**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(9) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(14) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(34) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(30)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(33) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(33) - 1509(38) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(33) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(32) - 1605(30) - 1606(44) - 1607(22) - 1608(39) - 1609(45) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(32)

2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(46) - 1705(31) - 1706(31) - 1707(28) - 1708(28) - 1709(42) - 1710(34) - 1711(41) - 1712(49)

2018 - 1801(35) - 1802(41) - 1803(46) - 1804(47) - 1805(39) - 1806(35)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[2952] **viXra:1806.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-22 15:01:00*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: A forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 8th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown incorporating the Z(4430) tetraquark both as normal matter and DM

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2951] **viXra:1806.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-21 10:46:36*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

-relative to Bell’s theorem
-and more

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2950] **viXra:1806.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-21 01:19:56*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

the theoretical development of temporal curvature, the theory required for the notion of temporal elasticity in gravitation, physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2949] **viXra:1806.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-20 15:30:42*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Nardozza

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We present some formulas and calculations worked out while studying the Schwartzschild Solution. Nothing new!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2948] **viXra:1806.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-15 14:28:37*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In Polish.

Radialna składowa przyspieszenia grawitacyjnego w Czarnodziurowym Wszechświecie dla małych odległości od centrum w stosunku do promienia Wszechświata pokrywa się z radialną składową przyspieszenia wynikającą z grawitacyjnego prawa Gaussa.
###
The radial component of gravitational acceleration in the Black Hole Universe for small distances from the center in relation to the radius of the Universe coincides with the radial component of the acceleration resulting from the Gauss’ Law for Gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2947] **viXra:1806.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-15 14:31:48*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The radial component of gravitational acceleration in the Black Hole Universe for small distances from the center in relation to the radius of the Universe coincides with the radial component of the acceleration resulting from the Gauss’ Law for Gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2946] **viXra:1806.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-16 11:22:35*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

a brief review of unification inspired by relativity and some relevant personal thoughts

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2945] **viXra:1806.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-16 17:29:10*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

a brief letter to Dr. Hawking asking for help

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2944] **viXra:1806.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-17 10:50:13*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

a sweet dedication to Stephen Hawking, one of my spirtual mentors / inspirators

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2943] **viXra:1806.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-17 13:28:07*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

primordial antimatter black holes: their unique characteristics define the early cosmos and evolution of it

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2942] **viXra:1806.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-18 00:41:02*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A new explanation of the Michelson-Morley experiment is presented in this paper. This paper reveals the subtle nature of light that has eluded physicists for centuries. It is revealed that the puzzle of the speed of light is solved only by a new theory that is a fusion of the classical theories: ether theory and emission theory of light, the two theories that have been wrongly seen as rivals for centuries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2941] **viXra:1806.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-18 04:05:22*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

an explanation of baryon asymmetry, accelerating expansion rate, and dark energy via PABHs, primordial antimatter black holes – and – their interactions

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2940] **viXra:1806.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-19 20:28:19*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 5 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times greater than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very large, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the paper emphasizes upon the actual recession of large-scale structures. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2939] **viXra:1806.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-20 03:23:59*

**Authors:** T. Yarman, A.L. Kholmetskii, C. Marchal, O. Yarman, M. Arik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Eötvös experiment has been taken as basis for metric theories of gravity and particularly for the general theory of relativity (GTR), which assumes that gravitational and inertial masses are identical. We highlight the fact that, unlike the long lasting and reigning belief, the setup by Eötvös experiments and its follow-ups serve to demonstrate no more than a mere linear proportionality between said masses, and not ineludibly their exclusive equality. So much so that, as one distinct framework, Yarman–Arik–Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory, where a purely metric approach is not aimed, makes the identity between inertial and gravitational masses no longer imperative while still remaining in full conformance with the result of the Eötvös experiment, as well as that of free fall experiments. It is further shown that Eötvös experiment deprives us of any knowledge concerning the determination of the proportionality coefficient coming into play. Henceforward, the Eötvös experiment and its follow-ups cannot be taken as a rigorous foundation for GTR. In this respect, we suggest a crucial test of the equality of gravitational and inertial masses via the comparison of the oscillation periods of two pendulums with different arm lengths, where the deviation of the predictions by GTR and by YARK theory represents a measurable value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2938] **viXra:1806.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-14 12:15:29*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 22 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Russian).

В статье выведен целый класс преобразований времени и положения. Эти преобразования выведены на основе анализа эксперимента Майкельсона-Морли и его усовершенствованной версии – эксперимента Кеннеди-Торндайка. На основе каждого из этих преобразований можно вывести другую кинематику тел. Таким способом мы продемонстрировали, что Специальная теория относительности (СТО) не является единственной теорией, объясняющей результаты экспериментов со светом. Существует целый континуум теорий кинематики тел, которые правильно объясняют эксперимент Майкельсона-Морли, а также другие эксперименты, в которых измеряют скорость света.
На основе выведенных преобразований получаем общий вид выражения для скорости света в вакууме, измеренной в произвольной инерциальной системе отсчета (ИСО). Мы объясняем, почему эксперименты Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка не смогли выявить наличие эфира. Представляем и обсуждаем три примера конкретных преобразований. В заключение объясняем явление анизотропии реликтового излучения (РИ) с использованием представленной теории.
Представленную в данной работе теорию мы назвали Специальной теорией эфира (СТЭ) – с произвольным поперечным сокращением. Статья содержит лишь оригинальные исследования, поведенные ее авторами.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2937] **viXra:1806.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-13 09:41:10*

**Authors:** Tarzan Graystone

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The scope of this exercise is not to propose any initiation mechanism1 for proband systems but rather to follow the latter components of an emergent system event and extrapolate a timeline, to connect the dots, in a lineage of multi-object systems from , primordial emergent anlage to a fission system. These taxonomic classifications will resolve multi-object morphological dilemmas. The next publication will include discussions of larger family groups.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2936] **viXra:1806.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-11 09:17:00*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 1 Page.

the explanation for baryon asymmetry

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2935] **viXra:1806.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-11 10:39:19*

**Authors:** V.A. Kasimov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English

As often in discussions of the theory of relativity denied the existence of the twin paradox, there is a need to dwell on this again. It is shown that the formal means of SRT and GRT a paradox twins are not resolved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2934] **viXra:1806.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-11 21:15:18*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Chinese Version

Abstract: The theory of electrodynamic space-time relativity (TESTR) is the study of the transformation of time and space between two electrodynamic inertial frames of reference, which have both inertial velocity difference and electric potential difference. It is a fundamental space-time theory of theoretical physics based on the Einstein’s special theory of relativity (STR), the electric potential limit postulate and the high-precision experimental facts of the inversion proportional square law of Coulomb’s force.
It also proposed new basic physical concepts, such as electric potential limit, quaternion velocity, quaternion electric potential, etc. The two basic physical quantities, electric potential, and velocity are unified through the form of quaternions. It revealed the inherent relationships between the quaternion velocity or the quaternion electric potential and space-time. In mathematical form, it starts with the special theory of relativity in the real form and develop into the complex form and then further into the quaternion form. In the physical sense, it expands the special relativity from having an only inertial frame of reference to having both the inertial frame of reference and electric equipotential frame of reference.
This paper discusses in detail the process of establishing the theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity and theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity as well as their various conversions and transformations. With the use of the new concept of system time, it leads to the expression of the fundamental equations of TESTR to be as concise as the form of Galilean transformation. Also, its content is also more symmetrical and universal. It can correctly derive a set of more complex equations of the special three-dimensional theory of relativity. At the same time, proved that the special theory of relativity is a special case of TESTR, and found another important new special case: the theory of electric potential relativity (TEPR). The basic effects of TESTR were also discussed. It predicts some important new space-time change effects, for example, the electric potential time expansion effect. Such proposed effects would provide some theoretical basis for the experimental validation of TESTR. The appendix of the paper proves mathematically that the basic equations of the theory are consistent with the hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2933] **viXra:1806.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-11 21:36:15*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 18 Pages. English Version

Abstract: The theory of electrodynamic space-time relativity (TESTR) is the study of the transformation of time and space between two electrodynamic inertial frames of reference, which have both inertial velocity difference and electric potential difference. It is a fundamental space-time theory of theoretical physics based on the Einstein’s special theory of relativity (STR), the electric potential limit postulate and the high-precision experimental facts of the inversion proportional square law of Coulomb’s force.
It also proposed new basic physical concepts, such as electric potential limit, quaternion velocity, quaternion electric potential and etc. The two basic physical quantities, electric potential and velocity, are unified through the form of quaternions. It revealed the inherent relationships between the quaternion velocity or the quaternion electric potential and space-time. In mathematical form, it starts with the special theory of relativity in the real form and develop into the complex form and then further into the quaternion form. In the physical sense, it expands the special relativity from having an only inertial frame of reference to having both the inertial frame of reference and electric equipotential frame of reference.
This paper discusses in detail the process of establishing the theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity and theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity as well as their various conversions and transformations. With the use of the new concept of system time, it leads to the expression of the fundamental equations of TESTR to be as concise as the form of Galilean transformation. In addition, its content is also more symmetrical and universal. It can correctly derive a set of more complex equations of the special three-dimensional theory of relativity. At the same time, proved that the special theory of relativity is a special case of TESTR, and found another important new special case: the theory of electric potential relativity (TEPR). The basic effects of TESTR were also discussed. It predicts some important new space-time change effects, for example, the electric potential time expansion effect. Such proposed effects would provide some theoretical basis for the experimental validation of TESTR. The appendix of the paper proves mathematically that the basic equations of the theory are consistent with the hypothesis.
Keyword: special theory of relativity, postulates of electric potential limit, the theory of electric potential relativity，theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity, the theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity,

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2932] **viXra:1806.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-10 15:57:07*

**Authors:** Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It can be shown that the anomalously high rates of rotation of the outer regions of galaxies follow from the constancy and finiteness of the rate of gravitational interaction, which is equal to the speed of light in accordance with general relativity of A. Einstein. Since the speed of propagation of the gravitational interaction is constant and equal to the speed of light, then for compensation of lag of the gravitational field, an increase in the mass velocity will always be used, since the metric tensor according to general relativity of A. Einstein is depends on to both geometry and kinematics of masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2931] **viXra:1806.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-10 16:52:51*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page. Excuse confusion between X and Z tetraquarks

Abstract: The development of HCE8S theory has advanced to a point that a connection can be discerned between the prolific tetraquark Z(4430) and HCE8S theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2930] **viXra:1806.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-09 13:12:42*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

"BUT states that two features with matching description are mapped to a single feature
one dimension lower, provided the function under assessment is continuous."
This as rendered is not tautologous due to the C contingency values (falsity), hence refuting BUT.
BUT is properly named the Borsuk-Ulam conjecture (BUC).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2929] **viXra:1806.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-10 04:02:18*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

a brief informal discussion of gravistrong, gravitation + strong-force, unification

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2928] **viXra:1806.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-07 09:44:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

In an inertial frame of reference, a body with zero net force acting on it does not accelerate. [28] A team led by researchers María José Caturla and Carlos Untiedt, from the University of Alicante Department of Applied Physics, have studied the importance of relativistic effects on long-range interactions between objects. [27] The theory of the Breit-Wheeler process says it should be possible to turn light into matter by smashing two particles of light (photons) together to create an electron and a positron. However, past attempts to do this have required the addition of other high-energy particles. [26] Dr. Pascal Del'Haye and his team at NPL have created an optical version of a diode that transmits light in one direction only, and can be integrated in microphotonic circuits. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2927] **viXra:1806.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-07 10:15:31*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Polish.

Przedstawiono istotne różnice dotyczące właściwości pola grawitacyjnego Ziemi i pola grawitacyjnego Czarnodziurowego Wszechświata.
###
Significant differences regarding the properties of the Earth's gravitational field and the gravitational field of the Black Hole Universe are presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2926] **viXra:1806.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-07 10:19:45*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Significant differences regarding the properties of the Earth's gravitational field and the gravitational field of the Black Hole Universe are presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2925] **viXra:1806.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-07 14:28:07*

**Authors:** Bill Tantalos

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The writer finds solutions, with simple mathematics, of the famous mass-energy equation of Einstein. By generalizing this equation, so that it also includes the physics of the microcosm, quantum mechanics, it discovers a new equation which unifies the General Relativity Theory with quantum mechanics. A fundamental equation, in a simple form, which explains the Big Bang, the beginning of the universe creation and describes the physics of both the macrocosm and the microcosm. It is the Theory of Everything or otherwise Quantum Gravity. The behavior of an exotic particle, the tachyon, is mentioned, and its relation with the Big Bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2924] **viXra:1806.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-06 10:07:16*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

We require all the components of the Kaluza-Klein metric tensor to be generally-covariant across all five dimensions by deconstructing the metric tensor into Dirac-type square root operators. This decouples the fifth dimension from the Kaluza-Klein scalar, makes this dimension timelike not spacelike, makes the metric tensor inverse non-singular, covariantly reveals the quantum fields of the photon, makes Kaluza-Klein fully compatible with Dirac theory, and roots this fifth dimension in the physical reality of the chiral, pseudo-scalar and pseudo-vector particles abundantly observed in particle physics based on Dirac’s gamma-5 operator, thereby “fixing” all of the most perplexing problem in Kaluza-Klein theory. Albeit with additional new dynamics expected, all of the benefits of Kaluza-Klein theory are retained, insofar as providing a geometrodynamic foundation for Maxwell’s equations, the Lorentz Force motion and the Maxwell-Stress energy tensor, and insofar as supporting the viewpoint that the fifth dimension is, at bottom, the matter dimension.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2923] **viXra:1806.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-05 12:35:05*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: A forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 8th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the energy cycle is shown incorporating my latest ideas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2922] **viXra:1806.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-06 03:29:53*

**Authors:** V.A. Kasimov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. English

The question of whether the necessary postulate of the constancy of the speed of light for the construction of the Special Theory of Relativity was raised and discussed, at least two independent authors [1, 2]. The answer to this question is methodologically very important in recognition of the fact that the foundations of the output of the Galilean transformations and Lorentz are the same basic properties of substantial space and time of Newton. It turned out that in the classical physics "hiding" a contradiction in the substantial properties of space and time. What is the essence of this contradiction? The article attempts to answer this question.
Note that the authors of the mentioned works have received their findings generally avoiding mention of the words "light" and "the speed of its spread".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2921] **viXra:1806.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-05 03:00:03*

**Authors:** Giorgio Capezzali

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The observations of the M87 jet with the STIS instrument mounted on board the Hubble Space Telescope revealed that an outburst originating in the HST-1 knot occurred. Measuring the dimensions of the outburst in the epochs between 2001 July 30 and 2003 July 27 and correcting for optical illusion an expansion velocity v/c = 0.99893 ± 0.00007 is found. However, the relativistic model fails to correctly predict the dimensions of the source and the outburst brightness. For this reason, as the apparent motion suggests, a superluminal mechanical model where even the light rays travel faster than light is introduced. By applying this model to correct for optical illusion an expansion velocity v/c = 21.8 ± 0.7 is found along with reasonable source dimensions and brightness. This result, the study of the apparent motion of features in the M87 jet and the time-of-flight measurements of muonic neutrinos seem to confirm the possibility to travel faster than light. That does not imply a refusal of special relativity. Instead only the dogmatic interpretations of it are refused. Without them, the so-called twin paradox does not have any reason to exist. Further developments of physics, for example in the superluminal world, will be forbidden as long as the religious view of special relativity is continuously provided by mainstream science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2920] **viXra:1806.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-03 10:58:15*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Radar guns provide an excellent and inexpensive means of explaining and demonstrating some of Einstein’s theories in a very simple and undeniable way. Specifically, radar guns demonstrate how the speed of the emitter cannot add to the speed of the light being emitted, but the speed of light can be combined with the speed of the receiver. In practice, this appears to conflict with a basic tenet of mathematicians who believe that motion is reciprocal, and therefore radar guns must show that motion is reciprocal. A step by step analysis of how radar guns work shatters that basic tenet.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2919] **viXra:1806.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-04 05:09:51*

**Authors:** Trevor W. Marshall

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In a previous article it was shown that the end state for the dust metric of Oppenheimer and Snyder has most of its mass concentrated just inside the gravitational radius; it is proposed that the resulting object be considered as an idealized \emph{shell collapsar}. Here the treatment is extended to include the family of interior metrics described by Weinberg, and involving the curvature parameter of a Friedmann metric. The end state is again a shell collapsar, with a shell which becomes more concentrated as the curvature parameter increases, which shows that the details of the shell structure are dependent on the initial density profile at the beginning of the collapse. What is lacking in most previous commentaries on the Oppenheimer-Snyder article is the recognition that their matching of the time coordinate at the surface implies a finite upper limit for the comoving time coordinate. A collapse process having all the matter going inside the gravitational radius would require comoving times which go outside that limit.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2918] **viXra:1806.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-02 22:06:08*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 165 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Moon and Earth gravitational interaction explained with Gravitons
“I explained the Gravitational force between Earth and Moon, mediated by Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
Distance from the center of the earth to the center of the moon is 384,400,000 m
Gravitational force between Moon and Earth: 1.9 × 10^20 N
The gravitational potential energy between Moon and Earth: 7.6 × 10^28 J
What is the energy of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon?
I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz
I consider the Moon made of electrons.
The Moon is made of 8 × 10^52 electrons
Each electron emits a Graviton.
The energy of each Graviton: 9.5 × 10^(-25) J
Graviton energy: a×f
This means the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon: 5.9 × 10^51 Hz
I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth, Moon must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^51 Hz
This is another proof that Ferent Gravitation theory is right!
One argument against my Gravitation theory was that the Gravitons are too small to mediate the gravitational force between planets.
“I explained the Gravitational force between Earth and Moon, mediated by Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
You learned from Einstein gravitation theory, from your professors that Gravitation is caused by the spacetime curvature.
There are also waves of the spacetime curvature, the gravitational waves.
This is another proof that Ferent gravitation theory is right and Einstein gravitation theory, String theory, LQG… are wrong theories.
The massless Gravitons have infinite range:
“Gravitons mediate the Gravitational force between planets, between stars, between galaxies…”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the graviton flux emitted by the Earth is bigger than the graviton flux emitted by the Moon, the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth, Newton’s third law is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
80. I am the first who explained Moon and Earth gravitational interaction with Gravitons
81. I am the first who explained because the graviton flux emitted by the Earth is bigger than the graviton flux emitted by the Moon, the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth
82. I am the first who explained because the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth, Newton’s third law is wrong

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2917] **viXra:1805.0525 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-29 13:42:50*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

From four Maxwell-Hertz equations for the vacuum and two modified material equations, two equations describing the propagation of the electromagnetic wave with the slower speed, the stronger the gravitational field, were obtained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2916] **viXra:1805.0524 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-29 14:07:02*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** Pages.

Z czterech wektorowych równań Maxwella-Hertza dla próżni i dwóch zmodyfikowanych wektorowych równań materiałowych, otrzymano dwa równania wektorowe opisujące propagację fali elektromagnetycznej z prędkością o wartości tym mniejszej, im silniejsze jest pole grawitacyjne.
###
From four Maxwell-Hertz equations for the vacuum and two modified material equations, two equations describing the propagation of the electromagnetic wave with the slower speed, the stronger the gravitational field, were obtained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2915] **viXra:1805.0512 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-28 08:29:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Now a group of actual physicists from Australia and Switzerland have proposed a device which uses the quantum tunneling of magnetic flux around a capacitor, breaking time-reversal symmetry. [26]
The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25]
The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
“We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23]
Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2914] **viXra:1805.0508 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-28 11:17:35*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** Pages.

Ze zmodyfikowanych równań Maxwella-Hertza w postaci trójwymiarowej wynika, że fale grawitacyjne mają wpływ na zjawiska elektromagnetyczne. Możliwa jest zatem bardzo prosta metoda detekcji pól grawitacyjnych o zmieniającej się w czasie wartości wyznacznika tensora metrycznego.
###
From the modified Maxwell-Hertz equations in three-dimensional form, it appears that gravitational waves have an effect on electromagnetic phenomena. Therefore, a very simple method of detection of gravitational fields with a time-varying value of the determinant of the metric tensor is possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2913] **viXra:1805.0507 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-28 11:20:38*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** Pages.

From the modified Maxwell-Hertz equations in three-dimensional form, it appears that gravitational waves have an effect on electromagnetic phenomena. Therefore, a very simple method of detection of gravitational fields with a time-varying value of the determinant of the metric tensor is possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2912] **viXra:1805.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-27 23:05:47*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 4 pages, 10 equations, 4 references.

Our realistic non-singular approach to cosmology predicts an upper bound to measurable cosmic redshifts. This corresponds to the lowest possible scale where the density of electromagnetic radiation equates the density of matter. We examine the highest possible
redshifts that correspond to a cold cyclic cosmology where galaxies survive to remain the main protagonists forever. A tight range for
highest redshift like 11<z<20 is predicted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2911] **viXra:1805.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-28 03:50:32*

**Authors:** Alexander I.Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 1 Page. dubinyansky@mail.ru

http://universe100.narod.ru/E350-Einstein.html .
A simple experiment is proposed, without any measurement of the speed of light, to determine the absolute reference frame in space. It can be held by every scientist who has a Foucault pendulum. That is a compact load of great weight, on a very long and thin string. This experiment will put an end to the dispute, there is an ether or does not exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2910] **viXra:1805.0475 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-26 08:49:42*

**Authors:** Ozan Yarman, Ricardo Gobato, Tolga Yarman, Metin Arik.

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This study presents a unique set of solutions, using empirically determined physical quantities, in achieving a novel dimensionless constant α(1/Roo )/PL from the ratio of the inverse of the Rydberg constant to the Planck length. It is henceforth shown that the Lorentz Scalar coming into play, which we dub the Parana constant, necessitates us to interpret the Gravitational constant G as being neither universal nor Lorentz Invariant. Just the same, the elementary charge in the MKS system should not by itself be considered as Lorentz Invariant, but the term e^2 / εo , including its powers, ought to be. That being the case, the “Rydberg constant” must not, according to the present undertaking, be deemed a ubiquitous magnitude either, but the ratio of its reciprocal to Planck length would, in effect, be. The Parana constant is furthermore shown to exhibit meaningfulness as the proportion of the Planck mass to the electron rest mass. Throughout our derivations, we take the oppurtunity to reveal interesting features and deliberate over them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2909] **viXra:1805.0449 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-24 18:44:38*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Please contact me at genebarbee@msn.com

Flat galaxy rotation curves were observed in the 1930’s by Dutch Astronomer Jan Oort. Most cosmologists today attribute the difference between observed flat and calculated declining Keplerian velocity curves to dark matter despite decades of failed efforts to identify it. Recent WMAP [4] and PLANCK mission scientists believe it is 23% of critical density (the total mass or energy in the universe). There are other difficulties:
Why are baryons only 4.6% of critical density?
What is dark energy and why is it 72% of critical density?
What caused the temperature anisotropy measured by WMAP and PLANCK?
Respected literature says “the universe is flat”; what does that mean?
But even more basic:
What is space-time?
Quantum mechanics applies at the small scale and the general theory of relativity is large scale gravitational theory. They appear to be incompatible.
These are not easy problems to solve. Any claim regarding different percentages of critical density will have to address baryon/photon ratios that determine observed fractions of Deuterium, Helium3 and Lithium7. Different claims will also have to address the conditions at equality of photon and mass density and the temperature anisotropy observed at decoupling (where the plasma clears and electrons can orbit protons). To understand space and gravity more thoroughly than Einstein’s general theory of relativity new claims must bridge the small and large scale.
A neutron mass model and cellular cosmology, both previously reported by the author, were combined into a new cosmology model that resolves these questions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2908] **viXra:1805.0445 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-25 03:32:39*

**Authors:** Sandro Antonelli

**Comments:** 9 Pages. CC BY 4.0 Licence by Oalib.com

I outline a new hypothetical approach issuing a second gravitational equation in the scope of a promising model tackling the gravitational wave problem. This wave equation for graviton is framed in the endeavour to bridge the puzzling missing link to allow for quantum scale physics in a unifying gravity theory, through a new coupling constant S: thus wave is regarded as a symmetry breaking of general covariance of field equations through contraction of Riemann tensor by a constant tensor. That also allows an inertial mass to be assigned to the graviton (OE-25 eV/c^2). This extension of General Relativity stems from self-evident considerations on the differential conditions of compatibility involving the two fundamental tensors on the curvature of the Space-Time continuum. Some considerations about last detected events are broached on the gauging of S constant, bringing forth a value that differs of two orders of magnitude with respect to the fitting of known binary star systems, unless source parameters be revised.
Keywords: Gravitational waves; 2nd fundamental tensor; tensorial curl; local and global invariance

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2907] **viXra:1805.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-23 23:21:45*

**Authors:** John Raymond

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Abstract: The 1887 Michelson and Morley experiment continues to be widely seen by mainstream physicists as producing a null result. This is not correct. It produced a less than expected result that at that time could not be explained by science. It seems likely that mainstream physicists will continue to see the results of the Michelson and Morley experiment as being a null result. The reasons for this seem unfathomable. Numerous experiments conducted be respected physicists since 1887 have demonstrated a positive result by replicable experiments. This includes Sagnac in 1913. The Sagnac experiment has never been seriously challenged by the physics community. As a concept scientist I talk about these matters. I have employed Einstein’s lightning, train and observers analogy as a means of demonstrating that the Sagnac effect seems to be a demonstrably reliable theory. This includes other similar theories as well. This is in regards to the splitting of light and the subsequent projection of the resulting two new light sources onto the same surface. conceptscience@bigpond.com

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2906] **viXra:1805.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-24 09:13:41*

**Authors:** Yevgeny B. Karasik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that in addition to the two well known postulates of special relativity, namely the constancy of the speed of light in any inertial frame of reference and the principle of relativity, there is a third postulate special relativity is based upon. This postulate is the assumption that it is possible to synchronize clocks located at different points of the same inertial frame of reference. This assumption implies that common time exists for all points of the same inertial frame of reference, which can be considered as another formulation of the same postulate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2905] **viXra:1805.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-21 06:24:13*

**Authors:** Lars Frølund Jensen

**Comments:** 10 pages.

In this paper I argue for the following assertions:
1. Special Relativity (SR) leads to predictions, which are in conflict with its own foundation.
2. There exist a scientific "approved" alternative theory which – probably – are in completely accordance with all the experimental results, which seems to have confirmed SR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2904] **viXra:1805.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-21 11:37:47*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: In the development of HCE8S theory it has become clear that the microwave background radiation is of lesser importance than the much more energetic dark energy components of metric space expansion and faster space communication. Accordingly, the"bigbangaton" gauge boson needs to be replaced with two new gauge bosons for which I propose the names "Cosmophoton" and "Metricon".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2903] **viXra:1805.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-22 15:56:30*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). This is a direct result of the fourth equation of our manuscript which unconventionally compares the action integral of General relativity with the second derived action integral, which then permits equation 5, which is a bound on the Cosmological constant. What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” . In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a redo of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to show how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle. All this is possible due to equation 4. And we compare all this with results of reference [1] in the conclusion. While showing its relevance to early universe production of black holes, and the volume of space producing 100 black holes of say 10^2 times Planck Mass. Initially in a radii of 10^3 Planck length, of space-time for say entropy of about 1000 initially speaking.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2902] **viXra:1805.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-19 17:47:00*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages. If endorsed as acceptable by Corda, this will be submitted as a would be talk to Marcel Grossman 15, before May 30

We find that having the scale factor close to zero due to a given magnetic field value in, an early universe magnetic field affects how we would interpret Mukhanov’s chapter on ‘self reproduction of the universe’ in in his reference “Physical foundations of cosmology” terms of production of inhomogeneity during inflation and its aftermath. The stronger an early universe magnetic field is, the greater the likelihood of production of about 20 new domains of size 1/ H, with H early universe Hubble’s constant, per Planck time interval in evolution. One final caveat to consider. What may happen is that the Camara (2004) density and Quintessential density (Corda et al.) are both simultaneously satisfied, which would put additional restrictions on the magnetic field which in turn affects structure formation. In time, once Eq.(16) of this paper is refined further, the author hopes that some of the issues raised by Kobayashi and Seto as to allowed inflation models may be addressed, once further refinement of these preliminary results commences . We close as to how fluctuations in the Hubble expansion parameter, H, as given below may affect structure as given in reference [10] below. We close with statements as to the value of in a gravitational potential proportional to and how this adjustment affects the 3 body problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2901] **viXra:1805.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-18 04:51:36*

**Authors:** Christian M. Wackler

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The question whether light moves with constant or variable velocity is indubitably of the utmost importance. Preliminary reflections concerning the nature of that movement contrast the hypotheses of propagation and emission. As a brief historical examination reveals, alleged evidences in favour of the invariance postulate turn out to be erroneous or inconclusive and supposedly decisive tests methodologically invalid. An emission theory based on Michael Faraday's idea of ray vibrations is shown to be in accordance with observation. The question whether the speed of light depends on the velocity of its source has thus not been settled experimentally since only a kinematic test, to date never conducted, can give an unambiguous answer. Juxtaposed to seemingly similar but defective designs Wilhelm Wien put forward in 1904, such an experiment, amending a set-up suggested by Herbert Dingle, is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2900] **viXra:1805.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-15 14:51:04*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: In studying the accuracy of HCE8S theory in predicting mc^2 values for the particles, I have made several minor changes which have improved predictions considerably yet in strange ways

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2899] **viXra:1805.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-15 16:37:07*

**Authors:** Frederik Vantomme

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Is Stephen Hawking’s End of Pi-day a coincidence?

I propose to rewrite the volume equation for the non-euclidian spherical

Universe in terms of *tau* instead of π. Written this new way, a truly elegant

equation and deeper structure becomes visible. Further, I postulate

that the Universe *is* the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, i.e. that the 3

dimensional Universe we live in is the derivative-surface of its 4 dimensional

hypersphere volume.

[2898] **viXra:1805.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-15 03:34:29*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** Pages.

Wykazałem, że wartość prędkości światła w Czarnodziurowym Wszechświecie jest tym mniejsza, im silniejsze jest pole grawitacyjne. Podałem wzór na czas przelotu światła z Ziemi do danego punktu Czarnodziurowego Wszechświata.
###
I showed that the speed of light in the Black Hole Universe is the smaller the stronger the gravitational field. I gave the formula for time of travel of light from the Earth to a given point of the Black Hole Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2897] **viXra:1805.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-15 03:38:00*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I showed that the speed of light in the Black Hole Universe is the smaller the stronger the gravitational field. I gave the formula for time of travel of light from the Earth to a given point of the Black Hole Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2896] **viXra:1805.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-13 08:14:03*

**Authors:** Ayman Kassem

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

This is a model characterised by its simplicity , it explains the events
running from the big bang to the present day and scales from the
planck scale to the size of the universe , all these in terms of one
sub particle and a set of four fundamental forces along with their
subsequent interactions
This is a bottom up approach instead of the usual top down one
the interaction at the planck scale level holds a determinant role
in the play of forces at a cosmological level

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2895] **viXra:1805.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-13 11:26:04*

**Authors:** Laszlo G Meszaros

**Comments:** 3 Pages. None

By using Einstein's procedure to determine whether or not two spatially separated events occur at the same time, it is shown that simultaneity does not depend on the observer's reference frame, but the assessment of simultaneity does. Thus Einstein's claim of relative simultaneity is unsubstantiated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2894] **viXra:1805.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-14 11:21:36*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 26 Pages. First draft

Einstein’s “Gedanken” experiments (thought experiments) - particularly his train-embankment thought experiments - were apparently intended to explain Special Relativity logically and in layman’s terms, but they were written in an incredibly convoluted way, which seems to have resulted in them being misinterpreted by almost everyone. This is the simplified logic of Einstein’s key thought experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2893] **viXra:1805.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-12 23:33:25*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 127 Pages

We form the fundamental particles with mass borrowed from a Higgs type scalar field, but energy also borrowed from the spatial component of zero point fields. At high energies this is from local invariant fields but at cosmic wavelengths from the receding horizon. We explore relating this with gravity and find that it only works in an exponentially expanding flat on average universe. This may relate with the present discrepancy in the different ways of measuring the Hubble parameter. We also relate gravity with what we define as a "Spherically symmetric 4 volume action density" at cosmic wavelengths.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2892] **viXra:1805.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-11 14:32:18*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is felt by many that faster-than-light particles (tachyons) exist though none has been detected so far; this lack of evidence raises some doubt as to whether such particles exist. However, it may not be possible to detect these faster-than-light particles even if they exist. Is there any possibility at all in detecting these particles, if they exist? This paper ponders the existence of tachyons and introduces some possibilities for their detection.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2891] **viXra:1805.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-09 04:30:48*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** Pages.

W ramach czarnodziurowego modelu Wszechświata podałem zależność poczerwienienia światła docierającego do Ziemi od odległości galaktyki będącej źródłem tego światła. Liniowy fragment wykresu tej zależności koresponduje z obserwacjami Hubble’a. Nieliniowa część przedstawia gwałtowny wzrost poczerwienienia.
###
Within the framework of the black-hole model of the Universe, I gave the dependence of the redshift of light reaching the Earth versus the distance of the galaxy that is the source of this light. The linear fragment of the graph of this relationship corresponds with Hubble’s observations. The non-linear part represents a sharp increase of the redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2890] **viXra:1805.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-09 04:38:52*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** Pages.

Within the framework of the black-hole model of the Universe, I gave the dependence of the redshift of light reaching the Earth versus the distance of the galaxy that is the source of this light. The linear fragment of the graph of this relationship corresponds with Hubble’s observations. The non-linear part represents a sharp increase of the redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2889] **viXra:1805.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-08 08:01:50*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Inertia of a body is due to electromagnetic interaction of the body with all matter in the universe. If there is coil B nearby a current carrying coil A whose current is varying with time, voltage and current will be induced in coil B, whose magnetic field will in turn act on coil A, creating a back EMF in coil A, resisting changes in current in coil A. Inertia is fundamentally the same phenomenon. Inertial mass of a body varies with the distance of the body from celestial objects. Inertial mass also varies with absolute velocity. This theory may resolve some long standing mysteries in physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2888] **viXra:1805.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-08 11:56:17*

**Authors:** G. N. N. Martin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There is a fundamental incompatibility between the logic of causality and that of measurement: causality is defined at a point, whereas measurement is defined over a volume. This problem is illustrated by Schrödinger's wave equation for an electron, where the wave equation describes the evolution of the electron by describing the evolution of the wave at each point, but measurement is made on the electron as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2887] **viXra:1805.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-08 15:55:06*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 16 formulas

Escape velocity from the E.G. Haug has been checked. It is compared with orbital velocity formula for an ideal circular path. The formulas are simplified so that we have only one variable that contains the Planck values and the mass of the central body. In the case of an arbitrary star, the values of these velocities are determined during its compression to the black hole. Unlike the standard and relativistic formulas that are approximations for a weak gravitational field, Haug's formula is exact for a weak and strong gravitational field. The relationships between formulas showed the importance of the golden ratio below the Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2886] **viXra:1805.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-07 08:10:19*

**Authors:** Hartmut Traunmüller

**Comments:** Pages.

This is a summary of the cosmological model that emerged in the paper "Towards a more well-founded cosmology". The theory on which the model is based explains the velocity c, the cosmic redshift and the phenomenon of inertia; it predicts the observable relation between the redshift factor (1+z) and the magnitude of distant standard candles (SNe Ia etc.) as well as the observable angular sizes of distant objects (galaxies etc.). It predicts inertia to be reduced at small accelerations - as observable in galactic dynamics and phenomenologically described in Modified Newtonian Mechanics. It honors conservation of energy and the perfect cosmological principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2885] **viXra:1805.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-07 11:40:13*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In IJTP-D-18-00281 or preprint “General relativity and the representation of
solutions”(Sangwha Yi write) in researchgate ,we found new general relativity theory (we
call it Data General Relativity Theory;DGRT). We treats the data of Hawking radiation
by Data general relativity theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2884] **viXra:1805.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-06 07:20:02*

**Authors:** Yury Rabyshko

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The article gives a brief exposition of the solution of cosmological problems. The problem of stability and shortage of mass in galaxies, huge velocities of galactic clusters is solved. The law of formation of fundamental constants, the law of nonlinear expansion of the Universe, the law of gravitational interaction is found. Proof of the hypothesis of large Dirac numbers. This is the English version.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2883] **viXra:1805.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-06 09:02:38*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

An overview of the fundamentals of gravity waves intended for undergraduate physics students, curious high schoolers, and brilliant 4th graders, utilizing the traditional linearized form of Einstein’s field equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2882] **viXra:1805.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-06 09:29:50*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This note proposes a topic to the upcoming 7th Conference on Applied Geometric Algebras.
It conjectures that exact impedance quantization of the fractional quantum Hall effect,
claims of gravitational wave echoes recovered from LIGO/VIRGO data, and mixmaster tidal
oscillations of Professor Thorne’s wife share causal origins in quantized impedance networks
of Geometric Wavefunction Interactions of the particle physicist’s Clifford algebra.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2881] **viXra:1805.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-05 17:41:51*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The twin paradox is considered in a one-way trip. Usually it is considered in a two-way trip. In the usual formulation, the problem, the relative ageing of the twins during the one-way trip, is hidden by the total ageing of the twins in the round trip. It is shown that if we know the relative ageing of the twins during the one-way trip there is no paradox and therefore the allegedly necessity to consider acceleration or the change of the frame argumentations does not emerge. It is also shown that the problem of simultaneity is irrelevant since in a one-way trip the twin can age slower or faster than the stay at home twin and therefore the asymmetry must have an explanation different of the standard explanation based on the time dilation effect. It is shown that Special Relativity is enough to solve the twin paradox. The twin paradox is a classical case of a not well formulated problem (an ill-formulated problem)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2880] **viXra:1805.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-04 13:07:04*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 157 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Because Einstein’s STR is wrong, the scientists at CERN get wrong measurements”
Adrian Ferent
“If you add more energy than the energy at rest, you do not have a proton anymore, you have only energy”
Adrian Ferent
“If the kinetic energy Ek calculated at CERN is 7452 times the rest energy of a proton, they do not collide anymore protons at CERN”
Adrian Ferent
“At CERN they collide protons with 7 TeV and they measure particles with 900 MeV. Where are those 7 TeV?
Adrian Ferent
My Special Theory of Relativity (STR) explains that the proton can not have a kinetic energy higher than the rest energy, 938 MeV.
“Because Einstein’s STR is wrong, the scientists at CERN get wrong measurements”
Adrian Ferent
Infinite!
You learned from Einstein, from your professors, from your books that at the speed of light the energy is infinite!
“The energy at the speed of light is not infinite, the energy is E = m0c^2”
Adrian Ferent
Here is the trouble and all physicists followed him:
“Einstein did not understand Special Theory of Relativity and General Theory of Relativity”
Adrian Ferent
At CERN the scientists say that the protons have the energy 7TeV with a speed v = 99.9999991%•c; they calculated using Einstein’s wrong STR.
Lorentz factor = 7453
The rest energy of a proton is 938 MeV.
The kinetic energy of the proton Ek = 6.99 TeV. My STR explains that the proton can not have a kinetic energy higher than the rest energy, 938 MeV.
“The total energy, must be smaller than E = m0c^2 “
Adrian Ferent
But the kinetic energy Ek calculated at CERN is 7452 times the rest energy of a proton.
“If you add more energy than the energy at rest, you do not have a proton anymore, you have only energy”
Adrian Ferent
“If the kinetic energy Ek calculated at CERN is 7452 times the rest energy of a proton, they do not collide anymore protons at CERN”
Adrian Ferent
From these results Einstein’s equation for the kinetic energy is wrong, and the Lorentz factor is wrong.
The Lorentz factor is right only if the speed is smaller than v = 0.786•c; at CERN the speed is much higher.
“The speed in the Lorentz factor must be smaller than v = 0.786•c, than
v = 2.358×10^8 m/s”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the speed in the Lorentz factor must be smaller than v = 0.786•c, it means the Lorentz transformations are wrong”
Adrian Ferent
If I consider 1 proton has the rest energy of 1 GeV, scientists say at CERN 1 proton has the energy of 7000 protons (7TeV). This means when they collide 2 protons they obtain 14000 protons (14TeV).
That is why at CERN the measurements are wrong, because of Einstein’s wrong STR.
This is the proof that Einstein’s STR is wrong and my STR is right.
Measurement accuracy at CERN: when you want to measure very accurate 1 gram of gold, you do not use 7000 grams to measure 1 gram of gold.
Did they measure 1 TeV the proton energy at Fermilab (Tevatron), 7 TeV the proton energy at CERN (LHC) or only they calculated these energies with Einstein’s STR?
Because my solution for STR: for v = 0.999999991•c at CERN the Lorentz factor is wrong! Einstein’s STR is wrong.
Lorentz transformations are wrong.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2879] **viXra:1805.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-02 10:03:13*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Presented on the 17th of April 2018 at the Ohio Meeting of the American Physical Society, Columbus, Ohio. http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR18/Session/Y13.6

When Einstein formulated his Special Theory of Relativity he tacitly assumed that it is possible to construct systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers consistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Such systems of observers are essential to the Special Theory. By mathematically constructing an infinite system of stationary observers and forcing it to comply with the Lorentz Transformation, it follows that the observers cannot be clocksynchronised. Conversely, by mathematically constructing an infinite system of clocksynchronised observers and forcing it to comply with the Lorentz Transformation, it follows that the observers cannot be stationary. Only one element of each of the said sets of observers has the deceptive appearance of satisfying Einstein's assumption. It is this element which Einstein incorrectly allowed to speak for all observers by virtue of his assumption; but clearly not all observers are equivalent. Furthermore, a system consisting of a single observer cannot be clock-synchronised or stationary with respect to anything. Einstein defined time by means of clocks. In so doing he detached time from physical reality because time is perceived and understood by the motion of celestial bodies, which is independent of the hands of a clock.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2878] **viXra:1804.0496 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-30 14:57:35*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 14 Pages. In Polish.

Podałem nowe relatywistyczne wzory dla energii kinetycznej, spoczynkowej i całkowitej. Przyrost energii kinetycznej cząstki wyznaczyłem jako pracę wykonaną przez składowe przestrzenne czterowektora siły Minkowskiego. Przedstawiłem nową relację między trójwymiarowym pędem relatywistycznym i relatywistyczną energią kinetyczną oraz interpretację składowej czasowej czterowektora siły Minkowskiego.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2877] **viXra:1804.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-30 15:00:59*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 84 Pages. In Polish

W rozprawie tej opisałem zjawisko antygrawitacji w ramach ogólnej teorii względności oraz podałem przykłady jego zastosowania takie jak czarne dziury i nowy model wszechświata wyjaśniający problemy współczesnej kosmologii. Grawitacja i antygrawitacja mają naturę warstwową. Nasz Wszechświat można potraktować jak gigantyczną jednorodną czarną dziurę. Jest izolowany od reszty wszechświata przez obszar czasoprzestrzeni, w którym występuje antygrawitacja. Zaproponowałem stosunkowo prosty eksperyment testujący przedstawione hipotezy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2876] **viXra:1804.0488 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-29 10:50:06*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: A more revealing yet simpler forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of a now 8th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown taking to identify the TR and TF parts of the cycle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2875] **viXra:1804.0471 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-28 16:13:56*

**Authors:** John Roach

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Lorentz Transformation is a flawed Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2874] **viXra:1804.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-28 02:05:55*

**Authors:** V.A. Kasimov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Язык: русский

Examines the relativistic aspects of generalization, which "removed" the distinction between inertial, gravitational, inertia, inert properties of mass, giving rise, however, the problem of non-locality of energy (and its multivariate solution), characteristic of the integral characteristics of the GTR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2873] **viXra:1804.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-26 17:45:41*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the representation of the gravity field equation and solutions. We treats the representation of Schwarzschild solution, Reissner-Nordstrom solution, Kerr-Newman solution,Robertson-Walker solution. Specially, Robertson-Walker solution is an uniqueness.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2872] **viXra:1804.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-27 00:32:57*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 8 Pages. To cite this APS poster presentation: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR18/Session/F01.62

The speed of propagation of Einstein's gravitational waves pertains to the derivation of a wave equation from the linearized ﬁeld equations of General Relativity. It is routinely claimed that the resulting wave equation predicts propagation speed at that of light. However, the speed is in fact coordinate dependent – change the coordinates then the speed of propagation is entirely diﬀerent from that of light. Coordinate changes can be arbitrarily made ad inﬁnitum. Consequently there is no unique propagation speed. The coordinates used by Einstein were purposely introduced to satisfy his assumptions that the waves exist and travel at the speed of light. His argument assumes as premise that which is to be demonstrated and is therefore invalid (petitio principii). Moreover, the objective cannot be achieved because General Relativity cannot localize its gravitational energy - it violates the usual conservation laws for a closed system and is thereby in conﬂict with a vast array of experiments. To try to satisfy the usual conservation laws Einstein constructed his pseudotensor, which is a meaningless collection of mathematical symbols because it violates the rules of pure mathematics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2871] **viXra:1804.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-24 17:51:39*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

While the constructive form of the Liouville theorem is tautologous, its reverse is not which renders it as suspicious and unreliable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2870] **viXra:1804.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-25 06:20:23*

**Authors:** V.A. Kasimov

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Язык: русский

Probably, orthodox physicists will consider the question indecent: Is the second postulate necessary for the construction of a Special theory of Relativity? Nevertheless, this issue was raised and considered by at least two independent authors [1, 2]. This topic is proposed for discussion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2869] **viXra:1804.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-23 12:39:31*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We describe cosmic expansion from the standpoint of an observer’s comoving horizon. When the Universe is small, the observer detects a large amount of the total cosmic bits, which number is fixed. Indeed, information, such as energy, cannot be created or destroyed in our Universe, i.e., the total number of cosmic bits must be kept constant, despite the black hole paradox. When the Universe expands, the information gets ergodically “diluted” in our isotopic and homogeneous Cosmos. This means that the observer can perceive just a lower number of the total bits, due the decreased density of information in the cosmic volume (or its surrounding surface, according to the holographic principle) in which she is trapped by speed light’s constraints. Here we ask: how does the second law of thermodynamics enter in this framework? Could it be correlated with cosmic expansion? The correlation is at least partially feasible, because the decrease in the information detected by a local observer in an expanding Universe leads to an increase in detected cosmic thermodynamic entropy, via the Bekenstein bound and the Laudauer principle. Reversing the classical scheme from thermodynamic entropy to information entropy, we suggest that the quantum vacuum’s cosmological constant, that causes cosmic expansion, could be one of the sources of the increases in thermodynamic entropy detected by local observers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2868] **viXra:1804.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-23 12:48:43*

**Authors:** V.A. Kasimov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Язык: русский

As often in discussions of the theory of relativity denied the existence of the twin paradox, there is a need to dwell on this again. It is shown that the formal means of SRT and GRT a paradox twins are not resolved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2867] **viXra:1804.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-23 13:33:40*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

this paper talks about how can spinning of masses cause so much

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2866] **viXra:1804.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-24 05:44:34*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper will reveal a fundamental logical error of Special Relativity. It will be shown, strictly deducting from Albert Einstein’s own concept, that lengths being measured with clocks do not differ between two systems in relative motion to each other. Furthermore, it is shown that Special Relativity de facto puts two different events into relation and concludes from this the loss of simultaneity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2865] **viXra:1804.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-24 06:48:47*

**Authors:** V.A. Kasimov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Язык: русский

The question of whether the necessary postulate of the constancy of the speed of light for the construction of the Special Theory of Relativity was raised and discussed, at least two independent authors [1, 2]. The answer to this question is methodologically very important in recognition of the fact that the foundations of the output of the Galilean transformations and Lorentz are the same basic properties of substantial space and time of Newton. It turned out that in the classical physics "hiding" a contradiction in the substantial properties of space and time. What is the essence of this contradiction? The article attempts to answer this question.
Note that the authors of the mentioned works have received their findings generally avoiding mention of the words "light" and "the speed of its spread".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2864] **viXra:1804.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-23 08:27:04*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In previous papers we have presented a general formulation of special relativity, based on a weaker statement of the postulates. In this work, the paradigmatic example of the twin paradox is discussed in detail. Within the present formulation of special relativity, a “non-paradoxical” interpretation of the asymmetric ageing of the twins emerges. It is based exclusively on the rhythms of the clocks,
which are not related by the standard textbook expressions and shall not be confused with clock
time readings. Moreover, the current approach exposes the irrelevance of the acceleration of the returning twin in the discussion of the paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2863] **viXra:1804.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-22 15:05:15*

**Authors:** ziaedin Shafiei

**Comments:** 14 pages - Any negative scientific feedback is most welcomed

Special Relativity (SR) was introduced to the scientific world as a revolutionary new compound of ideas. The theory rightly rejected the idea of aether and presented the first case of uncertainty in physics, i.e. the absolute speed of no known frame is known . But, was SR really a paradigm shift in science or, in general, a giant step in wrong direction? Sceptics might think that SR brought ambiguities such as the twins paradox or relativistic mass but the main undesirable effects of SR, when it was presented in 1905, were:
1.Insisting on contemplating alone for discovering the reality of the universe with supposedly one unerring cool tool, thought experiment.
2.Introducing an instrument, e.g. the light clock with a supposed working characteristic that is not yet experimentally proven.
3.Introducing the constant relative speed, between two inertial reference frames (IRF), into the experimental setting. It then tried to do thought experiment in the new setting using the light clock. This introduction brought some challenges which SR tried to fix by time dilation, length contraction and relativistic mass.
Relativistic mass was reluctantly excluded from SR by Einstein in a letter to L. Barnett in June 1948. But as relativistic mass was part and parcel of SR it was not quite easy for scientific community to part with it and forget about it . The subject is still under debate but by the end of the twentieth century mainstream physics was convinced that relativistic mass should be given a quiet farewell due to its controversial consequences.
This article summarises the reasons that length contraction and time dilation should have the same fate. The author has already shown that:
1.Following the surprise null result from Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment, the proposal of length contraction, and later on time dilation, was just based on a simple analytical oversight of the experiment as the movement of the half-silvered mirror was ignored in the analysis. In simple words, length contraction was founded on false foundation. This was a huge blunder that science should not be proud of, in the least, and should have been pointed out immediately and forgotten ever since. But, unfortunately, in the wake of the confusion not only no one noticed the mistake but also length contraction was found to be a useful platform for a new theory, namely special relativity.
The realisation of this obvious mistake pulls the rug from under ensuing experiments or test theories such as Kennedy–Thorndike experiments or the Robertson-Mansouri-Sexl test theory as they rely on length contraction as a proven premise.
2.Time dilation is not a well thought out scientific idea as initially proposed and believed by physicists[13] as the theory is based on one specific position of the moving clock in relation to its observer. This recognition further undermines test results such as the Ives-Stilwell experiment [14].
The article tries to put SR under further scrutiny and suggests SR to be considered as a metaphysical idea attired in an elaborate scientific and mathematical gown, such as the Lorentz Transformation Equation. It tries to dismiss SR experimental setting by a few examples. It shows that the theory can result in cases that even length contraction and time dilation are not able to fix, that is, to make laws of physics to be the same in all IRFs. More examples show why the insertion of relative speed in experimental setting cannot been beneficial to science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2862] **viXra:1804.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-23 01:51:30*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is assumed that the geometric basis of the physical world is not the Minkowski
space, but the three-dimensional projective space in which the absolute is given in
the form of an oval surface. The fundamental changes, which in this case will
occur in mathematical physics, are briefly outlined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2861] **viXra:1804.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-20 14:56:44*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Within the framework of the black-hole model of the Universe, I introduced the concept of Cherenkov radius, i.e. the distance from the center of the Universe, at which the speed of the orbiting test particle and the speed of light are the same. I showed that the radius of the Universe and the Cherenkov radius are in the golden ratio.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2860] **viXra:1804.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-20 02:19:42*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In Polish.

W ramach czarnodziurowego modelu Wszechświata wprowadziłem pojęcie promienia Czerenkowa, czyli odległości od centrum Wszechświata, przy której wartości prędkości cząstek i światła są takie same. Pokazałem, że iloraz promienia Wszechświata i promienia Czerenkowa jest złotą proporcją.
###
Within the framework of the black-hole model of the Universe, I introduced the concept of Cherenkov radius, i.e. the distance from the center of the Universe, at which the particle velocity and light velocity values are the same. I showed that the radius of the Universe and the Cherenkov radius are in the golden ratio.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2859] **viXra:1804.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-20 04:02:39*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 18 Pages. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 78, pp. 39-50 (2018). http://dx.doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILCPA.78.39.

For the relativistic uniform system with an invariant mass density the exact expressions are determined for the potentials and strengths of the gravitational field, the energy of particles and fields. It is shown that, as in the classical case for bodies with a constant mass density, in the system with a zero vector potential of the gravitational field, the energy of the particles, associated with the scalar field potential, is twice as large in the absolute value as the energy defined by the tensor invariant of the gravitational field. The problem of inaccuracy of the use of the field’s stress-energy tensors for calculating the system’s mass and energy is considered. The found expressions for the gravitational field strengths inside and outside the system allow us to explain the occurrence of the large-scale structure of the observable Universe, and also to relate the energy density of gravitons in the vacuum field with the limiting mass density inside the proton. Both the Universe and the proton turn out to be relativistic uniform systems with the maximum possible parameters. The described approach allows us to calculate the maximum possible Lorentz factor of the matter particles at the center of the neutron star and at the center of the proton, and also to estimate the radius of action of the strong and ordinary gravitation in cosmological space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2858] **viXra:1804.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-18 09:26:06*

**Authors:** Alexander P. Sobolev

**Comments:** 28 Pages. 1-28 english, 29-56 russian

The gravitational equations were derived in general relativity (GR) using the assumption of their covariance relative to arbitrary transformations of coordinates. It has been repeatedly expressed an opinion over the past century that such equality of all coordinate systems may not correspond to reality. Nevertheless, no actual verification of the necessity of this assumption has been made to date. The initial equations of a theory of gravity with general covariance restricted due to introduction of the constraint are formulated in the paper. The concept of the entropy density of space-time is defined, the constraint is interpreted from a physical point of view as a sufficient condition for the adiabaticity of the process of evolution of its metric. A basic model of evolution of the Universe is constructed on this basis which consistent with the observational astronomical data but without using of the hypotheses of the existence of a “dark energy”, “dark matter” and “inflatons". It is claimed that the maximum global energy density in the Universe was 64 orders of magnitude smaller the Planckian one, and the entropy density is 18 orders of magnitude higher the value predicted by GR.
Keywords: Gravitation, restricted covariance, nonsingular theory, entropy of space-time, evolution of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2857] **viXra:1804.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-15 10:13:09*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Submitted to Gravity Research Foundation, March 2018

The orthodox general theory of relativity (GR) predicts metric divergences, typically when the normalized gravitational potential &phi= -½, giving rise to event horizons. But all standard experimental tests are in the regime where |&phi|<<1/2, suggesting that alternative large-potential extrapolations should be considered. A simple alternative formulation of GR is presented which focuses on gravitational time dilation and length contraction by a factor of (1-&phi), which is always > 1 since &phi < 0. This formulation duplicates the predictions of the orthodox theory for weak potentials with |&phi| << ½, but avoids all divergences for larger values. Furthermore, this suggests “dim stars” rather than black holes, and provides an intuitive picture of large gravitational red shifts in cosmic expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2856] **viXra:1804.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-16 11:48:31*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 1 page

The mysterious phenomenon of dark energy has been explained by me in my previous papers on the basis of molecular diffusion model. In this paper I present an additional proof to further support the molecular diffusion model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2855] **viXra:1804.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-16 13:27:36*

**Authors:** Michael Singer

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In 1917 Einstein developed equations that described an ever-expanding universe. It is the nature of an electromagnetic universe to continually expand, although the term “ever-dilating universe” would be more appropriate given his other work. Later on, after the expansion of the universe was actually discovered, Georges Lemaitre proposed the “Big Bang” theory to account for that expansion rather than viewing it as being in the nature of an electromagnetic universe. So we seem to have two perfectly sensible reasons for the expansion of the Universe. Why?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2854] **viXra:1804.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-16 20:54:58*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This is a pre-print of a paper which will appear in physics essays in June 2018 vol. 31 number 2

The Sagnac effect, named after its discoverer, is the phase shift occurring between two beams of light, traveling in opposite directions along a closed path around a moving object. A special case is the circular Sagnac effect, known for its crucial role in GPS and fiber-optic gyroscopes. It is often claimed that the circular Sagnac effect does not contradict special relativity theory (SRT) because it is considered an accelerated motion, while SRT applies only to uniform, non-accelerated motion. It is further claimed that the Sagnac effect, manifested in circular motion, should be treated in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT). We counter these arguments by underscoring the fact that the dynamics of rectilinear and circular types of motion are completely equivalent, and that this equivalence holds true for both non-accelerated and accelerated motion. With respect to the Sagnac effect, this equivalence means that a uniform circular motion (with constant w) is completely equivalent to a uniform rectilinear motion (with constant v). We support this conclusion by convincing experimental findings, indicating that an identical Sagnac effect to the one found in circular motion, exists in rectilinear uniform motion. We conclude that the circular Sagnac effect is fully explainable in the framework of inertial systems, and that the circular Sagnac effect contradicts special relativity theory and calls for its refutation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2853] **viXra:1804.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-14 04:38:29*

**Authors:** Ulrich Berger

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

As described previously, the concept of a “Net Charged Universe” (NCU) assumes that the expansion of the universe is driven by a slight excess of positive charge in the universe’s matter. This excess charge comes into being by means of quantum fluctuations at the universe’s horizon. Excess protons experience electrostatic acceleration and therefore gain high relativistic mass, which is the source of the creation of neutral matter at the universe’s horizon. The present article investigates some consequences of that steady creation of space and matter in NCU history. The most important consequences are the following:
The gravitational constant G and the fine structure constant α are not constant but proportional to the historically decreasing mass density of the universe.
The commonality between G and α in terms of this proportionality seems to indicate a deep interdependency between both variables and between their related phenomena, i.e. the gravitational and electromagnetic properties of matter.
The historically decreasing value of G might be the real cause of anomalies of stars’ circling in galaxies, which led to the assumption of “Dark Matter” (DM) by current cosmology.
Because of a possibly holographic emergence of gravitation, newly created matter might immediately show its “gravitational presence” throughout the whole universe. In contrast to that, the “electromagnetic presence” of new matter propagates through space with the speed of light and cannot be immediately experienced in the inner universe. The value of α that varies with time and space can possibly be regarded as a measure for the fraction of all matter that is electromagnetically present at a certain place – e.g. our galaxy.
Calculations on the electromagnetic and the gravitational acceleration of matter in the NCU yield identical mathematical expressions although they were derived here in fully independent ways. Finally, those expressions do not contain any “constants” like G, α, particle masses, elementary charge etc. – except the speed of light. The electromagnetic and the gravitational acceleration of matter are both controlled solely by geometrical variables, i.e. variable radii. These radii and the equations containing them seem to be the only true fundamentals related to describing and understanding the NCU.
The deep interdependency between G and α (or, say, gravitational and electromagnetic properties of matter) based on the NCU concept revealed here might even point to a path to unification of relativity and quantum theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2852] **viXra:1804.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-15 03:36:16*

**Authors:** CuiHaiLong

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

To summarize some of the negative relativity experiments, and to make a reasonable explanation for some of these experiments, mainly to remind people that anti-relativity experiments can be seen everywhere.But people look at the problem with colored eyes and they just ignore it all the time,It also reflects the terrible power of man's faith,Just as believers ignore the myriad anti-religious realities, they remain fanatical about maintaining religion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2851] **viXra:1804.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-15 04:17:29*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

A profound analysis of the theory of relativity led to the creation of a new special theory of relativity (STR), in early papers 1-9. The new special theory of relativity 1-3 explained all the fundamental phenomena that occur in mechanical and electromagnetic processes, both in inertial motion systems and in the system in rest. However, the individual expositions in these works did not reveal a complete basic physical-philosophical approach to the description of these phenomena. In this work, these shortcomings is eliminating, and in addition, the shortcomings of Galileo's theory of relativity, based on which errors will made in further studies,
Having concluded these studies, the author puts forward both a new theory of relativity and the discovery of new laws of motion in a moving system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2850] **viXra:1804.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-13 06:40:08*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 150 Pages.

Podręcznik ten przeznaczony jest dla studentów wszystkich uczelni, na których wykładana jest fizyka. Może być przydatny dla nauczycieli fizyki w szkołach średnich. Mam nadzieję, że zostanie wykorzystany również przez zawodowych relatywistów.
###
This handbook is intended for students of all universities where physics is taught. It can be useful for physics teachers in secondary schools. I hope that it will also be used by professional relativists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2849] **viXra:1804.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-13 06:45:03*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 252 Pages.

Podręcznik ten przeznaczony jest dla studentów wszystkich uczelni, na których wykładana jest fizyka. Może być przydatny dla nauczycieli fizyki w szkołach średnich. Mam nadzieję, że zostanie wykorzystany również przez zawodowych relatywistów.
###
This handbook is intended for students of all universities where physics is taught. It can be useful for physics teachers in secondary schools. I hope that it will also be used by professional relativists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2848] **viXra:1804.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-13 06:47:39*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 124 Pages.

Prezentowana encyklopedia zawiera 144 portrety prekursorów, twórców i propagatorów teorii względności oraz informacje o wkładzie wniesionym przez nich w powstanie i rozwój tej dziedziny fizyki. Zamieszczono spis wszystkich prac Einsteina dotyczących szczególnej i ogólnej teorii względności oraz jednolitej teorii pola.
###
The presented encyclopedia contains 144 portraits of precursors, creators and propagators of relativity theory, as well as information about their contribution to the rise and development of this field of physics. A list of all Einstein's papers on special and general relativity and a unified field theory is provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2847] **viXra:1804.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-09 06:43:20*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 1 Page. Link to My New Theory of Everything : http://vixra.org/abs/1804.0100

This article aims to explain gravity theoretically according to my new theory of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2846] **viXra:1804.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-11 05:05:28*

**Authors:** Rainer Collier

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This short letter refers to Schmutzer´s 5-dimensional Projective Unified Field Theory as a new general-relativistic covariant unification of gravitation, electromagnetism and scalarism (a new phenomenon of nature) with some remarks to it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2042] **viXra:1806.0198 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-17 16:07:50*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 21 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Russian).

В статье выведен целый класс преобразований времени и положения. Эти преобразования выведены на основе анализа эксперимента Майкельсона-Морли и его усовершенствованной версии – эксперимента Кеннеди-Торндайка. На основе каждого из этих преобразований можно вывести другую кинематику тел. Таким способом мы продемонстрировали, что Специальная теория относительности (СТО) не является единственной теорией, объясняющей результаты экспериментов со светом. Существует целый континуум теорий кинематики тел, которые правильно объясняют эксперимент Майкельсона-Морли, а также другие эксперименты, в которых измеряют скорость света.
На основе выведенных преобразований получаем общий вид выражения для скорости света в вакууме, измеренной в произвольной инерциальной системе отсчета (ИСО). Мы объясняем, почему эксперименты Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка не смогли выявить наличие эфира. Представляем и обсуждаем три примера конкретных преобразований. В заключение объясняем явление анизотропии реликтового излучения (РИ) с использованием представленной теории.
Представленную в данной работе теорию мы назвали Специальной теорией эфира (СТЭ) – с произвольным поперечным сокращением. Статья содержит лишь оригинальные исследования, поведенные ее авторами.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2041] **viXra:1805.0507 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-30 04:09:44*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

From the modified Maxwell-Hertz equations in three-dimensional form, it appears that gravitational waves have an effect on electromagnetic phenomena. Therefore, a very simple method of detection of gravitational fields with a time-varying value of the determinant of the metric tensor is possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2040] **viXra:1805.0449 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-17 21:44:58*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 45 Pages. Please contact me at genebarbee@msn.com

Flat galaxy rotation curves were observed in the 1930’s by Dutch Astronomer Jan Oort. Most cosmologists today attribute the difference between observed flat and calculated declining Keplerian velocity curves to dark matter despite decades of failed efforts to identify it. Recent WMAP [4] and PLANCK mission scientists believe it is 23% of critical density (the total mass or energy in the universe). There are other difficulties:
Why are baryons only 4.6% of critical density?
What is dark energy and why is it 72% of critical density?
What caused the temperature anisotropy measured by WMAP and PLANCK?
Astrophysics literature says “the universe is flat”; what does that mean?
But even more basic:
What is space-time?
Quantum mechanics applies at the small scale but the general theory of relativity is large scale gravitational theory. Are they incompatible?
These are not easy problems to solve. Any claim regarding different percentages of critical density must address baryon/photon ratios that determine observed fractions of Deuterium, Helium3 and Lithium7. Different claims must also address conditions at equality of photon and mass density and the temperature anisotropy observed at decoupling (where the plasma clears and electrons can orbit protons). Understanding space and gravity more thoroughly than Einstein’s general theory of relativity requires bridging small and large scale physics.
A neutronproton mass model and cellular cosmology, both previously reported by the author, were combined into what the author believes is a first principles cosmology model that resolves these questions. In addition, the model exactly predicts temperature anisotropy at decoupling and star formation rates.
And even more basic? Where do the laws of physics reside? If they are built into nature, is there any they can be detected besides observing nature and making observations? Actually, the cosmology model provides a huge clue. The core of the cosmology model is inside the proton and it “produces” the universe. The proton describes the cell, including the space around it. But components of each proton are improbable (1/exp(180)) and there are exp(180) protons. In three dimensions, cell radius*exp(60) represents the universe!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2039] **viXra:1805.0411 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-17 12:39:43*

**Authors:** Lars Frølund Jensen

**Comments:** 11 Pages. An additional argument against SR, plus minor changes in the paper

In this paper I argue for the following assertions: 1. Special Relativity (SR) leads to predictions, which are in conflict with its own foundation. 2. There exist a scientific "approved" alternative theory which – probably – are in completely accordance with all the experimental results, which seems to have confirmed SR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2038] **viXra:1805.0298 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-12 21:30:21*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

We present a simple model of cosmology inspired by a cycle of statistical physics involving the age, the size and the entropy of the system. The model is formalized in statistical physics by the introduction of a micro-state q defined only with a time quantity t(q) and a position quantity x(q). In this representation, many of the laws of classical physics (inertia, special relativity, general relativity, and dark energy) are emergent as entropic laws and are associated to the thermodynamic trade-offs between the age and size of the system. The representation also produces an emergent arrow of time which, when acting on these laws, enforces the cosmological horizons that bound the observable universe by abruptly limiting the occupancy rate of the micro-states beyond them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2037] **viXra:1805.0298 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-08 08:32:33*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

We present a simple model of cosmology inspired by a cycle of statistical physics involving time, space, and entropy. The model is formalized in statistical physics by the introduction of a micro-state q defined only with a time quantity t(q) and a distance quantity x(q). In this representation, many of the laws of classical physics (inertia, special relativity, general relativity, and dark energy) are emergent as entropic laws. The representation also produces an emergent arrow of time which, when acting on these laws, enforces the cosmological horizons that bound the observable universe by abruptly limiting the occupancy rate of the micro-states beyond them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2036] **viXra:1805.0298 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-24 16:23:22*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Treating the universe as one big system of statistical physics is appealing, except that the temperature varies greatly over the system. Here, we show that cosmology is elegantly explained as a simple thermodynamic cycle involving time, space, and entropy. Because the cycle will not be transiting over energy states, the temperature is not constrained to be constant. Instead, the constraint will apply to other related quantities such that an entropic-equilibrium (not thermal) still occurs. In this representation, the classical laws of physics (inertia, special relativity, general relativity, and dark energy) are emergent from the entropy of space-time. The representation also produces an (emergent) arrow of time which, when acting on these laws, enforces the cosmological horizons that bound the observable universe by abruptly limiting the rate of entropy production from each law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2035] **viXra:1805.0298 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-24 10:25:04*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We show that cosmology is elegantly explained as a simple thermodynamic cycle involving time, space, and entropy. Because the cycle is not transiting over energy states, we show that it does not need to have a constant temperature to nonetheless be at equilibrium (we discuss this extensively). In this representation, the classical laws of physics (inertia, special relativity, general relativity, and dark energy) are emergent from the entropy of space-time. These laws comprise a group whose origin is not explained in quantum field theory or not derived in the classical limit of a quantum field theory (h/S to 0). The representation also produces an (emergent) arrow of time which, when acting on these laws, enforces the cosmological horizons that bound the observable universe by abruptly limiting the rate of entropy production from each law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2034] **viXra:1805.0298 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-21 08:59:35*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We show that cosmology is best explained as a thermodynamic cycle involving time, space and entropy. In this representation, the classical laws of physics (inertia, special relativity, general relativity and dark energy) are emergent from the entropy of space-time. These laws comprise a group whose origin is not explained in quantum field theory, and/or not derived in the classical limit of a quantum field theory (h/S to 0). The representation also produces an (emergent) arrow of time which, when acting on these laws, enforces the cosmological horizons that bound the observable universe by limiting the rate of entropy production.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2033] **viXra:1805.0298 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-18 08:58:14*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We show that cosmology is best explained as a thermodynamic cycle involving time, space and entropy. In this representation, the classical laws of physics (inertia, special relativity, general relativity and dark energy) are emergent from the entropy of space-time. These laws comprise a group whose origin is not explained in quantum field theory, and/or not derived in the classical limit of a quantum field theory (h/S to 0$). The representation also produces an (emergent) arrow of time which, when acting on these laws, enforces the cosmological horizons that bound the observable universe by limiting the rate of entropy production.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2032] **viXra:1805.0298 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-17 19:50:53*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We show that cosmology is best represented as a thermodynamic cycle involving time, space and entropy. In this representation, the classical laws of physics (inertia, special relativity, general relativity and dark energy) are emergent from the entropy of space-time. These laws comprise a group whose origin is not explained in quantum field theory, and/or not derived in the classical limit of a quantum field theory (h/S to 0). The representation also produces an (emergent) arrow of time which, when acting on these laws, enforces the cosmological horizons that bound the observable universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2031] **viXra:1805.0251 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-10 15:42:13*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Corrected errors and added new Experiment #11

Einstein’s “Gedanken” experiments (thought experiments) - particularly his train-embankment thought experiments - were apparently intended to explain Special Relativity logically and in layman’s terms, but they were written in an incredibly convoluted way, which seems to have resulted in them being misinterpreted by many physicists. This is the simplified logic of Einstein’s key thought experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2030] **viXra:1805.0251 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-22 09:40:44*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 26 Pages. Corrected Figure 3 and Experiment #11

Einstein’s “Gedanken” experiments (thought experiments) - particularly his train-embankment thought experiments - were apparently intended to explain Special Relativity logically and in layman’s terms, but they were written in an incredibly convoluted way, which seems to have resulted in them being misinterpreted by almost everyone. This is the simplified logic of Einstein’s key thought experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2029] **viXra:1805.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-16 23:10:17*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 127 Pages. A small exponential expansion correction that refines the final result.

We form the fundamental particles from infinite superpositons with mass borrowed from a Higgs type scalar field, but energy also borrowed from the spatial component of zero point fields. At high energies this is from local invariant fields but at cosmic wavelengths from the receding horizon. We explore relating this with gravity and find that it only works in an exponentially expanding flat on average universe. This may relate with the present discrepancy in the different ways of measuring the Hubble parameter. We also relate gravity with what we define as a "Spherically symmetric 4 volume action density" at cosmic wavelengths,invariant in all coordinates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2028] **viXra:1805.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-02 23:03:36*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 127 Pages. A changed and more accurate title appropriate to the sort of querie in the discussion section below

We form the fundamental particles from infinite superpositons with mass borrowed from a Higgs type scalar field, but energy also borrowed from the spatial component of zero point fields. At high energies this is from local invariant fields but at cosmic wavelengths from the receding horizon. We explore relating this with gravity and find that it only works in an exponentially expanding flat on average universe. This may relate with the present discrepancy in the different ways of measuring the Hubble parameter. We also relate gravity with what we define as a "Spherically symmetric 4 volume action density" at cosmic wavelengths,invariant in all coordinates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2027] **viXra:1805.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-15 23:15:28*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 127 Pages. A much revised and more consistent combination of the original Part's I & II with all equations hyperlinked.

We form the fundamental particles with mass borrowed from a Higgs type scalar field, but energy also borrowed from the spatial component of zero point fields. At high energies this is from local invariant fields but at cosmic wavelengths from the receding horizon. We explore relating this with gravity and find that it only works in an exponentially expanding flat on average universe. This may relate with the present discrepancy in the different ways of measuring the Hubble parameter. We also relate gravity with what we define as a "Spherically symmetric 4 volume action density" at cosmic wavelengths,invariant in all coordinates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2026] **viXra:1805.0163 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-31 09:14:31*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 18 formulas

Escape velocity from the E.G. Haug has been checked. It is compared with orbital velocity formula for an ideal circular path. The formulas are simplified so that we have only one variable that contains the Planck values and the mass of the central body. In the case of an arbitrary star, the values of these velocities are determined during its compression to the black hole. Unlike the standard and relativistic formulas that are approximations for a weak gravitational field, Haug's formula is exact for a weak and strong gravitational field. The relationships between formulas showed the importance of the golden ratio below the Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2025] **viXra:1805.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-08 06:01:25*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In IJTP-D-18-00281 or preprint “General relativity and the representation of
solutions”(Sangwha Yi write) in researchgate ,we found new general relativity theory (we
call it Data General Relativity Theory;DGRT). We treats the data of Hawking radiation
by Data general relativity theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2024] **viXra:1805.0129 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-06 21:50:34*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Fixed minor typo in Eq. (5.6)

An overview of the fundamentals of gravity waves intended for undergraduate physics students, curious high schoolers, and brilliant 4th graders, utilizing the traditional linearized form of Einstein’s field equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2023] **viXra:1804.0495 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-09 10:53:12*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 84 Pages. In Polish

W rozprawie tej opisałem zjawisko antygrawitacji w ramach ogólnej teorii względności oraz podałem przykłady jego zastosowania takie jak czarne dziury i nowy model wszechświata wyjaśniający problemy współczesnej kosmologii. Grawitacja i antygrawitacja mają naturę warstwową. Nasz Wszechświat można potraktować jak gigantyczną jednorodną czarną dziurę. Jest izolowany od reszty wszechświata przez obszar czasoprzestrzeni, w którym występuje antygrawitacja. Zaproponowałem stosunkowo prosty eksperyment testujący przedstawione hipotezy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2022] **viXra:1804.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-30 22:35:14*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Sagnac effect, named after its discoverer, is the phase shift occurring between two beams of light, traveling in opposite directions along a closed path around a moving object. A special case is the circular Sagnac effect, known for its crucial role in GPS and fiber-optic gyroscopes. It is often claimed that the circular Sagnac effect does not contradict special relativity theory (SRT) because it is considered an accelerated motion, while SRT applies only to uniform, non-accelerated motion. It is further claimed that the Sagnac effect, manifest in circular motion, should be treated in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT). We counter these arguments by underscoring the fact that the dynamics of rectilinear and circular types of motion are completely equivalent, and that this equivalence holds true for both non-accelerated and accelerated motion. With respect to the Sagnac effect, this equivalence means that a uniform circular motion (with constant w) is completely equivalent to a uniform rectilinear motion (with constant v). We support this conclusion by convincing experimental findings, indicating that an identical Sagnac effect to the one found in circular motion, exists in rectilinear uniform motion. We conclude that the circular Sagnac effect is fully explainable in the framework of inertial systems, and that the circular Sagnac effect contradicts special relativity theory and calls for its refutation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2021] **viXra:1804.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-28 01:46:30*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Sagnac effect, named after its discoverer, is the phase shift occurring between two beams of light, traveling in opposite directions along a closed path around a moving object. A special case is the circular Sagnac effect, known for its crucial role in GPS and fiber-optic gyroscopes. It is often claimed that the circular Sagnac effect does not contradict special relativity theory (SRT) because it is considered an accelerated motion,while SRT applies only to uniform, non-accelerated motion. It is further claimed that the Sagnac effect, manifest in circular motion, should be treated in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT). We counter these arguments by underscoring the fact that the dynamics of rectilinear and circular types of motion are completely equivalent, and that this equivalence holds true for both non-accelerated and accelerated motion. With respect to the Sagnac effect, this equivalence means that a uniform circular motion (with constant w) is
completely equivalent to a uniform rectilinear motion (with constant v). We support this
conclusion by convincing experimental findings, indicating that an identical Sagnac effect
to the one found in circular motion, exists in rectilinear uniform motion. We conclude that
the circular Sagnac effect is fully explainable in the framework of inertial systems, and that
the circular Sagnac effect contradicts special relativity theory and calls for its refutation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2020] **viXra:1804.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-13 04:30:46*

**Authors:** Rainer Collier

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The publication list has been corrected and supplemented.

This short letter refers to Schmutzer´s 5-dimensional Projective Unified Field Theory as a new general-relativistic covariant unification of gravitation, electromagnetism and scalarism (a new phenomenon of nature) with some remarks to it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2019] **viXra:1804.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-14 23:33:55*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A proof of the gravitational dynamics developed here-in is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”, and a proof of the nature of the evolving continuum is IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. As Einstein’s Tensor is solely based on the time elements he calls his “energy components”, only the effects in time are considered in this paper. Though it is noted that although the stress-energy tensor is not considered here, it is also scaled by the time elements, T^00. All space evolves forward with time. This is the evolving spacetime (quantum) continuum. The evolution of time is the primary, irresistible, force in the universe, as all space, and the densities embedded within, must evolve forward with the passage of time. This is the Fundamental Direction and Rate of Evolution, herein represented by Einstein’s Fundamental Metric, which is the basis of the tensors describing a null gravitational field. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle allows for random fluctuations in time and when dilation gradients are introduced, we also see an evolution of events down gradient, a Gravitational Direction and Rate of Evolution. Although relativistic, it is an irresistible force in time just like the fundamental direction of evolution. This is why gravity only has one direction and why it overpowers all the other forces, even though it seems so weak. So even though GR is based on the Equivalence Principle, the constancy of c and Lorentz contractions, the apparent effects of the time elements also appear to manifest as a virtual flow in the forward direction of time down gravitational fields (dilation gradients) from areas of faster time. Dilation creates a density at the faster end due to contraction to maintain c and there is an increase in energy and pressure due to an increase in frequency. As the motion and densities appear when a dilation gradient is introduced, we see the creation of energy. Gravity then magnifies that energy by evolving the density down gradient into slower areas of time, giving the photons a greater relative frequency, energy and, therefore, mass. The GDE can only manifest orthogonal to the FDE as there is no space ahead of or behind the evolving continuum for the dilation gradient to appear in. The resultant of these two directions of evolution results in the curvature in evolution as per GR as the spacetime (here-in also quantum) continuum evolves forward. We have 2 event horizons we appear to evolve between where time appears to stop and we find a transition from timelike to spacelike. We apparently evolve toward the event horizon of the galactic black hole and away from the outer horizon. The passage of time has an acceleration aspect of ~2.2686*10^-18 s/s that manifests the Hubble shift through time dilation in older frames. This manifests the same 1 s/s difference we find at the event horizon of a black hole at ~13.9 Gly looking outwards. This acceleration eliminates singularities and infinite expansions when added to the time elements of Einstein’s field equations. This is why we do not see black holes as singularities. They are just ever-deepening spiral vortices. Therefore, each galaxy can be considered a branching of the evolution of the universe. In both directions, past and future, there is a limit of relativity when the difference in the rate of time is 1 s/s because time appears to stop and no events are visible. Both of these event horizons retreat when approached and the dilation gradient shifts, so if the 1 s/s limit is considered the edge of the universe, black holes are gateways to other universes without end. Galactic rotation velocities are explained through a proper application of General Relativity within the continuum, rather than space. The origin of spacetime is explained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology