**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(10) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(12) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(16)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(22) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(28) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(35) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(30) - 1405(38) - 1406(34) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(29)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(28) - 1503(25) - 1504(27) - 1505(29) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(41) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(47)

2016 - 1601(32) - 1602(51) - 1603(41) - 1604(33) - 1605(33) - 1606(44) - 1607(21) - 1608(40) - 1609(47) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(8)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2295] **viXra:1612.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 14:21:42*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 84 Pages.

In this dissertation, we will describe the phenomenon of anti-gravity in the framework of general relativity, and we will give examples of its use, such as black holes and a new model of the universe. Gravity and anti-gravity has layer-like nature. Our Universe can be treated as a gigantic homogeneous black hole. It is isolated from the rest of universe with an area of spacetime where anti-gravity occurres.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2294] **viXra:1612.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 08:39:43*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In order to prove if the magnetism is a relativistic side effect of the electrostatics, an experiment was designed and performed. The experimental result does not support the notion that the magnetism is a relativistic side effect of Electrostatics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2293] **viXra:1612.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 05:04:49*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, the slowdown mechanism of the moving mechanical clock is derived. The whole deductive process is based on velocity transformation and length contraction of the special relativity. The result shows that when in moving the mechanical clock runs slower in the exactly same proportion as the light clock does.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2292] **viXra:1612.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 06:05:58*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, a paradox resulted from the mass increasing with speed is presented. In this paradox, the same system appears two different conflict states. The system is stay in good order for an observer who is moving together with the system, but it is damaged for an observer who is at rest. To avoid this contradiction while leaving relativity intact, we have to introduce the assumption that the strength of a substance will increase with its speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2291] **viXra:1612.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-04 07:47:50*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Nowadays black holes in physics are considered real objects; supermassive black holes exist in the centers of most (all?) galaxies. The creation of black holes is a theory based on space-time. A new theory called space-matter theory has another explanation. The action-reaction phenomenon between space and matter causes that space waves. Masses decrease the energy of the space wave increasing its wavelengths. Lots of masses set up this effect causing very long waves. Black hole is made in a galaxy if the masses of celestial bodies are big "enough". Space regions can be depleted, where the density of the space wave is so small that space as space ceases to exist. This "lack of space" is replaced with space we don't know or with matter we can't find in our physics books.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2290] **viXra:1612.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-03 07:44:56*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. -

With the help of the general theory of relativity and the principle of least action, we get the formula of interaction of two charged particles. The strength of the interaction on the particle repulsion (Identically charged) is less than the force attracted exactly the same particles (Charged differently). The bodies are made up of such particles and, therefore, are always attracted, according to the theory of relativity and the principle of least action.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2289] **viXra:1612.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 14:59:01*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

How can interfering light waves transport particle characteristics? Up to now it was supposed that wave-particle duality was a quantum mechanical phenomenon which was not accessible to any classical explanation. The present article is disproving this assumption, by showing o n e single case which is entirely subject to a classical explanation: Photons in vacuum.
The suggested classical explanation of wave-particle duality is simple, and it is deriving directly from special relativity: The particle characteristics are transported directly from A to B, without any intermediate of spacetime, because the interval is zero. The observed wave is a sort of placeholder in our spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2288] **viXra:1612.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 18:07:05*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

It is commonly thought that the Michelson-Morley experiment from 1887 and Kennedy-Thorndike experiment from 1932 demonstrated that the ether does not exist and that the velocity of light in vacuum is absolutely constant. The analysis of this experiment led to the creation of the Special Theory of Relativity (STR).
In this article, a different transformation of time and position than the Lorentz transformation is derived on the basis of the geometric analysis of the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments. The transformation is derived based on the assumption that the universal frame of reference, called the ether, exists. Our concept states that the ether is not a substance with physical properties, as it was understood in the past, but a frame of reference in which the velocity of light is constant in every direction. In inertial frames of reference moving in the ether, the velocity of light may be different. The obtained transformations are transformations from the ether to the inertial frame and from the inertial frame to the ether.
The article explains why Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the ether.
Based on the new transformation, the Special Theory of Ether (STE) was created [3], [4], [5], [6].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2287] **viXra:1611.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-30 12:05:38*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Spanish.

This article presents the vector Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2286] **viXra:1611.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-28 01:23:10*

**Authors:** Dr Gautam Narayan Baruah

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

When a body say a toy car slides down an inclined plane with angle of inclination less than 45 degree the downward and forward motion of the toy car can be restricted by a thread or support perfectly parallel to the horizontal.It can mathematically proved based on the law of conservation of energy that a portion of the weight of the toy car is unsupported even at the position of rest and sinks down in the same relative space causing compression of spacetime below the toy car.This is a mathematical proof of a plane solid surface where an object can rest with part of it's weight not supported even at the position og rest enabling a novel warp drive and time travel mechanism that can work without causing any physical harm to human subjects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2285] **viXra:1611.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-27 05:34:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2284] **viXra:1611.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-25 05:24:15*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) is a new interpretation of absolute motion already proposed by this author. AST has been shown to easily explain many light speed experiments, including the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. AST has also been extended to govern the behavior of electrostatic fields. After I completed developing the major part of AST, I came across an idea that, if two oppositely charged spheres are fixed to the two ends of a rigid rod , and the system is set into absolute motion, according to AST, the charge-rod system will be subjected to a net electrostatic force and hence accelerate, implying free energy and reactionless thrust ! Obviously such a possibility would be very exciting, if it really existed. But I was also disappointed because, if free energy doesn’t really exist, this would imply that my theory (AST ) is wrong. I had never heard of such an effect before. Later I found in the internet that such an effect in fact exists and is known as the Biefeld-Brown effect and with unknown origin. Although AST neatly predicts this effect and can be a very compelling explanation, I feel that it still needs to be developed . The purpose of this paper is to invite and inspire theoretical and experimental researchers to work on the problem and advance AST. Exciting possibilities have been presented for this purpose. For example, according to AST, it is possible to produce by a small free energy device, made by stacking large number of capacitors, a net force that can lift an object as massive as an aircraft carrier. It is shown that the net force on the capacitor is directly proportional to the square of the electric field strength, directly proportional to the area of the capacitor plates, directly proportional to the third power of the relative permittivity of the dielectric material, and directly proportional to absolute velocity for absolute velocities much less than the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2283] **viXra:1611.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-25 00:58:51*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

New exact analytical solutions of Einstein and Qmoger (quantum modification of general relativity) equations are obtained in the context an alternative to the Big Bang theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2282] **viXra:1611.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-25 02:09:57*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Assert the dominance of SUPREME using quantum topology at the cosmological scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2281] **viXra:1611.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-24 10:12:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Through its measurements of Planck's constant, a quantity at the heart of quantum physics, the NIST-4 watt balance is contributing to an effort to define all base measurement units in terms of fundamental constants of nature. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2280] **viXra:1611.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-24 03:16:38*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper provides a method of visualising the rotation of a hypersphere (3-sphere or 4 ball) on the inside. As such, it may represent the actual behaviour of the universe and this paper gives figures which may apply to the universe and which await observational confirmation. As a hypersphere will ‘rotate’ in a more complex way than a simple ordinary sphere (2-sphere), we can refer to it as a vorticitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2279] **viXra:1611.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-22 22:02:10*

**Authors:** David F. Crawford

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is shown that the light curve widths of type Ia supernovae do not have time dilation and that their magnitudes are consistent
with a static universe. The standard analysis for type Ia supernovae uses a set of templates to overcome the intrinsic variation
of the supernova light curves with wavelength. The reference light curves derived from this set of templates contain an anomaly
in that at short wavelengths the width of the light curve is proportional to the emitted wavelength. Furthermore this anomaly is
exactly what would be produced if supernovae at different redshifts did not have time dilation and yet time dilation corrections
were applied. It is the specific nature of this anomaly that is evidence for a static universe. The lack of time dilation is confirmed
by direct analysis of the original observations. It is also found that the peak flux density of the light curves in the reference
templates had a strong dependence on wavelength that could be due to the use of an incorrect distance modulus. This dependence
is investigated by computing the peak absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae observations from the original observations using
a static cosmological model. The results support the hypothesis of a static universe. It is also argued that the photometric redshift
relation and spectroscopic ages are consistent with a static universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2278] **viXra:1611.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-22 12:19:30*

**Authors:** Ru-Jiao Zhang

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents a derivation of the theoretical value of the cosmological constant. The approach was based on Einstein’s gravitational field equations, Hubble’s law, and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model of the universe. The theoretical value of the cosmological constant Λ was found to be: Λ=(2Ho^2)/3 , here Ho is the Hubble constant. The theoretical value is very close to the observational value. Open space (k=-1) and closed space (k=+1) most likely coexist in our universe. The study implies that the expansion of the universe is an inherent property of vacuum space, not by dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2277] **viXra:1611.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-21 13:51:36*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 17 pages

In the special theory of relativity there is a time dilation between two reference frames moving relative to each other at a constant speed. The Lorentz transformation provides the magnitude of this time dilation. The present work focuses on the fact that the times observed on the ‘other’ system will depend on the location of the clocks used for time comparisons, and we refer to positional (location specific) time. The paper points to the various ‘observational principles’, i.e. the specification of which clocks to apply, and we present a unified framework for these principles. It is argued that the total picture of the observed time dilations is more informative than the usual approach of focusing on one specific expression for time dilation, apparently being based on a somewhat arbitrary definition of simultaneity. The motivation of the paper is to challenge the current narrative regarding time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2276] **viXra:1611.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-21 14:04:13*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Please contact genebarbee@msn.com with comments

Most of nature is not hard to understand using the right approach. Understanding involves correlating data in a different way. Information (N) is defined by the negative natural logarithm of probability (N= - ln P) but the key equation is a new relationship between energy and information. The equation is E=e0*exp(N) where e0 is an energy constant and exp(N) stands for the natural number 2.718 to the power N. N values are found from data gathered by high energy labs. This paper describes how nature originates from these values. Nature repeatedly uses an operation involving separation of some information from other information. But there are important properties that are maintained and thought to be initial conditions. One property is probability one and another is zero energy. Separation occurs between N for the mass and N for field energy in a neutron. This causes an individual neutron to very improbable. But probability one is maintained by the creation of a huge number of neutrons. A mass model of the neutron was developed using information values that represent its components. The model is based on information separation between components of the neutron. Zero net energy is maintained. Mass with kinetic energy is positive balanced by negative field energy. It will be shown that the model contains energy values that unify nature’s four fundamental interactions.
An information value associated with the electromagnetic field is of interest to biology. Combined with a quantum mechanical equation for light absorption multiples of this value can be used to model our human color vision system. This links internal observations with information and is a clue regarding signaling and response in our brain’s neural networks. Specifically the author proposes that there may be molecular level storage and interaction involved in perception. There are observations in physics that require explanation beyond physical networks. The dual slit experiment, instantaneous action at a distance (EPR) and collapse of a wave-function can be explained if perception is information gain occurring at the quantum level in a zero based system (zero energy and probability one).
Four types of time are involved. Frequency is associated with fundamental particles and field energy. Time that repeats around a quantum orbit is defined by mass with kinetic energy attracted to field energy. A third kind of time repeats and moves forward. It is related to an information operation that underlies gravitation and cosmological space and time. Nature positions particles in space by giving them kinetic energy to expand. The freedom to move is due to time dilation associated with kinetic energy. Expansion is another separation process. As particles expand, groups of particles form clusters, galaxies, stars and planets under the influence of gravity, then form chemicals under the influence of electromagnetic fields. Overall, separation leads to components that fit together, similar to a picture puzzle and its individual pieces.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2275] **viXra:1611.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-21 14:21:46*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: In our present E8 broken symmetry epoch we are limited to 248 particles and antiparticles; this limit has been reached seemingly without including any natural SUSY particles. However, 8-fold composite particles indicative of life have been included. This report also contains correction of an error.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2274] **viXra:1611.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 16:50:54*

**Authors:** Kathleen A. Rosser

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A static cosmological metric is derived that accounts for observed cosmic redshift without the requirement for an expanding universe. The metric is interpreted in such a way as to predict a universal potential that accounts the anomalous acceleration of outlying stars of spiral galaxies (the galactic rotation curve), obviating the need for dark matter or modifications to general relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2273] **viXra:1611.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 21:01:02*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 41 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong because the gravitational force experienced locally is caused by a negative energy, gravitons energy and the force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference is caused by a positive energy” Adrian Ferent
Because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong, Einstein’s gravitation theory is wrong.
What is the difference between time dilation in Special theory of relativity and Gravitational time dilatation?
Time dilation in Special theory of relativity is caused by positive energy.
“Gravitational time dilatation is caused by negative energy” Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2272] **viXra:1611.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 23:20:53*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 42 Pages. This article is the Author's invited contribution (a chapter) to a new book. No copyright limitations.

The mathematical theory of Relativity is riddled with violations of the rules of pure mathematics, logical contradictions, and conflict with a vast array of experiments. These flaws are reviewed herein in some detail. Claims for the discovery of black holes, Einstein's gravitational waves and the afterglow of the Big Bang, are demonstrably false. There are two conditions that any physical theory must satisfy: (a) logical consistency, (b) concordance with reality as determined by experiment and observation. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity fails on both counts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2271] **viXra:1611.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 05:38:10*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Discussing for the origin of fine-structure of the Universe’s space and the Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2270] **viXra:1611.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-19 12:30:20*

**Authors:** G. N. N. Martin

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In an earlier paper I showed that Newton's laws generalise to the theory of special relativity. In this paper I show that special relativity in turn implies general relativity.
I have two audiences in mind. I hope it will help those who, like me, left school decades ago but still like to understand today's physics and are dissatisfied with inexact analogies. The second target audience are those academic physicists who do not realise how readily relativity can be derived using only those assumptions that are implicit in Newton's laws.
The paper consists of a fairly short argument, followed by a number of appendices. Some of the appendices make supporting calculations, the rest explain ideas that will be obvious to some readers but not to others.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2269] **viXra:1611.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-16 05:17:13*

**Authors:** David Berkahn

**Comments:** 2 Pages. I had to add the letter "f" "i"

An approach to deriving tidal accelerations is presented using a modified solution approach based
on velocity dependence of acceleration for a weak feld. Further explorations of this approach are
investigated using general relativity to see how it might fit into its framework and whether any
modifications may need to be suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2268] **viXra:1611.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-14 21:32:00*

**Authors:** [Alik] Vitali Perakh

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to provide an alternate, strictly
geometric, interpretation for the observed phenomenon of time. This Geometric Model of Time (GMT) is consistent with both Theories of Relativity but goes beyond current explanations for the nature of and the apparent one-directness of time - the so-called Arrow of Time.
Key elements of the model are:
1. Our space (not space-time) is 4-dimensional. No separate time dimension exists either physically or as any necessary mathematical distinction. All dimensions are identical and symmetric. No one dimension can be singled out to be universally labeled as time.
2. All physical objects in our universe are endowed with an axiomatic vectorial property we call velocity. The scalar value of this property (speed) is invariable and identical for all objects and is labeled as c (speed of light).
3. The experience of time as we know it is an illusion resulting from the observer's motion through space at c. "Time" is the term given by each observer to their own individual direction of travel in our physical four-space.
This model is a better fit with observed phenomenon than current ones as well as being simpler and more elegant, elegance being defined as having symmetry (in the sense that it treats no dimension as being singular).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2267] **viXra:1611.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-13 20:51:33*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In Riemannian geometry there is a unique combination of the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor, Ricci tensor and Ricci scalar that defines a fourth-order Lagrangian for conformal gravity theory. This Lagrangian can be greatly simplified by eliminating the curvature tensor term, leaving a unique combination of just the Ricci tensor and scalar. The resulting formalism and the associated equations of motion provide a tantalizing alternative to Einstein-Hilbert gravity that may have application to the problems of dark matter and dark energy without the imposition of the cosmological constant or extraneous scalar, vector and spinor terms typically employed in attempts to generalize the Einstein-Hilbert formalism.
Gauss-Bonnet gravity specifies that the full Lagrangian hides an ordinary divergence (or surface term) that can be used to eliminate the curvature tensor term. In this paper we show that the overall formalism, outside of surface terms necessary for integration by parts, does not involve any such divergence. Instead, it is the Bianchi identi- ties that are hidden in the formalism, and it is this fact that allows for the simplification of the conformal Lagrangian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2266] **viXra:1611.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-13 03:36:14*

**Authors:** Nyambuya, G. G.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Published: Nyambuya, G. G. (2016), ‘On the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe and the Preponderance of Matter over Antimatter’, May PSTJ Article 15, 7 (8), pp.1223 − 1231.

The original Dirac equation is modified in the simplest imaginable and most trivial manner to include a universal all-pervading and all-permeating Cosmic Four Vector Field (CFVF). This CFVF leads to a modified Dirac equation that violates all the seven discrete symmetries i.e.: C, P, T, CP, CT, PT and CPT. The violation of the C-symmetry alone, is capable of explaining why the Universe appears to be made up chiefly of matter. By applying this CFVF to Einstein's original Field Equation, one is able to link this field with Einstein's cosmological constant term. Since Einstein's cosmological term is now sought in-order to explain the supposed accelerated expansion of the Universe, this means that the inclusion of the CFVF into the Dirac equation can be justified on this basis of the accelerated expansion of the Universe and hence the preponderance of matter over antimatter can be justified on the same basis of the of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In-conclusion, one can safely say that, the Einstein lambda-field (hence the CFVF) causing the acceleration of the the expansion of the Universe, this same field can be held responsible for the observed asymmetry in matter and antimatter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2265] **viXra:1611.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-11 06:53:26*

**Authors:** Jixueshi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Experiments show that Einstein's assumption is wrong

The relativistic derivation is based on Einstein's first and second hypotheses. These two hypotheses have no experimental basis. The two experiments in this paper can prove that these two assumptions do not hold. The coils with constant inertial motion in the magnetic field will generate electric current, and the stationary coil will not generate current. The Michelson-Morley Experiment with the Relative Motion to Earth is not a zero result, proving that Einstein's second hypothesis does not hold. The reliability of the experimental results need not be doubted. For those who have the knowledge of physics, as long as the thought experiment can determine the results of these two experiments is correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2264] **viXra:1611.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 09:01:36*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We can propose two models as an example for Zero Energy Universe Model. In this paper, we research that the total energy of the universe is zero, matters have a positive energy, and only gravitational potential energy is considered as a negative energy to offset this positive energy. In this model, to establish energy conservation law while the universe is expanding, energy needs to be increased, which increases R_gs or R_B of the universe. If a newly appeared energy has anti-gravity or negative pressure characteristics, it can be used as the model that can account for dark energy. There exists a zone that has a uniform energy density within R_gs due to the presence of gravitational potential energy with negative values. Base on this, I estimated the current size of the universe. And the model that I propose can solve some problems that the model "the universe is a black hole" had.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2263] **viXra:1611.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 09:57:55*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 54 Pages. Spanish

We make a compilation of attempts to derive the law of motion of a particle from the field equation of the theory unified asymmetric of Einstein. The equation of motion to first order must contain the law of gravitation of Newton and Coulomb's law. To derive the law of motion we use the method with which Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann solved the problem of motion in General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2262] **viXra:1611.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 03:42:36*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

PROBLEM: General and special relativity provide the formulations for how an observer in one frame of reference perceives motion in another. These cosmological principles arise from application of continuum mechanics, and are inaccessible to the particle perspective. PURPOSE: This paper derives the relativity formulations from a particle perspective, using a non-local hidden-variable solution (Cordus theory). APPROACH: The theory assumes a flux tube of discrete force emissions, and this property is exploited to derive the Lorentz transformation. Then this is generalised to a formalism for time dilation, and the relativistic Doppler relationship. FINDINGS: We show it is straightforward to derive the Lorentz and relativistic Doppler from a particle perspective. However the equations are found to contain an additional term relating to the difference in fabric density between situations. For a homogenous fabric - which is the assumption of general relativity - the conventional formulations are recovered. ORIGINALITY: Deriving the Lorentz and relativistic Doppler from a particle theory is novel. Also novel is the proposition that fabric density is a covert variable. The implication is that inertial frames of reference are only situationally equivalent if they also have the same fabric density, and this has further implications for interpreting cosmological redshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2261] **viXra:1611.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-09 05:36:17*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Let us study at first the representation of energy of ordinary bodies and of massive elementary particles into the domain space-time (3+1)D, then let us consider energy particles represented by photons and by energy quanta. It is known that kinetic energy presents a factor 1/2 for ordinary force fields, but we will demonstrate that factor is absent in determinate physical conditions through the use of the Dirac impulsive function and this consideration can be useful also for energy particles. Frequency shifts of energy particles can be interpreted in the light of new considerations on energy, that prove cosmological shift is the overall outcome of different physical effects due whether to redshift or to blueshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2260] **viXra:1611.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-09 03:52:57*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is based on two, in 1905 by Einstein proposed, presumptions: the first one, labelled by Einstein as the Principle of Relativity, the second one defining the supposed property of the speed of light in vacuum. This article shows how close Einstein, as well as Lorentz, has been to a solid solution of the problems physicists encountered a century ago, observing electro-magnetic phenomena. It also shows that Einstein’s PoR is a fundamentally restricted version of the “now-a-days-PoR”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2259] **viXra:1611.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-08 16:02:14*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Abbreviated version of the talk at the ICGTMP-31, June 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

An analog of the S=1/2 Feynman-Dyson propagator is presented in the framework of the S=1 Weinberg's theory.
The basis for this construction is the concept of the Weinberg field as a system of four field functions differing by parity and by dual transformations.
Next, we analyze the recent controversy in the definitions of the Feynman-Dyson propagator for the field operator containing the S=1/2 self/anti-self charge conjugate states in the papers by D. Ahluwalia et al. and by W. Rodrigues Jr. et al. The solution of this mathematical controversy is obvious. It is related to the necessary doubling of the Fock Space (as in the Barut and Ziino works), thus extending the corresponding Clifford Algebra. However, the logical interrelations of different mathematical foundations with the physical interpretations are not so obvious (Physics should choose only one correct formalism - it is not clear, why two correct mathematical formalisms (which are based on the same postulates) lead to different physical results?)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2258] **viXra:1611.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-08 02:08:21*

**Authors:** Mahesh Khati

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

This paper proves that special theory of relativity is wrong & give answer to following problems.
1) What is dark matter?
2) Dual nature of particles (Wave & particle)
3) Why antimatter is not present in world abundantly?
4) Total energy of photon is kinetic energy, still it is moving of electromagnetic
vibration & rest mass or energy of photon is zero & also, it has wave nature? How
all this is possible at one time?
5) How can photon disintegrate into electron & positron pair and electron, positron get
combine to form photon?
6) Why does charge less particles like photons & neutron have more velocity?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2257] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-06 21:44:08*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Comments welcome

The idea of hyperimaginary numbers is suggested as the first step toward the mathematical basis of res potentia (Plato), presented in the right-hand side of the evolution equation |w|2 = |m|2 + |mi|2. The real and imaginary (tachyonic) components in the right-hand side are always balanced, leading to |w|2 = 0 ― the physicalized world is made of positive mass-energy only, |m|2, which is always balanced (not “conserved”) by equal amount of |mi|2, once-at-a-time, ever since The Beginning (John 1:1). God is interpreted as mathematical (hyperimaginary) object residing “inside” the 4D instant here-and-now (Luke 17:21), and conceptual solutions to fundamental problems in point-set topology, set theory, and number theory are briefly described.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2256] **viXra:1611.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-06 14:21:58*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The H - Z boson particle mass difference has increased by 8.3% in the time interval since before the big bang. This finding indicates that these important type bosons (supersymmetric particle candidates) can be "fine-tuned" in mass to satisfy the needs of life.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2255] **viXra:1611.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-05 19:02:39*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Lorentz transformation of special relativity theory has been derived inductively based on the constancy of light velocity for every inertia systems. The equation predicts possible important results. But many people might feel it is hard to understand these intuitively.
The cause of it may be these have not been derived deductively from basic nature laws for over hundred years. This may mean we don’t know any basic nature laws for special relativity theory yet. Here we try to find these.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2254] **viXra:1611.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-05 12:35:36*

**Authors:** Amine Benachour

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We are examining the possible existence of new relativistic effect that might experimentally be detected in order to provide a rational explanation to thought experiments involving simultaneous events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2253] **viXra:1611.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-05 10:22:11*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. http://bolshoyforum.com/forum/index.php?action=felblog;sa=view;uid=17499

In the "General Theory of Relativity" power formula force. The decomposition of this force into components, interaction of the electric and magnetic forces. If a closer look at the possible expansion of this force, we can find the force that gives the accelerated expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2252] **viXra:1611.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-04 05:43:54*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

This article is a summary of the non-geometrical Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation (LIGT) (references and citations here allow to familiarize oneself with known results from the theory of gravitation in more detail). In the framework of the proposed theory the physical meaning of the metric tensor and square of interval in pseudo-Euclidian space was clarified, all the exact solutions of GR were obtained, the violation on the law of conservation of energy-momentum was eliminated, as well as other difficulties have been overcome. A characteristic feature of the proposed theory is that it is built on the basis of the quantum field theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2251] **viXra:1611.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-04 07:33:47*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The question of the “finely tuned Universe” will be answered by defining a new
dimensionless constant that is potentially fundamental for the future of physics. The constant will
be named the “de Broglie constant” in honor of Louis de Broglie, and it will be defined with a
symbol (Д). This is the constant that gives rise to the constant (α) known as the “fine structure constant” that defines the electromagnetic interaction but was mistakenly considered to be the constant that defines a “fine-tuned” Universe, it will be elaborated that it is the de Broglie constant that does so and that it arises from the fundamental law of mass-energy equivalence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2250] **viXra:1611.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-03 22:18:25*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 1 Page. Sent to Nature Authors on 21 Oct. 2016. Submitted to Nature on 4 Nov. 2016 for the purpose of publication as a Communication Arising.

Irwin et al recently reported on ultraluminous X-ray bursts in two ultracompact companions to nearby elliptical galaxies NGC 4697 and NGC 5128 (sources 1 and 2 respectively). Although they discuss a number of possibilities, they favour neutron stars and black holes as the likely sources: "the sources appear to be normal accreting neutron-star or black-hole X-ray binaries". However, there is no possibility for black holes to be associated with these X-ray sources because the mathematical theory of black holes contains a latent violation of the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2249] **viXra:1611.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-02 21:47:55*

**Authors:** G.H. Mickey Thompson

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Researchers are finding cosmic structures that are too large and too old to have been produced by the big bang. These suggest our big bang took place within an older and larger universe. Yet, the standard model assumes our big bang created the whole universe. That assumption has troubled scientists since the 1940s. The catch is that it makes them treat all evidence as though it was created by this one big bang. This seems to explain why the standard model has encountered so many anomalies.
This paper presents a cosmic model that negates the creation assumption. It describes a more logical paradigm; wherein big bangs are local events in a vastly larger universe. One with a natural means for generating big bangs. The standard model’s many anomalies make more sense when viewed in light of a big bang overrunning and overlaying components of an older universe.
This simple paradigm shift would be all it takes to transform our current model to one that’s more coherent, cohesive, and comprehensive. To make it comprehensive, the paper also includes unique speculations about dark matter, gravity, grand unification, and anthropic conditions.
Keywords: cosmology: theory, dark energy, dark matter, large-scale structure of the universe, galaxies: clusters: general, stars: black holes, quasars

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2248] **viXra:1611.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-03 02:09:05*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

The modern theory of gravity, which is called General Theory of Relativity (GTR or GR), was verified with sufficient accuracy and adopted as the basis for studying gravitational phenomena in modern physics. GR is the geometric theory of gravitation, in which the metric of Riemannian space-time plays the role of relativistic gravitational potential. Therefore it has certain features that make it impossible to connect it with others physics theories in which geometry plays only a supporting role. Another formal feature of general relativity is that the study and the use of its mathematical apparatus require much more time than the study of any of the branches of modern physics. This book is an attempt to build a non-geometrical version of the theory of gravitation, which is in the framework of the modern Lorentz-invariant field theory and would not cause difficulties when teaching students. A characteristic feature of the proposed theory is that it is built on the basis of the quantum field theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2247] **viXra:1611.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-01 17:11:04*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Everyone knows the further back you look through a telescope into the Universe the more things appear red-shifted. If that same process continues the light would be shifted right off the visible spectrum and into the micro-wave. And that is what happened.

Micro-wave (or CMB) radiation is just light from stars that are very far away.

Remember Olbers' paradox? Why is the sky not bright if there is supposedly a star at the end of every point you look? There actually is -- but the light has been shifted.

This is why the CMB appears to be so smooth -- the Universe is filled (for all intents) evenly with stars so you will see just about the same things no matter were you look. A lot of it might be in a different spectrum though.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2246] **viXra:1611.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-02 03:23:19*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 116 Pages.

The modern theory of gravity, which is conditionally called General Theory of Relativity (GTR), was verified with sufficient accuracy and adopted as the basis for studying gravitational phenomena in modern physics. However, it has certain features that make it impossible to connect with other theories, on which almost all the techniques and technology of modern civilization is built. Another formal disadvantage of general relativity is that the study and the use of its mathematical apparatus require much more time than the study of any of the branches of modern physics. This book is an attempt to build a version of the theory of gravitation, which is in the framework of the modern field theory and would not cause difficulties when teaching students. A characteristic feature of the proposed theory is that it is built on the basis of the nonlinear quantum field theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2245] **viXra:1611.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-01 13:12:42*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Image using proper asymetric gravitational index of refraction.

In the previous paper computer programs were developed to illustrate the image comparison between a conservative local energy theory gravitational theory and a black hole. A local conservative theory of gravitation[1] does not generate a Black Hole, but a very heavy neutron star (NDS) having a radius only slightly larger than the gravitational radius [2],[3],[4],. The light propagation formula used in the original paper was the standard symmetric Shapiro propagation formula for flat space, well tested as the proper projection of the GR metric onto a flat space, for star grazing and Shapiro delay. Unfortunately due to the asymmetric nature of the propagation of light related, this expression does not properly represent photon trajectories near the gravitational radius. This paper redoes those projections and creates a star image consistent with the proper index of refraction for photons near a massive neutron star.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2244] **viXra:1611.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-01 13:32:05*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

If lightning strikes in your backyard you will hear an immediate and very loud clap of thunder. If there is NO rain it is easy to also hear the very low pitched thunder rolling smoothly away off into the distance.

A~~~~~~~~~B~~~~~~~~~C~~~~~~~~~D~~~~~

If you are at "A" and the lightning strikes and claps at "A" it starts an expanding shock wave in the air that expands away spherically.

The shock-wave is so powerful it disrupts the atmosphere and what you think you hear as thunder rolling away is actually the shock wave being reflected back.

The shock-wave traveled from A to B in one second and it keeps going.

But if you were standing at any point along the path for instance "B" you would still hear the initial strike and clap as it passed by you at the speed of sound..

So what you are think you are hearing as thunder is actually the instantaneous strike and clap happening over and over and over.

It is continuous but not being stretched.

You are hearing one instant thing but it is continuous

The sound of course is being Doppler shifted -- it is racing away at the speed of sound.

If you have good ears and think you hear the thunder at "B" it is already at "C".

In the time it took the sound from "B" to travel back to you at "A" the clap has already moved on to "C".

~~~~~~~~~~

Big Bang / CMB

~~~~~~~~~~

When the Big Bang happened it disrupted the fabric of space itself in the same way a one time thunder clap continuously disrupts the atmosphere.

When you detect the CMB you are actually detecting the "thunder" of the Big Bang. But It is happening as electromagnetic radiation of course.

The CMB is actually the Big Bang happening over and over and over but it is red-shifted down to microwave spectrum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2243] **viXra:1611.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-01 06:14:41*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

The most advanced theory of gravitation is so far Einstein's general relativity theory. Some of its drawbacks are the source of attempts to construct a new theory of gravitation. The main drawback of general relativity theory is its incompatibility with the modern quantum theory of elementary particles, which does not allow to create a unified theory of matter. In the general relativity the cause of the gravitational field is the curvature of space-time, which is not a material object. The question of, how non-material space-time can cause a material gravitational field is still here unanswered. Different subdisciplines of classical physics generated different ways of approaching the problem of gravitation. The emergence of special relativity further increased the number of possible approaches and created new requirements that all approaches had to come to terms with. In this book we will survey various alternative approaches to the problem of gravitation pursued around the turn of the last century and try to assess their potential for integrating the contemporary knowledge of gravitation. Here different contributions are made to the discussion about the fundamentals of different approaches to gravitation and their advantages and drawbacks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2242] **viXra:1610.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-31 14:45:11*

**Authors:** Alfonso León Guillen Gómez

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

General Relativity defines gravity like the metric of a Lorentzian manifold. Einstein formulated spacetime as quality structural of gravity, i.e, circular definition between gravity and spacetime, also Einstein denoted "Space and time are modes by which we think, not conditions under which we live" and “We denote everything but the gravitational field as matter”, therefore, spacetime is nothing and gravity in first approximation an effect of coordinates, and definitely a geometric effect. The mathematical model generates quantitative predictions coincident in high grade with observations without physical meaning. Philosophy intervened: in Substantivalism, spacetime exists in itself while in Relationalism as metrical
relations. But, it does not know what spacetime. The outcomes of model have supported during a century, validity of the General Relativity, interpreted arbitrarily. Einstein formulated, from quadrupoles of energy, the formation of ripples in spacetime propagating as gravitational waves abandoned, in 1938, when he said that they do not exist. LIGO announced the first detection of gravitational waves from a pair of merging black holes. They truly are waves of quantum vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2241] **viXra:1610.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-29 16:39:43*

**Authors:** Eran Sinbar, Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s general relativity theory, increase in mass causes time dilation. In
this paper we introduce 2 identical closed systems A&B. Each system contains masses
M&m where .Each system can be in one of 2 stable steady states modes, mode
1 in which m is far from M held in its position by a slider (Fig. 1) and mode 2 in which
m has travelled towards M because of its gravitational pull, until they both collided and
became a unified mass (fig. 3). At mode 1 the system is potential energy dominated
and in mode 2 the system has transferred its potential energy first to kinetic energy and
finally after the collision to heat (radiation) energy which was radiated immediately
out of the system until reaching a stable steady state mode. Switching between the 2
modes is possible through the slider (Fig. 3) which by sliding aside enables mass m to
be pulled by gravity towards mass M.
A seconds.
In system B the sequence is: mode 1 for seconds and mode 2 for seconds.
Where , , .Although in
both systems the total energy ,the total time and the surrounding conditions are the
same at the end point after time T (Fig. 3) the entropy in system B is lower than the
entropy in system A and we will name this “The entropy paradox”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2240] **viXra:1610.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-30 08:02:10*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a viewpoint regarding to the essence of the Universe and the world

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2239] **viXra:1610.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-27 23:56:49*

**Authors:** Kapil Chandra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Quantum field theory’s energy density of vacuum corresponds to the cosmological constant. We found, calculation of its numerical value is based on Planck unit which assumes, the gravity is as strong as the strong nuclear force is. We argue, this assumption is the reason of very high predicted value of it and cosmological constant problem emerges. Here we modified this assumption and got correct value of it and apparently cosmological constant problem is vanished.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2238] **viXra:1610.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-26 19:48:18*

**Authors:** Luo Zhengda

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

There is one truth only, it is not existed in the concept of the single "gravity", also not in the single "repulsion", and certainly not in the "gravity and repulsion" taking the same mass substance as the carrier, but in the external force and the repulsive force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2237] **viXra:1610.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-24 10:09:27*

**Authors:** Jixueshi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This experiment can prove that the etheric by earth traction

Michelson morley experiment denies the existence of ether wind, rocky (Oliver w. f. Lodge, 1851-1940) in 1892, made of steel plate rotation experiment rejected ether by steel plate of traction, also indirectly negative ether by earth traction, the two experimental rejected ether.This experiment can prove that the etheric by earth traction,the Michelson-Morley Experiment on the relative motion to the earth:
The light source is the green laser, with its wavelength 532nm. Compared to the original Michelson-Morley Experiment, the installation of this experiment is improved in two ways (as is seen in figure 1): Firstly, a parallel plane optical resonant cavity is added to the optical path in order to improve its sensitivity. As the times of the reflex in the resonant cavity is unknown, the sensitivity cannot be measured; Secondly, the stationary relative to the earth is changed to the rectilinear motion. The installation is placed horizontally on the high-speed train carriage with the shock cushion installed, which is made of multiple layers of sponges and slates. When the installation works in uniform linear motion, relatively to the earth surface at a speed of over 260km per hour, rotate it horizontally, and the move of optical interference fringe can be observed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2236] **viXra:1610.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-19 09:37:53*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In the theory of special relativity, a particle that has rest mass with subluminal velocity needs infinite energy to accelerate to the speed of light. Special relativity does not prohibit the existence of particles that travel faster than light. In arXiv:1303.0614 quantum entanglement was measured at 10,000 times the speed of light or 4 orders of magnitude the speed of light or 2.99 E 12 m/s 2. At the quantum level some believe that retrocausality is forbidden. The purpose of this paper is to show how an email message can go proportionally faster than light to report on an event from the present into the past. The event reported from the present is sent into the past in the Inbox history instantaneously and a copy of the email that is (-) 2.7 hours in the past will also be sent to the Inbox history. Whether or not the event reported from the present that is sent into the past can be changed is not the purpose of this paper. The purpose of this paper is to show how a message from now can report on an event from now and sent into the past.(retrocausal communication)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2235] **viXra:1610.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-19 10:23:54*

**Authors:** Mugur B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We deduce from Newtonian mechanics the cosmological constant, following some older ideas. An equivalent to this constant in classical mechanics it was found. Therefore in our development, the cosmological constant appears in a natural way into Friedmann cosmological model. But the theoretical context in which it appears tells almost nothing about the nature of expanding universe force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2234] **viXra:1610.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-18 06:34:22*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 1 Page. This article was submitted on 2nd May 2016 to the 2016 International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (COSPA), hosted at the University of Sydney, 28 Nov - 02 Dec 2016.

There exists an infinite equivalence class of solutions for the equations Rμν = 0, thereby constituting all admissible 'transformations of coordinates'. If any element of this infinite equivalence class cannot be extended to produce a black hole then none can be extended to a black hole, owing to equivalence. No such element can be extended to produce a black hole. Consequently, the mathematical theory of black holes violates the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2233] **viXra:1610.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-18 08:02:05*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 25 Pages. none

This article describes the new model of the Universe that is an alternative for the well-known Big Bang (BB) model. The recently published paper [1], where the authors have presented data on the oldest star in the Milky Way galaxy halo, challenges the validity of the BB model claim about the age of the Universe. It is thus apparent that there is a need to develop an alternative model for the Universe that would not have this problem and provide a better agreement with observations. The model presented in this paper offers such a new alternative by assuming that the Universe is not expanding and is filled with a static gravitating "dark matter" (DM) that is transparent and therefore does not absorb light. This matter provides a framework in which the visible matter moves similarly as defects or vacancies move in a crystal floating from the bulk to the surface. It is further assumed that the visible matter may have been created from this dark transparent matter by an unspecified process sometime in the past, or is being constantly created with a smaller rate. After aggregation to stars and galaxies the visible matter is driven out to the edge of the Universe where it disintegrates and generates the immense Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). This radiation then may contribute to the generation of new matter throughout the Universe similarly as the assumption that the matter is being constantly created in the Fred Hoyle's model of the Universe [2]. The DM model provides equations for the observed recession velocities of distant galaxies, and for many remaining parameters that follow directly from the Hubble constant such as: the size and the mass of the Universe, the maximum observable luminosity modulus, the maximum observable Z shift, the maximum galaxy recession velocity, the size of the average galaxy, etc.. An important relation, also derived from the model, is the relation between the Hubble constant and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). This relation allows a precise calculation of Hubble constant from this temperature. The developed theory is compared with the available data of the GRBs, the Supernova Cosmology project, and the BATSE catalog, and a very good agreement is obtained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2232] **viXra:1610.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-18 04:23:17*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the cited paper author (Robert J. Buenker) “proves” invalidity of the special relativity length contraction prediction, relaying on muon experiments and using incorrect calculation of the relative velocity. This phenomenon is common in anti-relativistic texts: arguments against the special theory of relativity authors base on misunderstandings (misconceptions) of the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2231] **viXra:1610.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 20:46:35*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

The observation of two occurrences of time dilation underlie new conclusions about the essence of gravity that cascade logically from these observations, but are at odds with the descriptions of gravity offered by conventional physics. 1) An examination of the time dilation of a process reveals that it is a function of the velocity of the process relative to space itself, not relative to an arbitrary frame of reference. A fundamental frame of reference for motion in the Universe must permeate all space at both the greatest and smallest scales. A field of particles that I call the Temporal-Inertial (TI) field that supports the propagation of nature’s force particles meets the requirements of such a fundamental frame of reference for motion. 2) The Global Positioning System (GPS) compensates precisely for the time dilation introduced by the GPS satellite’s orbital speed and the gravitational field of Earth. I argue that this precise compensation is achievable only if Earth is at rest relative to the TI field. Accordingly, Earth and particles of the TI field must orbit the Sun in concert. Hence, particles of the TI field must be subject to gravity. Several other behaviors ensue from these two observations of time dilation: 3) the TI field mediates gravity, 4) massive particles and objects comprising massive particles are not directly subject to gravity, 5) in the ‘near’ vicinity of a gravitational body the velocity of the TI field is directed toward the center of mass of the body, 6) gravitational time dilation is caused by the infall velocity of the TI field toward a gravitational body, not directly by gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2230] **viXra:1610.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-17 08:57:38*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper will answer the mystery of the coupling constant (e), a puzzle of its origin
that was made popular by Richard Feynman, by using what will be defined as “temporal
kinematics”. Temporal kinematics studies the motion of time, we will name this “temporal
motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more
accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation
studies. Temporal motion should not be confused with cosmic inflation, it can only act as an
initiator of it. Temporal kinematics functions as a bridge between General Relativity and
Quantum Mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2229] **viXra:1610.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-16 11:57:46*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the cited paper author (R.K.) “proves” invalidity of the special relativity using invalid transformation formula(s) for the electromagnetic wave period (and the wavelength). This phenomenon is common in anti-relativistic texts: arguments against the special theory of relativity authors base on misunderstandings (misconceptions) of the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2228] **viXra:1610.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-16 03:08:22*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The original ideas

We determine nonlinear Lorentz transformations between coordinate systems
which are mutually in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion. The maximal
acceleration as an analogue of the maximal velocity in special relativity follows
from the nonlinear Lorentz group of transformtion. The mass formula was derived
by the same method as the Thomas precession formula by author. It can play
crucial role in particle physics and cosmology

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2227] **viXra:1610.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-13 18:20:17*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The 8 Ht, Zt, Htt, and Ztt Fermibosonic entities and anti-entities seen at the LHC played a crucial role role in bringing fermibosonic matter from the previous universe into our present universe, where it could form new fermonic matter at no energy cost or loss of universe flatness. The used H particles are later swallowed in the large black holes at the centers of spiral galaxies (these black holes had survived the big bang). The Z components are used again, as food for growing stars in the spiral arms of the same galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2226] **viXra:1610.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-13 20:06:03*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A simple principle is provided so that future scientists can understand the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2225] **viXra:1610.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-13 11:13:59*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper will answer the mystery of the coupling constant (e), a puzzle of its origin that was made popular by Richard Feynman, by using what will be defined as “temporal kinematics”. Temporal kinematics study the motion of time, we will name this “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion should not be confused with cosmic inflation, it can only act as an initiator of it most probably caused by quantum vacuum fluctuations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2224] **viXra:1610.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-12 16:01:39*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. PUBLISHED BY: ...

Einstein used the term ‘unified field theory’ in a title of a publication for the first time in 1925. Somewhat paradoxically, an adequate historical, physical and philosophical understanding of the dimension of Einstein’s unification program cannot be understood without fully acknowledging one of Einstein’s philosophical principles. Despite many disappointments, without finding a solution besides of the many different approaches along the unified field theory program and in ever increasing scientific isolation, Einstein insisted on the unity of objective reality as the foundation of the unity of science. Einstein’s engagement along his unification program was burdened with a number of difficulties and lastly in vain. Nevertheless, a successful geometrization of the gravita-tional and the electromagnetic fields within the framework of the general theory of relativity is possible. Thus far, it is a purpose of the present contribution to geometrize the electromagnetic field within the framework of the general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2223] **viXra:1610.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-12 09:14:02*

**Authors:** Enrico Belmonte

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Three hypotheses on spacetime expansion are presented. First, velocity is independent of spacetime expansion. Second, spacetime expansion does not change energy. Third, spacetime expansion is a change in size of spacetime and energy conversion is a change in shape of spacetime, or equivalent to change in velocity. These are mathematical arguments hence mathematical proofs are presented in each hypothesis. The difference in the calculation of velocity between Hubble’s law and Belmonte theory is discussed. The so-called dark energy emerges as a consequence of velocity calculation in Hubble’s law but it does not appear in Belmonte theory. It is shown that the cosmological constant in the general theory of relativity arises from a violation of the conservation of energy. The cosmological constant does not appear in Belmonte theory as energy is automatically conserved in the theory. Following the Second Hypothesis, the Belmonte Mass is predicted. This is the total mass of dark matter and baryonic matter in the observable universe. It is derived theoretically from the Planck vacuum energy density.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2222] **viXra:1610.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-12 00:21:49*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the standard model of cosmology, λCDM, were introduced to explain the anomalies of the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters highest according estimated by General Relativity the dark matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe the dark energy. The model λCDM is based in the equations of the General Relativity that of the total mass-energy of the universe assigns 4.9% to matter (including only baryonic matter), 26.8%, to dark matter and 68.3% to dark energy adjusted according observed in Planck mission, therefore, excluding bosonic matter (quantum vacuum). However, the composition of dark matter and dark energy are unknown. Due to that it lacks of a correct physical theory of gravity since General Relativity is only their powerful equations, which in their applications, their results are interpreted arbitrarily. Properties as curvature, viscous fluid, dragging frame and gravity action are attributed mistakenly to the spacetime by the materialist substantivalism, the most credible philosophical interpretation that complements the General Relativity, caused by its absence of physical definition of spacetime and static gravitational field as immaterial, but which violates, the conception of gravity as an effect of coordinates of the generalization of the inertial motion to the accelerated motion and, in particular, the description of the metric tensor of gravity as a geometric field. These properties are really of the quantum vacuum, the main existence form of the matter. In this paper we propose that the quantum vacuum is the source of dark matter and dark energy, therefore, the components of the quantum vacuum are of them. Both are opposite effects of the quantum vacuum that when gravitationally interacts with the cosmic structures, the vacuum it curves and when such interaction tends to cease by declination of the formation of these structures, occurring since near five milliard of years ago, vacuum it maintains quasi plane, since it interacts gravitationally very weakly with itself, accelerating expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2221] **viXra:1610.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-11 08:11:23*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This article was submitted to the editors of the Astrophysical Journal on 11 October 2016 for the purpose of publication.

It has recently been reported that the candidate HLX ultrasoft x-ray source J141711+52 in SO galaxy GJ1417+52 is explained best by the presence of a massive black hole, of ~105 solar masses. Although the size of the black hole has been reported, the type of black hole has not. In any event, no black hole is associated with J141711+52 because the mathematical theory of black holes violates the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2220] **viXra:1610.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-09 08:35:29*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions, which are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions, are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using simple photon clocks. This approach avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2219] **viXra:1610.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-08 22:46:57*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Updated conclusion

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a
product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion
inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it
“temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space ever since.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2218] **viXra:1610.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-08 07:26:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A Stanford physicist has proposed this radical idea in the form of a new equation, ER=EPR – and he says it could build a space-time bridge between the long-competing theories of general relativity and quantum mechanics. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2217] **viXra:1610.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-08 08:45:07*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: giving a viewpoint about the structure and composition of cosmic ontology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2216] **viXra:1610.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-07 20:01:26*

**Authors:** LI WeiGang

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Consider, for example, that the BBO emits a pair of entangled beams, a beam of horizontally polarized light to Alice, and another beam of vertically polarized light to Bob. Now, if a polarizer is placed in front of Alice's detector and driven by a 16Hz motor so that the "state" of the beam changes continuously, it is now questionable whether Bob's detector is more or less "Induced" 32 Hz light intensity changes or other changes?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2215] **viXra:1610.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-07 00:36:11*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space ever since.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2214] **viXra:1610.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-04 11:13:48*

**Authors:** Omar Shabsigh

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

This research paper discusses the validity of Einstein’s relativity theory. It took four years of intensive work to reach the final conclusions. All assumptions of Einstein and his mathematics (where it exists) will be reviewed. Experiments done to show the validity will be restudied then we shall show their correctness under the constraints and conditions made by Einstein and show their practical and scientific value. We shall also show how much is the truthfulness of general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2213] **viXra:1610.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-03 19:06:18*

**Authors:** Chunxuan Jiang

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

using space-time ring we establish mathematical theory of space-time .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2212] **viXra:1610.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-02 07:16:46*

**Authors:** Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Based on Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle it is concluded that the vacuum is filed
with matter and anti-matter virtual pairs (“quantum foam”) that pop out and
annihilate back in a very short period of time. When this quantum effects happen
just outside the "event horizon" of a black hole, there is a chance that one of these
virtual particles will pass through the event horizon and be sucked forever into the
black hole while its partner virtual particle remains outside the event horizon free to
float in space as a real particle (Hawking Radiation).
In our previous work [1], we claim that antimatter particle has anti-gravity
characteristic, therefore, we claim that during the Hawking radiation procedure,
virtual matter particles have much larger chance to be sucked by gravity into the
black hole then its copartner the anti-matter (anti-gravity) virtual particle.
This leads us to the conclusion that hawking radiation is a significant source for
continuous generation of mostly new anti-matter particles, spread in deep space,
contributing to the expansion of space through their anti-gravity characteristic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2211] **viXra:1609.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 08:59:01*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages

It is revealed with mathematical justification that the Lorentz transformation is actually limited to events with coordinates satisfying the light speed space-time relation (i.e., x = ct). It is therefore shown that applying the LT on certain events while maintaining the above limitation, leads to mathematical contradictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2210] **viXra:1609.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 05:56:22*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages. A first step to an effective Grand Unification Theory

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2209] **viXra:1609.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 00:35:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Understanding Today's Science with Help from Special Relativity and General Relativity. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3863556.v1 Retrieved: 05 21, Sep 28, 2016 (GMT)

This article began to take shape in my mind when I read an item in Astronomy magazine. That item mentioned how timing by GPS (the Global Positioning System) requires input from both Special Relativity - where time slows down fractionally for the fast-moving satellites in orbit – and General Relativity, where the satellites' distance from Earth's gravity causes their time to speed up fractionally. This led to the conclusions that 1) the gravitational waves making up the gravity field are, as Einstein suggested in a paper written four years after publication of the general theory, involved in production of mass, 2) these waves participate with the other long-range force, electromagnetism, to also produce the two nuclear forces associated with the mass (making nuclear forces non-fundamental and the Higgs force another name for gravitational-electromagnetic coupling), 3) black holes are composed of gravitational and electromagnetic waves focused on them from deep space, and this accounts for their extreme gravity as well as extreme mass, 4) there's a link between the macroscopic black holes of astronomy and the subatomic gluons of particle physics, and 5) Einstein's contributions don't end with the two Relativities, or even the paper written 4 years after the general theory, but can be extended to his Unified Field Theory.
His Unified Field might not be generally accepted today because it was incomplete, just as he described quantum mechanics as incomplete. In 1957, Charles Misner and John Wheeler, in the “Annals of Physics”, claimed Albert Einstein’s latest equations demonstrated the unified field theory. However, the necessary completion of the unified field may not exclusively lie with the mathematics Einstein seemed to increasingly rely on as he aged but with concepts in computer science as well as intuitions in the mathematical branch called topology. Einstein was a Superman at exploring new ideas in his youth. Had electronic computers been invented 30 or 40 years earlier, it appears likely we’d be living with the fruits of the unified field now.
PS This article also mentions superconductivity, imaginary time, complex number plane, quark-gluon plasma, antigraviton, shape of space, dark energy, dark matter and antimatter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2208] **viXra:1609.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-27 12:58:51*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: put forward a viewpoint of the origin of our universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2207] **viXra:1609.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 17:14:28*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 74 Pages.

We summarize how the Lorentz Force motion observed in classical electrodynamics may be understood as geodesic motion derived by minimizing the variation of the proper time along the worldlines of test charges in external potentials, while the spacetime metric remains invariant under, and all other fields in spacetime remain independent of, any rescaling, i.e., re-gauging of the charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In order for this to occur, time is dilated or contracted due to repulsive and attractive electromagnetic interactions respectively, in very much the same way that time is dilated due to relative motion in special relativity and due to gravitational fields in general relativity, without contradicting the well-corroborated experimental content of standard electrodynamic theory and both special and general relativity. As such, it becomes possible to lay an entirely geometrodynamic foundation for classical electrodynamics in four spacetime dimensions, in which mechanical motions and objects are merely promoted into canonical motions and objects in accordance with well-established local symmetry principles. Further, when we consider the self-interactions of individual leptons understood to be responsible for the magnetic moment anomalies, and upon identifying a universal relation between time and energy whereby all forms of energy dilate (or contract) time regardless of their kinetic or interaction origin, it is shown how these magnetic moment anomalies which are quintessential hallmarks of quantum field theory, both measure and empirically validate electromagnetic time dilation, and are a direct and immediate consequence of local abelian and non-abelian gauge symmetries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2206] **viXra:1609.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 15:13:52*

**Authors:** Aleksandr Tsybin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Currently, most research suggests that the physical vacuum is not empty, and the medium
is composed of dark matter and dark energy and this allows hope that the speed of light in
the physical vacuum can be transcended.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2205] **viXra:1609.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 11:30:05*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2204] **viXra:1609.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 11:35:38*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores.
Da análise do desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória podemos sintetizar as seguintes conclusões:
-é uma teoria com princípios totalmente físicos,
-as transformações são lineares,
-matem intactos os princípios Euclidianos,
-considera a transformação de Galileu distinta em cada referencial,
-une a velocidade da luz e o tempo em um único fenômeno,
-desenvolve uma translação real entre os referenciais.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2203] **viXra:1609.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 02:15:43*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment is a strong and compelling evidence for emission theory of light. Emission theory, unlike ether theory, can also explain Bradley stellar aberration easily. There is also the less known Bryan G Wallace analysis of Venus planet radar range data anomaly, which could be explained only by emission theory. The emission theory was abandoned because : 1) it was not compatible with Maxwell's electrodynamics: it predicted frozen light for a light source moving with velocity of light away from an observer 2) moving source experiments showed that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. The first of these problems is solved by a new interpretation of Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light ' ): constant phase velocity and variable group velocity of light. For an observer moving away from a light source at the speed of light, the phases will still move at the speed of light relative to the observer, but the group will be 'frozen'. This interpretation requires that Doppler effect depend only on source observer relative velocity, demanding a new symmetrical law for Doppler effect of light. This is the Exponential Law of Doppler effect of light proposed in this paper, which can easily explain the Ives-Stilwell experiments. The second problem is resolved by a new hypothesis that the effect of absolute motion of a light source is to change the speed of light relative to the source so that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. Ether theory and emission theory are seamlessly united into a new theory. This is also in line with light having both wave and particle properties. The ether doesn't exist. The conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment was fundamentally flawed in that they considered light as ordinary material waves . A new interpretation of absolute motion is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2202] **viXra:1609.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 12:58:51*

**Authors:** Peter Hlavačka

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Unified gravito-kinematics theory unifies gravity and kinematics on deeper level as current theories. It is generally compatible with equotations of General relativity, but it extends it and introduces different explanations to selected underlying principles on which is General relativity based. Unified gravito-kinematics theory explains or solves following open problems: primary cause and underlying mechanism of inertia, explanation of speed of light as speed limit, primary cause and underlying mechanism of relativity (Lorentz transformations), explanation of creation of rings of planets explanation of increasing speed of expansion of universe (dark energy), explanation of galaxy rotation problem, solving of some singularities in relativity theory and solution for compatibility of relativity theory with quantum mechanics, which will open door to merge of quantum mechanics and what is now relativity theory. What is most important, Unified gravito-kinematics theory makes very specific predictions, which can be tested by experiments and by astronomic observations. This paper includes one proposed rotation experiment and explanation of creation of rings around planets and smaller objects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2201] **viXra:1609.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 09:19:29*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Clifford Chafin, Domenico De Falco

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The vacuum catastrophe refers to the discrepancy between the predicted and detected values of repulsive vacuum energy. To tackle the issue, we start from a model of inflation in a time-symmetric quantistic vacuum, which, due to the Mandelstamm-Tamm inequality, leads to a trapping of a part of the original vacuum during the formation of our closed Universe. We show how the energy of our cosmos is stored in two different compartments, the microscopic quantistic vacuum and the macroscopic detectable cosmos. If we take into account, at the time of the Big Bang, the occurrence of time symmetry breaking into our Universe, we achieve a macroscopic energetic system governed by the second law of thermodynamics, where time acts like a continuous gauge field able to progressively increase the entropy. Our framework makes it possible to assess, among other issues, the vacuum catastrophe, to calculate the minimum three-dimensional volume of the pre-Big Bang vacuum and to make previsions for the future evolution of the two energetic compartments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2200] **viXra:1609.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 16:41:04*

**Authors:** Mutasim A. Ahmed

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The first attempt to construct a gravitational theory similar to Maxwell,s electromagnetic theory was done by the English physicist Oliver Heaviside, then it was improved by the German physicist Hermann Minkowski , and given the name Lorentz Invariant Theory of Gravity or LITG for short, so from the name it's Lorentz transformation's invariant in conformity with the special theory of relativity, again it was further improved and generalized by the Russian mathematician Sergey Fedosin to be known as the co-variant theory of gravitation, the co-variant theory will reduce to LITG at low velocities and week gravitational fields, therefore for our work we need only use the LITG theory as a special case of the co-variant theory, and we will use the similarity between electromagnetism and gravitomagnetism to drive laws.
To explain flyby effect we argue that the individual photons of the telemetry signal emitted from the free-falling spacecraft being themselves a source of gravitomagnetic field, interact with the field generated by the relatively moving Earth, because the spacecraft is in free-fall state an observer on-board it can claim to be at absolute rest according to the equivalence principle, therefore an observer and in this case the telemetry photons can assume being emitted from the spacecraft which is at rest towards the Earth which is now moving towards them with the same velocity of the spacecraft, the gravitomagnetic force in this case will be attractive, and due to the highly symmetric trajectory of the spacecraft an equivalent force of repulsion will be experienced by telemetry photons during the departure of the spacecraft, because in this case the photons and the Earth will be moving in the same direction, the force of attraction will manifest in the form of a blue-shift and that of the repulsion will manifest as a red-shift, so if we measure the effect equally during the inbound and the outbound, the two effects will add to zero, the effect is highly dependent on the way we observe it, that is why the effect is minimum when the trajectory is symmetrical about the equator, because the DSN antennae are distributed near the equator, hence the blue-shift and the red-shift cancel out.
As for the gravity probe-b case, we argue that, one of the most important results of the theory of relativity, is that there is no absolute frame of reference, we have to ask a particular observer about the results of his observations within his frame, we are not allowed to dictate or force our own conceptions on him, this condition wasn't fulfilled in the case of gravity probe-b theoretical framework, the researchers assumed that the spacecraft is revolving around Earth along with the four perfectly manufactured gyroscopes, from our point of view as observers on Earth this is true but for an observer on-board the spacecraft the situation is totally different, in this case the spinning gyroscopes are in free fall state which is according to the equivalence principle is a privileged inertial frame of reference, where Newton's first law of motion is perfectly operational, therefore anyone of the four gyroscopes have the full right to claim the state of absolute rest while the Earth is revolving around them with the same period by which the spacecraft is revolving around Earth as judged by us on Earth, also the gyroscopes as observers they claim that the Earth is spinning around an axis perpendicular to its own axis of rotation, with the same period of about 97.5 minutes of the spacecraft, using this reasoning and applying the approximate version of the co-variant theory of gravitation namely LITG, we obtained a gravitomagnetic effect nearly 100 times as large as that expected by the researchers, as we will show.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2199] **viXra:1609.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 20:56:16*

**Authors:** Kapil Chandra

**Comments:** 4 Pages. prepared for Reseach proposal for Doctoral studies

The cosmological problem has been a long standing unsolved problem of physics. In this manuscript, we propose a new hypothesis to solve it and we reported that the theoretically calculated value is in good agreement with its current observed value. We also derived a new mathematical expression of gravity which is inverse of classical Newton gravity, our hypothesis suggests; the inversion of gravity is responsible for cosmic acceleration. It has been also explained, why the gravity is too weak force of nature. We reported here, there is a close link between the weak gravity and cosmological constant problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2198] **viXra:1609.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 11:38:11*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Escape velocity for black holes depends on the region we are at. When we are on the Schwarzschild’s sphere, it’s equal to the velocity of light and when we are inside the Schwarzschild’s sphere, it exceeds the velocity of light. On the other hand, tidal forces act on the object and turn it apart into pieces. Based on angular momentum conservation, as the pieces of object go inside the Schwarzschild’s radius, because their distance with singularity decreases, their velocity increases in order to make a balance and the angular momentum stay constant.
The Schwarzschild’s solution for schwarzschild’s sphere and inside, will show what happens to the space-time; in the Schwarzschild’s sphere, the space would be undefined and the time warps, but inside the sphere, "r" and “t” change their place in equation and because of "θ" and "φ" object’s geodesic will bend and object swirl around the singularity but "r" behaves like time and "t" behaves like space. Needless to say, g_μυ will be different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2197] **viXra:1609.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 09:36:48*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Based on the Mach’s principle, black holes warp the space time in a way that geodesic for every object which is moving toward black hole start to bend and object starts to rotate around the black hole. Even light cannot be able to escape from the strong gravitational field of black hole. Before arriving to the Schwarzschild’s Sphere, object faces with length extension because of the difference between amount of tidal forces on the nearest and furthest points of object that take the object apart and after passing the Schwarzschild’s sphere, based on the Special relativity of Einstein, the parts of object face with length contraction.
At the Ergo sphere Region of black hole, a particle that gets into it will divide into 2 pieces, one of them falls into the black hole and another gets out of the Schwarzschild sphere very fast and it’s called the black hole radiation.
According to the Diagram drawn by R. Rafini and J. Weeler, an object gets out of white hole in past space-time, it can be able to send signals to us and we can receive it but black hole which is located in future space-time, after object enters to the Schwarzschild’s Sphere, the signals it sends won’t be received.
In order to reach the third space-time which is like a mirror to our universe, our speed needs to exceed the speed of light to pass the Einstein-Rosen Bridge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2196] **viXra:1609.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 07:07:24*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper the Lorentz Transformation (LT) is shown to be merely a set of equations applicable under the conditions reflecting the theorized principle of the speed of light invariance implemented in the direction of relative motion. It is revealed the LT is limited to events with coordinates satisfying the light speed space-time relation (i.e., x = ct). Einstein’s prediction of time dilation and length contraction is based on applying the LT equations to restricted coordinates. It is shown that such LT applications lead to mathematical contradictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2195] **viXra:1609.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 09:08:57*

**Authors:** Royan Rosche

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

All matter and energy make use of the four forces in modern sciences as they are made up of the four forces which mean that ancient elemental unification is the exact same thing as unification of the four forces. This paper points out that human beings are “calculating” in order to actually see what reality is instead of “observing” it. The author is reveals the uncertainty principle can be bypassed when we know what we are looking at by connecting the above celestial bodies to the below quantum world. All reality is mental based, i.e. on imagination. The meaning of the four elements is explained for modern comprehension.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2194] **viXra:1609.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-21 04:43:32*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Saadeh et al recently reported in Phys. Rev. Lett.
that ''anisotropic expansion of the Universe is strongly disfavoured, with odds of 121,000:1 agains'', using CMB temperature and polarisation data from the WMAP and Planck satellites. However, it is impossible to determine anything about expansion of the Universe from the WMAP and Planck
datasets for a number of reasons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2193] **viXra:1609.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 08:04:15*

**Authors:** Tibor Endre Nagy

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the theory of general relativity, it is possible to calculate the size and age of the cosmos using a new Einsteinian gravitational field equation. The equation describing the radius of the universe contains the mass of the Earth, of which the mass under certain conditions is equivalent to the mass of the cosmos. Looking back in time at the point when the universe was the same size as the Earth as a black hole, the mass of the Earth would increase in parallel with the universe’s decreasing size, in the end resulting in the total mass of the cosmos (5.4976•1053kg). Under these conditions, the average main mass density of the present cosmos would be 5.9814•10-26kg∙m-3. Using the masses calculated on the basis of the equatorial and polar radius of the Earth, it is possible to determine the ‘inside mass of the horizon of the cosmos’ in a figure of 2.9075•1051kg, when the mass density of the universe is 3.1634•10-28kg∙m-3. Solving the newfound equation for g, given that the size of the universe equals to that of the Earth as black hole, it is also possible to determine the total gravity of the primordial universe, which is 9.0273•1029m∙s-2. Replacing these results with the original equation, it is possible to determine both the initial radius and mass of the cosmos in figures of 1.5334•10-32m and 6.4877•10-5 kg (both ≈948.8 times the Planck length and Planck mass), while the primordial density is 4.29•1090 kg∙m-3. Under the premise of the above information, the time when the universe may have been formed can be calculated (5.1151•10-41s).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2192] **viXra:1609.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 05:59:02*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This paper has the aim to study the relativistic behaviour of motions that happen in a gravitational field with respect to two reference frames that are in relative motion in the field. Let us consider the two main gravitational motions: the free fall of a body in a gravitational field of first type and the orbital motion in a gravitational field of second type. We will study different physical situations and we will distinguish situations in which the complete physical process happens inside a laboratory (Galilean reference frames) from situations in which physical process happens in open systems (Einsteinian reference frames).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2191] **viXra:1609.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 22:44:15*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

As No.1 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the same points of law of gravity (including improved law of gravity) and general relativity: they are all the effective theories of gravitational interaction, and can be used to solve the problems of advance of planetary perihelion and deflection of photon around the Sun; and the different points of them: general relativity can conform to general relativity principle while law of gravity cannot conform to this principle, and law of gravity can solve the constraint problems in gravitational field (such as a small ball rolls along the inclined plane) while general relativity cannot solve these problems. These two theories can also overcome their own weak points by learning from each other's strong points, and jointly present the new explanation that the advance of planetary perihelion is the combined result of two motions: the first elliptical motion decided by law of gravity creates the perihelion, and the second vortex motion creates the advance of perihelion in which the advance parameters can be decided by general relativity. The common defect of these two theories is that they cannot take into account the principle of conservation of energy, comparing with the result that applying the principle of conservation of energy to derive Newton's second law and law of gravity, the further topic is applying the principle of conservation of energy to derive the related formulae and equations of general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2190] **viXra:1609.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-18 16:30:10*

**Authors:** Pavel Voráček

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A trivially easy argument, which – in fact – follows from the General relativity theory, is used in order to point out an evident flaw in the commonly accepted interpretation of the Principle of equivalence in Einstein’s box. It is shown that the flaw by itself has no destructive impact on the Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2189] **viXra:1609.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-18 22:43:52*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 1 Page. This Comment was submitted to the editors of 'Astronomy and Astrophysics' on 18 September 2016, for publication in accordance with its Comment criteria.

It has recently been reported in the journal 'Astronomy and Astrophysics' that the active galactic nucleus of Markarian 1018 has likely changed optical type due to the effects of a supermassive black hole or a binary system consisting of two such black holes. It is however impossible for any type or form of black hole to be involved with Mrk 1018 because the mathematical theory of black holes violates the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2188] **viXra:1609.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 19:33:43*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This is an updated version of the paper.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2187] **viXra:1609.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 10:36:16*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is demonstrated in the present work that the standard integration of the proper time along a freefalling geodesic in Schwarzschild spacetime does not properly account for the coordinate curvature in the vicinity of the event horizon. It is shown that that the condition given by the metric, namely that the change in proper time of the freefalling observer per change of coordinate time goes to zero at the horizon can be maintained while still allowing for an infinite proper time to the horizon. With the aid of a transformation of the radial Schwarzschild coordinate and analysis of light signals, we find that observers at rest will see the freefalling observer slow exponentially as she approaches the horizon, while the freefaller will see rest observers slow asymptotically as she approaches the horizon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2186] **viXra:1609.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 00:26:53*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2185] **viXra:1609.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 03:40:42*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

In his 1905 paper on special relativity, Einstein derived the relativistic Doppler shift formula from the Lorentz transformation. The wave time-period equation deduced from the relativistic Doppler shift is shown to result, with the help of the Lorentz transformation, in another time equation in contradiction with the formerly mentioned one. The end result: the Lorentz contraction factor γ is reduced to unity; the whole theory of relativity is thus undermined. Furthermore, for the case of relative circular motion, a critical contradiction of the relativistic Doppler principle with the special relativity time dilation prediction is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2184] **viXra:1609.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 07:17:41*

**Authors:** Masamichi Sato

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Topological data analysis (TDA) is a current hot field in mathematical study of data science and this is based on topology.
On the other hand, information space can be described with differential geometry.
We investigate the critical phenomena of gravitational collapse with these tools, because the gravitational phenomena is described by Einstein's general relativity which is formulated on differential geometry.
After investigations, we give some comments on observation scales obtained from the results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2183] **viXra:1609.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 18:03:19*

**Authors:** Amine Benachour

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We confirm the self-consistency of the Lorentz transformation by solving the mathematical problem encountered when one deal with some thought experiments involving simultaneous events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2182] **viXra:1609.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 15:01:57*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez Saldarriaga

**Comments:** 52 Pages. Español

Se trata de mostrar algunos aspectos en el desarrollo histórico de las relatividades
que traten de quebrar la ilusoria imagen de teorías
completas e infalibles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2181] **viXra:1609.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 12:01:47*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The expansion of the space. and The density of dark energy.
The space continues expanding.
The density of dark energy should become light.
The fixed number of the gravity equation shows a value of the dark energy.
The fixed number of the gravity equation is a constant value. I do not change.
By hypotheses of the elementary particle pulsation principle, I always set fixed number Λ with zero.
I set a density of dark energy level with a vacuum of energy zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2180] **viXra:1609.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-11 17:07:58*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Haug 2016 has recently shown there is a speed limit for fundamental particles just below the speed of light. This speed limit means that the mass of a fundamental particle not will go towards infinity as v approaches c in the Einstein relativistic mass equation. The relativistic mass limit for a fundamental particle is the Planck mass. In this paper we use the same velocity limit in the Lorentz transformation. This leads to what we think could be significant results that we will discuss in more detail later on. This time we only present the derivations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2179] **viXra:1609.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 14:26:23*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

In the "General Theory of Relativity" power formula force. The decomposition of this force into components, interaction of the electric and magnetic forces. If a closer look at the possible expansion of this force, we can find the force that gives the accelerated expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2178] **viXra:1609.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 07:02:09*

**Authors:** IElkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

In the "General Theory of Relativity" power formula force. The decomposition of this force into components, interaction of the electric and magnetic forces. If a closer look at the possible expansion of this force, we can find the force that gives the accelerated expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2177] **viXra:1609.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 09:54:41*

**Authors:** Royan Rosche

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Nature is one single thing made out of one single element and one single force. Elements are not moved by themselves but by energy. All life is made out of the combined elements forming a single elemental system matching the primordial one substance of the Universe. Our Universe is made out of the elements as well, meaning it is also a living being. There is only one thing in existence, that one thing is life, this opens up wisdom to us of the past, present, and future. The living Universe is both chaos and order at the same time. DNA is revealed to have the exact same properties as observation reality from earth formed as a standing wave composed of one part heat and one part sound.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2176] **viXra:1609.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 10:02:37*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that the large-scale application of the Newtonian approximation and general relativity leads to certain value for the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2175] **viXra:1609.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-07 12:31:10*

**Authors:** Alexander P.Sobolev

**Comments:** 36 Pages. 1 - 18 english, 19 - 36 russian

The article presents some results of a nonsingular theory of gravity (hereinafter - NTG) based on the axiomatics which differs somewhat from the axioms of the general theory of relativity (GR) and free from the internal problems inherent to GR. Nonsingular space kinematics is constructed on this basis. It is proved that from the condition of energy positivity follows: global isotropy of homogeneous space, existence of a change of the acceleration - deceleration eras and negative value of the scalar curvature of space. Nonsingular basic phenomenological model of evolution of the Universe is constructed, described by the smooth one-parametrical dependence from the moment of the beginning of evolution to an arbitrary point of time, coordinated with the observational astronomical data but without an involvement of the hypotheses of the existence of a dark energy, dark matter and inflatons. The particle-like solution of the NTG equations for the static isotropy metric is found. The behavior of the solution in the region of weak fields is specified on the basis of correspondence principle with GR. It is shown that in the certain region of space the distributions of fields can exist, for which the equality of inertial (defined according to Mach’s principle) and gravitational mass is satisfied. The horizon characteristic for the solutions of GR equations in the isotropic case is absent in NTG.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2174] **viXra:1609.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 18:15:37*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In 1905, Einstein presented his famous relativistic mass energy equation mc^2/Sqrt(1-v^2/c^2). When v approaches c, the expression containing the moving mass approaches infinity. Einstein interpreted this in the following way: since one needs an infinite amount of energy to accelerate even a small mass to the speed of light, it would appear that no mass can ever reach the speed of light. In this paper, we present a new solution to the infinite mass challenge based on combining special relativity with insights from Max Planck and maximum frequency. By doing this we show that there is an exact limit on the speed v in the Einstein formula. This limit is only dependent on the Planck length and the reduced Compton wavelength of the mass in question.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2173] **viXra:1609.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 22:58:10*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 16 Pages. in Polish

W artykule wykazaliśmy, że istnieje cała klasa teorii z eterem, które prawidłowo wyjaśniają eksperymenty, w których mierzono prędkość światła.
Przedstawiliśmy założenia Szczególnej Teorii Eteru z dowolnym skróceniem poprzecznym oraz wyprowadziliśmy ogólną postać transformacji eter-układ inercjalny. Następnie wyznaczyliśmy prędkość światła w próżni dla ruchomego obserwatora oraz pokazaliśmy trzy konkretne przykłady transformacji eter-układ inercjalny.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2172] **viXra:1609.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 15:29:04*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The validity of the logical relations between the basic propositions of modern cosmology is examined and the source of the cosmological constant problem is determined and a proposed solution is given.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2171] **viXra:1609.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 07:47:18*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Кому понравилось, могут пожертвовать некоторую сумму денег на WM: R335877695266 или Z300715849159

Einstein's general relativity gives excellent results of calculations, which are based on the principle of least action. But the principle is not in a position to make the move in a certain path, it can only make the interaction, the disclosure of which is derived from this principle. In other words, there are some well-known interaction. It is, according to formulas derived from the principle of least action, acts on a material object. Therefore, a material object and makes movement, according to the principle of least action. About this and made to explain the inertia of bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2170] **viXra:1609.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 05:09:34*

**Authors:** Kumar Deepayan Turja

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Special Relativity leads us to draw conclusion on mass-energy conversion but does not tell about the governing limits occupied with the process. This paper has developed a probabilistic approach to show the proper limit of mass-energy conversion in an inertial frame of reference. Here we will see that mass or energy can never be converted fully into each other by itself. An indirect proof & restatement of the 2nd law of thermodynamics has been given from the view-point of special relativity and the conclusion derived from the method. At the end an alternative explanation of radioactive decay & fate of the universe has been discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1410] **viXra:1611.0406 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-03 09:23:52*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Version 2 in English.

This article presents the vector Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1409] **viXra:1611.0344 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-28 01:36:40*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) is a new interpretation of absolute motion already proposed by this author. AST easily explains many light speed experiments, including the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. AST has also been extended to electrostatics, revealing a mysterious nature of electrostatic fields. After I completed developing the major part of AST, I came across an idea that, if two oppositely charged spheres are fixed to the two ends of a rigid rod , and the system is in absolute motion, according to AST, the charge-rod system will be subjected to a net electrostatic force and hence accelerate, implying free energy and reactionless thrust ! Obviously such a possibility would be very exciting, if it really existed. But I was also disappointed because, if free energy doesn’t really exist, this would imply that my theory (AST ) is wrong. I had never heard of such an effect before. Later I found in the internet that such an effect in fact exists and is known as the Biefeld-Brown effect and with unknown origin. Although AST neatly predicts this effect and can be a very compelling explanation, I feel that it still needs to be developed . The purpose of this paper is to invite and inspire theoretical and experimental researchers to work on this exciting technology. Exciting possibilities have been presented for this purpose. For example, according to AST, it is possible to produce by a small free energy device, made by stacking large number of capacitors, a net force that can lift an object as massive as an aircraft carrier. It is shown that the net force on the capacitor is directly proportional to the square of the applied voltage, inversely proportional to the square of plate separation distance, directly proportional to the area of the capacitor plates, directly proportional to the relative permittivity of the dielectric material, and directly proportional to absolute velocity for absolute velocities much less than the speed of light. That the net force is directly proportional to the square of the electric field strength implies that dielectric materials with the highest dielectric strength are vital to the realization of free energy devices. Diamond is the most promising material for this, with dielectric strength of 2000 MV/m.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1408] **viXra:1611.0310 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-25 14:43:38*

**Authors:** David F. Crawford

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Replacement to correct two references (Crawford 2009a & Crawford 2009b)

It is shown that the light curve widths of type Ia supernovae do not have time dilation and that their magnitudes are consistent with a static universe. The standard analysis for type Ia supernovae uses a set of templates to overcome the intrinsic variation of the supernova light curves with wavelength. The reference light curves derived from this set of templates contain an anomaly in that at short wavelengths the width of the light curve is proportional to the emitted wavelength. Furthermore this anomaly is exactly what would be produced if supernovae at different redshifts did not have time dilation and yet time dilation corrections were applied. It is the specific nature of this anomaly that is evidence for a static universe. The lack of time dilation is confirmed by direct analysis of the original observations. It is also found that the peak flux density of the light curves in the reference templates had a strong dependence on wavelength that could be due to the use of an incorrect distance modulus. This dependence is investigated by computing the peak absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae observations from the original observations using a static cosmological model. The results support the hypothesis of a static universe. It is also argued that the photometric redshift relation and spectroscopic ages are consistent with a static universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1407] **viXra:1611.0286 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-21 06:29:30*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Discussing for the origin of fine-structure of the Universe’s space and the Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1406] **viXra:1611.0286 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-21 03:08:43*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Discussing for the origin of fine-structure of the Universe’s space and the Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1405] **viXra:1611.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-30 02:18:17*

**Authors:** [Alik] Vitali Perakh

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Added more demonstrations of the simplification of the math via GMT

The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative, strictly geometric, interpretation for the observed phenomenon of time. This Geometric Model of Time (GMT) is consistent with both Theories of Relativity but goes beyond cur- rent explanations for the nature of and the apparent one-directness of time - the so-called Arrow of Time. Key elements of the model are: 1. Our physical space (not space-time) is 4-dimensional. No separate time dimension exists either physically or as any necessary mathematical distinction. All dimensions are identical and symmetric. No one dimension can be singled out to be universally labeled as time. 2. All physical objects in our universe are endowed with an axiomatic vectorial property we call velocity. The scalar value of this property (speed) is invariable and identical for all objects and is labeled as c (speed of light). 3. The experience of time as we know it is an illusion resulting from the observer's motion through space at c. "Time" is the term given by each observer to their own individual direction of travel in our physical four-space. This model is a better fit with observed phenomenon than current ones as well as being simpler and more elegant, elegance being defined as having symmetry (in the sense that it treats no dimension as being singular).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1404] **viXra:1611.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-29 02:52:34*

**Authors:** [Alik] Vitali Perakh

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative, strictly geometric, interpretation for the observed phenomenon of time. This Geometric Model
of Time (GMT) is consistent with both Theories of Relativity but goes beyond cur-
rent explanations for the nature of and the apparent one-directness of time - the
so-called Arrow of Time.
Key elements of the model are:
1. Our physical space (not space-time) is 4-dimensional.
No separate time dimension exists either physically or as any necessary mathematical distinction. All dimensions are identical and symmetric. No one
dimension can be singled out to be universally labeled as time.
2. All physical objects in our universe are endowed with an axiomatic vectorial
property we call velocity. The scalar value of this property (speed) is invariable
and identical for all objects and is labeled as c (speed of light).
3. The experience of time as we know it is an illusion resulting from the observer's
motion through space at c. "Time" is the term given by each observer to their
own individual direction of travel in our physical four-space.
This model is a better fit with observed phenomenon than current ones as well as
being simpler and more elegant, elegance being defined as having symmetry (in the
sense that it treats no dimension as being singular).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1403] **viXra:1611.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-17 02:19:08*

**Authors:** [Alik] Vitali Perakh

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative, strictly geometric, interpretation for the observed phenomenon of time. This Geometric Model
of Time (GMT) is consistent with both Theories of Relativity but goes beyond cur-
rent explanations for the nature of and the apparent one-directness of time - the
so-called Arrow of Time.
Key elements of the model are:
1. Our physical space (not space-time) is 4-dimensional.
No separate time dimension exists either physically or as any necessary
mathematical distinction. All dimensions are identical and symmetric. No one
dimension can be singled out to be universally labeled as time.
2. All physical objects in our universe are endowed with an axiomatic vectorial
property we call velocity. The scalar value of this property (speed) is invariable
and identical for all objects and is labeled as c (speed of light).
3. The experience of time as we know it is an illusion resulting from the observer's
motion through space at c. "Time" is the term given by each observer to their
own individual direction of travel in our physical four-space.
This model is a better fit with observed phenomenon than current ones as well as
being simpler and more elegant, elegance being defined as having symmetry (in the
sense that it treats no dimension as being singular).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1402] **viXra:1611.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-15 18:11:29*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Minor changes in v2

In Riemannian geometry there is a unique combination of the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor, Ricci tensor and Ricci scalar that defines a fourth-order Lagrangian for conformal gravity theory. This Lagrangian can be greatly simplified by eliminating the curvature tensor term, leaving a unique combination of just the Ricci tensor and scalar. The resulting formalism and the associated equations of motion provide a tantalizing alternative to Einstein-Hilbert gravity that may have application to the problems of dark matter and dark energy without the imposition of the cosmological constant or extraneous scalar, vector and spinor terms typically employed in attempts to generalize the Einstein-Hilbert formalism.
Gauss-Bonnet gravity specifies that the full Lagrangian hides an ordinary divergence (or surface term) that can be used to eliminate the curvature tensor term. In this paper we show that the overall formalism, outside of surface terms necessary for integration by parts, does not involve any such divergence. Instead, it is the Bianchi identities that are hidden in the formalism, and it is this fact that allows for the simplification of the conformal Lagrangian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1401] **viXra:1611.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-13 13:14:41*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., (2016), ‘On Sinusoidal Time Variation of the Newtonian Gravitational Constant’, PSTJ, Mar. 10, Vol. 7(3) Article 18, pp.650− 659. (ISBN: 1530633834 ; EAN13: 9781530633838)

In a recent publication [J. D. Anderson at al. (2015)', Europhys. Lett. 110, 10002] presented a strong correlation between the measured values of the Newtonian gravitational constant G and the 5.9 year oscillation of the length of day. Following this publication of Anderson at al. (2015)'s publication, S. Schlamminger at al. [Phys. Rev. D 91, 121101(R)] compiled a more complete set of published measurements of G made in the last 35 years where they performed a least-squares regression to a sinusoid with period 5.9 years and found this fit to still yields a reasonable fit to these data thus somewhat putting credence to this claim of Anderson at al. (2015). However, it is yet to be established as to whether or not this signal is gravitational in origin. In this brief communication, we point-out that -- in principle -- this sinusoidal signal has a place in the gravitomagnetic model that we currently working on.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1400] **viXra:1611.0189 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-13 13:10:57*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Published: Nyambuya, G. G. (2016), ‘A Prediction of Quantised Gravitational Deflection of Starlight’, PSTJ, Vol. 7(13), pp.1827 − 1833. (ISSN: 2153-8301)

In an earlier reading, it is argued that the pivotal, all-important, critical, crucial and supposedly watershed factor " 2 " emerging from Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GTR) and used in Solar eclipse measurements by Sir Arthur S. Eddington as the clearest indicator yet that Einstein's GTR is indeed a superior theory to Newton's theory of gravitation may not be adequate as an arbiter to decide the fate of Newtonian gravitational theory. In the present reading, using ideas from research that we have carried out over the years – research whose endeavour is to obtain a General Spin Dirac Equation in Curved Spacetime (GS-Dirac Equation); we present yet another " surprising " result, namely that – if the ideas leading to the GS-Dirac Equation and as-well those presented in the reading rendering the factor " 2 " as being inadequate as an arbiter to decide the fate of Newtonian gravitational theory, then, the gravitational deflection of a photon may very well depend on its spin in such a manner that if photons of different spins where to be observed undergoing gravitational deflection by a massive object such as the Sun, the resulting deflection may very well be seen exhibiting distinct deflection quantization as a result of the quantized spins.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1399] **viXra:1611.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-13 12:03:36*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We can propose two models as an example for Zero Energy Universe Model. In this paper, we research that the total energy of the universe is zero, matters have a positive energy, and only gravitational potential energy is considered as a negative energy to offset this positive energy. In this model, to establish energy conservation law while the universe is expanding, energy needs to be increased, which increases R_gs or R_B of the universe. If a newly appeared energy has antigravity or negative pressure characteristics, it can be used as the model that can account for dark energy. There exists a zone that has a uniform energy density within R_gs due to the presence of gravitational potential energy with negative values. Base on this, I estimated the current size of the universe. And the model that I propose can solve some problems that the model “the universe is a black hole” had.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1398] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-07 08:37:28*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 20 Pages. One reference added and text expanded.

The idea of hyperimaginary numbers is suggested as the first step toward the mathematical basis of res potentia (Plato), presented in the right-hand side of the evolution equation |w|2 = |m|2 + |mi|2. The real and imaginary (tachyonic) components in the right-hand side are always balanced, leading to |w|2 = 0 - the physicalized world is made of positive mass-energy only, |m|2, which is always balanced (not "conserved") by equal amount of |mi|2, once-at-a-time, ever since The Beginning (John 1:1). God is interpreted as mathematical (hyperimaginary) object residing "inside" the 4D instant here-and-now (Luke 17:21), and conceptual solutions to fundamental problems in point-set topology, set theory, and number theory are briefly described.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1397] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-28 11:08:01*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Final version.

The idea of hyperimaginary numbers is suggested as the first step toward the mathematical basis of res potentia (Plato), presented in the right-hand side of the evolution equation |w|2 = |m|2 + |mi|2. The real and imaginary (tachyonic) components in the right-hand side are always balanced, leading to |w|2 = 0 - the physicalized world is made of positive mass-energy only, |m|2, which is always balanced (not "conserved") by equal amount of |mi|2, once-at-a-time, ever since The Beginning (John 1:1). God is interpreted as mathematical (hyperimaginary) object residing "inside" the 4D instant here-and-now (Luke 17:21), and conceptual solutions to fundamental problems in point-set topology, set theory, and number theory are briefly described.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1396] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-27 10:05:29*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Two references added and typos corrected.

The idea of hyperimaginary numbers is suggested as the first step toward the mathematical basis of res potentia (Plato), presented in the right-hand side of the evolution equation |w|2 = |m|2 + |mi|2. The real and imaginary (tachyonic) components in the right-hand side are always balanced, leading to |w|2 = 0 - the physicalized world is made of positive mass-energy only, |m|2, which is always balanced (not "conserved") by equal amount of |mi|2, once-at-a-time, ever since The Beginning (John 1:1). God is interpreted as mathematical (hyperimaginary) object residing "inside" the 4D instant here-and-now (Luke 17:21), and conceptual solutions to fundamental problems in point-set topology, set theory, and number theory are briefly described.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1395] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-24 05:58:10*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Comments and suggestions will be appreciated.

The idea of hyperimaginary numbers is suggested as the first step toward the mathematical basis of res potentia (Plato), presented in the right-hand side of the evolution equation |w|2 = |m|2 + |mi|2. The real and imaginary (tachyonic) components in the right-hand side are always balanced, leading to |w|2 = 0 - the physicalized world is made of positive mass-energy only, |m|2, which is always balanced (not "conserved") by equal amount of |mi|2, once-at-a-time, ever since The Beginning (John 1:1). God is interpreted as mathematical (hyperimaginary) object residing "inside" the 4D instant here-and-now (Luke 17:21), and conceptual solutions to fundamental problems in point-set topology, set theory, and number theory are briefly outlined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1394] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-21 05:14:18*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Comments and suggestions will be appreciated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1393] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-19 05:08:38*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. References added and text expanded

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1392] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-11 04:19:37*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Three references added, typos corrected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1391] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-07 19:16:22*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Two references added, text expanded

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1390] **viXra:1611.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-06 21:02:15*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 1 Page. Submitted to the editors of Nature on 4 Nov. 2016 for the purpose of publication.

Irwin et al recently reported on ultraluminous X-ray bursts in two ultracompact companions to nearby elliptical galaxies NGC 4697 and NGC 5128 (sources 1 and 2 respectively). Although they discuss a number of possibilities, they favour neutron stars and black holes as the likely sources: "the sources appear to be normal accreting neutron-star or black-hole X-ray binaries". However, there is no possibility for black holes to be associated with these X-ray sources because the mathematical theory of black holes contains a latent violation of the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1389] **viXra:1610.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-22 05:28:15*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the cited paper author (R.K.) “proves” invalidity of the special relativity using invalid transformation formula(s) for the electromagnetic wave period (and the wavelength). This phenomenon is common in anti-relativistic texts: arguments against the special theory of relativity authors base on misunderstandings (misconceptions) of the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1388] **viXra:1610.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-19 12:41:50*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 40 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. PUBLISHED BY: ...

Einstein used the term ‘unified field theory’ in a title of a publication for the first time in 1925. Somewhat paradoxically, an adequate historical, physical and philosophical understanding of the dimension of Einstein’s unification program cannot be understood without fully acknowledging one of Einstein’s philosophical principles. Despite many disappointments, without finding a solution besides of the many different approaches along the unified field theory program and in ever increasing scientific isolation, Einstein insisted on the unity of objective reality as the foundation of the unity of science. Einstein’s engagement along his unification program was burdened with a number of difficulties and lastly in vain. Nevertheless, a successful geometrization of the gravita-tional and the electromagnetic fields within the framework of the general theory of relativity is possible. Thus far, it is a purpose of the present contribution to geometrize the electromagnetic field within the framework of the general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1387] **viXra:1610.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-13 09:47:11*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Remplace

In the standard model of cosmology, λCDM, were introduced to explain the anomalies of the orbital
velocities of galaxies in clusters highest according estimated by General Relativity the dark matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe the dark energy. The model λCDM is based in the equations of the General Relativity that of the total mass-energy of the universe assigns 4.9% to matter (including only baryonic matter), 26.8%, to dark matter and 68.3% to dark energy adjusted according observed in Planck mission, therefore, excluding bosonic matter (quantum vacuum). However, the composition of dark matter
and dark energy are unknown. Due to that it lacks of a correct physical theory of gravity since General Relativity is only their powerful equations, which in their applications, their results are interpreted arbitrarily. Properties as curvature, viscous fluid, dragging frame and gravity action are attributed mistakenly to the
spacetime by the materialist substantivalism, the most credible philosophical interpretation that
complements the General Relativity, caused by its absence of physical definition of spacetime and static gravitational field as immaterial, but which violates, the conception of gravity as an effect of coordinates of the generalization of the inertial motion to the accelerated motion and, in particular, the description of the
metric tensor of gravity as a geometric field. These properties are really of the quantum vacuum, the main existence form of the matter. In this paper we propose that the quantum vacuum is the source of dark matter and dark energy, therefore, the components of the quantum vacuum are of them. Both are opposite effects of the quantum vacuum that when gravitationally interacts with the cosmic structures, the vacuum it curves and when such interaction tends to cease by declination of the formation of these structures, occurring since near five milliard of years ago, vacuum it maintains quasi plane, since it interacts gravitationally very weakly with itself, accelerating expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1386] **viXra:1610.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-10 17:58:58*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. none

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions, which are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions, are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using simple photon clocks. This approach avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1385] **viXra:1610.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-10 11:24:52*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: shows a viewpoint about the structure and composition of cosmic ontology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1384] **viXra:1610.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-09 08:16:10*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: shows a viewpoint about the structure and composition of cosmic ontology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1383] **viXra:1610.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-09 00:52:21*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: giving a viewpoint about the structure and composition of cosmic ontology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1382] **viXra:1609.0395 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-29 03:42:57*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Understanding Today's Science with Help from Special Relativity and General Relativity. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3863556.v2 Retrieved: 08 20, Sep 29, 2016 (GMT)

This article began to take shape in my mind when I read an item in Astronomy magazine. That item mentioned how timing by GPS (the Global Positioning System) requires input from both Special Relativity - where time slows down fractionally because the satellites in orbit are fast-moving – and General Relativity, where the satellites' distance from Earth's gravity causes their time to speed up fractionally. This led to the conclusions that 1) the gravitational waves making up the gravity field are, as Einstein suggested in a paper written four years after publication of the general theory, involved in production of mass, 2) these waves participate with the other long-range force, electromagnetism, to also produce the two nuclear forces associated with the mass (making nuclear forces non-fundamental and the Higgs force another name for gravitational-electromagnetic coupling), 3) black holes are composed of gravitational and electromagnetic waves focused on them from deep space, and this accounts for their extreme gravity as well as extreme mass, 4) there's a link between the macroscopic black holes of astronomy and the subatomic gluons of particle physics, and 5) Einstein's contributions don't end with the two Relativities, or even the paper written 4 years after the general theory, but can be extended to his Unified Field Theory.
His Unified Field might not be generally accepted today because it was incomplete, just as he described quantum mechanics as incomplete. In 1957, Charles Misner and John Wheeler, in the “Annals of Physics”, claimed Albert Einstein’s latest equations demonstrated the unified field theory. However, the necessary completion of the unified field may not exclusively lie with the mathematics Einstein seemed to increasingly rely on as he aged but with concepts in computer science as well as intuitions in the mathematical branch called topology. Computer science's binary digits (bits) result from apparently random Virtual Particles that conceal Chaos theory's "order within disorder". These bits are encoded in programs taking the form of topology's Mobius strips, and these combine into four-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles that make particles sensible (bottles affect every sense and scientific probe because the pulses forming them also form the complete properties of the Gravitational-ElectroMagnetic Field). The bottles also explain space-time's positive and negative curvatures, as well as the flatness of infinity/eternity. Einstein was a Superman at exploring new ideas in his youth. Had electronic computers been invented 30 or 40 years earlier, it appears likely we’d be living with the fruits of the unified field now.
PS
This article also mentions Hawking radiation, spin, superconductivity, imaginary time, complex number plane, quark-gluon plasma, antigraviton, shape of space, tachyons, dark energy, dark matter, antimatter, etc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1381] **viXra:1609.0392 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-05 09:27:32*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: put forward a viewpoint regarding to the origin of our universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1380] **viXra:1609.0392 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-30 01:26:06*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: put forward a viewpoint regarding to the origin of our universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1379] **viXra:1609.0392 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-27 22:33:02*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: put forward a viewpoint of the origin of our universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1378] **viXra:1609.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-12 04:12:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment is a strong and compelling evidence for emission theory of light. Emission theory, unlike ether theory, can also explain Bradley stellar aberration. There is also the less known Bryan G Wallace analysis of Venus planet radar range data anomaly, which could be explained only by emission theory. The emission theory was abandoned because : 1) it was not compatible with Maxwell's electrodynamics: it predicted frozen light for a light source moving with velocity of light away from an observer 2) moving source experiments showed that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. Bradley observed no variation of the angle of aberration with different stars, demonstrating that the speed of light is independent of the velocity of the stars. The first of these problems is solved by a new interpretation of Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light ' ): constant phase velocity and variable group velocity of light. For an observer moving away from a light source at the speed of light, the phases will still move at the speed of light relative to the observer, but the group will be 'frozen'. This interpretation requires that Doppler effect depend only on source observer relative velocity, demanding a new symmetrical law for Doppler effect of light. This is the Exponential Law of Doppler effect of light proposed in this paper, which can easily explain the Ives-Stilwell experiments. The second problem is resolved by a new hypothesis that the effect of absolute motion of a light source is to change the speed of light relative to the source so that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. Ether theory and emission theory are seamlessly united into a new theory. This is also in line with light having both wave and particle properties. The ether doesn't exist, but absolute motion does. The conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment was fundamentally flawed in that they considered light as ordinary material waves . A new interpretation of absolute motion is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1377] **viXra:1609.0348 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-03 06:56:43*

**Authors:** Mutasim A. Ahmed

**Comments:** 10 Pages. email address: mutasim62@yahoo.com

To explain flyby effect we argue that, photons of the telemetry signal emitted from the free-falling spacecraft. Being themselves sources of gravitomagnetic field. Will interact with the field generated by the relatively moving Earth. An observer on-board the spacecraft can claim to be at absolute rest, according to the equivalence principle. Therefore an observer and in this case the telemetry photons, can assume being emitted from the spacecraft which is at rest, towards the Earth which is now moving towards photons with the same velocity of the spacecraft. The gravitomagnetic force in this case will be attractive. And due to the highly symmetrical trajectory of the spacecraft, an equivalent repulsive force will be experienced by telemetry photons during the departure of the spacecraft. In this case photons and Earth will be moving in the same direction. The force of attraction will manifest in the form of a blue-shift, and that of repulsion will manifest as a red-shift. So if we measure the effect equally during the inbound and the outbound, the two effects will add to zero. The effect is highly dependent on the way we observe it, as we will show.
As for the gravity probe-b case, we insisted that the equivalence principle must be fully applied. Therefore an observer in a free falling frame, have the right to claim being at rest, while the rest of the Universe will be moving with his same velocity, in the opposite direction. So from the point of view of the rotating gyroscope, Earth will be orbiting the gyroscope. We usually call this an “apparent revolution”. But for the gyroscope this revolution can produce measurable effects. Using this reasoning we obtained a field which is nearly 100 times greater than the expected one.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1376] **viXra:1609.0348 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-22 13:58:50*

**Authors:** Mutasim A. Ahmed

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

To explain flyby effect we argue that. Photons of the telemetry signal. Emitted from the free-falling spacecraft. Being themselves sources of gravitomagnetic field. Will interact with the field generated by the relatively moving Earth. Because the spacecraft is in free-fall state. An observer on-board it can claim to be at absolute rest. According to the equivalence principle. Therefore an observer and in this case the telemetry photons, can assume being emitted from the spacecraft which is at rest. Towards Earth which is now moving towards them with the same velocity of the spacecraft. The gravitomagnetic force in this case will be attractive. And due to the highly symmetrical trajectory of the spacecraft. An equivalent repulsive force will be experienced by telemetry photons during the departure of the spacecraft. Because in this case photons and Earth will be moving in the same direction. The force of attraction will manifest in the form of a blue-shift. And that of the repulsion will manifest as a red-shift. So if we measure the effect equally during the inbound and the outbound, the two effects will add to zero. The effect is highly dependent on the way we observe it. As we will show.
As for the gravity probe-b case. We thought the equivalence principle must be fully applied. Therefore an observer in a free falling frame. Have the right to claim being at rest. While the rest of the Universe will be moving with his same velocity, in the opposite direction. So from the point of view of the rotating gyroscope, Earth will be orbiting the gyroscope. We usually call this an “apparent revolution”. But for the gyroscope this revolution can produce measurable effects. Using this reasoning we obtained a field which is nearly 100 times greater than the expected one.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1375] **viXra:1609.0276 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-26 06:47:10*

**Authors:** Pavel Voráček

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A trivially easy argument, which – in fact – follows from the General relativity theory, is used in order to point out an evident flaw in the commonly accepted interpretation of the Principle of equivalence in Einstein’s box. It is shown that the flaw by itself has no destructive impact on the Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1374] **viXra:1609.0275 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-20 18:04:40*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple and clear explanation to the seemingly strange observed phenomenon of the ecliptic alignment of CMB anisotropy is presented. The proposed explanation is based on the wrongly excluded cosmological model of spherical space and radial time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1373] **viXra:1609.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-20 18:52:45*

**Authors:** Amine Benachour

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We confirm the self-consistency of the Lorentz transformation by solving the mathematical problem encountered when one deal with some thought experiments involving simultaneous events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1372] **viXra:1609.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-16 20:24:58*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In this version I have added a section on rapidity as well as relativity of simultaneity for sub-atomic particles

Haug [1, 2] has recently shown there is a speed limit for fundamental particles just below the speed of light. This speed limit means that the mass of a fundamental particle not will go towards infinity as v approaches c in the Einstein relativistic mass equation. The relativistic mass limit for a fundamental particle is the Planck mass. In this paper we use the same velocity limit in the Lorentz transformation. This leads to what we think could be significant results with some interesting interpretations. In addition we look at rapidity as well as relativity of simultaneity for subatomic particles at this maximum velocity for masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1371] **viXra:1609.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-06 10:50:17*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The updated version also gives a limit on the maximum relativistic Doppler shift

In 1905, Einstein presented his famous relativistic mass energy equation mc^2/Sqrt(1-{v^2/c^2). When v approaches c, the expression containing the moving mass approaches infinity. Einstein interpreted this in the following way: since one needs an infinite amount of energy to accelerate even a small mass to the speed of light, it would appear that no mass can ever reach the speed of light. In this paper, we present a new solution to the infinite mass challenge based on combining special relativity with insights from Max Planck and maximum frequency. By doing this we show that there is an exact limit on the speed v in Einstein's formula. This limit is only dependent on the Planck length and the reduced Compton wavelength of the mass in question. This also gives us a limit on the maximum relativistic Doppler shift that is derived and discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology