Relativity and Cosmology

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(20) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0710(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)
2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)
2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)
2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(10) - 1005(10) - 1006(12) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(10) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)
2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(13) - 1103(36) - 1104(10) - 1105(5) - 1106(12) - 1107(16) - 1108(5) - 1109(12) - 1110(19) - 1111(22) - 1112(16)
2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(23) - 1205(22) - 1206(14) - 1207(17) - 1208(31) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)
2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(30) - 1305(25) - 1306(28) - 1307(20) - 1308(28) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(23) - 1312(46)
2014 - 1401(36) - 1402(30) - 1403(33) - 1404(32) - 1405(39) - 1406(36) - 1407(46) - 1408(32) - 1409(27) - 1410(41) - 1411(28)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[1474] viXra:1411.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-27 08:37:26

The Perceived Image of Time: Unraveling The Special Relativity Misconceptions

Authors: Radwan M. Kassir
Comments: 53 pages - A simplified physical approach using basic concepts leading to the exposure of the Special Relativity misconceptions.

Applying basic classical physics concepts of time and space, while considering event information is ultimately communicated through light—or electromagnetic—signals, it was shown that proper time interval measured in an inertial reference frame (labeled as traveling “object frame”) between two co-local events occurring at the frame origin undergoes apparent alteration and perceived as a “time image” in another inertial frame (labeled as stationary “image frame”), when the two frames are in relative motion. The same “time image” was perceived by either frame due to the change of the light speed relative to the reference frames. Under certain conditions of events spatial coordinates, it was shown through obtained modified Galilean transformations that “apparent” length contraction and expansion were associated with “apparent” time dilation and contraction, respectively. In the case the Emission Theory of light was considered, symmetry in regard to the time and space alteration factors between the frames was shown (i.e., time and space in the traveling “object frame” were perceived in the stationary “image frame” altered by the same factors as for the case when the frame “labels” were swapped). The known classical Doppler Effect was readily derived from the established alteration factors. For all classical approaches, and in the case of light, the wave length was invariant. In the case the Special Relativity approach was considered, i.e. when the speed of light was assumed constant with respect to all inertial reference frames, inconsistent time “images” were perceived, so an ad hoc assumption was required, imposing an artificial transformation distorting the Emission Theory “time image” dimension by the inverse of the relativistic factor "gamma" leading to the Lorentz transformation, applicable under special conditions of the space coordinates in the direction of motion. Misconceptions in the Special Relativity interpretation of the Lorentz transformation were systematically revealed. Time alteration was perceived as a dilated “image” for receding frames, and contracted for approaching ones. However, when the frames receded and then approached during equal proper time intervals, the net time interval was perceived as an “image” dilated by "gamma" for the Special Relativity approach, as opposed to "gamma^2" for the Light Emission theory. For the Ether Theory assumption, either time dilation or time invariance was obtained depending on whether the traveling “object frame” was taken to be the ether frame. The “inverse” transformation was shown to be different from the “opposite” transformation in the way that the former had “image” arguments—returning “object” entities—whereas the latter had “object” arguments in the swapped frame “labels” scenario. Furthermore, they have opposite coordinate domains in the motion direction, although they exhibited the same form; “symmetry” misconceptions were revealed. The known relativistic Doppler Effect was readily derived. For the case of light, the perceived frequency exhibiting a blue shift (frequency increase) in the case of approaching frames, is in line with the established time contraction in this study, contradicting the Special Relativity prediction of time dilation irrespective of whether the frames are receding or approaching. In addition, the wavelength exhibited an increase in the case of receding frames, whereas it decreased when the source was approaching. Available experimental data related to [apparent] time dilations, Doppler Effect, and non-existence of preferred reference frame for light propagation (Michelson-Morley experiment) could then be analyzed vis-à-vis the classical theories in terms of time and space transformations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1473] viXra:1411.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 16:13:06

Re-evaluating the Local Equivalence Principle

Authors: Karl Birjukov
Comments: 27 Pages.

In removing the flaws inherent in the local equivalence principle, and subsequently re-forming it, it is inevitable that how the macrocosm is viewed is changed completely, to the extent that the boundaries of science itself become suspect as they produce reifications in its ultimate forms that most probably have no real existence.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1472] viXra:1411.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 12:09:33

L'évolution de L'onde électromagnétique Sur de Très Grandes Distances

Authors: Pierre Réal Gosselin
Comments: Français, 27 pages, http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/index.html

Nous expliquons le décalage vers le rouge " ℤ " de la radiation provenant des galaxies éloignées moyennant les équations classiques de Maxwell et le principe de conservation de l'énergie. La loi de Hubble émerge naturellement comme conséquence de la transformation progressive de l'onde électromagnétique selon la distance. Nous évaluons le paramètre " H0 " (84,3 Km s-1 Mpc-1) à partir des données du satellite Pioneer expliquant ainsi l'anomalie de comportement attribuée à ce satellite. Nous résolvons certaines situations inexpliquées par la cosmologie actuelle. Nous présentons la formule corrigée du module de distance et évaluons la distance limite d'observation des phénomènes cosmologiques.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1471] viXra:1411.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 08:21:09

Relatividade Ondulatória

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 117 Pages. §23 Curvatura do Espaço e Tempo

Resumo A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1470] viXra:1411.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 12:11:31

Gravitons, the Speed of Gravity, and the Generalized Newton Gravitational Law

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 6 Pages. none

In many publications and web forum discussions the claims are constantly being made that in order for the orbits of planets around the Sun to be stable the gravity must propagate at much higher speeds than the speed of light c. In this paper it is shown on a simple and extreme example of two stars orbiting around each other in a circular orbit that this is not the case and that the assumption about the necessity for the large speed of gravity is unfounded. The explanation is based on the recognition that the Newton gravitational force has two components that are not necessarily collinear. This new fundamental finding is supported by modeling the field by gravitons that mediate the force of the field. This model finally leads to the generalization of Newton gravitational law that correctly accounts for the finite speed of gravity. From this result it is also found that the gravitational aberration angle is identical with the aberration angle of light, but is aiming in the opposite direction, lagging behind the source of the gravitational attraction.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1469] viXra:1411.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 07:39:42

The Light Wave Equation and the Special Relativity

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 3 Pages.

In a recent paper, it is asserted that the wave equation for the light in the vacuum cannot be used in the special relativity. However, it might be refuted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1468] viXra:1411.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-23 08:12:20

Structure of Noetically Perceived Columnar Vortices

Authors: Jeffrey S. Keen
Comments: 23 Pages, 38 Figures, 16 Tables

Usually earth energies diverge or associated subtle energy lines meander over the Earth’s surface. This paper explores the structure of those mind detected subtle energies that have a cylindrical envelope and possess special properties that keep their 3-dimensional field boundaries parallel and prevent them from diverging. The findings include a complex structure of fractal geometry involving different subtle energy types, together with a newly discovered subtle energy that forms a web pattern providing the “cross bracing” that keeps columnar vortices parallel and stable over long distances and time. Another surprising finding is that the structure of columnar vortices, emanating from sun spots, is identical to the structure of mind created Psi-lines. A conclusion is that the mind is detecting universal laws of physics together with universal constants and ratios. This phenomenon is not just a figment of the imagination, but requires further scientific investigation. Key Words Mind, noetics, dowsing, vortices, subtle energies, psi-lines, fractal geometry, structure
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1467] viXra:1411.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-22 13:30:24

The Secret of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter’s deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron’s army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1466] viXra:1411.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 10:55:48

The Dark Side of the Higgs Field is a Fifth Force?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

A new proposal for an experiment that could test the presence of a fifth force with unprecedented precision. [9] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1465] viXra:1411.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-18 18:01:58

New Newtonian Theory

Authors: Silas Sacheli Santos
Comments: 21 Pages.

New equations for the motion of bodies are derived. The previsions of the theory are: a) if the galaxy is a spiral, the plane galaxy is moving in direction of the CMB, like our Milk Way galaxy. b) dark matter calculated from rotation curves in spiral galaxies is less than the actual theory and can be zero. This theory use some equations of Special relativity and the concept of non-instantaneous force.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1464] viXra:1411.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-18 08:12:50

On Rotating Frames and the Relativistic Contraction of the Radius

Authors: Pantelis M. Pechlivanides
Comments: 30 Pages.

The relativistic problem of the rotating disc or rotating frame is studied. The solution given implies the contraction of the radius and the change of the value of π depending on the type of observer. Two forms of rotation are considered. One is constant, independent of the radius, implying a horizon, the other is exponentially decreasing with the radius and does not imply a horizon. In all cases the paths of signals emanating from the origin of the rotating frame advance helically in the positive and negative z direction, where they are concentrated, due to the contraction of the radius, and in some cases appear as jets.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1463] viXra:1411.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-17 13:08:23

Ehrenfest Paradox, Sagnac Effect, and the Michelson-Morley Experiment

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 13 Pages. none

In this article the resolution of the famous Ehrenfest paradox [1] is presented. The paradox relates to a spinning disk and the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) applied to it. The paradox resolution is based on the proposition that the paradox results from an incorrect application of SRT to a system that is not in an inertial motion. The centrifugal and centripetal forces resulting from the rotation are always present and need to be accounted for. Using the author's previously derived metric for the axially symmetric space-time the effect of centrifugal and centripetal forces can be correctly included. When this is done no paradox is obtained and it is shown that the spinning disk appears to have flat space-time geometry. This finding also provides the correct interpretation of the null result of Michelson-Morley experiment, the correct explanation of the Fizeau experiments, and a simple and consistent explanation of the Sagnac effect. The theoretical descriptions of all these experiments should, therefore, always include the effect of the centrifugal force of Earth's rotation. The measured data from other experiments conducted on rotating systems are explained by the inertial mass increase as correctly described by SRT.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1462] viXra:1411.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-17 08:25:57

On the Gravity

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 14 Pages.

We outline the three main models of gravitation of Newton, Fatio-Le Sage and Einstein. All of them explain, more or less, the force of gravity, but the last gives at once the geometry of the space. The Fatio-Le Sage model might be a possible solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1461] viXra:1411.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-14 16:29:05

A 5-Dimensional Conservative Levitational Cosmology (Gravity as a Pseudoforce)

Authors: Joseph Catania
Comments: 2 Pages. (c) 2014

Although the discovery of the Cosmological Redshift Field (CRF) is the singular most crucial recent development in cosmology, due to lack of observational evidence the cause of the CRF remains a mystery. For instance it would be folly to ascribe the cause to physical expansion of the distribution of matter in space for several reasons. Firstly, in LeMaitre's theory the cause is ascribed to recessional velocity and thus the redshift is assumed to be a Doppler shift. But this is entirely dogmatic as LeMaitre had not observed any emitters having recessional velocity. Physical theory must be based on observations not on ad hoc assumptions. Thus it turns out, secondly, that spatio-temporal mechanics cannot support a universal expansion without nullifying confirmed theory and even canon. For example, a CRF which is linear with distance (z=k.r, where z is redshift) and whose field is central about the destination or receiver would seem to require a force field which is constant with radius and directed outward from the receiver. This would cause the necessary LeMaitrian expansion but no such field has ever been detected and hypothetical construction would seem to be anomalous in physics. The conclusion should be that since spatio-temporal mechanics is reasonably well understood that the cause does not reside in space-time and that a theory to deal with this wholly unexpected space-time field should reside outside of space-time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1460] viXra:1411.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-14 11:00:40

Contracting Universe and Cosmological Redshift

Authors: Sudesh Kumar
Comments: 29 Pages.

Standard cosmology is based on Einstein’s general theory of relativity and uses FRW metric to describe the start and evolution of universe. The FRW metric written in comoving coordinates states that one can think of a coordinate system in which separations increase in proportion to a scale factor which increases with time. This separation increase is commonly called as space expansion and is supposed to cause the observed cosmological redshift. FRW metric and standard cosmology has some serious theoretical issues, which are discussed in detail in this paper and an alternate model and a new metric based on general relativity is proposed, which explains the cosmological redshift as a consequence of a contracting universe rather than an expanding one. It turns out that the model is able to match the observed data accurately without any dark energy or dark energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1459] viXra:1411.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-13 23:48:22

Back to Infinity

Authors: G. H. Mickey Thompson
Comments: 13 Pages.

Abstract: Big bang theory encounters much contrary evidence and researchers would prefer a model that makes more sense. This paper posits that problems with the ΛCDM/Inflationary big bang model stem from the arbitrary assumption that the big bang created the whole universe. Just negating that assumption and superimposing the big bang on an older and grander universe transforms the evidence into a stunningly cohesive picture. It portrays a universe whose observable machinery produces big bangs and all the other behaviors we see. This model is one of a simple and logical 3D universe that can be explained with no need for dubious physics or supernatural dimensions. It appears our big bang is simply the way the universe recycles its home-grown singularities. Keywords: Anthropic conditions, antimatter disparity, Big Bash model, Creation model, dark energy, Inflation model, quasar, singularity
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1458] viXra:1411.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-10 04:05:39

The Deflection of Light by the Sun Reviewing Your Values

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages. Portuguese

The deflection of light by the Sun - Reviewing your values
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1457] viXra:1411.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-10 02:44:57

World - Universe Model. The Summary

Authors: Vladimir S. Netchitailo
Comments: 12 pages, 20 references

World – Universe Model is based on three primary assumptions: 1) The World is finite and is expanding inside the Universe with speed equal to the gravitoelectrodynamic constant c. The Universe serves as an unlimited source of matter that continuously enters into the World from the Front (the moving World – Universe boundary). 2) Medium of the World, consisting of protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter particles, is an active agent in all physical phenomena in the World. 3) Two fundamental parameters in various rational exponents define all macro and micro features of the World: Fine-Structure Constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World. Dimensionless quantity Q- squared is a measure of the World’s matter content. The World – Universe Model provides a mathematical framework that is based on the preceding assumptions and allows calculating the primary parameters of the World that are in good agreement with the most recent measurements and observations. 
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1456] viXra:1411.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-09 07:48:14

Ether,dark Matter and Topology of the Universe(version 2)

Authors: Thierry Delort
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this article, we propose that a substance, called ether-substance, fills and constitutes all what is called “vacuum” in the Universe. We assume that it has a mass and consequently it could be the nature of dark matter. Modelling it as an ideal gas, we obtain the flat rotation curve of spiral galaxies. Using a very simple model of thermal transfer between baryonic particles and ether-substance, we obtain the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. So we introduce a new concept of ether, different from the pre-relativistic concept of ether, and we called “Cosmology based on ether” (CBE) Cosmology based on this new concept. In this CBE, topology of the Universe is much simpler and more attractive than topologies proposed by the Standard Cosmological model (SCM) (whose some fundamental aspects are kept in CBE). We propose 2 models in CBE. The first one does not need dark energy nor cosmological constant, and does not need the complex mathematics of General Relativity, contrary to SCM (and to the 2nd model of CBE). Nonetheless, we obtain in the 1st model of CBE a very simple Hubble’s constant, in 1/t, t age of the Universe, and many cosmological observations that were previously explained only by the SCM. Moreover we interpret in both models of CBE the Referential in which fossil radiation is isotropic. CBE is, as SCM, compatible with Special and General Relativity, despite that it is based on a new concept of ether
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1455] viXra:1411.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-07 11:44:18

Perturbing Potential and Flyby Hyperbolic Orbits

Authors: Javier BOOTELLO
Comments: 7 Pages. Comments are welcome

This article checks a perturbing gravitational potential, with orbit dynamics parameters of hyperbolic flyby trajectories. This potential is consistent with the collected data of flybys after 2005, however with a wide error range. Results are consistent with the post-Newtonian gravitoelectric accelerations, however starting from a different method approach. The dynamic effects of this quantum gravitational perturbing potential, could be modeled as an orbit precession, similar gravitoelectric effect as in close elliptic orbits
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1454] viXra:1411.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-07 08:19:04

Have Gravitomagnetic Induction Fields Already Been Observed in the Laboratory?

Authors: Jacob Biemond
Comments: 10 Pages, including 3 figures and 2 tables

In 1980 Woodward reported generation of induced electric charges Q in falling cylinders of copper, steel and aluminium. In 1982 he also reported induced electric charges in rotating cylinders of different metals. In order to explain these observations, Woodward used a generalization of Maxwell’s equations, proposed by Luchak. These equations contain the gravitational field, but their predictions appeared to be not quite satisfactory. Since that time, no attempts have been made to explain the observed charges. Previously, related experiments on rotating metal cylinders were carried out by Surdin in 1977 and 1980. He reported reversing magnetic induction fields near rotating cylinders of bronze and tungsten. In this work a renewed analysis of the observations above is given, applying a special interpretation of the gravitomagnetic equations, deduced from general relativity. In this approach it is assumed that the gravitomagnetic field is equivalent to the magnetic induction field from electromagnetic origin. Formulas for the generated gravitomagnetic field, the induced voltage and induced charge Q in Woodward’s falling cylinders have been deduced. The predicted charges are proportional to the impact velocity, but are an order of magnitude smaller than the observed charges. The magnetic induction fields observed by Surdin are in agreement with the predictions from the proposed theory, but no explanation for the reversal of these fields has been given.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1453] viXra:1411.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-06 13:18:07

On the Relativity of Lightspeed in Gravitational Fields

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper investigates the distribution of the magnitude of the speed of light as viewed from an observer in free-fall in a gravitational field. It is demonstrated that in order to remain consistent with both Special and General Relativity, the speed of light must fall with distance from the observer in all directions (directions of both increasing and decreasing gravitational potential). The effect on the redshifts of cosmic radiation is investigated in light of this decrease and the measurements of an observer free-falling into black hole are also investigated in this context.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

Replacements of recent Submissions

[835] viXra:1411.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-23 10:34:38

Faith in God and the Light on the Paradoxes of Einstein

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 11 Pages. I am looking for interested Editor, can You offer publication?

Speaking of Truth, till 2014 the paradoxes of Physics are not solved without the God's Grace. One must return to Holy Trinity. The development of physics was guided by the strange idea, that God is absent. Namely, He gave the laws, gave the matter and left for rest, for vacation till the Judgement Day. That is wrong, because Jesus Christ is the God, Who made miracles among us (see the Bible).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[834] viXra:1411.0128 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-16 09:05:33

Contracting Universe and the Cosmological Redshift

Authors: Sudesh Kumar
Comments: 28 Pages.

Standard cosmology and FRW metric has some serious theoretical issues, which are discussed in this paper and an alternate cosmological model with a new metric based on general relativity is proposed. The new model explains the cosmological redshift as a consequence of a contracting universe rather than an expanding one. It turns out that the model is able to match the observed data accurately without any dark matter or dark energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[833] viXra:1411.0100 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-13 14:26:42

Another Cosmological Constant to Solve More Problems of Our Cosmological Models

Authors: Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen
Comments: 5 Pages.

A simple analysis based on mathematical arguments shows that adding another well-defined term to the cosmological constant can solve more problems of our cosmological models.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[832] viXra:1411.0047 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-11 09:58:59

On the Relativity of Lightspeed in Gravitational Fields

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper investigates the distribution of the magnitude of the speed of light as viewed from an observer in free-fall in a gravitational field. It is demonstrated that in order to remain consistent with both Special and General Relativity, the speed of light must fall with distance from the observer in all directions (directions of both increasing and decreasing gravitational potential). The effect on the redshifts of cosmic radiation is investigated in light of this decrease and the measurements of an observer free-falling into black hole are also investigated in this context.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology