**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

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2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

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2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(14) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(34) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(30)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(33) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(33) - 1509(38) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(32) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(32) - 1605(30) - 1606(43) - 1607(23) - 1608(39) - 1609(45) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(32)

2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(46) - 1705(32) - 1706(30) - 1707(28) - 1708(29) - 1709(41) - 1710(34) - 1711(41) - 1712(47)

2018 - 1801(35) - 1802(41) - 1803(46) - 1804(47) - 1805(39) - 1806(41) - 1807(48) - 1808(29) - 1809(23) - 1810(38) - 1811(54) - 1812(19)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3164] **viXra:1812.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-15 00:40:09*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The relative reflection symmetry exists for an isolated system of two stationary persons. The first person sees the second person in a distance away.
The second person sees the first person in the same distance away but in the opposite direction.
Such symmetry also exists for two mobile persons. Both persons see each other moving at the same speed but in opposite direction in their own rest frames.
From the definition of velocity, the time in the rest frame of the first person can be compared to the time in the rest frame of the second person.
The result shows that the time in the rest frame of the first person differs from the time in the rest frame of the second person by a constant.
Two simultaneous events in one inertial reference frame are also simultaneous in another inertial reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3163] **viXra:1812.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-14 04:53:44*

**Authors:** Milan D. Nešić

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It is understandable that in 1916 Einstein was unable to explain his postulate c=const, that in the case of the lightning and the train that moves on the railway embankment he still tacitly implied that the inertial coordinate system which is at rest has advantage over the one in motion. In serious scientific journals, there are no tries of explanations of this postulate, but it is strange that even today, at popular lectures, Einstein's explanation is taken as valid. It isn't difficult to show that his explanation is not valid; it is difficult to find the right explanation without trying to form an alternative theory. The article is dedicated to this goal. The found explanation will also serve to explain, for example, the EPR-paradox without any “spooky action at a distance” or “hidden variables” (Einstein’s expressions). And this is not the only example where it can serve.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3162] **viXra:1812.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-12 07:46:37*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A time scale of the Universe will be shown in all details. It starts with the existence of the first information (0/1) Bit and the probability of God or the Creator of the Universe. Step by step are comming dimensions within the Universe until the 4-dimensionsal Universe of General Relativity Theory (GRT) is created.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3161] **viXra:1812.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-12 21:36:30*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

The aim of this work is, first, to set the basis for a formal model of science, then, it is to show that the laws of physics are its theorems. Necessarily, all theories that are the logical product of science are theorems of our model. As this includes physics, our model is, therefore, its logical foundation.
Our model is an axiomatic realization of the participatory universe envisioned by John Archibald Wheeler, in which the observer's practice of science is associated with proving reality. As our model is constructive of the mathematical structure isomorphic to nature, it deprecates Karl Popper's definition of science based on falsifiability.
The formal practice of science consists of constructing a message (in the sense of Shannon's theory of information) of experiments (the elements of the message) constrained by the requirement that the elements are verifiable by the statistical priors of the message. In this context, we define the priors as Nature and we qualify the message as scientific. Nature is thus understood as a general proof checker for experiments.
We show that the construction of a scientific message bounds nature (the priors) to a cosmology entirely emergent from the entropy of the scientific message. Finally, we conclude that the participatory-universe is emergent from the ideal practice of science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3160] **viXra:1812.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-10 03:30:41*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

why science hates time travel and antigravity, why they're impossible, and what the implications are for antimatter

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3159] **viXra:1812.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-08 09:23:12*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The model based on subjective idealism, enabling to derive a space-time with a Minkowsky space metrics on Euclidean space with no time and dynamics is suggested. This model also allows deriving the curved space-time with a metrics of the general theory of relativity. It was demonstrated that the principle of causality and the anthropic principle arise from the model. It was demonstrated that the strong principle of equivalence of gravitation and acceleration arises from the model. All principles and postulates on which special and general theories of relativity are based are being derived. Article offers entirely new model for creation of physical theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3158] **viXra:1812.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-08 10:20:47*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper presents core the equations and physical principles of Hypersphere Cosmology drawn together in summary from a number of the authors previous papers. It presents an alternative interpretation of observed cosmological data to that currently used in the Standard Model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3157] **viXra:1812.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-07 22:43:34*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

the ways antimatter can interact with time are explored and the consequences of the only viable option are enumerated, theory detailed, test proposed, and casual finale

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3156] **viXra:1812.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-06 10:55:12*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

a concise treatment of gravitation and antimatter using temporal elasticity as mediator

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3155] **viXra:1812.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-06 11:18:58*

**Authors:** Francois Ritter

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Based on an intuitive generalization of the Lorentz Transformations to non-inertial frames, this study presents new coordinates for a hyperbolically accelerated reference frame. These coordinates are equivalent to the Rindler coordinates exclusively at small times due to the loss of the clock hypothesis. This hypothesis is considered an excellent but fundamentally incorrect approximation for longitudinal motion. The proper acceleration of a hyperbolically accelerated particle is no longer constant and its proper time progressively slows down until becoming constant at the speed of light. This is in agreement with the timeless nature of photons. An event horizon beyond which any information cannot reach the particle is still present and is identical to the Rindler horizon. More importantly, a time dependent factor appears in the metric that could profoundly change our understanding of the space-time dynamic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3154] **viXra:1812.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-04 08:44:17*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A particle solution is obtained, interpreted as
being the Photon, with mass and electric charge, using the Null Quantum tensor in 5th dimension according to Theory of Total Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3153] **viXra:1812.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-04 15:44:36*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Light also has inertia and variable speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3152] **viXra:1812.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-02 12:02:48*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

temporal elasticity theory is detailed and established on firm foundation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3151] **viXra:1812.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-03 03:45:52*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We show that the forces of inertia acting on the accelerated bodies are forces of
gravitational induction exerted by the whole of the Universe. Therefore, the phenomenon of
inertia and the inertial mass of a body have a cosmic origin, as demanded by the Mach's principle.
The calculations will be applied to a vector gravitational field theory. In a second part of this research we will apply these results to the General Theory of Relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3150] **viXra:1812.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-01 13:50:16*

**Authors:** Alan T Kelly

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Based on a quantitative assessment of the fundamental forces and constants, we demonstrate
a solution to the Constant Speed of Light V’s Variable Speed of Light question. The solution
provides that all physical constants begin at a point of fundamental perfection, where their values
can be described in the absolute simplest terms, requiring only the numbers 1; 2; 3; and 5 to do so.
We subsequently demonstrate that by inserting a Mass Variable into the model, to account for the
quantity of mass interacting with our locale of space, we can transform these perfect prime based
constants, to attain predictive results that are on average 99.94% in agreement with CODATA
values. We conclude that the speed of light is indeed variable, as is every other physical constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3149] **viXra:1812.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-01 18:30:43*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In gravity theory, there is a well-known trans-Planckian problem, which is that general relativity theory leads to a shorter than Planck length and shorter than Planck time in relation to so-called black holes. However, there has been little focus on the fact that special relativity also leads to a trans-Planckian problem, something we will demonstrate here. According to special relativity, an object with mass must move slower than light, but special relativity has no limits on how close to the speed of light something with mass can move. This leads to a scenario where objects can undergo so much length contraction that they will become shorter than the Planck length as measured from another frame, and we can also have shorter time intervals than the Planck time.
The trans-Planckian problem is easily solved by a small modification that assumes Haug’s maximum velocity for matter is the ultimate speed limit for something with mass. This speed limit depends on the Planck length, which can be measured without any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant or the Planck constant. After a long period of slow progress in theoretical physics, we are now in a Klondike “gold rush” period where many of the essential pieces are falling in place.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3148] **viXra:1812.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-02 01:18:44*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

n this paper, we consider the relationship between the wave function and the holographic principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3147] **viXra:1811.0520 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-30 10:06:59*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The Y(4140) tetraquark plus 40 MeV added energy = 4180 MeV = 4.180 GeV = signal by E8 Symmetry that the top quark/bottom quark ratio is of great importance in connection with the possibility of superfast communication

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3146] **viXra:1811.0514 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-29 06:22:32*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We will see how Michelson's original error in calculation of the expected fringe shift in the 1881 experiment and its subsequent correction by Potier and Lorentz led to hastening of the abandonment of the ether. In an effort to increase the sensitivity of the experiment, Michelson and Morley considerably increased the arm length of light in the 1887 experiment, and by doing so, they ended up in building an instrument that ruled out the ether even more decisively than the 1881 Michelson experiment. All their efforts to detect the ether unexpectedly played out against the ether, not in favor of it. The reason why the 1887 experiment was much less sensitive than the 1881 experiment, despite the fact that the 1887 experiment used a considerably longer arm length, has always remained a mystery that no one has ever viewed it as such. By continuously increasing the arm length in subsequent experiments, physicists unknowingly ended up in setting up and repeating experiments that were much less sensitive to absolute motion than the 1881 Michelson experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3145] **viXra:1811.0512 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-29 08:42:25*

**Authors:** Royan Rosche

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An equation which uses Pi and Light Speed to find measurements of the Earth and Gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3144] **viXra:1811.0497 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-30 05:17:37*

**Authors:** Milan D. Nešić

**Comments:** 19 Pages. According also to the book: Milan D. Nesic: WAS GIORDANO BRUNO BURNED IN VAIN? (2018, Belgrade, ISBN 978-86-900622-0-1

It's about philosophy of cosmology, based finally on the right understanding of the postulate c=const as the inertia of the whole universe. Not even all the photons of the same frequency from the same light source are the same; each of them will be such, so that it arrives to its receiver with the c=const speed, what is possible precisely because of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. That's why the Big Bang as the start of cosmos and the world in general is an illusion, though an objective one. Only with comprehensive inertia and relativity without mass limitations can one begin to understand how come the World exists. Not how it came to be, but how it has existed since forever and how it exists always and again. Inertia: not so related to the material world which the man can specifically ascertain with how ever perspicacious an experiment, but inertia without anything concrete, logically most abstract: if something is already something, whatever it is, even an uncertain possibility, why would it be different, it has no reason, whilst if it is nothing, why would it be something, it remains nothing. Relativity: not the homocentrically insufficient one from the theory of relativity, but an all-encompassing relativity, which must refer to itself as well precisely because it is infinite, it must make itself relative, i.e. it cannot avoid exploding into its otherness, into universal symmetry, by which nothing is possible only in symmetry with something. Absolute nothing is only possible with absolute everything, again only relativity. And all together still the same, inertia: indefinite duration of omnipotence in symmetrical balance with its nothing-cause in itself, without start and without end – like the universe from the title.
The paper specifically shows how this logic fits into scientific achievements related to the hypothesis of the Big Bang and which new explanations follow that.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3143] **viXra:1811.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-28 07:05:45*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Crothers and Robitaille have recently pointed out that the Hawking temperature and the Unruh temperature are not intensive, which suggests that the theory around the temperature of black holes is flawed, incomplete, or at least not fully understood. Here we offer a modified Newtonian type acceleration field linked to the Planck scale that leads to a new modified intensive Schwarzschild surface temperature for so-called black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3142] **viXra:1811.0487 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-28 09:30:47*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The talk at the IWARA2018, Sacred Valley, Peru, Sept. 8-15, 2018. To be published in "Astron.Nachr.".

We discuss relations between Dirac and Majorana-like field operators with self/anti-self charge conjugate states. The connections with recent models of several authors have been found.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3141] **viXra:1811.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-28 12:10:51*

**Authors:** Mohammad Sharifi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We apply some aspects of Mach’s principle to the theory of gravitation. we manage
to drive the observed rotation galaxy curve without introduction of dark matters or
dark energies. we also propose a solution for cosmological constant problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3140] **viXra:1811.0467 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-27 08:45:58*

**Authors:** Savior F. Eason

**Comments:** 31 Pages. Quantum experimentation methods self-funded/Auto-sourced, and NSA approved

Explores a new theory of the nature of time building on the theories of Einstein and Schrodinger, proposing a concept of "Temporal entanglement" and quantum informational processing through infinite improbability, and how this ties into Quantum Matrix Theory and The hypothesis of Weirdness. It additionally describes how proof of this would indisputably prove a vibrational multiverse. It also briefly investigates the philosophical implications of an infinite, eternal multiverse, and how a multiverse could actually "Fix physics", making short work of it's biggest questions. And finally, it presents several applications for such a theory, and how, with the right technology, resources, and people on the job, a civilization once eons away could be achieved in decades.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3139] **viXra:1811.0462 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-27 09:54:14*

**Authors:** Ozan Yarman, Metin Arik, Ricardo Gobato, Tolga Yarman

**Comments:** 10 Pages. https://sites.google.com/site/pjsciencea/issue-current , Ozan Yarman, Metin Arik, Ricardo Gobato, Tolga Yarman. Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.4, n.8, (1-10), November 5, 2018.

In this essay, we will attempt to clarify the concept of “overall relativistic energy” according to Yarman’s Approach; which
happens to be the underlying framework of Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory. The reformed meaning of this key concept is, in juxtaposition to the general theory of relativity (GTR), shown to subtly differ from particularly the Newtonian understanding of the “total energy of a system” as just being the “sum of constituent kinetic and potential energies”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3138] **viXra:1811.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-27 02:38:57*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It has been shown previously that when for two inertial observers A and B in relative motion, the value of the distance between A and B measured by observer B in a frame where B is stationary is the same as that obtained by observer A in a frame where A is stationary. The present study will show that the time interval for observer A to meet observer B measured by observer B in a frame where B is stationary is the same as that for observer B to meet observer A obtained by observer A in a frame where A is stationary. The proof is based on two fundamental conditions of special relativity: 1) the space time interval between two events in the Minkowski space is independent of the inertial reference frame chosen; and 2) there is no privileged reference frame and all inertial reference frames are equal.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3137] **viXra:1811.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-27 04:11:17*

**Authors:** Dariusz Dudało

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modified Newtonian Dynamics with time dilation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3136] **viXra:1811.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-27 04:48:52*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

Today we know that light or any other electromagnetic wave is fixed in its wavelength at any distance covered by the electromagnetic wave no matter of the time passing rate as in einstein's light-distance clock however we might hypothesize that two waves do interfere if they pass through each other for example imagine if you increase the distance that the two interfering wavelengths go through as the universe expands we end up with either more oscillations or lager wavelengths needed but in the very end when the electromagnetic wave reaches a particle it makes it less hot than if the universe didn't expand the electromagnetic wave would have been much hotter now if we look again we see that an electromagnetic wave should have either increased its wavelength and decreased the number of oscillations(gives less time for the electromagnetic wave) now what happens if you make two equal in wavelength and frequency electromagnetic waves hit each other? The answer could probably be that more time is produced but for what? I mean the two electromagnetic waves have killed each other so the complete answer is that space is produced or dark energy now if photons go through space they go at a constant time rate meaning that the photons aren't effected by the dark matter and they go at the same speed or same velocity now what happens if bigger masses go through space or dark matter(assuming ofcourse that they act like electromagnetic waves)? They would go at less velocities than light and if they reached the speed of light they would stop this is probably due to the bigger masses havig much more oscillations than light but they never give their oscillations to space or dark energy unless ofcourse if they hit a similar planet with the same velocity directly at each other

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3135] **viXra:1811.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-25 05:57:09*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd

**Comments:** 36 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime journal. Comments are welcome

In the present paper, these authors argue on actual reasons why Hilbert’s axiomatic program to unify gravitation theory and electromagnetism failed completely. An outline of plausible resolution of this problem is given here, based on: a) Gödel’s incompleteness theorem, b) Newton’s aether stream model. And in another paper we will present our calculation of receding Moon from Earth based on such a matter creation hypothesis. More experiments and observations are called to verify this new hypothesis, albeit it is inspired from Newton’s theory himself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3134] **viXra:1811.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-26 05:26:32*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

what physicists should accept vs what they can accept is explored

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3133] **viXra:1811.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-22 22:44:10*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The radio wave changes direction upon reflection. It also changes frequency if it is reflected by
a moving surface. In the standing wave formed by the incident wave and the reflected wave,
the formation of the nodes requires both waves to have the same wavelength. The nodes exist in all reference frames. This requires both the incident wave and the reflected wave to have the same wavelength in all reference frames. However, these two waves have different frequencies due to Doppler effect Therefore, these two waves travel at different speeds. Doppler radar is a good example. With two moving surfaces to reflect the radio wave between them, the radio wave can be accelerated if the distance between two reflective surfaces decreases with time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3132] **viXra:1811.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-21 13:54:49*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Is shown that according to the Theory of Total Relativity point particles with rest mass change the measure of time relative to the observer. Also is shown that the Photon have quantized rest as a limit value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3131] **viXra:1811.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-21 19:18:28*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Answer to Mr. Terra NOV 22 2018

В настоящей статье речь идёт о кванте материи. Квант материи, как представляется автору, является материальным «первокирпичиком» природы.
++++++++++++++++++
This article deals with a quantum of matter. The quantum of matter, as it seems to the author, is the material “primary brick” of nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3130] **viXra:1811.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-21 22:14:02*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Please contact me at genebarbee@msn.com

The solution to a Schrodinger equation is the basis of a broad theory. The Dirac equation superseded the Schrodinger equation because it is relativistic and has 4 components that accurately represent half spin particles like the electron and quarks. This paper presents a way of making the Schrodinger equation relativistic. It has many components and is complex enough to represent the neutron, proton and electron but is general enough to help us understand nature. Our goal is to find clues related to creation.
The Schrodinger equation described by MIT as unitary evolution [20] has a simple solution: Probability P=1 in the left hand side (LHS) of the Schrodinger equation is equal to the multiple of complex conjugate terms exp(iEt/H)*exp(-iEt/H) in the right hand side (RHS) where i is the imaginary number, H=Planck’s constant, E is field energy and time t is the time around a quantum circle at velocity C. (exp(iEt/H) stands for the natural number e to power iEt/H).
Observation is fundamental to quantum mechanics and the Copenhagen interpretation indicates that we can only describe the probability of an event within certain limits. Shannon’s definition [9] of information (information = -natural logarithm(probability) will be used to explore the relationship between information and energy.
Has something been separated in the multiple exp(iEt/H)*exp(-iEt/H)=1? The number 1 has been separated into two expressions that represent waves, but it is a dynamic separation; it repeatedly comes back to 1 as time moves forward. The idea that nature originates as a series of separations is an old idea, for example, recall that Genesis contains the words “So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the ... as Genesis 1:7 ends with the phrase 'from the water above it [the expanse]'. Another phrase from Genesis is “in the beginning was the word”.
Consider a beginning with zero energy. This avoids the endless argument that things are made of other things, ad infinitum. Meaningful equal and opposite energy pairs come into existence at the same time but represent zero overall. Also consider probability one as a beginning condition. It simply means the universe exists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3129] **viXra:1811.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-20 12:47:36*

**Authors:** Victor Paromov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This letter attempts to show that the Kaluza hypothesis of five-dimensional (5D) spacetime is sufficient to explain the quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is a short version of the article “Fractal Structure of the Spacetime, the Fundamentally Broken Symmetry” (http://vixra.org/abs/1806.0181) written as an attempt to start a discussion in the physics community. To author’s regret, it has been rejected by Nature Physics on 9/24/2018 and by arxiv.org (gr-qc) on 10/23/18 in despite of the endorsement from Dr. Sergei M. Kopeikin.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3128] **viXra:1811.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-20 21:36:07*

**Authors:** Stanley L. Robertson

**Comments:** 36 pages, 1 Figure

Huseyin Yilmaz proposed the form of a theory of
gravitation (Yilmaz 1958, 1971) that has later been shown to present only minor conceptual change for Einstein's General Relativity. The primary effect of the change is to modify terms of second order in the gravitational potential or its derivatives.
Since most of the weak field tests that have been taken as confirmation of General Relativity are of first order, the Yilmaz theory continues to pass all of these tests, but there are some interesting effects of the higher order terms that arise in the Yilmaz theory. These corrections move the metric singularity back to the location of a point particle source. This eliminates the black hole event horizon and permits the existence of intrinsic magnetic moments for stellar mass black hole candidates and supermassive AGN. It is shown here that the same second order corrections also eliminate the need for cosmological ``dark energy". Additional considerations dicussed here show that the Yilmaz theory correctly encompasses all of the major observational tests that must be satisfied by an acceptable relativistic gravity
theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3127] **viXra:1811.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-19 11:44:38*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

a brief discussion about the unification of forces in theoretical physics from Relativity based on engineering concepts

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3126] **viXra:1811.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-18 18:11:17*

**Authors:** James Conor O'Brien

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

It is suggested that in the neighbourhood of the Big Bang at point P(0) a matter-antimatter differential forms due to reflection of antimatter off the wall of an infinite, spatially shifting, potential well. Firstly the width of the potential well of a scalar field (Phi) undergoes oscillation due to Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle ranging from zero to infinity; secondly, that there is a probability also due to quantum uncertainty for an infinite sea matter and antimatter particle-pairs to spontaneously arise in the neighbourhood of the wall; and thirdly due to the Feynman-Stueckelberg Interpretation of the direction of Time being in the positive direction from P(0), that matter will move along the axis of Time away from P(0) and antimatter will move the axis of Time towards P(0). This leads to the suggestion that antimatter will reflect off P(0) to return in the positive time direction - thus turning the antimatter of the universe into matter in a process akin to the Dynamical Casimir Effect. It is then suggested that this instantiation of matter inflates the volume of the universe around P(0) and decreases the energy density of the universe, which in turn conflates another generation of matter and antimatter on the surface of that volume. Thus there should exist an epoch in the formation of the universe where purely matter is ejected from P(0) and the energy density of the universe diminishes. Furthermore since the reflected fermionic antimatter collides with its matter partner under Lorentz covariance the ejected matter must be On-Mass Shell. This "inflation through conflation" continues until the overall energy density of matter of the Universe diminishes to the level where matter and antimatter is no longer conflated, and the Universe stabilizes into present era Physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3125] **viXra:1811.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-17 07:28:31*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article makes it highly likely that the question mark in the title has to be an exclamation mark.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3124] **viXra:1811.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-17 08:03:44*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

categories of evidence for Dark Matter & Energy, Higgs' Function, and Temporal Elasticity are provided and discussed

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3123] **viXra:1811.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-17 08:13:54*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

One result of the Gravity Probe B experiment cannot be correct, they claimed that they measured the size of the very small angle by which our Earth warps its local spacetime (the geodetic effect) but that is impossible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3122] **viXra:1811.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-17 11:16:02*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The generic single-particle relativistic dynamical principle is usually taken to be that the time derivative of the particle's momentum is equal to the applied force. That relativistic momentum itself, however, is the particle's rest mass times the proper-time derivative of its position, so this dynamical principle is easily reverted to the original Newtonian one of the particle's mass times acceleration being equal to the force, provided that the time derivatives always refer to proper time and the force is amended by a relativistic factor of gamma, which we denote as proper force; the Lorentz covariance of the result is greatly aided by the Lorentz invariance of proper time. It is shown that the purely relativistic fourth component of this Lorentz-covariant Second Law extension pertains to the particle's power, as would be expected. Its full electromagnetic case emerges directly from a certain entirely Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3121] **viXra:1811.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-17 16:44:21*

**Authors:** Royan Roshce

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I outline why you will never see what is called "Matter".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3120] **viXra:1811.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-16 02:51:18*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

the so-called Cosmic Dark Ages is currently misunderstood and under-rated in terms of cosmological significance; the role of antimatter is identified and illuminated

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3119] **viXra:1811.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-14 10:37:42*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The surprising capability to be able to use the mass of the recently-discovered 4430 MeV neutrino together with MHCE8S theory as a way of signaling the length of time the universe includes E8 unbroken symmetry is shown.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3118] **viXra:1811.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-13 08:20:37*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

in a balanced curvature creation event, there are very few possibilities about the question: "what happened to all the antimatter?"; very specific lines of research are proposed to help answer it

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3117] **viXra:1811.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-13 21:50:17*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Lorentz contraction and Lense-Thirring are dealt with appropriately

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3116] **viXra:1811.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-12 05:48:52*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Time is a fundamental quantity in physics and its definition has generated many problems starting from Newton’s philosophical absolute time. Einstein searched for giving an operative definition of time through the use of unreal ideal clocks and of rays of light. In this paper we will search for giving a physical definition of time pointing out the necessity of avoiding in physics mistakes connected whether with Newton’s exclusively philosophical definition, taken out of the scientific context, or with Einstein’s operative definition through unreal clocks. We will prove nevertheless also the use of real clocks raises generally problems because of their real working and of the inadequacy of measuring instruments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3115] **viXra:1811.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-11 21:52:36*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 5 Pages. subcategory: Nuclear Physics

the strong points and reasoning of the Standard Model are presented, the useless artifices of it are explored, and a simpler more comprehensive model is presented

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3114] **viXra:1811.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-10 07:58:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Stephen Hawking's final book suggests time travel may one day be possible – here's what to make of it. [26]
The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
“We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3113] **viXra:1811.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-10 10:52:51*

**Authors:** William Q. Sumner

**Comments:** Pages.

Understanding the “acceleration” of modern Hubble redshift measurements begins with Schr ̈odinger. In 1939 he proved that all quantum wave functions coevolve with the curved spacetime of a closed Friedmann universe. While both photon wavelengths and atomic radii are proportional to the Fried- mann radius, the wavelengths of photons that an atom emits are proportional to the square of the radius. This larger shift in atomic emissions changes the current paradigm that redshift implies ex- pansion. Instead, redshift implies the contraction of a closed Friedmann universe. Hubble redshifts are observed only when old blueshifted photons are compared to current atomic emissions that have blueshifted even more. This theoretical prediction is confirmed by modern Hubble redshift measure- ments. The Pantheon redshift data set of 1048 supernovas was analyzed assuming that atoms change like Schro ̈dinger predicted. The Hubble constant and deceleration parameter are the only variables. The fit, Ho = −72.03 ± 0.25 km s−1Mpc−1 and 1/2 < qo < 0.501, has a standard deviation 0.1516 compared to the average data error 0.1418. No modifications to general relativity or to Friedmann’s 1922 solution are necessary to explain accelerating Hubble redshifts. A nearly flat Friedmann universe accelerating in collapse is enough.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3112] **viXra:1811.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-11 03:59:33*

**Authors:** Friedhelm Jöge

**Comments:** 1 Page. Please add this additional file.

Development of Dark Energy on a cosmic time. Additional diagram to the article :
http://viXra.org/abs/1807.0115?ref=10028904

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3111] **viXra:1811.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-11 05:13:57*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers, Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Presented at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the APS Mid-Atlantic Section, November 9-10,

This is a copy of the poster which was presented at the Mid-Atlantic Section of the American Physical Society in College Park, Maryland on November 9-10, 2018: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/MAS18/Session/B01.18

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3110] **viXra:1811.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-09 11:23:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

Officials with the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) have announced that at a meeting to be held next week, four of the base units used in the metric system will be redefined. [32] The UK's first quantum accelerometer for navigation has been demonstrated by a team from Imperial College London and M Squared. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3109] **viXra:1811.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-08 17:41:35*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: MHCE8S theory strongly indicates that a 4th massive neutrino exists, of 4430 MeV mc^2 mass and Majoranic in Nature (the particle is its own antiparticle with no spin). As such it is a candidate for the energetic neutrino observed in Antartica. It has the same mass as the Z(4430) tetraquark and therefore cannot be derived directly from the lighter stau slepton supersymmetric particle presently proposed

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3108] **viXra:1811.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-07 07:44:16*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, (Function Follows Form) the process of wave function collapse of two entangled particles into mirror symmetrical states, is the basic process for all created particles. As a consequence, we should live inside one part of a mirror Charge-Parity-symmetrical entangled copy MULTIVERSE with one central origin the big bang.
We will give it the name: Raspberry Multiverse.
Even human choice making should be subjected to this mirror symmetrical process. Benjamin Libet described a choice experiment, which we could use to measure how many copy universes there should be.
At the smaller scale however, we observe also entanglement effects between particles.
Einstein called them “spooky action at a distance”, which he did not like and suggested a different explanation called “Hidden Variables”.
However I present here a support for the spooky faster than light entanglement explanation, based on an extended Stern Gerlach experiment, in line with J.S Bell’s arguments about a strange aspect of the original experiment.
That even the lightspeed constancy theory should be adapted, by a different Michelson Morley experiment seems to be a logic result of the Quantum FFF Model..

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3107] **viXra:1811.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-07 11:53:11*

**Authors:** David Grant Taylor

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This article offers a device by which our local observed Universe could have come to be in an infi-nite Cosmos. It reasons how a Schwarzschild Object||Black Hole [SO] could have come to be from a Universe that was nothing but pure matter particles be they Hydrogen (or elements higher up the Periodic Table), Quantum Particles or Boson particles could have spontaneously formed into an SO. It presents mathematic arguments as to how the escape velocity on any object could never exceed lightspeed. It also explains how Bosons (including Gravitons) would be slowed by Relativistic distortion, adding both mass and velocity to matter. Because of that slowdown the Bosons would escape the SO in much smaller numbers. It would allow any matter formed by the slowing Bosons to eventually escape and generate EM signals upon collisions with newly captured Atoms. It establishes that the finite Universe we currently observe is much older than is currently thought, and possibly much larger. It also establishes that velocity and distance of the M31 An-dromeda Galaxy are completely inconsistent with current Hubble Constant values and so argues against fundamental arguments used in current Big Bang Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3106] **viXra:1811.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-07 17:38:03*

**Authors:** Oskin Victor

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

N. Tesla: "on the day when we understand what"
electricity"is, we will witness an event even greater and more important
than all the events in the history of mankind." Having understood the
nature of electricity, we will understand the nature of gravity, dark
matter, ball lightning, find a solution to other problematic issues of
modern physics and biology. In particular, we learn what
consciousness, soul, brain, how life is born, etc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3105] **viXra:1811.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-08 04:04:41*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

When two inertial observers A and B in relative motion measure the distance between them, will they obtain the same value? Although there is a lack of detailed expositions on this issue, many relativity articles and books seem to suggest that the observers on the earth measure a longer distance than that measured by the observers moving relative to the earth. The present study has examined this issue in detail, using two fundamental conditions of special relativity: 1) the space time interval between two events in the Minkowski space is independent of the inertial reference frame chosen; and 2) there is no privileged reference frame and all inertial reference frames are equal. The results of the present study shows that the value of the distance between A and B measured by observer B in a frame where B is stationary is the same as that obtained by observer A in a frame where A is stationary. The idea that distance measured by observer A is longer than that measured by observer B contradicts special relativity, because it designates de facto more privileged reference frames, which cannot be correct within the framework of special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3104] **viXra:1811.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-06 14:55:56*

**Authors:** Ragil Brand Ndongmo Tsafack, Saleh Mahamat, Thomas Bouetou Bouetou, Timoleon Crepin Kofane

**Comments:** 19 Pages. 10 figures

In this paper, we investigate some consequences of the black hole stabilization of Schwarzschild in the presence of quintessence type of dark energy which leads the way to the black hole mass decreasing other than the Hawking radiation process. The results show that in the quintessence field, the black hole shows a second-order phase transition, implying the existence of a stable phase. However, this
stabilization implies some paradoxical effects on the black hole, which gives us a new regard about black holes, precisely we obtain the negative absolute temperature and we propose a process permitting
us to appreciate well the likely cause of this phenomenon. These results allow us to give a new definition of the surface gravity for the Schwarzschild black hole in the field of quintessence, which depends on the flux of dilatation produced by the quintessence type of dark energy. Afterward, we analyze the impact of dark energy on the power and the time of two black holes needed to coalesce.
Keywords: Quintessence, black hole, second-order phase transition, negative absolute temperature, gravitational waves

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3103] **viXra:1811.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-06 19:24:58*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The fundamental properties of the (x, t) Galilean inertial transformations include their homogeneous linearity, their intrinsic velocity v, where setting v to zero produces the identity transformation and negation of v inverts the transformation, and their closure under composition. We show that stipulation of these three fundamental (x, t) Galilean inertial transformation properties yields all generic (x, t) Lorentz transformation groups, which are distinguished by their speed constant values that supplant c; the (x, t) Galilean group itself is the generic (x, t) Lorentz group with infinite speed constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3102] **viXra:1811.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-06 00:04:55*

**Authors:** M. Salti, E. E. Kangal, O. Aydogdu

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We mainly study a cosmological scenario dening by the variable Polytropic gas (VPG) unified
energy density proposal. To reach this aim, we start with reconstructing a generalized form of the original Polyrtropic gas (OPG) denition. Later, we fit the auxiliary parameters given in the model and discuss essential cosmological features of the VPG proposal. Besides, we compare the VPG with the OPG by focusing on recent observational dataset given in literature including Planck 2018
results. We see that the VPG model yields better results than the OPG description and it fits very well with the recent experimental data. Moreover, we discuss some thermodynamical features of the VPG and conclude that the model describes a thermodynamically stable system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3101] **viXra:1811.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-06 03:01:51*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the Special Relativity theory, we tell undergraduate how Lorentz 4-force is invariant
in Special Relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3100] **viXra:1811.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-04 08:50:35*

**Authors:** L.Rimsha, V.Rimsha

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Мы рассматриваем частный случай принципа эквивалентности ( ПЭ ) , а именно - утверждение о том, что однородное статическое гравитационное поле в инерциальной системе отсчета своим влиянием на ход неподвижных часов ( ход времени ) во всем ( т.е. полностью ) тождественно влиянию ускоренного движения на ход неподвижных часов в жесткой равноускоренной системе отсчета .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3099] **viXra:1811.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-03 14:54:09*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The observations show that the apparent brightness of type Ia supernovae is about 25% lower than that expected, that is calculated with the formula supported by the Scientific Community.
The Scientific Community states that this fact shows that the speed of expansion of the Universe is accelerating.
But with this paper I will show that, instead, it shows that the formula isn’t correct, because it considers the cosmological redshift as a factor of expansion of space, while it is due to the recession speed of the location of the space where the Earth is located at the reception of photons, with respect to the location where they were emitted.
And since the cosmological redshift is considered as a factor of expansion of space, to respect what claim the Special Relativity, the proof that it isn’t, falsifies the Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3098] **viXra:1811.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-03 03:42:50*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In “Theory on the Motion Related to the Expanding Space”, published on November 2nd, 2018, I affirmed that from it we can derive some hypotheses on the various phenomena of the Universe.
And now, with this article, I propose to expose these hypotheses, which explain various phenomena of the Universe in a way compatible with said theory and more consistent with the observations compared to that currently supported by the Scientific Community.
Here are, in short, the hypotheses.
The Universe is exclusively composed of an infinity of space quanta, which tend to expand and thus cause the Universe to expand.
Matter manifests on sets of space quanta, which are compressed and thus enabling the neighbouring quanta, and later the quanta further apart, to expand further.
Gravity is the effect of the fact that each object tends to move towards the least compressed space quanta and, therefore, towards other objects, with the laws relating to General Relativity. I also present a modification to the universal gravity formula, to make it compatible with this model of the Universe.
Speed of light depends on the degree of compression of space quanta in the locations in which it transits, meaning that the greater the compression, the higher the speed. But since also clocks move more or less rapidly according to their degree of compression, speed of light results always the same at any location. Therefore, in the past, when the degree of compression of space quanta was greater, speed of light was also greater.
Cosmological redshift is due to the speed of the location in which the celestial object receiving photons, is moving, compared to the location in which the celestial object emitting it, has moved, in a Universe in decelerating expansion. In support of this hypothesis, I present two tables that simulate the journey of the photons of a high-redshift galaxy and that of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. I also present a formula for calculating the apparent brightness compatible with the observations of type Ia supernovae with high redshift.
Moreover, I demonstrate that considering that the cosmological redshift is due to the expansion of space, as the Scientific Community currently supports, the apparent brightness of celestial objects with high redshift, cannot be justified.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3097] **viXra:1811.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-02 03:06:14*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

Could Albert Einstein be wrong about absolute motion ,absolute time and gravity but right about space contraction and the speed of light?Perhaps the great physicist is not completely wrong. In this paper, a new law of transformation of reference framesfor absolutely moving observers is proposed. We may call this Apparent Source Transformation ( AST ). With this transformation, the space in front of an absolutely moving observer apparently contracts whereas the space behind an absolutely moving observer expands. Profoundly, AST changes current understanding of the phenomenon of stellar aberration. Stellar aberration occurs because of compression (or expansion ) of space in front of ( behind ) an absolutely moving observer. The apparent change in position of the star is not in the direction of absolute velocity, but in the opposite direction! Mercury’s anomalous perihelion advance can be explained by expansion of space as seen by the Sun and as seen by Mercury. AST also provides physical explanation for a new theory already proposed by this author: Exponential Doppler Effect of light: f ' = f eV/c , λ ' = λ e-V/c. This agrees with the constancy of the speed of light: f 'λ' = f λ= c and can explain the Ives-Stilwell experiment. Not only frequency but also wavelength changes for an absolutely moving observer and the change in wave length for a moving observer can only be explained by apparent expansion or contraction of space as seen by an absolutely moving observer. AST has differences from and similarities to Special Relativity Theory ( SRT ) and/or Lorentz Contraction ( LC ) as follows:1. AST postulates that the speed of light is constant c irrespective of source or observer uniform motion, but the group velocity of light varies with mirror velocity 2. AST postulates absolute time 3. According to AST, absolute motion exists, but the ether doesn't exist as we know it 4. According to AST, space apparently contracts in front of an absolutely moving observer and expands behind him/her, only as seen by the absolutely moving observer, whereas space (or length ) only contracts, both in the forward and backward directions, as seen by the 'stationary' observer, in SRT and LC. In AST, space contraction is applied only when objects are considered as sources ( sources of light, EM waves, electrostatic fields, gravity ). In Apparent Source Transformation, it is assumed that only the position of the light source will apparently change relative to the detector/observer but the the mirrors, the beam splitter and all other parts of the apparatus will be assumed to be at their actual/physical positions to analyze the experiment. 5. In AST, it is space itself that contracts or expands relative to a moving observer regarding the position of sources 6.AST gives an exponential law of transformation of space, and is different from Lorentz transformations. 7. In AST, the observer is the light detecting device or the human directly detecting the light and light speed experiments should always be analyzed from the perspective of the inertial observer. More precisely, the observer is the atom detecting the light. Apparent Source Transformation evolved from a theory called Apparent Source Theory already proposed by this author. According to Apparent Source Theory, the effect of absolute motion of the Michelson-Morley experiment is to create an apparent change in position of the light source as seen by ( relative to ) the observer/detector.The resulting fringe shift is the same as if the source was actually /physically moved to the same position. Intuitively, we can guess that actually changing the source position will not result in significant fringe shift or gives only small fringe shift. Apparent Source Theory not only accounted for the 'null' fringe shift of the Michelson-Morley experiment, but also for the small fringe shifts observed such as in the original Michelson experiment of 1881 and the Miller experiments. It explains many other light speed experiments, including theSagnac effect, the Marinov experiment, the Silvertooth experiment, the Bryan G Wallace experiment, the Roland De Witte and other experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3096] **viXra:1811.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-02 03:24:45*

**Authors:** Amit Kumar Jha

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper I am deriving Schwarschild Metric by using Kepler's Law ( T cube ) without using any complexity of General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3095] **viXra:1811.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-02 05:36:24*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

With this article I propose to demonstrate, through the CMBR, a theory for which the light is manifested in the expanding space, so its speed is isotropic only towards it and not towards the celestial objects in motion respect to it.
Hence the result found by Michelson-Morley experiment, which showed that the speed of light is isotropic in any Reference Frame, is given by the phenomenon suggested by Lorentz, i.e., that each object undergoes a contraction of its length and a dilation of its time, as a function of its speed with respect to the medium in witch the light is manifested, which in this theory corresponds to the expanding space.
Hence now Special Relativity is replaceable with a theory for which light waves are manifested in space and their speed is not isotropic in all Reference Frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3094] **viXra:1810.0520 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-31 09:30:28*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A proof of the invariance of Maxwell‟s equations for inertial reference frames, making use of the Galilean Transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3093] **viXra:1810.0507 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-30 11:50:23*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page. I wish to thank ViXra.org for incorporating one of my key numbers, 224, in my last note's identity number.

Abstract: Identification and separation can be made between broken and unbroken E8 symmetry time in MHCE8S universe theory thanks to the Z(4430) tetraquark

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3092] **viXra:1810.0505 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-30 12:55:20*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

ABSTRACT.
In this PAPER, present a new theory of relativity of Galileo and discovery the new law of movement within moving system.
The more in depth analysis of the theory of relativity to move towards to explain the new special theory of relativity. The new special theory of relativity1-7,14 explained correctly the entire fundamental phenomenon that occur in mechanical and electromagnetic processes, inside of inertial moving systems and in the systems at rest. However, some statements in this papers1-7 did not reveal the full basic physics philosophical approach to the description of these phenomena. This paper eliminate this shortcoming14. It allowed objectively excluding all admitted errors in the development of the theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3091] **viXra:1810.0470 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-28 15:31:55*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

An introduction to Total Relativity theory as potential fields with Riemann flat energy distribution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3090] **viXra:1810.0453 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-27 23:27:52*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The arrow of time is considered from the point of view of the modified holographic principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3089] **viXra:1810.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-28 04:41:17*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we analyse “a new and potentially important paradox related to Einstein’s theories of special relativity and relativity of simultaneity” introduced by Espen Gaarder Haug in a very interesting recent paper. Based in our previous work we show that there is no paradox since it is impossible that “one reference frame will claim that the train is moving and that the other frame must claim that the train is standing still in the time window “between” two distant events”. The world indeed is not “bizarre” since there is an indeterminacy in the standard formulation of the theory that disappear if we consider a third frame where the one-way speed of light is isotropic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3088] **viXra:1810.0444 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-26 15:26:53*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Time is quite interesting phenomenon in physics, and it seems is relative; but what does it mean to be relative of time? What does to be fixed of light speed mean? Does to be fixed of light speed require observation at light speed? What if we can observe faster than light speed because of increased frame number? Is time effective for this imaginary effect or also time itself is dependent on another actual causative phenomenon? Is it possible to make a wrong conception for time and speed even if the phenomenon we advocate is actually true?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3087] **viXra:1810.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-25 10:33:55*

**Authors:** Mohammad Hadi Mohammadi, Hadi Ranjbari

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper we discuss on the geometrical reason that leading to expansion of the universe. This reason tells us that vector fields and tensor fields in the manifolds lead to accelerating the manifolds. If we accept this theory we can describe basis of the quantum mechanics. We mean that if we imagine atoms as manifolds because of that acceleration is so low, all the vector fields and tensor fields that exist in atoms will be curved. So, all the vectors treat like waves, and this is basic reason for quantum mechanics that tell us particle in the atoms like electron treat like wave. In this paper we evaluate 4-vector as vector that treats like wave and finally we will talk about unification of forces with tensor fields. Since tensor fields lead to accelerating the manifolds, fundamental forces lead too. As this approach we could unify our forces in one equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3086] **viXra:1810.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-25 10:49:02*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The cosmological matrix is the original idea.

The starting point of modern theoretical cosmology were the
Einstein equations with the cosmological constant Λ which was
introduced by Einstein. The Einstein equations with the cosmological
matrix is introduced here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3085] **viXra:1810.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-25 13:21:34*

**Authors:** Aurelian Dan Ivan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The notions of length, mass and time are the result of sensory perception. Physics is based on images created by us through observation and transmitted for mathematical or experimental confirmations. In modern physics and cosmology, what could not be noticed, being below or above the limit of observation of our instruments, are simple hypotheses that mathematical sciences have to confirm.
We evaluate the cosmic space in terms of objects, bodies and particles, dividing the universe into a macrocosm and a microcosm, and establishing absolute results for distances and relative masses, which is illogical.The multiverse is infinite and consists of an infinite number of universes
The multiverse is composed of multiverse elements
The multiverse elements are perceived by humans as a substance or field function within the human observation .
Multiverse space-time dimensions, tend to mathematically 0. Applying number 0 to physics formulas is erroneous, except for addition and drop operations, this being only a neutral element to add; the defining property of 0 is that 0 + a = a for all numbers a. The expressions "something / 0 = infinite" and "something x 0 = 0" can not describe the physical reality.
The multiverse contracted by changing the scale. The contraction takes place across the entire space and temporal scale, thus preserving our perception of the relative scale of the universe and of all the multiverse elements that make up at one point. The only way we perceive the multiverse is the reflection of interactions between multiverse elements at a particular moment of contraction. Any measurement of distances, masses and times is relative, which has a different value in each moment. Changing the scale by shrinkage is how the multiverse exists. The phenomenon can be observed because our sense organs and our measures and observation, are composed of elements multiverse that contracts with the same speed rate of contraction of the multiverse in physical vacuum is C = 299790000 m / s where m is the physical length unit of measurement and s is the physical measure of time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3084] **viXra:1810.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-24 08:02:16*

**Authors:** Evrim Ersin Kangal

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

One of the suitable theoretical idea for the polytrope in the Kaluza-Klein cosmology is discussed. Assuming a 5-dimensional (5D) spacetime model described by the Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity, we implement the energy density and pressure of the polytrope which is a self-gravitating gaseous sphere and still very useful as a crude approximation to more realistic stellar models. Next, we
obtain the best-fit values of the auxiliary parameters given in the model according to the recent observational dataset. Finally, we study some cosmological features and the thermodynamical stability of the model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3083] **viXra:1810.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-24 08:13:25*

**Authors:** Paul Schroeder

**Comments:** 5 Pages. presented to CNPS online discussion group

I have a number of ‘Universe is Otherwise’ papers that focus on giving gravity a physical nature and expanding its effects upon everything in our universe. The summary of my ‘paep’(1) gravity recognizes a pushing force applied by the flow of EM radiation such as light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3082] **viXra:1810.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-24 12:51:31*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The article shows that the paravector orthogonal transformation is invariant for the Klein-Gordon equation and for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the free particle. This confirms that the alternative theory of relativity, which we create in the complex space-time, does not conflict with other branches of physics. The complex space-time with its natural properties gives hope for ordering of the physics of the great speeds created by the revolution at the turn of the 19th and 20th century.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3081] **viXra:1810.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-22 17:56:23*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I have been working for a long time about basic laws of physics. During this time I noticed, that gravity does not work as Newtonian. Distance and gravitational force relation changes over distance. The attraction properties change for each point of free space, and have some limits. The attraction changes due to some values between 1/r and 1/r^2 even for the existent furthest distance. This work aims to analyze and discuss this phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3080] **viXra:1810.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-21 05:42:39*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 3 pages

A new cosmological era began with the discovery of accelerating expansion of the Universe. The deviation of the Hubble diagram from exhibiting a linear distance-redshift relation at high redshifts provides the very crucial clue to support this discovery. In this paper I present a theory to account for the observed accelerating expansion of the Universe. I discuss that the Universe should attain a constant rate of expansion in future, given the linear distance-redshift relation being obeyed by the receding large-scale structures within the local Universe, suggesting constant recessional velocities. I compare the local Universe within which the receding large-scale structures exhibit the linear distance-redshift relation in accordance with the Hubble diagram, and the remote Universe within which the receding large-scale structures deviate from exhibiting the expected linearity. There may be a simple terminology termed by me as “acceleration phase” that would probably account for the observed acceleration, particularly for the receding large-scale structures belonging to the remote Universe that exhibit high redshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3079] **viXra:1810.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-21 23:14:36*

**Authors:** Daehyeon KANG

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Length contraction and time expansion in special theory of relativity are much confused. In this paper, we will explain it easily and clearly by Lorentz transfor mation equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3078] **viXra:1810.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-22 01:29:03*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper presents an argument that the conventional analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment ( MMX) might be only approximately correct but not strictly accurate. Accurate classical analysis would require revision of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction formula. This new analysis may have even more far reaching consequences: if the new classical analysis results in different length contraction formula for different experimental setups, this would lead to absurdity of the whole concept of length contraction and Lorentz transformation. The standard ether analysis of the MMX implies a law of reflection of light from a moving mirror and this may not agree with the classical analysis, which existed even before the conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment. Accurate ether analysis of MMX should be based on the classical analysis of reflection of light from a moving mirror, which should be derived from fundamental classical wave principles, and not from the requirement that the Michelson-Morley experiment should give a null fringe shift. The significant divergence of the light beam has been neglected ( overlooked ) in the standard analysis. The fallacy in the standard analysis is that it presumes that the transverse light will not miss the observer/detector, which is possible only if we consider the finite divergence of the beam, but ignores the beam divergence in the analysis and goes on to extraordinary conclusions ( length contraction ). Michelson's analogy of a man swimming across a river is the original fallacy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3077] **viXra:1810.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-20 01:11:04*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Keywords: Graviton, Schwinger source theory, spectrum of H-Atom, Coulomb potential,

The energy spectrum of graviton emitted by the black hole binary is calculated in the first
part of the chapter. Then, the total quantum loss of energy, is calculated in the Schwinger
theory of gravity.
In the next part we determine the electromagnetic shift of energy levels of H-atom electrons
by calculating an electron coupling to the black hole thermal bath. Energy shift of
electrons in H-atom is determined in the framework of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.
In the last section we determine the velocity of sound in the black hole atmosphere, which
is here considered as the black hole photon sea. Derivation is based on the thermodynamic
theory of the black hole photon gas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3076] **viXra:1810.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-16 19:09:05*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of publication.

Based on conservation law of energy, Poynting vector describes the power per unit area in electromagnetic wave. The time-averaged power per unit area is independent of the wavelength and the frequency of the wave. One example is FM radio signal. In photoelectric effect, the incident light wave transfers energy to the electron. Light wave of higher frequency takes longer time to transfer more energy to the electron. The total energy absorbed by the electron is proportional to the area facing the incident light. From this area, the radius of the electron can be calculated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3075] **viXra:1810.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-14 11:09:36*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages. The key number 155 appears on ViXra 1810.0155, Alexey V. Melkikh, Ural Fed. Univ.,Yekaterinburg, Russia

Abstract: 3 new finishing touches to Majoranic Holographic Cyclic E8 Symmetric universe theory are described which essentially complete the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3074] **viXra:1810.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-12 09:46:45*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper uses the law, heat=constant vibration*time
And so the new law is time=universal heat/constant vibration
Time passing is decreased by vibrating more and increased by vibrating less by the universal heat and is increased by increasing heat while the vibration is constant and decreased by decreasing the heat while the vibration is constant

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3073] **viXra:1810.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 21:19:29*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 3 Pages. English; with Chinese translation.

Einstein made use of the concept of speed, a concept that is defined to be non-invariant under Galilean transformation, in a postulate to postulate a speed - the speed of light - to be invariant for all inertial reference frames. This is a direct trivial logical inconsistency within Newtonian mechanics which needs no further discussion and deliberation. As such, special relativity is a theory that is mutually independent from Newtonian mechanics. The physical reality as found in the Newtonian world has no connection whatsoever with the physical reality as found in special relativity. Any experiment done and interpreted through special relativity has no relevance in the physical world as observed and
represented by Newtonian mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3072] **viXra:1810.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 21:25:48*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 2 Pages. English; with Chinese translation.

The author has discovered very recently (April 2016) that the formula E = mc^2 is invalid; energy is fictitious in the formula. The proof is simple and involves no high mathematics.Any good high school students taking physics as a subject could easily come to a definite understanding of
the analysis and decides for himself whether the author’s claim is correct; there is no need to rely on the words of any physics professor to
know whether the formula E = mc^2 is valid or invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3071] **viXra:1810.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 21:29:13*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Contemporary mainstream physics has accepted special relativity to be a fully tested and verified theory. The internet has been full
of references for experiments that purportedly verified special relativity. This article argues that many of these experiments purportedly verifying special relativity are irrelevant as evidence; a commonly quoted example being the Kaufmann, Bucherer and Neumann experiments. On the
contrary, there is only one lone uncorroborated experiment that shows some evidence of the validity of special relativity - the 1964 experiment of William Bertozzi of the MIT; for the matter, the experiment provides only a weak evidence with 10% accuracy. If a lone experiment were sufficient as evidence in science, then the 1989 Pons & Fleischmann experiment could have won the experimenters a Nobel Prize in physics - they did not. The author proposes a simple experiment that could decide incontrovertibly between the two competing mechanics, the old Newtonian mechanics or the “newer” special relativity - by just directly measuring the velocity of electrons ejected in natural beta decay. To date, despite the simplicity of the experiment, no one has performed the experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3070] **viXra:1810.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 21:34:37*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 4 Pages. English; with Chinese translation.

A central feature of special relativity is the increase of mass with velocity - mass going to infinity when a body approaches the speed limit of light. This feature is of the utmost importance
as special relativity has been accepted by modern physics to have clearly proven Newtonian mechanics to be wrong fundamentally; Newton’s mechanics has mass to be an invariant property of matter. As it is expected that students would not easily accept a dismissal of Newton’s monumental work, the Principia, the physics academia tries to have a way to convince students that indeed this central feature of mass increasing with velocity could even be verified through experiments done in the usual laboratory of a university. The fact of the matter is otherwise - that even the original ex-
periments by Kaufmann (1901), Bucherer (1908) that attempted to show mass increasing with velocity are flawed as the author has shown. The proposed simplified experiments are tantamount to fraud propagated on unsuspecting students who may not have the time to delve into the issues more thoroughly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3069] **viXra:1810.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 22:53:55*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, time is formulated through the entropy of space entanglement at the boundary. From this definition, gravitational time dilation is immediately obtained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3068] **viXra:1810.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 09:40:31*

**Authors:** Alexey V. Melkikh

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The assumption that the early universe was not hot but in a pure quantum state allowed the main problems of cosmology to be solved from a single point: the flatness and homogeneity of the universe, in addition to the predominance of matter over antimatter and the absence of monopoles. A model according to which this quantum state itself was formed under large compression as a result of a quantum phase transition is proposed. In this case, a Big Bounce can be treated as quantum scattering, as a result of which more than one universe can form. The properties of the universe, on the basis of which life arose within it, were encoded in topological states before the Big Bounce (scattering). At later stages, life evolved directly. Dark matter and dark energy can be used to control the lifetime of the universe. The universe itself can be considered to be a superorganism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2240] **viXra:1812.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-11 09:59:51*

**Authors:** Gary Nash

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A modified Einstein equation of general relativity is obtained by using the principle of least action, a decomposition of symmetric tensors on a time oriented Lorentzian manifold, and a fundamental postulate of general relativity. The decomposition introduces a new symmetric tensor $ \varPhi_{\alpha\beta} $ which describes the energy-momentum of the gravitational field itself. It completes Einstein's equation and addresses the energy localization problem. The positive part of $ \Phi $, the trace of the new tensor with respect to the metric, describes dark energy. The cosmological constant must vanish and is dynamically replaced by $ \Phi $. A cyclic universe which developed after the Big Bang is described. The dark energy density provides a natural explanation of why the vacuum energy density is so small, and why it dominates the present epoch of the universe. The negative part of $ \Phi $ describes the attractive self-gravitating energy of the gravitational field. $\varPhi_{\alpha\beta} $ introduces two additional terms into the Newtonian radial force equation: the force due to dark energy and the $\frac{1}{r}$ "dark matter" force. When the dark energy force balances the Newtonian force, the flat rotation curves and the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation are obtained. The Newtonian rotation curves for galaxies with no flat orbital curves, and those with rising rotation curves for large radii are described as examples of the flexibility of the orbital rotation curve equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2239] **viXra:1812.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-10 02:34:57*

**Authors:** Yansha Yu-Sandstrom

**Comments:** 73 Pages.

中国“前沿科学”杂志受篇幅限制，于2014年02期发表了本人所著“宇宙生命复合立体同步划分整合相生演进原理”前几部章节；随后，中国线装书局于2015年五月出版了这一原理更为丰富的内容，书名《宇宙学 人类文明智慧交叉整合共通共识理论原理》。美国网络期刊“数学前沿（JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MATHEMATICS）”在2015年12月18日发表了该原理的部分简化内容，标题为《The principle of natural law》 build in “Complete Scientific Modeling" with its internet could inclusive of all human faith, knowledge and experience. The world peace come from all the personality together blooming and complement each other。由于本人英文水平非常有限，相信不会有人看懂它。
兹寻求“完满的科学信仰及其《自然规律原理》”不同语言翻译者，以利世界不同文明文化信仰学科通过沟通交流达成人类的和解共识，谨此向翻译者们致以衷心的感谢！！
何谓包容完满的信仰？理性全方位融会贯通也*注1；换言之，从全体“个性规律”中求得它们共同具有的“共性原则”即为包容完满的信仰。何谓《自然规律原理》？即为“共性原则”也为“个性规律”的“共性原则个性规律共通共识”三大相辅相成法则，在不排斥全体人类认知认证基础上，结合数理化，包容全面地阐明万事万物各自自身及其彼此相互的存在方式和存在关系，方式方法异曲同工地翻译、互补和建立人类不同文明文化信仰学科共同具有的存在道理，为科学时代的科学人类，从各自立场属性出发走向和解共识，共建健康安全发展的“科学社会PUZZLE有机互补公共道德秩序制度”，奠定理论沟通基础。
《自然规律原理》也称“三位一体”*注2原理。鉴于科学只有量子学说接触到了“三位一体”一些皮毛，但量子学说尚未归纳总结出“三位一体”的任何概念和法则，科学实验室更未接触到“三位一体”的任何皮毛。因此，本文“引文索引”只能从世界古老文明文化信仰们方式方法异曲同工的“三位一体”法则中取得佐证。竟如，《圣经》和“本体论”的“上帝”及其“三位一体”符号“十字架”的“上帝法则”；《古兰经》“阿拉”及其“阿拉之星月”法则（其中，“星”也由“男性白色传统长袍”代表，“月”也由“女性从头到脚覆盖的黑色传统长袍”代表）；《佛经》“佛”及其“三身佛”法；《易经》“大恒”及其“阴阳球”之宇宙法理；《道德经》“道”及其“一阴一阳之谓道”的“三一之道”法自然；……。为有助相应科学期刊的理解、支持和发表，兹将《自然规律原理》解决当下科学理论困局的四篇演绎文章做为本文概要，为即将入住正文追本寻源科学和跨学科真理的仁人志士们，热身。

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2238] **viXra:1812.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-10 13:13:36*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In gravity theory, there is a well-known trans-Planckian problem, which is that general relativity theory leads to a shorter than Planck length and shorter than Planck time in relation to so-called black holes. However, there has been little focus on the fact that special relativity also leads to a trans-Planckian problem, something we will demonstrate here. According to special relativity, an object with mass must move slower than light, but special relativity has no limits on how close to the speed of light something with mass can move. This leads to a scenario where objects can undergo so much length contraction that they will become shorter than the Planck length as measured from another frame, and we can also have shorter time intervals than the Planck time.
The trans-Planckian problem is easily solved by a small modification that assumes Haug’s maximum velocity for matter is the ultimate speed limit for something with mass. This speed limit depends on the Planck length, which can be measured without any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant or the Planck constant. After a long period of slow progress in theoretical physics, we are now in a Klondike “gold rush” period where many of the essential pieces are falling in place.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2237] **viXra:1811.0495 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-29 13:42:14*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Crothers and Robitaille have recently pointed out that the Hawking temperature and the Unruh temperature are not intensive and how this is inconsistent with thermodynamics, which suggests that the theory around the temperature of black holes is flawed, incomplete, or at least not fully understood. Here we offer a modified Newtonian type acceleration field linked to the Planck scale that leads to a new modified intensive Schwarzschild surface temperature for so-called black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2236] **viXra:1811.0438 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-07 01:57:51*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The model based on subjective idealism, enabling to derive a space-time with a Minkowsky space metrics on Euclidean space with no time and dynamics is suggested. This model also allows deriving the curved space-time with a metrics of the general theory of relativity. It was demonstrated that the principle of causality and the anthropic principle arise from the model. It was demonstrated that the strong principle of equivalence of gravitation and acceleration arises from the model. All principles and postulates on which special and general theories of relativity are based are being derived. Article offers entirely new model for creation of physical theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2235] **viXra:1811.0353 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-10 00:27:31*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The radio wave changes direction upon reflection. It also changes frequency if it is reflected by
a moving surface. In the standing wave formed by the incident wave and the reflected wave,
the formation of the nodes requires both waves to have the same wavelength. The nodes exist in all reference frames. This requires both the incident wave and the reflected wave to have the same wavelength in all reference frames. However, these two waves have different frequencies due to Doppler effect Therefore, these two waves travel at different speeds. Doppler radar is a good example. With two moving surfaces to reflect the radio wave between them, the radio wave can be accelerated if the distance between two reflective surfaces decreases with time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2234] **viXra:1811.0353 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-30 23:40:52*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The radio wave changes direction upon reflection. It also changes frequency if it is reflected by
a moving surface. In the standing wave formed by the incident wave and the reflected wave,
the formation of the nodes requires both waves to have the same wavelength. The nodes exist in all reference frames. This requires both the incident wave and the reflected wave to have the same wavelength in all reference frames. However, these two waves have different frequencies due to Doppler effect Therefore, these two waves travel at different speeds. Doppler radar is a good example. With two moving surfaces to reflect the radio wave between them, the radio wave can be accelerated if the distance between two reflective surfaces decreases with time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2233] **viXra:1811.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-26 15:33:13*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Is shown that according to the Theory of Total Relativity point particles with rest mass change the measure of time relative to the observer. Also is shown that the Photon have quantized rest mass as a limit value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2232] **viXra:1811.0277 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-01 04:07:47*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In version 3 Einstein’s text is commented piece by piece instead of all together

This article makes it highly likely that the question mark in the title has to be an exclamation mark.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2231] **viXra:1811.0277 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-21 14:02:56*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Version 2 contains 2 more unscientific behaviours of Einstein than version 1

This article makes it highly likely that the question mark in the title has to be an exclamation mark.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2230] **viXra:1811.0270 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-18 12:02:55*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The generic single-particle relativistic dynamical principle is usually taken to be that the time derivative of the particle's momentum is equal to the applied force. That relativistic momentum itself, however, is the particle's rest mass times the proper-time derivative of its position, so this dynamical principle is easily reverted to the original Newtonian one of the particle's mass times acceleration being equal to the force, provided that the time derivatives always refer to proper time and the force is amended by a relativistic factor of gamma, which we denote as proper force; the Lorentz covariance of the result is greatly aided by the Lorentz invariance of proper time. It is shown that the purely relativistic fourth component of this Lorentz-covariant Second Law extension pertains to the particle's power, as would be expected. Its full electromagnetic case emerges directly from a certain entirely Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2229] **viXra:1811.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-06 07:41:06*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the Special Relativity theory, we tell undergraduate how Lorentz 4-force is invariant
in Special Relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2228] **viXra:1811.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-13 03:32:58*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The observations show that the apparent brightness of type Ia supernovae is about 25% lower than that expected, that is calculated with the formula supported by the Scientific Community.
The Scientific Community states that this fact shows that the speed of expansion of the Universe is accelerating.
But with this paper I will show that, instead, it shows that the formula is not correct, because it considers the cosmological redshift as a factor of expansion of space, while it is due to the recession speed of the location of the space where the Earth is located at the reception of photons, with respect to the location where they were emitted.
And since the cosmological redshift is considered as the factor of expansion of space, to respect what claim the Special Relativity, said apparent brightness not only doesn’t prove that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, but also shows that the Special Relativity is not compatible with the observations and, therefore, is falsified.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2227] **viXra:1811.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-07 03:30:13*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The observations show that the apparent brightness of type Ia supernovae is about 25% lower than that expected, that is calculated with the formula supported by the Scientific Community.
The Scientific Community states that this fact shows that the speed of expansion of the Universe is accelerating.
But with this paper I will show that, instead, it shows that the formula is not correct, because it considers the cosmological redshift as a factor of expansion of space, while it is due to the recession speed of the location of the space where the Earth is located at the reception of photons, with respect to the location where they were emitted.
And since the cosmological redshift is considered as a factor of expansion of space, to respect what claim the Special Relativity, the proof that it is not, falsifies the Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2226] **viXra:1811.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-13 03:29:18*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In “Theory on the Motion Related to the Expanding Space”, published on November 2nd, 2018, I affirmed that from it we can derive some hypotheses on the various phenomena of the Universe.
And now, with this paper, I propose to expose these hypotheses, which explain various phenomena of the Universe in a way compatible with said theory and more consistent with the observations compared to that currently supported by the Scientific Community.
Here are, in short, the hypotheses.
The Universe is exclusively composed of an infinity of space quanta, which tend to expand and thus cause the Universe to expand.
Matter manifests on sets of space quanta, which are compressed and thus enabling the neighbouring quanta, and later the quanta further apart, to expand further.
Gravity is due to the phenomenon that each object tends to move towards the more expanded space quanta and, therefore, towards other objects. The expansion of space is seen from General Relativity, as the curvature of the space-time, therefore, since it is the same phenomenon, the same physical laws are applied. I also present a modification to the universal gravity formula, to make it compatible with this model of the Universe.
Speed of light depends on the degree of expansion of space quanta in the locations in which it transits, meaning that the greater the expansion, the lower the speed. But since also clocks move more or less rapidly according to their degree of expansion, speed of light results always the same at any location. Therefore, in the past, when the degree of expansion of space quanta was minor, speed of light was greater.
Cosmological redshift is due to the speed of the location in which the celestial object receiving photons, is moving, compared to the location in which the celestial object emitting it, has moved, in a Universe in decelerating expansion. In support of this hypothesis, I present two tables that simulate the journey of the photons of a high-redshift galaxy and that of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. I also present a formula for calculating the apparent brightness, compatible with the observations of type Ia supernovae with high redshift.
Moreover, I demonstrate that considering that the cosmological redshift is due to the expansion of space, as the Scientific Community currently supports, the apparent brightness of celestial objects with high redshift, cannot be justified.
And since the cosmological redshift is considered as a factor of expansion of space, to respect what claim the Special Relativity, said apparent brightness not only doesn’t prove that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, but shows that the Special Relativity is not compatible with the observations and, therefore, is falsified.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2225] **viXra:1811.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-07 03:24:11*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In “Theory on the Motion Related to the Expanding Space”, published on November 2nd, 2018, I affirmed that from it we can derive some hypotheses on the various phenomena of the Universe.
And now, with this paper, I propose to expose these hypotheses, which explain various phenomena of the Universe in a way compatible with said theory and more consistent with the observations compared to that currently supported by the Scientific Community.
Here are, in short, the hypotheses.
The Universe is exclusively composed of an infinity of space quanta, which tend to expand and thus cause the Universe to expand.
Matter manifests on sets of space quanta, which are compressed and thus enabling the neighbouring quanta, and later the quanta further apart, to expand further.
Gravity is the effect of the fact that each object tends to move towards the least compressed space quanta and, therefore, towards other objects, with the laws relative to General Relativity. I also present a modification to the universal gravity formula, to make it compatible with this model of the Universe.
Speed of light depends on the degree of compression of space quanta in the locations in which it transits, meaning that the greater the compression, the higher the speed. But since also clocks move more or less rapidly according to their degree of compression, speed of light results always the same at any location. Therefore, in the past, when the degree of compression of space quanta was greater, speed of light was also greater.
Cosmological redshift is due to the speed of the location in which the celestial object receiving photons, is moving, compared to the location in which the celestial object emitting it, has moved, in a Universe in decelerating expansion. In support of this hypothesis, I present two tables that simulate the journey of the photons of a high-redshift galaxy and that of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. I also present a formula for calculating the apparent brightness compatible with the observations of type Ia supernovae with high redshift.
Moreover, I demonstrate that considering that the cosmological redshift is due to the expansion of space, as the Scientific Community currently supports, the apparent brightness of celestial objects with high redshift, cannot be justified.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2224] **viXra:1811.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-28 05:50:55*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 58 Pages.

Could Albert Einstein be wrong about absolute motion, absolute time and gravity but right about space contraction and the speed of light? Perhaps the great theoretical physicist is not completely wrong. In this paper, a new law of transformation of reference frames for an absolutely moving observer is proposed. We may call this Apparent Source Theory( AST ). With this transformation, the space in front of an absolutely moving observer apparently contracts whereas the space behind an absolutely moving observer expands. Profoundly, AST changes current understanding of the phenomenon of stellar aberration. Stellar aberration occurs because of compression (or expansion ) of space in front of ( behind ) an absolutely moving observer. The apparent change in position of the star is not in the direction of observer’s absolute velocity, as is universally thought, but in the opposite direction! Mercury’s anomalous perihelion advance can be explained by expansion of space as seen by the Sun and as seen by Mercury. AST also provides physical explanation for a new theory already proposed by this author: Exponential Doppler Effect of light: f ' = f eV/c ,λ ' = λ e-V/c. This agrees with the constancy of the phase velocity of light: f 'λ' = f λ= c and can explain the Ives-Stilwell experiment. Not only frequency but also wavelength changes for an absolutely moving observer and the change in wave length for a moving observer can only be explained by apparent expansion or contraction of space as seen by an absolutely moving observer. AST has differences from and similarities to Special Relativity Theory ( SRT ) and/or Lorentz Contraction ( LC ) as follows:1. AST postulates that the phase velocity of light in vacuum is constant c irrespective of source, observer or mirror velocity, but the group velocity of light varies with observer or mirror velocity but is independent of source velocity 2. AST postulates absolute time 3. According to AST, absolute motion exists, but the ether doesn't exist as we know it 4. According to AST, space apparently contracts in front of an absolutely moving observer and expands behind him/her, only as seen by the absolutely moving observer, whereas space (or length ) only contracts, both in the forward and backward directions, as seen by the 'stationary' observer, in SRT and LC. In AST, space contraction is applied only when objects are considered as sources ( sources of light, EM waves, electrostatic fields, gravity ). In Apparent Source Theory, it is assumed that only the position of the light source will apparently change relative to the detector/observer but the mirrors, the beam splitter and all other parts of the apparatus will be assumed to be at their actual/physical positions in the analysis of the experiment. 5. In AST, it is space itself that contracts or expands relative to a moving observer regarding the position of sources 6. AST gives a new law of transformation of space, which is different from Lorentz transformations. 7. In AST, the observer is the light detecting device or the human directly detecting the light and light speed experiments should always be analyzed from the perspective of the inertial observer. More precisely, the observer is the atom detecting the light. According to Apparent Source Theory, the effect of absolute motion of the Michelson-Morley experiment is to create an apparent change in position of the light source as seen by ( relative to ) the observer/detector.The resulting fringe shift is the same as if the source was actually /physically moved to the same position. Intuitively, we can guess that actually changing the source position will not result in significant fringe shift or gives only small fringe shift. Apparent Source Theory not only accounted for the 'null' fringe shift of the Michelson-Morley experiment, but also for the small fringe shifts observed such as in the original Michelson experiment of 1881 and the Miller experiments. It explains many other light speed experiments, including the Sagnac effect, the Marinov experiment, the Silvertooth experiment, the Bryan G Wallace experiment, the Roland De Witte and other experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2223] **viXra:1811.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-09 02:01:06*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 58 Pages.

Could Albert Einstein be wrong about absolute motion ,absolute time and gravity but right about space contraction and the speed of light?Perhaps the great theoretical physicist is not completely wrong. In this paper, a new law of transformation of reference frames for absolutely moving observers is proposed. We may call this Apparent Source Transformation ( AST ). With this transformation, the space in front of an absolutely moving observer apparently contracts whereas the space behind an absolutely moving observer expands. Profoundly, AST changes current understanding of the phenomenon of stellar aberration. Stellar aberration occurs because of compression (or expansion ) of space in front of ( behind ) an absolutely moving observer. The apparent change in position of the star is not in the direction of absolute velocity, but in the opposite direction! Mercury’s anomalous perihelion advance can be explained by expansion of space as seen by the Sun and as seen by Mercury. AST also provides physical explanation for a new theory already proposed by this author: Exponential Doppler Effect of light:f ' = f eV/c ,λ ' = λ e-V/c. This agrees with the constancy of the speed of light: f 'λ' = f λ= c and can explain the Ives-Stilwell experiment. Not only frequency but also wavelength changes for an absolutely moving observer and the change in wave length for a moving observer can only be explained by apparent expansion or contraction of space as seen by an absolutely moving observer.AST has differences from and similarities to Special Relativity Theory ( SRT ) and/or Lorentz Contraction ( LC ) as follows:1. AST postulates that the speed of light is constant c irrespective of source or observer uniform motion, but the group velocity of light varies with mirror velocity 2. AST postulates absolute time 3. According to AST, absolute motion exists, but the ether doesn't exist as we know it 4. According to AST, space apparently contracts in front of an absolutely moving observer and expands behind him/her, only as seen by the absolutely moving observer, whereas space (or length ) only contracts, both in the forward and backward directions, as seen by the 'stationary' observer, in SRT and LC. In AST, space contraction is applied only when objects are considered as sources( sources of light, EM waves, electrostatic fields, gravity ). In Apparent Source Transformation, it is assumed that only the position of the light source will apparently change relative to the detector/observer but the mirrors, the beam splitter and all other parts of the apparatus will be assumed to be at their actual/physical positions to analyze the experiment. 5. In AST, it is space itself that contracts or expands relative to a moving observer regarding the position of sources 6.AST gives an exponential law of transformation of space, and is different from Lorentz transformations. 7. In AST, the observer is the light detecting device or the human directly detecting the light and light speed experiments should always be analyzed from the perspective of the inertial observer. More precisely, the observer is the atom detecting the light. Apparent Source Transformation evolved from a theory called Apparent Source Theory already proposed by this author. According to Apparent Source Theory, the effect of absolute motion of the Michelson-Morley experiment is to create an apparent change in position of the light source as seen by ( relative to ) the observer/detector.The resulting fringe shift is the same as if the source was actually /physically moved to the same position. Intuitively, we can guess that actually changing the source position will not result in significant fringe shift or gives only small fringe shift. Apparent Source Theory not only accounted for the 'null' fringe shift of the Michelson-Morley experiment, but also for the small fringe shifts observed such as in the original Michelson experiment of 1881 and the Miller experiments. It explains many other light speed experiments, including the Sagnac effect, the Marinov experiment, the Silvertooth experiment, the Bryan G Wallace experiment, the Roland De Witte and other experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2222] **viXra:1811.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-13 09:57:17*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

With this paper I propose to demonstrate, through the CMBR, a theory for which the light is manifested in the expanding space, so its speed is isotropic only towards it and not towards the celestial objects in motion respect to it.
Hence the result found by Michelson-Morley experiment, which showed that the speed of light is isotropic in any Reference Frame, is given by the phenomenon suggested by Lorentz, i.e., that each object undergoes a contraction of its length and a dilation of its time, as a function of its speed with respect to the medium in witch the light is manifested, which in this theory corresponds to the expanding space.
Hence now Special Relativity is replaceable with a theory for which light waves are manifested in space and their speed is not isotropic in all Reference Frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2221] **viXra:1811.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-04 10:35:06*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 8 Pages.In the second version of the paper I only inserted the links to two papers published after the first version.

With this article I propose to demonstrate, through the CMBR, a theory for which the light is manifested in the expanding space, so its speed is isotropic only towards it and not towards the celestial objects in motion respect to it.
Hence the result found by Michelson-Morley experiment, which showed that the speed of light is isotropic in any Reference Frame, is given by the phenomenon suggested by Lorentz, i.e., that each object undergoes a contraction of its length and a dilation of its time, as a function of its speed with respect to the medium in witch the light is manifested, which in this theory corresponds to the expanding space.
Hence now Special Relativity is replaceable with a theory for which light waves are manifested in space and their speed is not isotropic in all Reference Frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2220] **viXra:1810.0470 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-01 06:34:30*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An introduction to Total Relativity Theory as a measure theory of observable with potential fields energy distribution in 5 or more dimensions, with a natural deduction of the Planck-Einstein relation and the quantization of the Gravitational Field of the 1st Schwarzschild Solution. Are revealed the new Quantum tensor (instead of the energy momentum tensor) and the Photon rest mass as the fundamental particle mediating all forces of the Nature as a consequence of the existence of the 5th dimension for mass measurement. Also a reference to the concept of Local Experimental Physics in Scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2219] **viXra:1810.0470 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-18 20:39:24*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An introduction to Total Relativity Theory as a measure theory of observable with potential fields energy distribution in 5 or more dimensions, with a natural deduction of the Planck-Einstein relation and the quantization of the Gravitational Field of the 1st Schwarzschild Solution. Are revealed the new Quantum tensor (instead of the energy momentum tensor) and the Photon rest mass as the fundamental particle mediating all forces of the Nature as a consequence of the existence of the 5th dimension for mass measurement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2218] **viXra:1810.0470 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-09 07:35:39*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An introduction to the theory of Total Relativity as potential fields 5-dimensional with Riemann energy distribution not flat, with a natural deduction of the Planck-Einstein relation and the quantization of the Gravitational Field of the 1st Schwarzschild Solution. Is revealed as a conclusion the existence of mass of the photon as the fundamental particle mediating all forces of Nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2217] **viXra:1810.0470 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-02 14:18:30*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An introduction to the Total Relativity theory as potential fields with Riemann flat energy distribution, with a natural derivation of the Planck-Einstein relation and the quantization of the Gravitational Field of the 1st Schwarzschild Solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2216] **viXra:1810.0470 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-01 11:33:17*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An introduction to Total Relativity theory as potential fields with Riemann flat energy distribution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2215] **viXra:1810.0444 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-28 12:22:14*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Time is quite interesting phenomenon in physics, and it seems is relative; but what does it mean to be relative of time? What does to be fixed of light speed mean? Does to be fixed of light speed require observation at light speed? What if we can observe faster than light speed because of increased frame number? Is time effective for this imaginary effect or also time itself is dependent on another actual causative phenomenon? Is it possible to make a wrong conception for time and speed even if the phenomenon we advocate is actually true?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2214] **viXra:1810.0444 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-27 06:25:11*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Time is quite interesting phenomenon in physics, and it seems is relative; but what does it mean to be relative of time? What does to be fixed of light speed mean? Does to be fixed of light speed require observation at light speed? What if we can observe faster than light speed because of increased frame number? Is time effective for this imaginary effect or also time itself is dependent on another actual causative phenomenon? Is it possible to make a wrong conception for time and speed even if the phenomenon we advocate is actually true?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2213] **viXra:1810.0366 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-24 15:58:11*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

I have been working for a long time about basic laws of physics. During this time I noticed, that gravity does not work as Newtonian. Distance and gravitational force relation changes over distance. The attraction properties change for each point of free space, and have some limits. The attraction changes due to some values between 1/r and 1/r^2 even for the existent furthest distance. This work aims to analyze and discuss this phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2212] **viXra:1810.0366 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-23 07:31:03*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I have been working for a long time about basic laws of physics. During this time I noticed, that gravity does not work as Newtonian. Distance and gravitational force relation changes over distance. The attraction properties change for each point of free space, and have some limits. The attraction changes due to some values between 1/r and 1/r^2 even for the existent furthest distance. This work aims to analyze and discuss this phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2211] **viXra:1810.0357 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-22 09:36:12*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 3 pages

A new cosmological era began with the discovery of accelerating expansion of the Universe. The deviation of the Hubble diagram from exhibiting a linear distance-redshift relation at high redshifts provides the very crucial clue to support this discovery. In this paper I present a theory to account for the observed accelerating expansion of the Universe. I discuss that the Universe should attain a constant rate of expansion in future, given the linear distance-redshift relation being obeyed by the receding large-scale structures within the local Universe, suggesting constant recessional velocities. I compare the local Universe within which the receding large-scale structures exhibit the linear distance-redshift relation in accordance with the Hubble diagram, and the remote Universe within which the receding large-scale structures deviate from exhibiting the expected linearity. There may be a simple terminology termed by me as “acceleration phase” that would probably account for the observed acceleration, particularly for the receding large-scale structures belonging to the remote Universe that exhibit high redshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2210] **viXra:1810.0341 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-25 08:05:44*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper presents an argument that the conventional analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment ( MMX) might be only approximately correct but not strictly accurate. Accurate classical analysis would require revision of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction formula. This new analysis may have even more far reaching consequences: if the new classical analysis requires different length contraction formulas for different experimental setups to give a null result, this would lead to absurdity of the whole concept of length contraction and Lorentz transformation. The standard ether analysis of the MMX implies a law of reflection of light from a moving mirror and this may not agree with the classical analysis. Accurate ether analysis of MMX should be based on the classical analysis of reflection of light from a moving mirror, which should be derived from fundamental classical wave principles, and not from the requirement that the Michelson-Morley experiment should give a null fringe shift.The significant divergence of the light beam has been neglected ( overlooked ) in the standard analysis. The fallacy in the standard analysis is that it presumes that the transverse light will not miss the observer/detector, which is possible only if we consider the finite divergence of the beam, but ignores the beam divergence in the analysis and goes on to extraordinary conclusions ( length contraction ). Michelson's analogy of a man swimming across a river is the original fallacy.The standard relativistic explanation is that length contraction of the beam splitter will compensate for the change in angle of reflection. However, even if the length contraction formula is applied to the whole apparatus, including the beam splitter, the Michelson-Morley experiment will never give a null result because the classical analysis and its result is complicated and cannot be compensated by the simple Lorentz contraction formula. The resulting complex formula for the difference in path lengths of the longitudinal and transverse light beams may not even allow the application of length contraction concept, and modification of the simple Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction formula. This will invalidate the whole concept of length contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2209] **viXra:1810.0341 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-22 08:43:14*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper presents an argument that the conventional analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment ( MMX) might be only approximately correct but not strictly accurate. Accurate classical analysis would require revision of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction formula. This new analysis may have even more far reaching consequences: if the new classical analysis requires different length contraction formulas for different experimental setups to give a null result, this would lead to absurdity of the whole concept of length contraction and Lorentz transformation. The standard ether analysis of the MMX implies a law of reflection of light from a moving mirror and this may not agree with the classical analysis, which existed even before the conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment. Accurate ether analysis of MMX should be based on the classical analysis of reflection of light from a moving mirror, which should be derived from fundamental classical wave principles, and not from the requirement that the Michelson-Morley experiment should give a null fringe shift. The significant divergence of the light beam has been neglected ( overlooked ) in the standard analysis. The fallacy in the standard analysis is that it presumes that the transverse light will not miss the observer/detector, which is possible only if we consider the finite divergence of the beam, but ignores the beam divergence in the analysis and goes on to extraordinary conclusions ( length contraction ). Michelson's analogy of a man swimming across a river is the original fallacy. The standard relativistic explanation is that length contraction of the beam splitter will compensate for the change in angle of reflection. However, even if the length contraction formula is applied to the whole apparatus, including the beam splitter, the Michelson-Morley experiment will never give a null result because the classical analysis and its result is complicated and cannot be compensated by the simple Lorentz contraction formula.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2208] **viXra:1810.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-21 03:56:57*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 6 Pages. version 3 has a rewritten chapter 4

This article shows how Electro-Magnetic source and wave are related and why the propagation velocity of light in vacuum is c, exclusively relative to its source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology