**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(20) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(10) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(5) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(12) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(16)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(22) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(35) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(30) - 1405(38) - 1406(34) - 1407(44) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(29)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(28) - 1503(25) - 1504(27) - 1505(29) - 1506(33) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(41) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(47)

2016 - 1601(32) - 1602(49) - 1603(43) - 1604(34) - 1605(33)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2071] **viXra:1605.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-29 01:30:33*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant (G) which coincide with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. It was determined by Anderson et. al. (2015) that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years), which is close to one−half the principle period of solar activity. It will be shown, from mathematical analysis, that the variations in G are concomitant with gravitomagnetically induced torsion on the Earth's spin during the ≈ 5.9 year period.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2070] **viXra:1605.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 12:14:20*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: My recent publication viXra 1605.0223 indicates that dark matter requires more energy than 34 GEV gamma radiation to annihilate: the best one can do is annihilate -H bosons with the aid of -Z bosons (2(H-Z)). The result doubles the number of -Z bosons very close to the centers of spiral galaxies. This lessens the energy needed to manufacture stars spiraling away from the center of the galaxy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2069] **viXra:1605.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 21:54:50*

**Authors:** Wook Koh

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The cosmological constant is a fundamental
problem in modern physics, and arises at the intersection between
general relativity and quantum field theory.
In this paper
we show how the cosmological constant problem can be solved by X-particles of dark energy with the repulsive force proportional to energy density.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2068] **viXra:1605.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 10:03:03*

**Authors:** Alexander F. Jonkeren

**Comments:** 1 Page. relativistic velocity redshift galaxies recessional expansion

This methods describes a new an direct way of establishing galactic relativistic velocities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2067] **viXra:1605.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 22:26:53*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We summarize how the Lorentz Force motion observed in classical electrodynamics may be understood as geodesic motion derived by minimizing the variation of the proper time along the worldline of test charges in external potentials, while the spacetime metric remains invariant under, and all other fields in spacetime remain independent of, any rescaling of the charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In order for this to occur, time is dilated or contracted due to attractive and repulsive electromagnetic interactions respectively, in very much the same way that time is dilated due to relative motion in special relativity. As such, it becomes possible to lay an entirely geometrodynamic foundation for classical electrodynamics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2066] **viXra:1605.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-23 04:36:30*

**Authors:** ssor Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Nil. I have a paper in viXra: Relativistic Particle Dynamics and Entropy Explains the Exponential Inflationary Epoch

The paper describes that science now has enough data on which a Theory of Everything. The data accrue from analysing cosmological, physics and philosophical information. However the Theory of Everything must imperatively be based on scientific information that explains the Theory of Everything, and on philosophical information that interprets the why of the Theory of Everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2065] **viXra:1605.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 21:19:51*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. none

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions that are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using a simple capacitor, which avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2064] **viXra:1605.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 13:24:14*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The latest experimentally measured 68.3%/26.8% dark energy/fermion mass ratio matches cyclic universe, E8 symmetry theory to within 1/2% if dark matter annihilation gamma radiation energy is 2 x 33.81 GEV. This is the positive mass-energy of 2(H-Z) bosons, and indicates that the Z dark bosons were not not annihilated but were re-incorporated in positive energy form.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2063] **viXra:1605.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 06:02:08*

**Authors:** Ernst Schmutzer

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The two preceding papers published recently in viXra [1] and in [2] are geometrically grounded and physically based on the following forces: gravitation, electromagnetism and scalarism (new phenomenon of Nature, hypothetically introduced
1980) [3]. The cosmology of a closed symmetric isotropic world model is treated, enlarging the Einstein theory, based on fundamental new field equations and conservation laws (additional terms), being the result of the projection onto the 4-dimensional space-time.
The physical basis of this world model is a two-component gas-mixture: mechanical dark-matter scalon-gas (particle: scalon) and electromagnetic
photon-gas. The numerical procedure by resolving the appearing system of equations yields: Urstart of the expansion (named by the author) without singularity (no Big Bang) [4]. This way leads to the acceleration effect of the cosmological expansion (about 8 billion years after Urstart), according to the empirical detection some years ago. Further correct rendering of the Hubble parameter. The age of finish of our world model yields 28 billion of years.
On such theoretical and (up to now) empirical basis we present here in this Paper 3 following results as hypotheses:
1. Gravitational-scalaric field of a sphere.
2. Geodetic equation and general equation of motion of a moving body.
3. Anomalous pioneer effect of moving space-crafts (departure from Newtonian behaviour).
4. Anomalous rotation curves of stars, moving around the centres of spiral galaxies (characteristic deviations from Newtonian mechanics).
5. Heat production in expanding moving bodies.
6. Reinterpretation of Maxwell-Faraday equations.
7. Status of Dark energy and accelerated cosmological expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2062] **viXra:1605.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 05:38:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A theoretical analysis examines the possibility that the black holes detected by LIGO serve as dark matter. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2061] **viXra:1605.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-18 18:12:13*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

During an epoch when a uniform-density expanding dust ball's radius doesn't sufficiently exceed the Schwarzschild value, the dust ball's expansion rate will actually be increasing because the dominant gravitational time dilation effect diminishes as the dust ball expands. However this "acceleration of
expansion" is absent in the "comoving" FLRW dust-ball model because the "comoving" fixing of the 00 component of the metric tensor to unity suppresses gravitational time dilation, an obvious fact in the static gravitational field limit and manifested in the "comoving" FLRW model by the precisely Newtonian form of its Friedmann equation of motion. Therefore we extend to all dust-ball initial conditions the singular Oppenheimer-Snyder transformation from
"comoving" to "standard" coordinates which they carried out for a particular initial condition. In "standard" coordinates we find that gravitational and speed time dilation is wired into the equation of motion of the dust ball's
dynamical radius. All sufficiently small dust balls undergo acceleration rather than deceleration of expansion, but dust balls with sufficiently highly "hyperbolic" initial conditions actually undergo acceleration of expansion at any size. Attempts to account for the observed acceleration of the expansion of the universe by means of an ad hoc nonzero cosmological constant thus seem to be quite unnecessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2060] **viXra:1605.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-18 14:10:52*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.
This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2059] **viXra:1605.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-18 02:21:41*

**Authors:** Irfan Acikgoz, Figen Binbay, Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Eur. Phys. J. Plus 131 (2016) 157.

Focusing on a fractal geometric ghost dark energy, we reconstruct the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI)-essence–type scalar field and find exact solutions of the potential and warped brane tension.We also discuss statefinders for the selected dark energy description to make it distinguishable among others.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2058] **viXra:1605.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-18 02:51:08*

**Authors:** Ernst Schmutzer

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The Projective Unified Field Theory (PUFT) of the author is applied for a dark matter cosmos. Detailed results appeared recently in
two volumes [1]. The set of formulas needed for cosmology (including hypothetic empiric predictions) is presented in [2]. The main essence of this paper lays in following assumptions: dark matter basis of the mechanical
part of the cosmological gas component; taking into account the hypothetical scalarism phenomenon, introduced by the author at the GRG-congress 1980 in Jena [3]. One of our main results is the singularity-free beginning of the cosmos model investigated (Urstart instead of Big Bang). The occurring numerical result for the Hubble-parameter is physically full satisfactory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2057] **viXra:1605.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-16 22:48:33*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is first shown that there is no exchange of energy-momentum during planetary motion. Then, starting with the field equations, it is shown that the gravitational field does not exchange energy-momentum with any form of matter.
Conclusion: In general relativity, there is no gravitational energy, momentum, stress, force or power.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2056] **viXra:1605.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-16 07:22:19*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 96 Pages. The Origin of Spin , The Why and How particles move

Point in E-Geometry , which is nothing and Dimensionless , is Zero can be derived from the
addition of a Positive (+) and a Negative (-) number while Material point has Dimension the
Segment ds = [⊕⊝] , and originates in the same way . Adding it to numbers i.e. to Monads ,
creates the Primary Particles and all the Rest-Gravity constituent and all Atoms of Periodic
System in Planck`s Space -Level . Monads are Spinning because of the inner Electromagnetic
Waves E,P which create the External Spin and again Spin creates the Inner Electromagnetic
Waves E,P in monads continuing this eternal cycle . It is shown Why , How , and where
this Rotational momentum , the Spinning , is conserved .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2055] **viXra:1605.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-15 03:22:42*

**Authors:** Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

There are strong indications the general relativity theory is incomplete. Observational data that is taken as evidence for dark energy and dark matter could indicate the need for new physics. In this paper, general relativity is rewritten based on the X-particles of dark energy. The goal is to
help classical mechanics and general relativity to reconcile with the laws of quantum physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2054] **viXra:1605.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 10:47:00*

**Authors:** Ernst Schmutzer

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The short reproduction of the Projective Unified Field Theory of the author (including empiric predictions) will be presented during the
subsequent time:
Fundamental 5-dimensional physical laws within the projective space and projection of these basic laws onto space-time.
Transition from this 4-dimensional complex of the physical laws to the (better understandable) 3-dimensional version with new additional physical terms, being prepared for a physical interpretation (influence of cosmological expansion).
Numerical presentation of the predicted astrophysical and cosmological effects: anomalous motion of bodies according to the pioneer effect, anomalous rotation curve of rotating bodies around
a gravitational centre. One should take note of my hypothetic result that the true origin of these both effects (pioneer effect and
rotation curve effect) seems to have the same cause, namely the overwhelming dark matter existing in our Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2053] **viXra:1605.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 10:20:46*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper analyzes the structure of space-time , on the basis of the principle of superposition of holographic wave function .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2052] **viXra:1605.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 09:05:17*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Equivalence principle is the basement of general relativity theory. It points out that the gravitational force is equivalent to the inertial force. However, the general relativity theory does not give the reason. In this paper, we assume the space is a kind of elastic media. The energy can take pressure on the space. It will make the space curved. The curved space-time produces gravitational force. This paper gives the mathematical calculation based on elasticity theory to show that this assumption is true. It also gives the accurate relationship between mass and gravitational force. The relationship is in line with the conclusion of general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2051] **viXra:1605.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 10:55:29*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Space-time is a complex field. With the help of the gauge transformations are obtained formulas Lorenz for coordinates and time .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2050] **viXra:1605.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 02:12:11*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages. -

Formula relativity and more detailed consideration of the motion help to explain
the gravitational interaction using an electric interaction. The method was
considered even by Einstein, but he did not bring it to the end.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2049] **viXra:1605.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 09:39:53*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Oscillations observed in Newton's gravitational constant G are shown to be associated with inverse oscillations in the Gaussian gravitational constant k. A falsifiable prediction is submitted to test the G/k duality hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2048] **viXra:1605.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 03:39:01*

**Authors:** Luo Zhengda

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

According to the theory and opinion of natural external force and natural repulsive force, "gravitational wave" doesn't exist. Therefore, LIGO cannot detect gravitational wave produced by two black holes with stellar system level 1.3 billion years ago.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2047] **viXra:1605.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 04:41:30*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Here is the list of subheadings in this article -
1) TOPOLOGICAL UNIVERSE
2) ELECTROMAGNETISM FROM GRAVITY(REDEFINING THE BIG BANG, COSMIC INFLATION AND APPLICATION OF INFINITY TO THE UNIVERSE)
3) WAVE PACKETS
4) THE COMPLEX & THE IMAGINARY REDEFINE COSMOGENESIS & BIOGENESIS
5) POSITIVE GRAVITY/BLACK HOLES BALANCED BY NEGATIVE HYPERSPACE
6) DARK MATTER AND INVERSE SQUARE RESULT FROM HYPERSPACE
7) SUPERNOVAS, BLACK HOLES AND DARK ENERGY
8) REPELLING GRAVITY, OCEAN TIDES AND THE GROWING AU
9) RELATIVISTIC MUSINGS
10) INTERGALACTIC AND TIME TRAVEL VIA BLACK HOLES POSSIBLE BECAUSE E=mc^2 CAN TRANSFORM INTO (E=0) + (m=c^2)
11) WORLD PEACE AND IMMORTALITY
12) ENTANGLEMENT IN THE G-EM FIELD
13) DVD-TIME, REALITY WAVES AND BRAIN FOG

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2046] **viXra:1605.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-08 19:45:10*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Gabriele U. Varieschi and Zily Burstein in arXiv 1208.3706 showed that with Conformal Gravity Alcubierre Warp Drive does not need Exotic Matter. In E8 Physics of viXra 1602.0319 Conformal Gravity gives Dark Energy which expands our Universe and can curve Spacetime. Clovis Jacinto de Matos and Christian Beck in arXiv 0707.1797 said “... based on the model of dark energy a proposed by Beck and Mackey ... assume... that photons ... can exist in two different phases: A gravitationally active phase where the zeropoint fluctuations contribute to the [dark energy] cosmological constant /\, and a gravitationally inactive phase where they do not contribute to /\. ... this type of model of dark energy can lead to measurable effects in supeconductors,
via ... interaction with the Cooper pairs in the superconductor. ...
the transition between the two graviphoton’s phases ... occurs at the critical temperature Tc of the superconductor, which defines a cutoff frequency of opoint fluctuations ... Graviphotons can form weakly bounded states with Cooper pairs ... [which] ... form a condensate ...[in]... superconduct[ors] ... the cosmological cutoff frequency [could be measured] through the measurement of the spectral density of the noise current in resistively shunted Josephson Junctions ...”. Xiao Hu and Shi-Zeng Lin in arXiv 0911.5371 and 1206.516 showed that BSCCO superconducting crystals are natural Josephson Junctions. A Pentagonal Dipyramid configuration of 16 BSCCO crystals cannot close in flat 3-dim space, but can close if Conformal Dark Energy accumulated in the BSCCO Josephson Junctions curves spacetime. Such spacetime curvature allows construction of a Conformal Gravity Alcubierre Warp Drive that does not need Exotic Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2045] **viXra:1605.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-05 21:29:46*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: It has been almost a year since I updated the cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory. The best starting point is the big bang. At this point our universe was the smallest it could be because gravity was active but all matter was in the special-entity form of fermibosons, which had effectively zero mass, and no big crunch could take place. Instead, the universe grew until it reached its present gigantic size and the fermibosons mostly disintegrated back into fermions and negative mc^2 dark matter. The dark matter eventually annihilated, producing 40 GEV gamma radiation and simple expansion of space. Someday the expansion will end: there will be a contraction (not a crunch) of the universe and the cycle will repeat.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2044] **viXra:1605.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-06 03:49:33*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The consistency in stellar orbital speeds, independent upon their distance from galactic nuclei, is shown to be due to an increase in their angular frequencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2043] **viXra:1605.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 12:58:03*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Version 1 in Spanish.

This article presents an alternative formulation of special relativity which can be applied in any inertial reference frame. In addition, a new universal force is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2042] **viXra:1605.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 10:55:15*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper we show how Einstein's relativity of simultaneity is fully consistent with anisotropic one-way speed of light. We get the same end result and observations as predicted by Einstein, but with a very different interpretation. We show that the relativity of simultaneity is an apparent effect due to an Einstein clock synchronization error, which is rooted in assuming that the one-way speed of light is the same as the well-tested round-trip speed of light. Einstein's relativity of simultaneity leads to several bizarre paradoxes recently introduced by Haug (2016a, 2016b).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2041] **viXra:1605.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 06:09:21*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Lorentz transformation handles an oblique frame of reference. Regarding to the oblique system, investigation about scaling and distance is required for clear understanding how the Lorentz transformation can be derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2040] **viXra:1605.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 06:37:27*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper introduces a new way to synchronize clocks distanced apart and a way to synchronize clocks between reference frames. Based on a simple synchronization thought experiment, we claim that relativity of simultaneity must be incomplete. Einstein's special relativity theory predicts relativity of simultaneity and that two events that happen simultaneously in one reference frame will not happen simultaneously as observed from another reference frame. Relativity of simultaneity is directly linked to a particular way of synchronizing clocks (Einstein-Poincar\'{e} synchronization) that again assumes that the one-way speed of light is isotropic and identical with the well-tested round-trip speed of light. In the new thought experiment introduced here, there is reason to believe that two distant events can happen simultaneously in both frames. Still, we agree that these events will not happen simultaneously as measured with Einstein synchronized clocks. The claim here is that Einstein synchronized clocks lead to apparent relativity of simultaneity due to a clock synchronization error rooted in the assumption of isotropic one-way speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2039] **viXra:1605.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 07:31:40*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It may be hard to understand Lorentz transformation intuitively because it is derived inductively from the light speed constancy for every inertia systems. Specially the definition of space-axis (time zero line) is unclear although time-axis definition may be reasonable when the Lorentz transformation is recognized as a rotation of frame of reference on the Minkowski space. On such situation, Lorentz transformation may become understandable if the logic of space-axis definition become clear. And light speed constancy may not be an axiom, it should be what to be derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2038] **viXra:1605.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 03:54:25*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Spanish

The General Relativity is a nonlinear theory, this allows the equation of motion of a particle can be deduced from the field equations. The method was developed in 1938 by Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann. We present this theory clarifying all calculations and demonstrating the theorems involved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2037] **viXra:1604.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 15:52:02*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Interesting Additional Points

After attending the APS April 16-19 meeting, and having the opportunity to see and discussing some of the results with the authors, there were a few points pertinent to the above paper that should be made:

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2036] **viXra:1604.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 17:16:08*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Frame Dragging Predicted By Modified Polarizable Vacuum Theory

Frame dragging resulted from modifications of Polarizable Vacuum Theory that were done to bring high velocity terms into PV consistent with established science of energy and momentum at high speed.
It was found that velocity terms could not be brought into PV theory without formalism for exchange of kinetic energy with the vacuum space. Planck’s Law in general and Heisenberg Uncertainty in a specific case were used to develop a mechanism for continual exchange of kinetic energy with the local vacuum.
The mechanism calls for incurring equal exchange of energy with space when acceleration does not occur, and unequal exchange when a physical object is accelerating. Accumulating kinetic energy in space was found to polarize the vacuum in a way equivalent to the polarizing parameter K of Harold Puthoff.
Frame dragging results from the continual increase of vacuum stress energy trailing longitudinally and propagating transversely from an accelerating deep space vehicle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2035] **viXra:1604.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 10:51:04*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This monograph was motivated by the following question posted by the author at the ResearchGate (RG) Website:
In the context of Special Relativity (SR): is it time dilation, clock frequency increase, both of the above or none of the above?
At the writing of this document there were over 520 RG postings related to the above question by many different scholars/researchers, both proponents and dissenters of Special Relativity. The discourse of the answers clearly shows in my opinion that most of the apparent incongruencies mentioned in the posts about Special Relativity were not necessarily because of its formulation, but because of the different interpretations that arise from the physical effects that the Lorentz Transformation (LT) predicts. This is not to say that SR has or has not problems as a theory but that its general acceptability is hampered by the many interpretational paradoxes that can be formulated because of its notoriously ambiguous concepts regarding time dilation and length contraction. Not surprisingly, the concepts of relativistic momentum and energy were not subject to scrutiny, I suspect because of their already accepted relative nature and their established relativistic relation to motion as empirically demonstrated in particle accelerators and the like.
Needless to say, most of the so called incongruencies that were posted dealt with time dilation, as to its meaning or as to whether it is real or apparent. As usual on RG posts, many of the answers were diametrically opposed.
In this monograph, I propose a comparative scenario of SR that is shown to be free of incongruencies or paradoxes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2034] **viXra:1604.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 11:49:13*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

centrifugal force explains General Relativity and the elavator equivalent principle in 4 pages

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2033] **viXra:1604.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 09:04:53*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover New Einstein’s gravity field equation. We treats New Einstein-Maxwell Equation. In this time, we can think Kaluza-Klein theory. We need 5 Dimension-New Kaluza-Klein theory that can express New Einstein-Maxwell Equation. Reissner-Nodstrom solution, Cosmology, etc in present Einstein gravity field equation are the same in new Einstein gravity field equation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2032] **viXra:1604.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 04:05:01*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid, Kah Chew

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Although many experiments have been cited as empirical verification of special relativity, they are not experiments that could not have
questions raised about their validity as proofs. There is one simple experiment that could be carried out to put to rest, incontrovertibly, the controversies concerning the validity of special relativity - by a direct measurement of the speed
of beta particles from beta decay. If special relativity is correct, no electrons would be found to go faster than light speed. If special relativity is invalid, then kinetic energy obeys the old 1 / 2 mv2 formula. Some beta particles could be ejected with kinetic energy greater than 1 MeV; such electrons would be detected to travel at about twice the speed of light. Though it is one of the simplest experiment that many laboratories over the world could perform,until now, the experiment has yet to be carried out.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2031] **viXra:1604.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 05:55:08*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Notion of causality in G\"{o}del universe, is compared with what is implied by the Einstein-Podolski-Rosen (EPR) type experiments of quantum mechanics. Red shift of light from distant galaxies is explained by employing Segal's compact time coordinate - in the G\"{o}del universe - which indeed was considered by G\"{o}del in his seminal paper. Various possibilities for the rotation of the universe are discussed. It is note worthy that in recent years, the scope of research on G\"{o}del univese, has expanded to include topics in string theory, supersymmetry and embedding of black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2030] **viXra:1604.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-27 07:28:27*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Version 1 in Spanish.

This article presents a relational formulation of special relativity whose kinematic and dynamic quantities are invariant under transformations between inertial reference frames. In addition, a new universal force is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2029] **viXra:1604.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 07:30:37*

**Authors:** Peter C Morris

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

"Nanotechnology Quantum Detectors for Gravitational Waves...", Progress in Physics, 2013, v.4, 57-62, describes detection of gravitational dynamical 3-space waves through correlation analysis of data from quantum Random Event Generators (REGs) operating within the Global Consciousness Project (GCP) network.
We found this extremely interesting so attempted to perform similar analysis using different data from the same network. We were able to extract correlations such as those reported, estimate the velocities of 3-space waves and 3-space flow and observe earth orbit aberration effects.
Herein we describe our analysis and results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2028] **viXra:1604.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 01:26:10*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, an interferometer experiment that can be highly sensitive to absolute motion is proposed. This has been possible because the new theory (Apparent Source Theory) already proposed by this author revealed the fallacy in conventional and modern Michelson-Morley experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2027] **viXra:1604.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 02:55:30*

**Authors:** A. V. Mamaev

**Comments:** 11 Pages. The article was refused from publishing in EPL as the paper does not meet the criteria for novelty.

My purpose consisted in creation of a new relativistic space-time theory instead of Einstein’s Relativity Theory, but basing upon only one postulate. This could become feasible only if a law of light propagation in a moving inertial reference frame could be made a consequence of the relativity postulate. It was made a reality by discovery by P.M. Rapier of a quadratic dependence of light speed upon the speed of a light source. Considering various ways of making the second postulate superfluous the most short of them was through introducing into the theory of a new concept “light speed in a moving inertial reference frame” by means of usage of a four-dimensional Minkovski’s formalism. This new concept speed was defined as equal to a fourth component of a four-dimensional speed of any moving particle. Then using this newly introduced concept the time-measurement unit was calculated for a moving light clock that occurred to be equal to the time measurement unit of a stationary light clock. And as a very happy event the time dilation effect was deleted from the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2026] **viXra:1604.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-24 14:06:02*

**Authors:** Alexander F. Jonkeren

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper describes a modification of the curvature in which spacetime is shaped under the influence of energy and matter. With this modified curvature it is possible to predict and probably explain many observed phenomena in Cosmology that cannot be accounted for by the generally accepted General Relativity spacetime curvature. Regarding all other aspects it does fully comply with General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2025] **viXra:1604.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-24 10:25:04*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

About the twin paradox of special relativity theory, there are some resolutions. But these might not be the best fit resolution considering the core concept of special relativity theory. Here we will approach the concept of special relativity thinking the resolution of twin paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2024] **viXra:1604.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 10:18:42*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. original article

The motion of the mathematical extra-terrestrial pendulum is considered in
the spherical gravitational field. The potential energy of the pendulum bob is
approximated to give the nonlinear equation of motion. After solving it by the
Landau-Migdal method we obtain the frequency of motion and the swing amplitude.
The crucial point of our experiment is, that if the inertial mass m depends on
its distance from the reference body M, then the calculated frequuency of our
pendulum is not identical with the measured frequency. This crucial knowledge of
the pendulum project can have substantional
influence on the future development
of general relativity and physics of elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2023] **viXra:1604.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 06:08:37*

**Authors:** Hochecker, Hans-Joerg

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

I can show that gravitation is an electric effect. To this, it is necessary to better understand the qualities of the electric charges and their forces. I start by showing that the magnetic field can be represented as an angled electric field. To this, the electric field must have two qualities: the dependence of the electric force on the velocity, and the electric anti-field. All previous cognitions on electrodynamics stay with it untouched. Then, I apply these two new qualities to gravitation, and it turns out that gravitation is an electric effect if a third quality applies to the electric field: the quantization of the energy transfer of the electric field. These three new qualities complete our picture of electrodynamics. Finally, I go to the origins of the three new qualities with the help of the early quantum mechanics. This turns out well by representing the electric charge as a spacetime wave, in which its frequency corresponds to its mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1283] **viXra:1605.0289 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-30 18:27:14*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant (G) which coincide with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. It was determined by Anderson et. al. (2015) that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years), which is close to one−half the principle period of solar activity. It will be shown, from mathematical analysis, that the variations in G are concomitant with gravitomagnetically induced torsion on the Earth's spin during the ≈ 5.9 year period.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1282] **viXra:1605.0289 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-30 05:38:06*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant (G) which coincide with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. It was determined by Anderson et. al. (2015) that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years), which is close to one−half the principle period of solar activity. It will be shown, from mathematical analysis, that the variations in G are concomitant with gravitomagnetically induced torsion on the Earth's spin during the ≈ 5.9 year period.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1281] **viXra:1605.0289 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-30 03:54:20*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1280] **viXra:1605.0259 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-26 09:58:36*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We summarize how the Lorentz Force motion observed in classical electrodynamics may be understood as geodesic motion derived by minimizing the variation of the proper time along the worldline of test charges in external potentials, while the spacetime metric remains invariant under, and all other fields in spacetime remain independent of, any rescaling of the charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In order for this to occur, time is dilated or contracted due to attractive and repulsive electromagnetic interactions respectively, in very much the same way that time is dilated due to relative motion in special relativity, without contradicting the latter’s well-established experimental content. As such, it becomes possible to lay an entirely geometrodynamic foundation for classical electrodynamics in four spacetime dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1279] **viXra:1605.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-27 07:46:44*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions, which are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions, are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using a simple capacitor, which avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1278] **viXra:1605.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-25 11:29:03*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions, which are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions, are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using a simple capacitor, which avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1277] **viXra:1605.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-24 11:14:43*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions that are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using a simple capacitor, which avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1276] **viXra:1605.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-30 08:26:49*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

During an epoch when a uniform-density expanding dust ball's radius doesn't sufficiently exceed the Schwarzschild value, the dust ball's expansion rate will actually be increasing because the dominant gravitational time dilation effect diminishes as the dust ball expands. However this "acceleration of
expansion" is absent in the "comoving" FLRW dust-ball model because the "comoving" fixing of the 00 component of the metric tensor to unity suppresses gravitational time dilation, an obvious fact in the static gravitational field limit and manifested in the "comoving" FLRW model by the precisely Newtonian form of its Friedmann equation of motion. Therefore we extend to all dust-ball initial conditions the singular Oppenheimer-Snyder transformation from
"comoving" to "standard" coordinates which they carried out for a particular initial condition. In "standard" coordinates we find that gravitational and speed time dilation is wired into the equation of motion of the dust ball's
dynamical radius. All sufficiently small dust balls undergo acceleration rather than deceleration of expansion, but dust balls with sufficiently highly "hyperbolic" initial conditions actually undergo acceleration of expansion at any size. Attempts to account for the observed acceleration of the expansion of the universe by means of an ad hoc nonzero cosmological constant thus seem to be quite unnecessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1275] **viXra:1605.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-19 04:01:47*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Corrected Typos.

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.
This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1274] **viXra:1605.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-14 17:53:43*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Periodic (5.9 year) oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G which coincide with length of day (LOD) data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System (IERS). It is shown that the oscillations in G are dualistic with Gauss' gravitational constant k due to variations in the Earth's mean motion during the 5.9 year period. Falsifiable predictions are submitted to test the G/k duality hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1273] **viXra:1605.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-14 12:43:39*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Periodic (5.9 year) oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G which coincide with length of day (LOD) data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System (IERS). It is shown that the oscillations in G are dualistic with Gauss' gravitational constant k due to variations in the Earth's mean motion during the 5.9 year period. Falsifiable predictions are submitted to test the G/k duality hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1272] **viXra:1605.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-14 03:26:15*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Periodic (5.9 year) oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G which coincide with length of day (LOD) data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System (IERS). It is shown that the oscillations in G are dualistic with Gauss' gravitational constant k due to variations in the Earth's mean motion during the 5.9 year period. Falsifiable predictions are submitted to test the G/k duality hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1271] **viXra:1605.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-10 10:53:29*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The consistency in stellar orbital speeds, independent from their distance from galactic nuclei, is shown to be associated with an increase in their angular frequencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1270] **viXra:1605.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-06 06:28:56*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The consistency in stellar orbital speeds, independent upon their distance from galactic nuclei, is shown to be due to an increase in their angular frequencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1269] **viXra:1605.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-07 13:30:55*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Version 3 in English.

This article presents an alternative formulation of special relativity which can be applied in any inertial reference frame. In addition, a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1268] **viXra:1605.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-07 07:41:36*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Version 2 in Spanish.

This article presents an alternative formulation of special relativity which can be applied in any inertial reference frame. In addition, a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1267] **viXra:1605.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-18 09:41:09*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Lorentz transformation handles an oblique frame of reference. Regarding to the oblique system, investigation about scaling and distance is required for clear understanding how the Lorentz transformation can be derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1266] **viXra:1605.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-16 09:58:22*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It may be hard to understand Lorentz transformation intuitively because it is derived inductively from the light speed constancy for every inertia systems. Specially the definition of space-axis (time zero line) is unclear although time-axis definition may be reasonable when the Lorentz transformation is recognized as a rotation of frame of reference on the Minkowski space. On such situation, Lorentz transformation may become understandable if the logic of space-axis definition become clear. And light speed constancy may not be an axiom, it should be what to be derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1265] **viXra:1605.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-01 09:29:57*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Spanish

The General Relativity is a nonlinear theory, this allows the equation of motion of a particle can be deduced from the field equations. The method was developed in 1938 by Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann. We present this theory clarifying all calculations and demonstrating the theorems involved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1264] **viXra:1604.0394 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-19 10:49:52*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This corrects an error in the first issue

After attending the APS April 16-19 meeting, and having the opportunity to see and discussing some of the results with the authors, there were a few points pertinent to the above paper that should be made:

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1263] **viXra:1604.0393 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 15:07:27*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Removing a main cause of PV theory rejection

Frame dragging resulted from modifications of Polarizable Vacuum Theory that were done to bring high velocity terms into PV consistent with established science of energy and momentum at high speed.
It was found that velocity terms could not be brought into PV theory without formalism for exchange of kinetic energy with the vacuum space. Planck’s Law in general and Heisenberg Uncertainty in a specific case were used to develop a mechanism for continual exchange of kinetic energy with the local vacuum.
The mechanism calls for incurring equal exchange of energy with space when acceleration does not occur, and unequal exchange when a physical object is accelerating. Accumulating kinetic energy in space was found to polarize the vacuum in a way equivalent to the polarizing parameter K of Harold Puthoff.
Frame dragging results from the continual increase of vacuum stress energy trailing longitudinally and propagating transversely from an accelerating deep space vehicle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1262] **viXra:1604.0387 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 16:26:24*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This monograph was motivated by the following question posted by the author at the ResearchGate (RG) Website: In the context of Special Relativity (SR): is it time dilation, clock frequency increase, both of the above or none of the above?
At the writing of this document there were over 520 RG postings related to the above question by many different scholars/researchers, both proponents and dissenters of Special Relativity. The discourse of the answers clearly shows in my opinion that most of the apparent incongruencies mentioned in the posts about Special Relativity were not necessarily because of its formulation, but because of the different interpretations that arise from the physical effects that the Lorentz Transformation (LT) predicts. This is not to say that SR has or has not problems as a theory but that its general acceptability is hampered by the many interpretational paradoxes that can be formulated because of its notoriously ambiguous concepts regarding time dilation and length contraction. Not surprisingly, the concepts of relativistic momentum and energy were not subject to scrutiny, I suspect because of their already accepted relative nature and their established relativistic relation to motion as empirically demonstrated in particle accelerators and the like.
Needless to say, most of the so called incongruencies that were posted dealt with time dilation, as to its meaning or as to whether it is real or apparent. As usual on RG posts, many of the answers were diametrically opposed.
In this monograph, I propose a comparative scenario of SR that is shown to be free of incongruencies or paradoxes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1261] **viXra:1604.0359 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-27 10:45:10*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Version 2 in English.

This article presents a relational formulation of special relativity whose kinematic and dynamic quantities are invariant under transformations between inertial reference frames. In addition, a new universal force is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1260] **viXra:1604.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-11 22:10:40*

**Authors:** Peter C. Morris

**Comments:** 5 Pages, 6 Figures

"Nanotechnology Quantum Detectors for Gravitational Waves...", Progress in Physics, 2013, v.4, 57-62, describes detection of gravitational dynamical 3-space waves through correlation analysis of data from quantum Random Event Generators (REGs) operating within the Global Consciousness Project (GCP) network. We found this extremely interesting so attempted to perform similar analysis using different data from the same network. We were able to extract correlations such as those reported, estimate the velocities of 3-space waves and 3-space flow and observe earth orbit aberration effects. Herein we describe our analysis and results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1259] **viXra:1604.0328 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-28 06:09:53*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

About the twin paradox of special relativity theory, there are some resolutions. But these might not be the best fit resolution considering the core concept of special relativity theory. Here we will approach the concept of special relativity thinking the resolution of twin paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology