625 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-27 05:46:57*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Given the magical statements in physics about the speed of light in vacuum it seems to be difficult to form an image of the propagation of light in vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2717] **viXra:1712.0607 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-26 06:50:25*

**Authors:** Albert Zur Ph.D

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The Displacement Theory proposes new concepts relating to space, particles and time. This first article details the fundaments, the vocabulary and the context for this new theory. At the basics are a broader definition of energy and momentum yielding a universal description of space and particles in terms of similar building blocks. The description of space yields derivation of Hubble law, associating the recession velocity of galaxies with space expansion. It provides new insight to the essence of dark-energy and predicts that the cosmological constant Ʌ in Einstein field equations is associated with dark-momentum rather than dark-energy. The description of particles yields a new domain of displacement-space conjugate to a domain of 4D position-space. In 4D position-space all particles universally perform the same amount of total displacement yielding the constancy of the speed of light. This represents a new form of relativity which is inherently compatible with Quantum theories. It also provides new insight into the notion of time, and suggests that 3D space+time is actually 3 dimensions of position-space and a fourth dimension of displacement-space, which is a Fourier conjugate of the fourth dimension of position-space.
This is the first in a series of articles introducing the Displacement Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2716] **viXra:1712.0604 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-26 06:57:48*

**Authors:** Albert Zur Ph.D

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A modified theory of Relativity, derived in a newly defined domain of displacement-space is presented. The displacement-space is a Fourier conjugate to a 4D position-space of Euclidian metric, as opposed to the Minkowski metric of spacetime. In displacement-space all particles are predicted to universally perform an equal amount of total displacement, generally composed of a longitudinal and a transverse component. This new form of Relativity provides inherent compatibility with Quantum theories, and unveils the origin of the constancy of light speed in inertial frames. This theory emerges from a general relativistic expression of energy-momentum│1│proposed to cover additional energy sources beyond particles, such as the cosmological dark-energy of "empty-space". Many predictions of Special-Relativity such as time dilation, energy-mass-momentum relation, and various 4-vector Lorentz invariants emerge as natural expressions of displacement-space, albeit from a completely different derivation principle. The spacetime 4-vector and associated length contraction, which are position-space expressions, are obviated. This is supported by the lack of definitive data published to date presenting direct evidence of length contraction. Representation of Relativity in the domain of displacement-space, as opposed to the 4 dimensional position-space domain of spacetime, yields natural non-commutation of conjugate observables such as position and momentum. Moreover, wave-functions and bound states, representing spatially localized probability distributions, remain invariant and simultaneous in all inertial frames. These new properties of Relativity provide improved consistency and integration with Quantum theories. The Displacement Theory can be tested by experimentally evaluating the actual existence of length contraction.
This is the second article in a series describing The Displacement Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2715] **viXra:1712.0602 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-26 07:01:10*

**Authors:** Arijit Bag

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, applying only Newtonian mechanics, I have made an analysis of the nature of an accelerating universe. In this
model loss of gravitational force replaces any need for dark energy to explain an accelerating universe. This model is consistent
with the Big Bang model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2714] **viXra:1712.0577 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-24 00:12:19*

**Authors:** Cres Huang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Space is in our hands and all around us. We have learned to manipulate matter and energy since our first existence on Earth, but never space. It is the absolute complement of the physical universe.

It is impossible to bend space since it has no boundary and surface. Space can not have boundary. Otherwise, it would separate space from something else outside of the space. Neither the boundary or surface of the space nor the outside of the space can be defined as anything other than space. On the contrarily, we can bend time by varying clock ticks. It is true for all artificial measurements.

Space has natural existence, time is artificial measurement. Space is absolutely recyclable, NEVER TIME BE RECYCLED. And, space is fundamental, it is independent of mass, energy, and everything else. Space and time can not go together.

[2713] **viXra:1712.0568 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 18:28:16*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The singular state inside the body will be reached way before the curvature singularity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2712] **viXra:1712.0567 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 18:41:13*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Comments welcome

Some science fiction that really about the science of theoretical physics, or the lack thereof.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2711] **viXra:1712.0553 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 13:57:54*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

If our universe is blinking, off and on, a trillion times each second, then how does time actually work? And why do we perceive sequential time, where one event follows a seeming cause and effect? This short ebook describes how time actually works, and what makes it a coherent illusion.
First, all of time is simultaneous. There is no backwards or forwards with time. When the universe blinks on, each cycle - all of time and space is newly constructed, with particles that did not exist one second ago. Sequential time is an illusion that has to do with the nature of perception and the ego.
The massive present moment contains all of time, every second of every year, past, present,
and future. When you travel thru time, you do not travel backwards or forwards. Rather, you are moving "sideways" across parallel timelines, that exist within the present moment. For those that want to solve the paradox, killing your grandfather in the past will not change your
current reality, because for each person, there are a near-infinite number of probable timelines that exist simultaneously. Graphs and references are provided. #blinkinguniverse RLighthouse.com

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2710] **viXra:1712.0552 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 14:33:50*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This short technical paper presents an alternate mathematical approach for determining the blinking frequency of our universe. The source for this
alternate idea comes from an email sent to this author in May 2015. The source author prefers to remain anonymous.
Basically, Let's think about the fundamental unit of the universe as a classical entity. The energy of such a classical entity, using the equipartition theorem, translates the number of
degrees of freedom into "units" of k_B*T (where T is the temperature and k_B is the well-known Boltzmann constant). In this way, we find that the fundamental energy is 3*k_B*T (6 d.o.f.).
We use a foundational temperature, consistent with the anthropic principle, of the freezing point (and melting point) of the essential object for existence - water. Using this temperature, we obtain a fundamental energy of ~70.6 meV.
Calculation is as follows: 70.6 meV / (\hbar \pi^4) = 1.1 THz. Note that the \pi^4
in general is \pi^D, where D is the number of spacetime dimensions in existence. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is literally blinking off and on, at 1.1 trillion times every second (THz).
For those unconvinced that our universe is blinking, please read “The First Periodic Table for Elementary Particles,” or “1024 Elementary Particles” which provides compelling mathematical evidence. Also see youtube: Colonel Philip Corso, THE DAY AFTER ROSWELL; author comments on the
Army's investigation of the 1947 Roswell vehicle; "We were never able to figure out how the propulsion system works... We only know it has something to do with blinking."

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2709] **viXra:1712.0544 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 05:36:34*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), photons and rotating neutrinos produce around them discs in the Einstein spacetime - there is obligatory the Einstein formula E = Mcc, where E is the photon/neutrino energy (the rotational energy) and M is the mass of photon/neutrino disc. In the discs, when they interact with fermions, there are created virtual pairs. Due to the quantum phenomena, the Principle of Equivalence (PE) is locally “broken” for photons with energy higher than 10 GeV - it leads to the incorrect conclusion that the deflection of high-energy photons contradicts general relativity. Here we show that general relativity describes correctly the bending of high-energy photons by masses when the weak interactions of the photon discs with matter are eliminated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2708] **viXra:1712.0542 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 11:17:02*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 1 Page.

At least, that is the opinion of convinced supporters of the Special Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2707] **viXra:1712.0535 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 12:03:05*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Links to previous paper at http://vixra.org/pdf/1609.0014v1.pdf

In an earlier paper, “Who Needs Dark Matter? An Alternative Explanation for the Galactic Rotation Anomaly,” this author examined a possible electromagnetic phenomenon as an explanation for the ‘galactic rotation anomaly,’ whereby the rotational speeds of stars in a spiral galaxy exhibit a relatively constant value despite increasing radius. There, this author assumed that angular rotation speed remained relatively constant, so as to preserve the stability of the spiral arms as they rotate. Several other authors’ theories were presented along with one by this author himself, which cited the magnetic field within the plane of a galaxy resulting from rotation by both the spherical galactic core and flattened ‘disk’ containing the spiral arms as possibly yielding the constant angular speed. However, many galactic rotation curves exhibit constant tangential rather than angular rotation speed, inconsistent with a ‘pinwheel-like’ galactic rotation which would preserve spiral arm stability. The possibility that this is really an ‘optical illusion’ masking the actual pinwheel-like rotation, and corresponding constancy of angular, not tangential, speed is considered here. Finally, speculation as to the phenomenon responsible for this ‘illusion’ is offered.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2706] **viXra:1712.0533 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 13:43:48*

**Authors:** Thomas Günther

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

McVittie's model, which interpolates between a Schwarzschild Black Hole and an expanding global (FLRW) spacetime, can be constructed by a simple coordinate replacement in Schwarzschild's isotropic intervall. Analogously, one gets a similarly generated exact solution of Einstein's equations based on a static transformation of de Sitter's metric. The present article is concerned with the application of this method on the AdS (Anti de Sitter) spacetime. Multiplying the radial coordinate and it's differential by a function a(t) gives the basic line element. Einstein's equations for the modified interval reduce to a system of two differential equations, which are solved in the article. The resulting solution is classified depending on the value of the cosmological constant. Several promising theories like String theorie and AdS/CFT correspondence include spacetimes with higher dimensions. Thereby motivated, the previous results of this article are generalized to D dimensions in the last section.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2705] **viXra:1712.0530 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 23:12:04*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The special theory of relativity is classically interpreted in terms of space-time symmetry, with the Lorentz transformation modifying the Galilean transformation as required to translate between 4-dimensional inertial frames as defined by Einstein and developed in relativistic texts (1..6). We begin here an energy-time asymmetrical interpretation based on multiplying the Galilean transformation by an energy factor representing the difference in energy between a system at rest and a system moving with velocity , both systems existing in one universal inertial frame. Detailed consequences of this energy-time interpretation of Lorentz-based physics will be treated in following papers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2704] **viXra:1712.0527 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 04:19:37*

**Authors:** Wan-Chung Hu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Angle change is not fully explained in special relativity. This article is focusing on angle change in special relativity and to derive spinity by the concept of additive angular velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2703] **viXra:1712.0505 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-18 14:55:36*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In this paper I’ll show how the relativistic effect in SRT must be observer dependent which is leading to field and retardation, and that is leading to the wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle by the vacuum fluctuation. In this I propose a new transformation by translating the retardation according to the invariance by the entanglement which is leading to the relativistic ether from the point of view of the quantum vacuum which is leading to the wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle by the vacuum fluctuation. According to my transformation, there two pictures for the moving train, and these two pictures are separate in space and time as a result of the retardation but they are entangled by the invariance of the energy momentum. That will lead also to explain the double slit experiment from the point of view of quantum theory. In my new transformation, I propose there is no space-time continuum, as in special relativity; it is only time, and space is invariant. That leads to the new transformation being vacuum energy dependent instead of relative velocity dependent as in Einstein’s interpretation of the Lorentz transformation equations of the theory of special relativity. Furthermore, the Lorentz factor in my transformation is equivalent to the refractive index in optics. That leads to the disappearance of all the paradoxes of the theory of special relativity: The Twin paradox, Ehrenfest paradox, the Ladder paradox, and Bell’s spaceship paradox. Furthermore, according to my interpretation, one could explain the experimental results of quantum tunneling and entanglement (spooky action), Casimir effect, and Hartman effect. Also according to that by my equivalence principle, dark matter and dark energy are explained, and no need to propose dark matter and dark energy, and as a consequence of that, the cosmological constant problem will be solved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2702] **viXra:1712.0491 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-18 01:03:16*

**Authors:** Andrew Thomas Holster

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In the first part we analyze a novel metric for a spherically symmetric mass distribution, here called the K-gravity metric. This has a close formal similarity to the Schwarzschild metric, but has quite distinct properties, including infinitely dispersed mass, and lack of an event horizon. In the second part we propose that this may be taken as a general alternative solution for physical gravity within GTR, resulting from an alternative interpretation of the stress-energy tensor, which is no longer 0 for empty space, and we consider the empirical differences with standard Schwarzschild gravity. We propose a novel test of GTR is in order, to test this against the usual Schwarzschild solution in the solar system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2701] **viXra:1712.0489 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-18 03:34:44*

**Authors:** John Lawrence Duval

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The only way to comprehensively refute Einstein's SRT Time Dilation idea, is to reveal the errors - both logical and trigonometric - in the thought experiment upon which it is based. This work does just that.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2700] **viXra:1712.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-17 04:13:36*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed.

The article presents our innovative method of deriving dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity. This method enables to derive infinitely dynamics in relativistic mechanics. We have shown five examples of these derivations. In this way, we have shown that the dynamics known today as the dynamics of Special Theory of Relativity is only one of infinitely possible. There is also no reason to treat this relativistic dynamics as exceptional, either for experimental or theoretical reasons. Therefore, determination of which possible dynamics of relativistic mechanics is a correct model of reality remains an open problem of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2699] **viXra:1712.0470 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-15 22:02:20*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show that the Kerr metric for de Sitter spacetime is consistent with the demand that the associated Einstein field equations be derived from a simple conformally invariant Lagrangian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2698] **viXra:1712.0462 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-16 07:18:33*

**Authors:** Furkan Akal

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Antihesis against Dark Matter and Dark Energy Theories..

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2697] **viXra:1712.0456 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-14 16:26:27*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Evolution of our universe with continuous production of matter by the vacuum, is described. The analysis is based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), supported by the cosmic data without fitting. Various types of matter are selected by the vacuum in accordance with stability of the developing universe. All laws of nature seems to be emergent and approximate, including the conservation of energy. The (3+1)-dimensional space-time and gravity were selected first. Than came quantum condensate of entangled gravitons (dark matter). Photons and other ordinary matter were selected much later during formation of galaxies, when the background condensate becomes gravitationally unstable. The effect of radiation on the global dynamics is described in terms of conservation of the enthalpy density. Mass of neutrino, as the first massive fermionic particle created from the background condensate, is estimated, in accord with experimental bound. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is also estimated. The oscillations of neutrinos are explained in terms of interaction with background condensate. The phenomena of quantum entanglement of ordinary matter was, apparently, inherited from the background condensate. The phenomena of subjective experiences are also explained in terms of interaction of the action potentials of neurons with the background dipolar condensate, which opens a new window into the dark sector of matter. The Qmoger theory goes beyond the Standard Model and the Quantum Field Theory and can be combined with their achievements.
Key words: quantum modification of general relativity, emergence of the laws of nature, isenthalpic universe, quantum condensate of gravitons, oscillating neutrinos, subjective experiences and dark sector of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2696] **viXra:1712.0455 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-14 16:56:51*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: It is noticed that the sum of the s and c quarks mc^2 = 1370 MeV. 1000X this energy is close to the energy needed per second per active galaxy to energize the universe according to HCE8S theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2695] **viXra:1712.0447 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-15 07:35:21*

**Authors:** Mohammed Abdelwhab Husseiny

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, we explain why speed of light is constant for all observers by postulating that the moving frames travel to forward and backward with the same velocity with respect to observers at rest. The regress of moving frames to backward during its motion to forward refers to reversal of space and time of moving frames with respect to observers at rest. The conclusions drawn in this study refer to “Retrocausality" or "backward causation" of moving frames along reversed space and during reversed time with respect to a stationary frame of reference.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2694] **viXra:1712.0436 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-13 16:11:57*

**Authors:** Tom Hollings

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

ABSTRACT
The Equivalence principle.
"Bodies which are moving under the sole influence of a gravitational field receive an acceleration, which does not in the least depend on the material or the physical state of the body. For instance, a piece of lead and a piece of wood fall in exactly the same manner in a gravitational field (in vacuo) when they start off from rest or with the same initial velocity."
There appears to be an error in the formation of the equivalence principle (and here the author gives the evidence of that error), which when corrected would lead to a new understanding of stellar formation and planetary orbits, including an explanation of why trinary star systems are not observed - as opposed to a binary pair with another star orbiting that pair (or vice versa).
Einstein used a Gedankenexperiment with a man in a chest, to prove that falling objects of differing masses all fall at the same rate for the man in the chest who is being accelerated at a steady 9.8 m/s^2, and the man on Earth who is experiencing 9.8 m/s^2 of gravity. It can be proved that the equivalence principle does not hold when the falling object used as an example is an extremely large mass. The logical conclusion therefore is that by reducing the extremely large mass down to more normal mass values, although the objects appear to fall at the same rate, they do not, but as the difference is minute, it can be, and is, customarily ignored. This does not matter on Earth, but it does matter a great deal for planetary formation and orbits, and for stellar and galactic formation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2693] **viXra:1712.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 08:27:04*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 144 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2692] **viXra:1712.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:37:36*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

No one has ever provided mathematical evidence that unifies gravity and electromagnetism. This is an important mathematical discovery. Note that the 2 classical equations of Newton's Gravity and Coulomb's Law have a similar form. Also note that when
Limit (r) ---> 0, these 2 equations approach a singularity
This implies that our universe collapses to a single point for unification. Each reader must
comprehend that our universe literally blinks, off and on, 1.1 trillion cycles each second (1.1
THz). See my related articles, including the blinking universe calculation and 1024-QAM for
elementary particles. There are 3 mathematical approaches and 3 empirical sources that all
conclude the same idea - our universe is blinking.
As Einstein once said, "Reality is merely an illusion..." - A blinking universe would certainly
make his statement correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2691] **viXra:1712.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:43:39*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This short technical note describes an approximate mathematical solution for Time Travel involving relativity and very brief time intervals. Limitations of the solution are discussed including possible error sources. Assumptions are made for small changes in the speed of light and for the Lighthouse Frequency, which has been described in previous papers. This paper will only be meaningful to those with a background in calculus. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks off and on, approximately 1.1 trillion times every second. The solution is derived by taking the partial derivative with respect to time, of E=mc^2. Readers will note that the speed of light is not constant per NASA scientist, Dr Daniel Gezari's important 2009 paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2690] **viXra:1712.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:49:56*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short paper presents information into technology that has been used to move between two parallel universes. Described here are the technology characteristics of glowing orbs or balls of light, which have been photographed and filmed, all over the world. By utilizing the blinking frequency of our universe, it is possible to move between parallel universes. These orbs have been reported as glowing and/or pulsing and some appear to be 12 to 14 inches in diameter. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is blinking off and on, approximately 1.1 trillion cycles every second. The energy required to transit between two parallel universes is
E = Volts * Amp * sec
Where volts is proportional to the mass, and Amp*sec is the "electrical distance" or "range" between the two universes. Pictures and videos are referenced for discussion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2689] **viXra:1712.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:54:56*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short technical paper presents the first practical technology solution for traveling faster than the speed of light. Light-years of distance can be traversed by performing millions of “hops;” yet the entire distance traveled requires only a fraction of a second. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is literally blinking off and on, more than 1.1 trillion times every second.
For those unconvinced that our universe is blinking, please read “The First Periodic Table for Elementary Particles,” which provides compelling mathematical evidence.
Also see youtube: Colonel Philip Corso, THE DAY AFTER ROSWELL; author comments on the Army's investigation of the 1947 Roswell vehicle; "We were never able to figure out how the propulsion system works... We only know it has something to do with blinking." Recorded 1997.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2688] **viXra:1712.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 15:08:22*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short technical ebook describes a simple mathematical solution for unifying the four fundamental forces in nature. The fundamental forces of gravitation, electromagnetism, strong force, and the weak force are actually different aspects of the same force. In general, the relationship between the four forces can be described using a form of the equation for Analog Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (Analog-QAM). This equation form is developed utilizing the concept of a “blinking” physical universe. The approach to
develop the solution is described by minimizing the number of available dimensions (zero), which is in contrast to numerous efforts (String theory, M-theory, Quantum gravity) that attempt to maximize the number of dimensions under consideration. An Electrical Universe (EU) model is presented that provides sufficient conditions for a solution. This mathematical solution should
be tested against experimental data to confirm its validity, however it is noted that, “discrete-time” forces will be measured differently than “time-averaged” forces in a laboratory environment. Confirmation of the theory is suggested through small, discrete-time interval measurements of gravitational acceleration and the Electromagnetic Force, where they will be seen to
vary continuously, and yet also retain a “time-averaged” value. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks, off and on, more than 1 trillion cycles each second.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2687] **viXra:1712.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 15:15:48*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This short technical paper discuss a method and technology that can be utilized to minimize energy requirements for all kinds of travel. Specifically, there are three types of travel under discussion: (1) Time Travel, (2) Distance Travel, and (3) Travel between parallel universes. The method requires precise control, synchronization, and amplification of very high frequencies, which is difficult for current technology computer processors. To reduce the effective mass value or weight of a vehicle, requires extremely fast clocks, called gamma-ray clocks. These clocks operate at about 10^21 cycles per second. Each reader must comprehend that our physical universe literally blinks, off and on, more than 1.1 trillion times every second. By synchronizing an electrical signal on a vehicle with the neutral point in the blinking cycle - the effective mass of the vehicle will approach zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2686] **viXra:1712.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 16:06:01*

**Authors:** Ozan Varli

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A Hardy Consistent Representing Of Strong Hypothesis Of Theory Of Everything

Figuring out the mystery of expanding universe seems a mandatory question for today’s physicists. The space, time and dark energy are also all the same thing as we found out that the space and time are the same. Looking at observations and findings take us to one result which is consisted with specifications and behaviors of space that; anti-gravitation field named as anti-neutral field is space-time itself. This anti-neutral field expands in 3 dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2685] **viXra:1712.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 01:10:14*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Method of deriving numerous dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish)

W artykule przedstawiliśmy naszą nowatorską metodę wyprowadzania dynamik w Szczególnej Torii Względności. Metoda ta pozwala na wyprowadzenie w mechanice relatywistycznej nieskończenie wielu dynamik. Pokazaliśmy pięć przykładów takich wyprowadzeń. Wykazaliśmy w ten sposób, że dynamika znana dzisiaj jako dynamika Szczególnej Teorii Względności jest tylko jedną z nieskończenie wielu możliwych. Nie ma także żadnej podstawy, aby tą obowiązującą dynamikę relatywistyczną traktować jako wyjątkową, ani z powodów eksperymentalnych, ani z powodów teoretycznych. W związku z tym rozstrzygnięcie, która z możliwych dynamik mechaniki relatywistycznej jest prawidłowym modelem rzeczywistości pozostaje otwartym problemem fizyki.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2684] **viXra:1712.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 05:43:47*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Although Fresnel's ether drag coefficient was ad hoc, its curious confirmation by the Fizeau experiment forced physicists to accept and adopt it as the main guide in the development of theories of the speed of light. Lorentz's 'local-time' , which evolved into the Lorentz transformations, was developed to explain the Fizeau experiment and stellar aberration. Given the logical, theoretical and experimental counter-evidences against the theory of relativity today, it turns out that the Fresnel's drag coefficient may not exist at all. The Fizeau experiment and the phenomenon of stellar aberration have no common physical basis. The result of the Fizeau experiment can be explained in a simple, classical way. It is as if nature conspired to lead physicists astray for more than one century. Alternative theories and interpretations for the ether drift experiments and invariance of Maxwell's equations will be proposed. Physicists rightly assumed the invariance of Maxwell's equations, but their deeply flawed conception of light as ordinary local phenomenon led them unnecessarily to seek an 'explanation' for this invariance, which was the Lorentz transformation. Einstein went down the wrong path when he sought an 'explanation' for the light postulate, when none was needed. The invariance of Maxwell's equationsfor light is a direct consequence of non-existence of the ether and there is no explanation for it for the same reason that there is no explanation for light being a wave when there is no medium for its propagation. Constancy of phase velocity of light and rotation of the wave fronts for a moving observer, which are direct consequences of non-existence of light carrying medium, can explain the phenomenon of stellar aberration .The group velocity of light behaves in a conventional way: independent of source absolute velocity, but varying with observer absolute velocity. Light is a dual phenomenon: local and non-local. Light is a dual and quantum mechanical phenomenon. The paradoxes in classical electromagnetism, such as the moving magnet and conductor problem, arose due to incompleteness of classical electromagnetism and its wrong interpretation. The solutions to these paradoxes lay in unconventional and subtle, yet logical and natural, fundamental nature of light and electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2683] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-10 00:42:00*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weugel, Renée Veysseyre

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Two mandatory combinations from different constants gives the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, which is, apart a √2 factor, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the order of the Monster group. The square and the cube of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2682] **viXra:1712.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 08:00:34*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 46 Pages. develops a Natario warp drive which encompasses accelerations

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter that will unavoidably occurs when a ship
travels at superluminal speeds and the problem of the
Horizons(causally disconnected portions of spacetime).The
geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are the required
ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in theory.However
both the Alcubierre or Natario warp drive spacetimes always have a
constant speed in the internal structure of their equations which
means to say that these warp drives always travel with a constant
speed.But a real warp drive must accelerate from zero to a
superluminal speed of about $200$ times faster than light in the
beginning of an interstellar journey and de-accelerate again to
zero in the end of the journey.In this work we expand the Natario
vector introducing the coordinate time as a new Canonical Basis
for the Hodge star and we introduce an extended Natario warp drive
equation which encompasses accelerations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2681] **viXra:1712.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 02:32:29*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Existence of Dark Matter is proved by the flat rotation curves which show the distribution of luminous matter and dark matter when we move from the De Vaucuoleur spheroid of galaxy to the farthest points from center of galaxy. The dark matter increases as we get far from it, on the contrary, the luminous matter decreases.
There are two types of Dark Matter: 1- Baryonic Dark Matter, 2- Non-baryonic Dark Matter;
The volunteers for elements of dark matter are as follows:
1. MACHO (known as Baryonic Dark Matter)
2. Neutrinos (based on OPERA experiment, it is more probable that Tau neutrinos would be the fundamentals of dark matter), these are candidates for Non-baryonic Dark Matter, Hot Dark Matter.
3. Neutralinos (Candidate for Cold Dark Matter)
4. WIMP (Candidate for Cold Dark Matter)
Dark energy and Dark Matter are making the universe accelerating in a way that the voids get totally empty and superclusters get heavier in the universe by pushing the galaxies located at the void to the superclusters.
The primordial universe was continuous and there was no void, but as time goes and the superclusters appeared, voids appeared as well and the universe turn out to be discrete.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1887] **viXra:1802.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-21 00:10:12*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical charged
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
during the collision in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1886] **viXra:1802.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-20 04:44:41*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 4 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times larger than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant, known as the cosmological constant problem would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very high, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as distribution of molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the manuscript emphasizes upon the recession of large-scale structures upon a stationary space-time continuum. Since the discrepancy with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. The study shows that the large-scale structures are receding at a constant rate, instead at an accelerated rate. The actual or the finite recessional velocity that a massive galaxy cluster attains by the virtue of its finite energy has also been unravelled in this paper along with the corresponding value of its “true” redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1885] **viXra:1802.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-11 09:14:50*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. non

This paper investigates the possibility of testing the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by
studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The constant
improvements in technology lead to increased precision of measurements, which opens up new
possibility of testing the GRT. The paper compares the free fall predictions obtained from the Newtonian
physics theory, the GRT, and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that it might be possible to
distinguish between the GRT and the MTG theories with a reasonable confidence and thus determine by
experimental methods which theory is actually correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1884] **viXra:1802.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-09 14:53:24*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of inelastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest before collision. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and after the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1883] **viXra:1802.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-08 23:45:30*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of inelastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest before collision. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and after the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1882] **viXra:1801.0422 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-14 01:01:40*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This article is suggesting that dark energy, dark matter and universal expansion are intimately related. However, they aren't viewed as revolutions in cosmology which are essential to a complete understanding of the modern universe. They are instead viewed as properties which need to be added to the cosmos when Einstein's theory of gravity (General Relativity) is apparently still not thoroughly comprehended a little over a century after it was published. If General Relativity truly does eliminate Dark Energy and Dark Matter plus Universal Expansion, then its treatment of gravitation as a push must necessarily be reflected in every encounter with gravity. The author has developed possible solutions (hypotheses) about this in the second section - which has topics ranging from M-sigma through geysers on Saturn's moon Enceladus and the Law of Falling Bodies to planetary magnetism and tides. The first part proposes that acceptance of gravity as a push could delete the ideas of cosmic expansion, dark energy and dark matter.
Science admires General Relativity. However, respect for tradition seems to prevent science from embracing Einstein's theory completely. General Relativity says gravity is a push exerted by the curvature of space-time. But the world still holds to the Newtonian view that gravity is a pull. Since Isaac Newton's mathematics works so well, it's understandable that his gravitational pull is accepted. It's time to explore ways in which gravitation as a push could produce identical physical results. The second part of this article proposes hypotheses – not formal theories – to this end. The first part proposes that acceptance of gravity as a push could delete the ideas of cosmic expansion, dark energy and dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1881] **viXra:1801.0422 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-09 23:29:16*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Published by AAAS at http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6226/1103/tab-e-letters

This article is suggesting that dark energy, dark matter and universal expansion are intimately related. However, they aren't viewed as revolutions in cosmology which are essential to a complete understanding of the modern universe. They are instead viewed as properties which need to be added to the cosmos when Einstein's theory of gravity (General Relativity) is apparently still not thoroughly comprehended a little over a century after it was published. If General Relativity truly does eliminate Dark Energy and Dark Matter plus Universal Expansion, then its treatment of gravitation as a push must necessarily be reflected in every encounter with gravity. The author has developed possible solutions (hypotheses) about this in the following section - which has topics ranging from M-sigma through geysers on Saturn's moon Enceladus and the Law of Falling Bodies to Earth's magnetism and tides.
Science admires General Relativity. However, respect for tradition seems to prevent science from embracing Einstein's theory completely. General Relativity says gravity is a push exerted by the curvature of space-time. But the world still holds to the Newtonian view that gravity is a pull. Since Isaac Newton's mathematics works so well, it's understandable that his gravitational pull is accepted. It's time to explore ways in which gravitation as a push could produce identical physical results. The second part of this article proposes hypotheses – not formal theories – to this end. The first part suggests that acceptance of gravity as a push could delete the ideas of cosmic expansion, dark energy and dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1880] **viXra:1801.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-01 10:22:54*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-7 and Russian, pages 8-15

in the paper a number of existent solutions of the twin paradox are considered. It is shown,
that any solutions aren’t and cannot be principally the solutions, if they are in accordance with the
special relativity theory; the unique correct solution is possible only provided that Matter’s spacetime
is absolute, when in this case the paradox simply doesn’t appear. The file contains two versions of the
paper: English, pages 1-7 and Russian, pages 8-15

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1879] **viXra:1801.0372 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-29 15:23:54*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Berlin

All relevant experiments that disagree with static or entrained ether and led to the historical breakthrough of Special Relativity will be revised from the scratch. It will be shown that an alternative model based on rightly understood gravitational dragging of light is able to explain the notorious phenomena. Invariance of light speed, time dilation and Lorentz contraction will become obsolete. Focus is laid on the most problematic classic subjects as there are: Michelson/Morley experiment, Sagnac effect and Michelson/Gale/Pearson experiment, stellar and terrestrial aberration as well as anomaly of Mercury orbit shift. A series of fateful and fundamental misinterpretations will be disclosed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1878] **viXra:1801.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-28 01:27:06*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

This paper details a “time-relativity” theorem, the golden ratio algorithm effecting a unified theory of time and space, the calculations of which are entirely consistent with all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena, atomic to cosmological, where “time” is presented as the fundamental “quality” of reality through which space, defined as 0-scalar space, is given its characteristics. Six key preceding papers [1-6] are streamed in sections 1-6, following which section 7 presents all the key concepts of the new relativity of time and associated cosmological model into a “one theory” for time and space; flowcharts are forwarded highlighting the idea of time as this new algorithm linking all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena. From this, it is demonstrated that all key concepts of space-time have been addressed, with all relevant equations derived thereof, all central to the new algorithm for time. Finally, three key mechanisms of proof, well within scientific research capability of the near future, are proposed, detailing here how to emerge a gravitational field from electromagnetism in a laboratory setting.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1877] **viXra:1801.0338 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-30 02:53:59*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity ( STR ) provides a formula for the Doppler effect of light that differs from conventional formulas based on ether theory and emission theory. The relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined for source-observer relative velocities greater than the speed of light. Since STR asserts that no ( relative ) velocity can ever reach or exceed the speed of light, this has never been seen as a problem. However, it will be shown in this paper that relative velocities greater than the speed of light can be attained even within the framework of STR, i.e. without violating the universal light speed limit. Imagine a light source and an observer at rest relative to each other and located close to each other. Light emitted by the source travels to a distant mirror and reflects back to the observer, while the mirror is moving towards the observer and the source with velocity equal to ( close to ) the speed of light. In this case the relative velocity between the mirror image of the source and the observer is equal to twice the speed of light, 2c. Since it is the relative velocity of the mirror image of the source and the observer that determines the Doppler effect, which is equal to 2c in this case, the relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined because β = V/c = 2c/c = 2, which is greater than 1, resulting in a square root of negative number in the relativistic Doppler effect formula. This disproves relativistic Doppler effect, and hence the Special Theory of Relativity. According to STR the usual analysis is that the mirror image of the source never attains the speed of light because of the relativistic velocity addition formula. Since STR has been disproved logically, experimentally and theoretically, this assertion is not valid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1876] **viXra:1801.0338 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-25 23:57:10*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity ( STR ) provides a formula for the Doppler effect of light that differs from conventional formulas based on ether theory and emission theory. The relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined for source-observer relative velocities greater than the speed of light. Since STR asserts that no ( relative ) velocity can ever reach or exceed the speed of light, this has never been seen as a problem. However, it will be shown in this paper that relative velocities greater than the speed of light can be attained even within the framework of STR, i.e. without violating the universal light speed limit. Imagine a light source and an observer at rest relative to each other and located close to each other. Light emitted by the source travels to a distant mirror and reflects back to the observer, while the mirror is moving towards the observer and the source with velocity equal to ( close to ) the speed of light. In this case the relative velocity between the mirror image of the source and the observer is equal to twice the speed of light, 2c. Since it is the relative velocity of the mirror image of the source and the observer that determines the Doppler effect, which is equal to 2c in this case, the relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined because β = V/c = 2c/c = 2, which is greater than 1, resulting in a square root of negative number in the relativistic Doppler effect formula. This disproves relativistic Doppler effect, and hence the Special Theory of Relativity. According to STR the usual analysis is that the mirror image of the source never attains the speed of light because of the relativistic velocity addition formula. Since STR has been disproved logically, experimentally and theoretically, this assertion is not valid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1875] **viXra:1801.0330 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-02 19:57:38*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Minor revisions to Figure 2 and various wording improvements.

After the physicality of existence, gravity's role in the Universe is the most fundamental thing. This role has various manifestations which, it is argued, have been largely misinterpreted by modern physics. An alternative conception of gravity---one that agrees with firmly established empirical evidence---is most compactly characterized by its definition of Newton's constant in terms of other fundamental constants. This expression and supporting arguments largely fulfill the long-standing goal of unifying gravity with the other forces. Phenomena spanning atomic nuclei to the large-scale cosmos and the basic physical elements, mass, space, and time, are thereby seen as comprising an interdependent (unified) whole. Meanwhile, a virtual industry of fanciful, far-from-fundamental mathematical distractions clog up the literature of what is still called fundamental physics. By contrast with this dubious activity---most importantly---the new conception is empirically testable. The test would involve probing gravity where it has not yet been probed: inside (through the center) of every body of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1874] **viXra:1801.0330 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-26 15:13:08*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Fixed author name (Edwin Klingman) and made two minor wording improvements.

After the physicality of existence, gravity's role in the Universe is the most fundamental thing. This role has various manifestations which, it is argued, have been largely misinterpreted by modern physics. An alternative conception of gravity---one that agrees with firmly established empirical evidence---is most compactly characterized by its definition of Newton's constant in terms of other fundamental constants. This expression and supporting arguments largely fulfill the long-standing goal of unifying gravity with the other forces. Phenomena spanning atomic nuclei to the large-scale cosmos and the basic physical elements, mass, space, and time, are thereby seen as comprising an interdependent (unified) whole. Meanwhile, a virtual industry of fanciful, far-from-fundamental mathematical distractions clog up the literature of what is still called fundamental physics. By contrast with this dubious activity---most importantly---the new conception can be empirically tested by probing gravity where it has not yet been probed: inside (through the center) of every body of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1873] **viXra:1801.0308 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-16 03:13:37*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This author has already proposed a new theory, Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), that can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect, the Silvertooth experiment, the Roland De Witte experiment, the Venus planet radar range data anomaly ( analyzed and reported by Bryan G Wallace ) and other experiments. According to AST, there will be an apparent change in position of a light source as seen by the observer, for absolutely co-moving source and observer. The 'null' result of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) is explained as follows. The effect of absolute motion is just to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the detector. There will be no (significant) fringe shift in the MMX for the same reason that there will be no (significant) fringe shift if the source position was actually, physically shifted slightly. The fringe shift in Sagnac effect is explained as follows. The source will be apparently shifted away relative to the detector when looking in the backward direction and shifted towards the detector when looking in the forward direction, hence creating a path difference. Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light' ) is re-interpreted and used as one of the foundational arguments in this paper. The new interpretation is that it is the phase velocity of light that is always constant irrespective of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source (absolute) velocity but depends on observer and mirror velocity. For an observer moving near the speed of light away from a light source, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light while the group will be at rest relative to the observer. A contradiction between Apparent Source Theory and the phenomenon of stellar aberration has been found. The contradiction if found to be due to a conflict between conventional stellar aberration theory and the unconventional nature of Apparent Source Theory and hence is only an apparent contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1872] **viXra:1801.0255 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-03 04:46:35*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Mamaev

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

An alternative interpretation of Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory is offered based
upon the only relativity principle in Galileo’s formulation and the second Einstein’s postulate is
cut by Occam’s sickle as superfluous. Instead of Einstein’s second postulate a theorem is proved,
which is a consequence from the relativity postulate, about equality of time measurement units for two light clocks of identical design moving each with respect to another one uniformly and rectilinearly. The proof is based upon a newly introduced concept of light speed in a moving
inertial reference frame. That equality of time measurement units converts the Einstein’s theorem
about moving clock retardation with respect to a stationary clock into an erroneous statement.
Transformation is derived for events space-time coordinates from one inertial frame to another
one with non-invariant light speed. In this interpretation superlight speeds of motion are not
forbidden, the value of a moving particle mass does not depend on the value of the particle
speed, but a value of the moving particle charge does depend upon the value of its speed. This
interpretation provides absolutely new explanation of supernovas and all astronomical
phenomena leading to refusal from Bing Bang hypothesis, “accelerated expansion of the
Universe”, from “dark matter” and from “dark energy”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1871] **viXra:1801.0255 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-24 11:14:35*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

An alternative interpretation of Special Relativity Theory is offered, according to which light clocks of identical design (with accurately identical distance between parallel mirrors of light clocks), moving each with respect the other uniformly and rectilinearly, may be synchronised each with other because they have equal time measurement units and do not retard each from other, retardation of a moving clock with respect a stationary one is absent and superlight speeds of motion are not forbidden. This interpretation provides giving an absolutely new approach to explanation phenomena leading to making a conclusion about “accelerated expansion of the Universe”, to “dark matter” and “dark energy”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1870] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-17 00:43:43*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Sarkar Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This article presents a new theory or at least interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.This theory postulates that :

** Postulate 1:** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c.

** Postulate 2:** Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rub into each other.

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron (i.e. its **zitterbewegung** interpretation) indicates that the speed in the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then transitioning between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time. An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal configuration, and therefore does not contribute to its measurable time.

If an observer races against a photon, the photon will always
lead ahead with a relative speed of c because light advances with respect to the observer only for the duration of the observer's intrinsic motion, i.e. for the full duration of its measurable time. During spatial motion, the observer moves at
the same speed as the photon. Consequently the observed relative speed of light - i.e. the spatial advance of light divided by the measurable time is always c. Thus in the limited sense of racing a photon, constancy of its measured speed is a deduced result here. The broader question of relative velocity of an observer with respect to a photon or a light wave-front is clarified in section 5.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1869] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-15 19:56:50*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Sarkar Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This article presents a new theory or at least interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.This theory postulates that :

** Postulate 1:** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c.

** Postulate 2:** Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rub into each other.

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron (i.e. its **zitterbewegung** interpretation indicates) that the speed in the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then transitioning between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time. An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal configuration, and therefore does not contribute to its measurable time.

If an observer races against a photon, the photon will always
lead ahead with a relative speed of c because light advances with respect to the observer only for the duration of the observer's intrinsic motion, i.e. for the full duration of its measurable time. During spatial motion, the observer moves at
the same speed as the photon. Consequently the observed relative speed of light - i.e. the spatial advance of light divided by the measurable time is always c. Thus in the limited sense of racing a photon, constancy of its measured speed is a deduced result here. The broader question of relative velocity of an observer with respect to a photon or a light wave-front is clarified in section 5.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1868] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-28 07:47:22*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Sarkar Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This article presents a new theory or at least interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.This theory postulates that :

** Postulate 1:** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c.

** Postulate 2:** Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rub into each other.

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron (i.e. its **zitterbewegung** interpretation indicates) that the speed in the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then transitioning between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time. An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal configuration, and therefore does not contribute to its measurable time.

Speed of light is constant regardless of the speed of the observer because light advances with respect to the observer only for the duration of the observer's intrinsic motion, that is for the full duration of its measurable (relativistic) time. During spatial motion, the observer moves with the light. Consequently the observed relative speed of light - i.e. the spatial advance of light divided by the measurable time is always c. Hence constancy of speed of light, which is a postulate for Einstein's relativity, is a deduced result here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1867] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-23 16:14:32*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Sarkar Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This article presents a new theory or at least interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.This theory postulates that :
**Postulate 1:** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c.

**Postulate 2:** Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rub into each other.

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron already shows that the speed in the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then transitioning between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time.
An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal configuration, and therefore does not contribute to its measurable time.

Speed of light is constant regardless of the speed of the observer because light advances with respect to the observer only for the duration of the observer's intrinsic motion, that is for the full duration of its measurable (relativistic) time. During spatial motion, the observer moves with the light. Consequently the observed relative speed of light - i.e. the spatial advance of light divided by the measurable time is always c. Hence constancy of speed of light, which is a postulate for Einstein's relativity, is a deduced result here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1866] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-22 12:09:16*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Sarkar Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 18 Pages. We have expanded the paper and added new references.

This article presents a new theory or at least interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.This theory postulates that :
Postulate 1: The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c.
Postulate 2: Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rub into each other.
Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron already shows that the speed in the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then transitioning between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time.
An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal configuration, and therefore does not contribute to its measurable time.
Speed of light is constant regardless of the speed of the observer because light advances with respect to the observer only for the duration of the observer's intrinsic motion, that is for the full duration of its measurable (relativistic) time. During spatial motion, the observer moves with the light. Consequently the observed relative speed of light - i.e. the spatial advance of light divided by the measurable time is always c. Hence constancy of speed of light, which is a postulate for Einstein's relativity, is a deduced result here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1865] **viXra:1801.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-23 19:48:55*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The x-direction Galilean and Lorentz space-time transformations are both effectively two-dimensional matrix transformations, so a simple four-parameter general framework of which both are special cases is easily devised. Moreover, passing from the general space-time transformation to its velocity counterpart uniquely singles out one of those four parameters as the general transformation's intrinsic x-direction constant velocity. This allows the "principle of relativity" to be extended to such general transformations; it applies when the transformation's inversion is accomplished by reversing the sign of its intrinsic velocity. Both the Galilean and Lorentz transformations abide by the "principle of relativity", and the Galilean transformation in addition refrains from altering the time coordinate. The Michelson-Morley null result, however, motivates the Lorentz transformation to refrain from changing the speed of light, which is readily shown to be outright incompatible with transformation-invariant time. The Lorentz transformation's pairing of invariant light speed with the "relativity principle" is closely allied to its
preservation of the Minkowski quadratic form.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1864] **viXra:1801.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-24 06:29:31*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 3 pages, 1 figure

Dark energy, a mysterious and unknown form of energy is rightfully considered as the reason for causing the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Universe expanding at an accelerated rate instead of slowing down or even coming to a stop seems extremely uncanny. In this paper I present a theory/model as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the mysterious accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this theory/model, the large-scale structures are receding away from each other at an accelerated rate instead of space undergoing accelerated expansion. The reason why a large-scale structure recedes into the cosmic wilderness has also been unravelled in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1863] **viXra:1801.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-24 03:26:13*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A moving object in one inertial reference frame always moves at a different speed in another
inertial reference frame. To determine this different speed, a temporary acceleration
is applied to a duplicate of the first inertial reference frame in order to match
the second inertial reference frame. The velocity transformation between two inertial
reference frames is precisely derived based on the applied acceleration. The result shows that
velocity transformation depends solely on the relative motion between inertial
reference frames. Velocity transformation is independent of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1862] **viXra:1801.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-02 21:05:49*

**Authors:** Peter C Morris

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We have obtained new evidence for dynamical space by applying correlation analysis to a year of data from a Random Event Generator (REG) device located in Perth, Australia and from another in Muenster, Germany, recorded between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. The results obtained are consistent with results obtained earlier by applying the same analysis to data obtained from a REG located in Manchester UK and the REG in Perth. Consequently evidence for dynamical space is mounting. For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by fitting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination and speed for the waves of each day. A probability density plot of the incoming directions exhibited a peak near RA = 4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations of incoming 3-space flow direction by Cahill and Dayton Miller. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inflow velocities from the observed velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with predictions of Dynamical 3-Space theory. The peak indicated a most probable average galactic flow direction of RA = 4.49 h, dec = -80.4 deg, and wave speed of 494 km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1861] **viXra:1801.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-10 02:18:28*

**Authors:** Peter C Morris

**Comments:** 11 Pages, 11 Figures

We have obtained new evidence for dynamical space by applying correlation analysis to a year of data from a Random Event Generator (REG) device located in Perth, Australia and from another in Muenster, Germany, recorded between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. The results obtained are consistent with results obtained earlier by applying the same analysis to data obtained from a REG located in Manchester UK and the REG in Perth. Consequently evidence for dynamical space is mounting.
For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by fitting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination and speed for the waves of each day.
A probability density plot of the incoming directions exhibited a peak near RA = 4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations of incoming 3-space flow direction by Cahill and Dayton Miller. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inflow velocities from the observed velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with predictions of Dynamical 3-Space theory. The peak indicated a most probable average galactic flow direction of RA = 4.49 h, dec = -80.4 deg, and wave speed of 508 km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1860] **viXra:1801.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-04 11:44:23*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

This consciousness theory of everything (TOE) also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory.
Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum rigid stringy fully entangled particles.
Each particle is supposed to be entangled with 8 or 12 CP symmetric particles located inside 8 or 12 universal bubbles at long distance.
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic big bang nucleus as the creation of a limited symmetrical multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity (CP) mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1859] **viXra:1801.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-03 17:49:14*

**Authors:** Philip J. Carter

**Comments:** Version 2 adds a step to the derivation on page 10.

With scant regard for conventional paradigms we look squarely at the evidence and derive a space-time framework accounting for quantum non-locality and retro-causality. On this basis we gather insight into the origins of time, space and mass. We derive the mass-transformation formula according to Special Relativity and provide a context for the internal symmetries of the Standard Model. To provide a philosophical context we derive the central structure of the esoteric cosmological model from first principles while demonstrating its consistency with the framework. As a result of this unification, consciousness enters physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1858] **viXra:1712.0673 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-07 08:29:27*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** A little upgraded version V1 and now contains two versions: Engl., pages 1-13; and Rus. Pages 14-28

In this paper the “conventions problem” in physics is considered, first of all in application to mechanics .
Key words: Space, Time, mechanics, Lorentz transformations, relativity theories, conventions

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1857] **viXra:1712.0598 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-04 11:18:29*

**Authors:** Jonathan W. Tooker

**Comments:** 283 Pages. 96 figures, solid

The modified cosmological model (MCM) has been an active research program
since 2009 and here we summarize the highlights while providing background and
insights as they demonstrate mathematical merit. The main ``modification'' that
underpins this work is to consider the principle of greatest action, not least,
but cosmological energy functions do not appear. To accommodate infinite action
we develop a transfinite analytical framework $^\star\mathbb{C}$. In the first
chapter we define the MCM system as the union of two Kaluza--Klein theories
disconnected by a topological obstruction. We identify a detail overlooked by
Feynman in his ``many double slits'' thought experiment with which we directly
motivate the principle of maximum action. Chapter two is mostly a review of
fundamental concepts including twistors and quaternions. Much attention in
chapter three is given to what are perceived as criticisms of the MCM mechanism
for the unification of the theories of gravitation and quanta, and we closely
examine the derivation of Einstein's equation from unrelated MCM concepts. The
main technical result in chapter three is to demonstrate that dark energy and
expanding space are inherent to the MCM metric and we examine the role of the
advanced electromagnetic potential in ``hyperspacetime.'' Chapter four is a
tour de force starting with a review of the foundations of the MCM. We extend
Dirac's bra-ket to an MCM inner product for $^\star\mathbb{C}$. We continue
with a study of conformal infinity and the transfinite extension into the
region ``beyond conformal infinity.'' The double slit experiment gives an
example of the empirical/philosophical utilities of the MCM principles and we
examine their extension into the realm of numerical analysis before deriving
the main result: a new formulation for the mass-energy budget of the universe
that agrees perfectly with $\Lambda$CDM.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1856] **viXra:1712.0527 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-22 03:17:59*

**Authors:** Wan-Chung Hu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Angle change is not fully explained in special relativity. This article is focusing on angle change in special relativity and to derive spinity by the concept of additive angular velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1855] **viXra:1712.0489 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-28 02:49:35*

**Authors:** John Lawrence Duval

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The only way to comprehensively refute Einstein's SRT Time Dilation idea, is to reveal the errors - both logical and trigonometric - in the thought experiment upon which it is based. This work does just that.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1854] **viXra:1712.0480 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-30 22:11:02*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed.

The article presents our innovative method of deriving dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity. This method enables to derive infinitely dynamics in relativistic mechanics. We have shown five examples of these derivations. In this way, we have shown that the dynamics known today as the dynamics of Special Theory of Relativity is only one of infinitely possible. There is also no reason to treat this relativistic dynamics as exceptional, either for experimental or theoretical reasons. Therefore, determination of which possible dynamics of relativistic mechanics is a correct model of reality remains an open problem of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1853] **viXra:1712.0470 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-16 14:59:22*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Fixed several typos

We show that the Kerr metric for de Sitter spacetime is consistent with the demand that the associated Einstein field equations be derived from a simple conformally invariant Lagrangian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1852] **viXra:1712.0387 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-30 22:18:03*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 23 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed. (in Polish)

W artykule przedstawiliśmy naszą nowatorską metodę wyprowadzania dynamik w Szczególnej Torii Względności. Metoda ta pozwala na wyprowadzenie w mechanice relatywistycznej nieskończenie wielu dynamik. Pokazaliśmy pięć przykładów takich wyprowadzeń. Wykazaliśmy w ten sposób, że dynamika znana dzisiaj jako dynamika Szczególnej Teorii Względności jest tylko jedną z nieskończenie wielu możliwych. Nie ma także żadnej podstawy, aby tą obowiązującą dynamikę relatywistyczną traktować jako wyjątkową, ani z powodów eksperymentalnych, ani z powodów teoretycznych. W związku z tym rozstrzygnięcie, która z możliwych dynamik mechaniki relatywistycznej jest prawidłowym modelem rzeczywistości pozostaje otwartym problemem fizyki.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1851] **viXra:1712.0387 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-17 04:25:57*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Method of deriving numerous dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish)

W artykule przedstawiliśmy naszą nowatorską metodę wyprowadzania dynamik w Szczególnej Torii Względności. Metoda ta pozwala na wyprowadzenie w mechanice relatywistycznej nieskończenie wielu dynamik. Pokazaliśmy pięć przykładów takich wyprowadzeń. Wykazaliśmy w ten sposób, że dynamika znana dzisiaj jako dynamika Szczególnej Teorii Względności jest tylko jedną z nieskończenie wielu możliwych. Nie ma także żadnej podstawy, aby tą obowiązującą dynamikę relatywistyczną traktować jako wyjątkową, ani z powodów eksperymentalnych, ani z powodów teoretycznych. W związku z tym rozstrzygnięcie, która z możliwych dynamik mechaniki relatywistycznej jest prawidłowym modelem rzeczywistości pozostaje otwartym problemem fizyki.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology