**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(20) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0710(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(10) - 1005(10) - 1006(12) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(10) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(36) - 1104(10) - 1105(5) - 1106(12) - 1107(16) - 1108(5) - 1109(12) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(16)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(23) - 1205(22) - 1206(14) - 1207(17) - 1208(31) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(30) - 1305(25) - 1306(28) - 1307(20) - 1308(28) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(23) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(36) - 1402(30) - 1403(33) - 1404(32) - 1405(39) - 1406(35) - 1407(46) - 1408(32) - 1409(26) - 1410(42) - 1411(32) - 1412(20)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1495] **viXra:1412.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-20 16:48:16*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Using frequency gauged clocks on a free fall grid we look at gravitational phenomena as they appear for observers on a stationary grid in a central field of gravity. With an approach based on Special Relativity, the Weak Equivalence Principle and Newton's gravitational potential we derive first order correct expressions for the gravitational red shift of stationary clocks and of satellites. We also derive first order correct expressions for the geodetic precession, the Shapiro delay basis and the gravitational index of refraction, so phenomena connected to the curvature of the metric. Our approach is pragmatic and inherently limited but, due to its simplicity, it might be useful as an intermediate in between SR and GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1494] **viXra:1412.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 16:55:20*

**Authors:** Bill Porter

**Comments:** Pages.

Some cosmological theories, such as many versions of eternal inflation and ΛCDM
involve creation processes which continue indefinitely with no defined termination.
Such processes can only occur in a temporally unbounded but finite universe. This requirement imposes serious constraints on many theories but the issue is often ignored.
I propose an eternal steady state cosmological model in which past- or future-incomplete processes with no defined beginning or end are not permitted.
Much well regarded theory is incompatible with this model; however there are viable alternatives.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1493] **viXra:1412.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 19:56:48*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the article, within the PI-Theory of fundamental physical constants, presents the theoretical basis and experimental confirmation of the author's perspective on the dynamics of evolution of the Universe and the criterion of existence of protein life on the planets of the solar system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1492] **viXra:1412.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 04:10:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.”
This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1491] **viXra:1412.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-18 08:26:11*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A six-page note

This paper raises some questions regarding general theory of relativity like: (i) the theory predicts ‘expansion of space’ between the galaxies; but the space within the galaxy is not expanding, because galaxy is a gravitationally-bound-structure. The question raised here is: If so, then what happens at the edge of a galaxy whose external space is expanding but the space within is not expanding? Is there a smooth transition from expanding to non-expanding space? And what happens to the cosmologically red-shifted inter-galactic-photons when they enter our milky-way galaxy from expanding outer-space to less-and-less expanding space within our galaxy? (ii) According to general relativity the planets, like the earth, orbit around the Sun, because the space around the Sun has got curved; and the planets are in inertial-motion travelling along the geodesic path. Now the question raised here is: Inertial-motion of a body can be at any speed. Can the planets travel along the geodesic-path at any speed they like? Can they take a coffee-brake and then proceed further? (iii) According to general relativity there is a distance at which rate of expansion of space is equal to the speed of light; and the speed of light is always the same, 3 x 108 meters per second. The question raised here is: Since the speed of light is the same in expanding as well as non-expanding space; and f . λ = c , i.e. the product of frequency (f) and wavelength (λ) is always equal to the speed of light (c); then the wavelength (λ) can increase only when frequency (f) gets reduced; and not because of expansion of space. Then in the second part of the paper it is shown that reduction in energy of ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’ is strikingly equal to (G me mp / e2) times the reduction in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1490] **viXra:1412.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 11:24:55*

**Authors:** Grzegorz Ileczko

**Comments:** 59 Pages. eBook (Part 1)

This book is composed of two parts. Both parts combine into a single theory, but for easier description of phenomena, they were presented as independent of each other. This book is an attempt to show the Theory of Relativity in “different” light. That is, so to speak, physics without relativism. Each experiment described in the book comprises visual, mathematical and numerical analyses. All possible cases of setting the light source on-board a very fast vehicle were analysed. The conclusions are indeed surprising.
Part_1
Two experiments, to find and precisely define absolute vehicle velocity, have been described. Establishment of total lack of contact of vehicle’s interior with the outside world is in both cases fulfilled. According to the Theory of Relativity such experiment does not exist and vehicle’s absolute velocity cannot be determined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1489] **viXra:1412.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 11:33:01*

**Authors:** Grzegorz Ileczko

**Comments:** 64 Pages. eBook (Part 2)

This book is composed of two parts. Both parts combine into a single theory, but for easier description of phenomena, they were presented as independent of each other. This book is an attempt to show the Theory of Relativity in “different” light. That is, so to speak, physics without relativism. Each experiment described in the book comprises visual, mathematical and numerical analyses. All possible cases of setting the light source on-board a very fast vehicle were analysed. The conclusions are indeed surprising.
Part_2
It is a modified version of a well-known experiment with light clock. The experiment has been improved in relation to the original. Optical clock was replaced with a laser. Laser beam may depart laser’s interior thus becoming observable (not just in theory). Experiment – L has been designed as a “broad” angular analysis. Various laser positions on-board the vehicle were thoroughly examined. One can literally say that laser’s beam is analysed in terms of every angle. As a result of the analyses performed, the “true” nature of time has been discovered. A mathematical proof that time has absolute nature has been presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1488] **viXra:1412.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-13 09:07:49*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 3 pages

An original thought experiment “interlinking” time between relatively moving frames through belt drive clocks offers concrete evidence on the unviability of the time dilation predicted by the Special Relativity. It also shows that the Special Relativity length contraction gives contradictory time results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1487] **viXra:1412.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-12 13:27:46*

**Authors:** Alfredo G. Oliveira

**Comments:** 25 pages, 10 figures

The first model of the past hot Earth’s climate consistently indicated by isotopic and biologic data is here established. This model, here named Evolving Climate Model (ECM), accurately matches a 3 Gy long compilation of isotope ^{18}O data. An important consequence of the model is the fast increase of oxygen atmospheric level between 2 and 1 Ga (Gy ago); this is a well-known but until now mysterious occurrence, the Great Oxygenation Event. A solution is presented for the two centuries old “dolomite problem” and new explanations arise for a number of long lasting problems, such as the origin of petroleum or of proto-continents. Differently from the usual climate scenarios, the ECM presents ideal conditions for the massive production of long organic molecules. Critical occurrences of life evolution, such as the Cambrian explosion, are explained and fitted by the ECM, exposing a previously unknown connection between the evolution of life and climate. The most likely cause for this hot past is the expansion of orbits; it is verified that this phenomenon can explain the ECM, the receding of the Moon and the water on early Mars for the same value of *H*_{0} = 48 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, which, if not a coincidence, is a non-negligible result.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1486] **viXra:1412.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 18:54:14*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The geometric interpretation of time dilation concludes that the geometric relation between moving objects is the cause of time dilation between the objects. The thesis of this paper is that the imposing edifice of the geometric interpretation rests on a flawed foundation. That foundation denies the existence of any fundamental (natural, physical, real) frame of reference for motion. Therefore the position, velocity and acceleration of an object may be reckoned to an arbitrary frame of reference. If space has no properties other than dimensionality, motion relative to that space is undefined and meaningless and can have no influence on any ongoing process. Accordingly I propose a model in which a field of particles occupies and permeates all of space, including the space of atoms. In this model the phenomenon of time dilation demands the existence of a field that supports the propagation of photons. I label this field the temporal-inertial field (TI field). Time dilation occurs when an ongoing process moves relative to space, relative to this TI field. The greater the velocity of the process relative to the TI field the greater is the time dilation experienced by that process. The rate at which a process is slowed or accelerated is intrinsic, absolute and depends solely on the velocity of the process relative to the TI field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1485] **viXra:1412.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 01:24:12*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I argue, that there is speciality at the horizon.
Why do we think that the equation of geodesic deviation gives us the tidal force (the right side)? I argue. Even if this is so, a more refined equation gives a speciality at the horizon (see very solid article of very serious prof. Risto Tammelo [Gen.~Rel.~Grav.~1997;29:997--1009]). 2) The deviation equation assumes that the time at different distances from the horizon is synchronized (clocks coincide). But we
know, what in terrestrial conditions it is not observed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1484] **viXra:1412.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 04:39:14*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, I list some interesting problems I proposed in 2013-2014, which are the conclusion of the series papers “From Ptolemy theorem to non-euclidean geometry”. I published this series work on scientific journal and in these problems, I try to sketch a research plan for the technical difficulties we meet in non-euclidean geometry and general relativity. So I hope readers will give me some advices for whether the outline appear in this paper is feasible and what is their meaningful.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1483] **viXra:1412.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-07 13:34:35*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

According to a distant observer, a Fly escaping towards a black hole never reaches the event
horizon. Let “Fly” be a synonym for a space ship with food while “Bat” stands for a space ship
with starving astronauts. The question then arises, how long the Bat has to wait before reaching
the Fly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1482] **viXra:1412.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-07 05:34:40*

**Authors:** Stanislav Podosenov, Jaykov Foukzon, Alexander Potapov, Elena Men’kova

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

On the basis of the theory of bound charges the calculation of the motion of the charged particle
at the Coulomb field formed with the spherical source of bound charges is carried out. Such motion is
possible in the Riemanniam space-time. The comparison with the general relativity theory (GRT) and
special relativity theory (SRT) results in the Schwarzshil'd field when the particle falls on the
Schwarzshil'd and Coulomb centres is carried out. It is shown that the proton and electron can to create a
stable connection with the dimensions of the order of the classic electron radius. The perihelion shift of
the electron orbit in the proton field is calculated. This shift is five times greater than in SRT and when corrsponding substitution of the constants it is 5/6 from GRT. By means of the quantization of adiabatic invariants in accordance with the method closed to the Bohr and Sommerfeld one without the Dirac equation the addition to the energy for the fine level splitting is obtained. It is shown that the Caplan's stable orbits in the hydrogen atom coincide with the Born orbits.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1481] **viXra:1412.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 16:13:48*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A fundamental theorem underpinning Einstein's gravity theory is that the contraction of a tensor is itself a tensor of lower rank. However this theorem is not an identity; its demonstration cannot be extended beyond space-time points where the space-time transformation in question has a Jacobian matrix with exclusively finite components and that matrix' inverse also has exclusively finite components. Space-time transformations therefore cannot be regarded as physical except at such points; indeed in classical theoretical physics nonfinite entities don't even make sense. This, taken together with the Principle of Equivalence, implies that metric tensors can be physical only at space-time points where they and their inverses have finite components exclusively, and as well have signatures which are identical to the Minkowski metric tensor's signature. For metric-tensor solutions of the Einstein equation there can exist space-time points where these physical constraints on the solution are flouted, just as there exist well-known solutions of the Maxwell and Schroedinger equations which also defy physical constraints -- and therefore are always discarded. Instances of unphysical solutions of the Maxwell or Schroedinger or Einstein field-theoretic equations can usually be traced to subtly unphysical initial inputs or assumptions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1480] **viXra:1412.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 10:14:17*

**Authors:** Umar Kabir Adinoyi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The cosmological constant (Λ) problem is resolved within the framework of a new interpretation of time and energy with a second Planck size time dimension T2 where Energy is a vector quantity in combined space and time T2 dimension. This Rotating Universe interpretation of Time and Energy (RUTE) as proposed in this paper, describes a cylindrical brane Universe rotating along its time dimension T1, while also oscillating between two asymmetric vacuum states a and b along its second time dimension T2. Where vacuum states a and b for T2 are analogous to particle and antiparticle states for T1 time dimension. In RUTE, a non-zero and running Λ essentially arises from an asymmetry in Planck density of vacuum states a and b coupled with a general energy-momentum conservation principle in spacetime. It constrains the energy density and speed of a reference frame in spacetime, to always equal the upper limit of the Planck density and c respectively. The asymmetry is fundamentally in the form of difference in speed limit c for vacuum states a and b with a relativistic relationship that is described by a cosmological factor Γ asymptotically approaching zero as a function of orbital radius r. A curious measure of entropy emerge as the surface area of the two time dimensions 2πr in Planck units raising a question as to the relationship between our model Universe and blackhole Physics. Prospects of Λ driven inflation with a reheating mechanism, light speed oscillation and matter-antimatter transmutation among other predictions are briefly discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1479] **viXra:1412.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 05:43:30*

**Authors:** S.A. Podosenov

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

An exact solution for the field of a charge in a uniformly accelerated noninertial
frame of reference (NFR) alongside the "Equivalent Situation Postulate"allows one to
find space-time structure as well as fields from arbitrarily shaped charged conductors,
without using Einstein’s equations. In particular, the space-time metric over a charged
plane can be related to the metric being obtained from an exact solution to Einstein-
Maxwell’s equations. This solution describes an equilibrium of charged dust in parallel
electric and gravitational fields. The field and metric outside a conducting ball have
been found. The method proposed eliminates divergence of the proper energy and makes
classical electrodynamics consistent at any sufficiently small distances. An experiment is
proposed to verify the approach suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1478] **viXra:1412.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 07:49:40*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 16 pages

In a recent research study entitled “Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li+ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed” (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120405 – Published 16 September 2014), an Ives–Stilwell type experiment, it was claimed that a conducted time dilation experiment using the relativistic Doppler effect on the Li+ ions resonance frequencies had verified, with a greatly increased precision, the relativistic frequency shift formula, derived in the Special Relativity from the Lorentz Transformation, thus indirectly proving the time dilation predicted by the Special Relativity. The test was based on the validation of an algebraic equality relating a set of measured frequencies, and deduced from the relativistic Doppler equations. In this study, it was shown that this algebraic equality, used as a validation criterion, did not uniquely imply the validity of the relativistic Doppler equations. In fact, using an approach in line with the referenced study, it was revealed that an infinite number of frequency shift equations would satisfy the employed validation criterion. Nonetheless, it was shown that even if that claim was hypothetically accepted, then the experiment would prove nothing but a contradiction in the Special Relativity prediction. In fact, it was clearly demonstrated that the relativistic blue shift was the consequence of a time contraction, determined via the light speed postulate, leading to the relativistic Doppler formula in the case of an approaching light source. The experiment would then be confirming a relativistic time contraction. It was also shown that the classical relativity resulted in perceived time alterations leading to the classical Doppler Effect equations. The “referenced study” result could be attributed to the classical Doppler shift within 10 % difference.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1477] **viXra:1412.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-04 21:12:41*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Belief that the Sagnac test of 1913 only applied to rotational motion was discounted
when Ruyong Wang found the same results for linear motion in 2004. The Sagnac
result has never been credibly explained, despite its wide application in modern
technology. In turn the Wang paper has been virtually ignored in the last ten years, but
remedied by this paper, which establishes the test as a critical signal of striking new
concepts.
Kinematic and dynamic motions are carefully distinguished here and the neglected
topic of covariance is reviewed and applied to the Galilean dynamical law of velocity
addition.
Analysis of Wang’s result in the conveyor and lab frames with the premise of aether
drag logically leads to identification of preferred motion in an absolute frame of
reference … the earth-bound laboratory frame!
That light speed in the lab frame will be the same as for the conveyor is a testable
prediction of this paper….. the same as the Doufour-Prunier test.
Discovery of the absolute lab reference frame and a flexible aether – the ALFA model –
refutes relativity and its alleged consequences, such as: both postulates of special
relativity – general covariance in general relativity - Lorentz transformations -
Minkowski space – length contraction - time dilation…. All disproven by ALFA via the
Wang and Sagnac tests.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1476] **viXra:1412.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-01 13:10:45*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 24 Pages. French version: viXra:1411.0567; http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/index.html

We explain the radiation's redshift Z from far away Galaxies using only Maxwell's classical equations and the energy conservation principle. Hubble's law sprouts out naturally as the consequence of the transformation of this radiation on long distances. We compute the constant Ho (84.3 Km/s/Mpc) from the Pioneer satellite data and explain its anomalous behaviour. We resolve some situations that are still enigmatic for the actual cosmology. We review the distance modulus formula and evaluate the limits of cosmological observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1475] **viXra:1411.0598 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-30 11:27:31*

**Authors:** Miroslav Súkeník, Jozef Šima

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modern detectors intended to detect gravitational waves are in function from 2002. Their figure of merith has reached h = 10‒21 from 2007 approaching current values h = 10‒23. Given the number of existing detectors, several hundreds of events involving gravitational waves should be registered to the present day. In reality, there is no one such an event, in spite of the fact that the existence of gravitationa waves has been evidenced indirectly through the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16.
One of the modes of explanation the given state lies in a presumption that due to a non-stationary gravitational field, gravitational radiation is formed creating a barrier for gravitational waves detection. Based on our Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model we declare that only extremely strong sources exceeding the limiting value h = 10‒16 may be detected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1474] **viXra:1411.0597 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 16:13:24*

**Authors:** Piero BENAZZO

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Big Bang paradigm observed universe is hypothesised as virtual lens effect. The observer's flat light cone used to observe the sky would generate this by intersecting an actual curved, static and spatially closed cosmos. Its curved space-time would have revolving time axis and be fractal in time. The Hubble length is the only empirical data input needed in the topology, tangent to the curved frame at 60 degrees time axis tilting from the observer, for reciprocal transferability between curved space-time and lens effect. This specifies a 30 degrees angle between the space axis and the speed of light c vector, and a 60 degrees angle between the time axis and the speed of light c vector. These allow measuring the curved frame. Here, brightness would discount fractality remaining unaffected, while redshift would be affected. Their relative differences are transferred from the curved frame to the observed universe frame. Here, they represent the curvature of the Hubble diagram for the Type Ia Supernovae and Gamma-ray bursts empirical data. This provides empirical evidence of a lens effect and a curved, static and spatially closed cosmos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1473] **viXra:1411.0595 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 14:57:17*

**Authors:** Andrew Wutke

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Draft paper for review.

This paper presents an attempt to define temporal coincidence starting from the first principles. The temporal coincidence defined here differs from Einstein’s simultaneity for it is invariant across inertial frames - not relative. The meaning and significance of temporal coincidence is derived from axioms of existence and it somehow relates to Kant’s notion of simultaneity. Consistently applied to the Special Theory of Relativity framework, temporal coincidence does not in any way create mathematical contradictions; however it allows looking at some common relativity claims with a dose of scepticism. Time, as derived from Lorentz transformations, appears to be conventional in order to match the postulate of constancy of the speed of light. The relative simultaneity is only apparent due to that convention. There are insufficient grounds to claim that inertial systems moving relatively to each other have their own different temporal realities. Overall, the innate temporal logic we have is not erroneous and does not need to be replaced contrary to the claims of some relativity educators.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1472] **viXra:1411.0584 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-28 06:56:33*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Our universe’s composition was established by 100 s after the big bang and remained constant for the next 13.8 billion years. Atomic/subatomic matter constituted 4.9%, dark matter 27%, and dark energy 68% of our university’s total energy/mass. Since the cosmological constant was proportional to dark energy density, as our universe expanded both dark energy density and the cosmological constant decreased with time. The cosmological constant problem existed because the Super Universe’s volume was E120 larger than our universe. Proof of the Super Universe’s parallel universes was via two advanced optical and gravitational observatory techniques.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1471] **viXra:1411.0576 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-27 08:37:26*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 53 pages - A simplified physical approach using basic concepts leading to the exposure of the Special Relativity misconceptions.

Applying basic classical physics concepts of time and space, while considering event information is ultimately communicated through light—or electromagnetic—signals, it was shown that proper time interval measured in an inertial reference frame (labeled as traveling “object frame”) between two co-local events occurring at the frame origin undergoes apparent alteration and perceived as a “time image” in another inertial frame (labeled as stationary “image frame”), when the two frames are in relative motion. The same “time image” was perceived by either frame due to the change of the light speed relative to the reference frames. Under certain conditions of events spatial coordinates, it was shown through obtained modified Galilean transformations that “apparent” length contraction and expansion were associated with “apparent” time dilation and contraction, respectively. In the case the Emission Theory of light was considered, symmetry in regard to the time and space alteration factors between the frames was shown (i.e., time and space in the traveling “object frame” were perceived in the stationary “image frame” altered by the same factors as for the case when the frame “labels” were swapped). The known classical Doppler Effect was readily derived from the established alteration factors. For all classical approaches, and in the case of light, the wave length was invariant.
In the case the Special Relativity approach was considered, i.e. when the speed of light was assumed constant with respect to all inertial reference frames, inconsistent time “images” were perceived, so an ad hoc assumption was required, imposing an artificial transformation distorting the Emission Theory “time image” dimension by the inverse of the relativistic factor "gamma" leading to the Lorentz transformation, applicable under special conditions of the space coordinates in the direction of motion. Misconceptions in the Special Relativity interpretation of the Lorentz transformation were systematically revealed.
Time alteration was perceived as a dilated “image” for receding frames, and contracted for approaching ones. However, when the frames receded and then approached during equal proper time intervals, the net time interval was perceived as an “image” dilated by "gamma" for the Special Relativity approach, as opposed to "gamma^2" for the Light Emission theory. For the Ether Theory assumption, either time dilation or time invariance was obtained depending on whether the traveling “object frame” was taken to be the ether frame.
The “inverse” transformation was shown to be different from the “opposite” transformation in the way that the former had “image” arguments—returning “object” entities—whereas the latter had “object” arguments in the swapped frame “labels” scenario. Furthermore, they have opposite coordinate domains in the motion direction, although they exhibited the same form; “symmetry” misconceptions were revealed.
The known relativistic Doppler Effect was readily derived. For the case of light, the perceived frequency exhibiting a blue shift (frequency increase) in the case of approaching frames, is in line with the established time contraction in this study, contradicting the Special Relativity prediction of time dilation irrespective of whether the frames are receding or approaching. In addition, the wavelength exhibited an increase in the case of receding frames, whereas it decreased when the source was approaching.
Available experimental data related to [apparent] time dilations, Doppler Effect, and non-existence of preferred reference frame for light propagation (Michelson-Morley experiment) could then be analyzed vis-à-vis the classical theories in terms of time and space transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1470] **viXra:1411.0574 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-26 16:13:06*

**Authors:** Karl Birjukov

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In removing the flaws inherent in the local equivalence principle, and subsequently re-forming it, it is inevitable that how the macrocosm is viewed is changed completely, to the extent that the boundaries of science itself become suspect as they produce reifications in its ultimate forms that most probably have no real existence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1469] **viXra:1411.0567 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-26 12:09:33*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** Français, 27 pages, http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/index.html

Nous expliquons le décalage vers le rouge " ℤ " de la radiation provenant des galaxies éloignées moyennant les équations classiques de Maxwell et le principe de conservation de l'énergie. La loi de Hubble émerge naturellement comme conséquence de la transformation progressive de l'onde électromagnétique selon la distance. Nous évaluons le paramètre " H0 " (84,3 Km s-1 Mpc-1) à partir des données du satellite Pioneer expliquant ainsi l'anomalie de comportement attribuée à ce satellite. Nous résolvons certaines situations inexpliquées par la cosmologie actuelle. Nous présentons la formule corrigée du module de distance et évaluons la distance limite d'observation des phénomènes cosmologiques.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1468] **viXra:1411.0564 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-26 08:21:09*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 117 Pages. §23 Curvatura do Espaço e Tempo

Resumo
A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1467] **viXra:1411.0554 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-24 12:11:31*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. none

In many publications and web forum discussions the claims are constantly being made that in order for the orbits of planets around the Sun to be stable the gravity must propagate at much higher speeds than the speed of light c. In this paper it is shown on a simple and extreme example of two stars orbiting around each other in a circular orbit that this is not the case and that the assumption about the necessity for the large speed of gravity is unfounded. The explanation is based on the recognition that the Newton gravitational force has two components that are not necessarily collinear. This new fundamental finding is supported by modeling the field by gravitons that mediate the force of the field. This model finally leads to the generalization of Newton gravitational law that correctly accounts for the finite speed of gravity. From this result it is also found that the gravitational aberration angle is identical with the aberration angle of light, but is aiming in the opposite direction, lagging behind the source of the gravitational attraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1466] **viXra:1411.0553 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-24 07:39:42*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a recent paper, it is asserted that the wave equation for the light in the vacuum cannot be used in the special relativity. However, it might be refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1465] **viXra:1411.0547 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-23 08:12:20*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 23 Pages, 38 Figures, 16 Tables

Usually earth energies diverge or associated subtle energy lines meander over the Earth’s surface. This paper explores the structure of those mind detected subtle energies that have a cylindrical envelope and possess special properties that keep their 3-dimensional field boundaries parallel and prevent them from diverging. The findings include a complex structure of fractal geometry involving different subtle energy types, together with a newly discovered subtle energy that forms a web pattern providing the “cross bracing” that keeps columnar vortices parallel and stable over long distances and time. Another surprising finding is that the structure of columnar vortices, emanating from sun spots, is identical to the structure of mind created Psi-lines. A conclusion is that the mind is detecting universal laws of physics together with universal constants and ratios. This phenomenon is not just a figment of the imagination, but requires further scientific investigation.
Key Words
Mind, noetics, dowsing, vortices, subtle energies, psi-lines, fractal geometry, structure

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1464] **viXra:1411.0541 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-22 13:30:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter’s deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron’s army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1463] **viXra:1411.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 10:55:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A new proposal for an experiment that could test the presence of a fifth force with unprecedented precision. [9]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[853] **viXra:1412.0200 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-20 07:56:36*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A seven-page letter

This paper raises some questions regarding general theory of relativity like: (i) the theory predicts ‘expansion of space’ between the galaxies; but the space within the galaxy is not expanding, because galaxy is a gravitationally-bound-structure. The question raised here is: If so, then what happens at the edge of a galaxy whose external space is expanding but the space within is not expanding? Is there a smooth transition from expanding to non-expanding space? And what happens to the cosmologically red-shifted inter-galactic-photons when they enter our milky-way galaxy from expanding outer-space to less-and-less expanding space within our galaxy? (ii) According to general relativity the planets, like the earth, orbit around the Sun, because the space around the Sun has got curved; and the planets are in inertial-motion traveling along the geodesic path. Now the question raised here is: Inertial-motion of a body can be at any speed. Can the planets travel along the geodesic-path at any speed they like? Can they take a coffee-brake and then proceed further? (iii) According to general relativity there is a distance at which rate of expansion of space is equal to the speed of light; and the speed of light is always the same, 3 x 10^8 meters per second. The question raised here is: Since the speed of light is the same in expanding as well as non-expanding space; and f . λ = c , i.e. the product of frequency (f) and wavelength (λ) is always equal to the speed of light (c); then the wavelength (λ) can increase only when frequency (f) gets reduced; and not because of expansion of space. Then in the second part of the paper it is shown that reduction in energy of ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’ is strikingly equal to (G me mp / e^2) times the reduction in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[852] **viXra:1412.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-11 01:37:05*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I argue, that there is speciality at the horizon.
Why do we think that the equation of geodesic deviation gives us the tidal force (the right side)? I argue. Even if this is so, a more refined equation gives a speciality at the horizon (see very solid article of very serious prof. Risto Tammelo [Gen.~Rel.~Grav.~1997;29:997--1009]). 2) The deviation equation assumes that the time at different distances from the horizon is synchronized (clocks coincide). But we
know, what in terrestrial conditions it is not observed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[851] **viXra:1411.0597 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-10 01:03:12*

**Authors:** Piero BENAZZO

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Big Bang paradigm observed universe is hypothesised as virtual lens effect. The observer's flat light cone used to observe the sky would generate this by intersecting an actual curved, static and spatially closed cosmos. Its curved space-time would have tilting time axis and be fractal in time. The Hubble length is the only empirical data input needed in the topology, tangent to the curved frame at 60 degrees time axis tilting from the observer, for reciprocal transferability between curved space-time and lens effect. This specifies a 30 degrees angle between the space axis and the speed of light c vector, and a 60 degrees angle between the time axis and the speed of light c vector. These allow measuring the curved frame. Here, brightness would discount fractality remaining unaffected, while redshift would be affected. Their relative differences are transferred from the static curved frame to the observed universe frame. Here, they represent the curvature of the Hubble diagram for the Type Ia Supernovae and Gamma-ray bursts empirical data. This provides empirical evidence of a lens effect and a curved, static and spatially closed cosmos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[850] **viXra:1411.0597 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-01 16:00:51*

**Authors:** Piero BENAZZO

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Big Bang paradigm observed universe is hypothesised as virtual lens effect. The observer's flat light cone used to observe the sky would generate this by intersecting an actual curved, static and spatially closed cosmos. Its curved space-time would have tilting time axis and be fractal in time. The Hubble length is the only empirical data input needed in the topology, tangent to the curved frame at 60 degrees time axis tilting from the observer, for reciprocal transferability between curved space-time and lens effect. This specifies a 30 degrees angle between the space axis and the speed of light c vector, and a 60 degrees angle between the time axis and the speed of light c vector. These allow measuring the curved frame. Here, brightness would discount fractality remaining unaffected, while redshift would be affected. Their relative differences are transferred from the static curved frame to the observed universe frame. Here, they represent the curvature of the Hubble diagram for the Type Ia Supernovae and Gamma-ray bursts empirical data. This provides empirical evidence of a lens effect and a curved, static and spatially closed cosmos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[849] **viXra:1411.0576 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-28 05:22:47*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 53 pages - A simplified physical approach using basic concepts leading to the exposure of the Special Relativity misconceptions. [v2] added paragraph under LT section.

Applying basic classical physics concepts of time and space, while considering event information is ultimately communicated through light—or electromagnetic—signals, it was shown that proper time interval measured in an inertial reference frame (labeled as traveling “object frame”) between two co-local events occurring at the frame origin undergoes apparent alteration and perceived as a “time image” in another inertial frame (labeled as stationary “image frame”), when the two frames are in relative motion. The same “time image” was perceived by either frame due to the change of the light speed relative to the reference frames. Under certain conditions of events spatial coordinates, it was shown through obtained modified Galilean transformations that “apparent” length contraction and expansion were associated with “apparent” time dilation and contraction, respectively. In the case the Emission Theory of light was considered, symmetry in regard to the time and space alteration factors between the frames was shown (i.e., time and space in the traveling “object frame” were perceived in the stationary “image frame” altered by the same factors as for the case when the frame “labels” were swapped). The known classical Doppler Effect was readily derived from the established alteration factors. For all classical approaches, and in the case of light, the wave length was invariant.
In the case the Special Relativity approach was considered, i.e. when the speed of light was assumed constant with respect to all inertial reference frames, inconsistent time “images” were perceived, so an ad hoc assumption was required, imposing an artificial transformation distorting the Emission Theory “time image” dimension by the inverse of the relativistic factor "gamma" leading to the Lorentz transformation, applicable under special conditions of the space coordinates in the direction of motion. Misconceptions in the Special Relativity interpretation of the Lorentz transformation were systematically revealed.
Time alteration was perceived as a dilated “image” for receding frames, and contracted for approaching ones. Self-contradiction in the Lorentz transformation was revealed in connection with the time contraction for approaching frames.
When the frames receded and then approached during equal proper time intervals, the net time interval was perceived as an “image” dilated by "gamma" for the Special Relativity approach, as opposed to "gamma^2" for the Light Emission theory. For the Ether Theory assumption, either time dilation or time invariance was obtained depending on whether the traveling “object frame” was taken to be the ether frame.
The “inverse” transformation was shown to be different from the “opposite” transformation in the way that the former had “image” arguments—returning “object” entities—whereas the latter had “object” arguments in the swapped frame “labels” scenario. Furthermore, they have opposite coordinate domains in the motion direction, although they exhibited the same form; “symmetry” misconceptions were revealed.
The known relativistic Doppler Effect was readily derived. For the case of light, the perceived frequency exhibiting a blue shift (frequency increase) in the case of approaching frames, was in line with the established time contraction in this study, contradicting the Special Relativity prediction of time dilation irrespective of whether the frames were receding or approaching. In addition, the wavelength exhibited an increase in the case of receding frames, whereas it decreased when the source was approaching.
Available experimental data related to [apparent] time dilations, Doppler Effect, and non-existence of preferred reference frame for light propagation (Michelson-Morley experiment) could then be analyzed vis-à-vis the classical theories in terms of apparent time and space transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology