**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(9) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(28) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(35) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(29)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(31) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(39) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(33) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(33) - 1605(31) - 1606(44) - 1607(21) - 1608(40) - 1609(47) - 1610(30) - 1611(47) - 1612(33)

2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(48) - 1705(31) - 1706(31) - 1707(21)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2530] **viXra:1707.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-23 09:15:17*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Considering Special Relativity Theory, energy has been derived through the case of mass points’ collision applying the equation from the theory.
But the difference of space distance and the difference of time distance are based on the different view for each frame of references.
So relativistic mass and energy quantity assumed real quantity should be tried to derive directly and deductively from the same assumption for the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2529] **viXra:1707.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-22 14:18:09*

**Authors:** Giacomo Roccaforte

**Comments:** 79 Pages. This version is in Italian, but conclusions are in English.

This theory arises from the analysis of specific situations that the Special Theory of Relativity does not consider, or for which it does not provided information about them.
These situations are listed as critical points, scenarios that would lead to ambiguous, contradictory or unexplained conclusions, using the same principles as the theory itself.
Using the same experimental data as the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, and which are normally used to confirm the theory itself, we comes to a solution where these critical points would be eliminated.
We then come to a theory where the results would be unambiguous, independent by how we choose to consider variables, in line with data experiences and established theory principles, such as the constancy of the speed of light and its independence from the motion of the source , means the same elements that are in Special Theory of Relativity, but interpreted in a different way.
It would therefore provide a new explanation of the Nature of Light, and a basis for further studies not yet examined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2528] **viXra:1707.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-21 20:38:29*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In frame of the quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger), supported by cosmic data (without fitting), a new physically distinguished scale is obtained. This scale indicate a mechanism of formation new particles from the background matter. At the same time that scale corresponds to the size of a living cell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2527] **viXra:1707.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-21 13:19:06*

**Authors:** Bandaru Ramu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Many thinkers and scientists tried to prove that Relativity is wrong. But this article show EXPERIMENTAL PROOFS TO PROVE THAT THE THEORY OF RELATIVTY IS WRONG.
In this article, two experiments are explained.
EXPERIMENT-1 PROVES:( whatever the relative constant velocities may be 50, 75, or 90 percent of `C` the velocity of light, The information P Simultaneity not follow any time dilations when compared with the information `Q`)
Michelson and Morley’s experiment conducted many times. But all their
experiments were conducted in only one inertial frame. But if that experiment extended up to two inertial frames, which Results will be taken place?
1.Simultaneity not depend on the concept time interval.
2.‘C` not stand to calculate the time.
3.Time dilation can not keep the speed of light rays constant. It can not keep the relation - inversely proportional between the frequency and wave length.
4.The light rays not travel with equal velocity in all directions in vacuum. According to Max well, “The velocity of electromagnetic waves is specific.” This truth is valid in the observer’s own inertial frame not in vacuum because light rays not run in vacuum independently. The traveling of light rays is dependent on inertial frame. They run interacting along with the surroundings of inertial frames such as massive bodies.
EXPERIMENT -2 reveals:
1. According to Relative theory, Physical laws take place in one concerned inertial frame and follow the time of that inertial frame. Physical laws are interactive and dependent. These physical laws or interactions take place among many inertial frames.
Thus the interactions cannot follow any relative time among the inertial frames. that interaction should consider the relative velocity of concerned inertial frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2526] **viXra:1707.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-16 14:46:05*

**Authors:** Baihua Qi, Tian Qi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The source of gravitation may come from the virtual electron-positron pairs generated by vacuum polarization and the force carrier particles would be pairs of virtual photons generated by the virtual electron-positron pair that travels in unison, and the origin of gravitation would be electron-positron pair that exchanges virtual photons. Based on this assumption, we establish a theory to describe gravitation. We discuss Barnett effect

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2525] **viXra:1707.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-16 07:10:07*

**Authors:** A.V. Mamaev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this article using Einstein’s method from his known 1905 year article the formulas for the Dopler effect and aberration valid in my new relativistic space-time theory are derived.
Key words: relativity, Doppler effect, aberration

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2524] **viXra:1707.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-13 08:03:22*

**Authors:** A.V. Mamaev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper introduces an idea of experimental demonstration of electrons superluminal speed existence or non-existence in vacuum of near-Earth space of Universe. As according to Einstein’s special relativity theory superlight speeds of both particles having non-zero rest mass and particles with zero rest mass are forbidden, such an experiment will either confirm Einstein’s special relativity theory in the part of absence in Nature of superlight speeds of any particles or disprove Einstein’s theory clearly, crudely and seeably.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2523] **viXra:1707.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-13 10:22:39*

**Authors:** Richard Palkovac

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Although contemporary cosmology and physics allow the mass to be pushed into the singularity (dimensionless point) in the center of black holes, it still doesn't understand that mass in such a state loses the quality of matter. Matter, being a substance and field, is the energy distributed in space. If we take away space from energy, it then changes to a different quality, to pure energy. Today it is often called the negative, dark energy, causing the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2522] **viXra:1707.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-13 10:30:27*

**Authors:** Richard Palkovac

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Can there be universes in dimensions other than those of our 3 (or 4 if we are talking about a time-space) ?
When we want to talk about it, we must first make sure there is a logical reason for the existence of other dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2521] **viXra:1707.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-11 07:05:04*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Relativistic physics is based on the principle of least action. Conclusions from the proposed theory give formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2520] **viXra:1707.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-11 09:17:53*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Einstein’s relativism is not only “physical” but also philosophical because it forbids any concept leading to the idea of the absolute. But this phobia is translated into flight forward without giving decisive answers to the crucial questions raised by the paradoxes arising from Special Relativity. In what follows, we show by a thought experiment that absolute rest has it’s discreet but real place in the Einsteinian reasoning under the pseudonym of stationary system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2519] **viXra:1707.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-10 14:41:45*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity is a very “popular” theory among physicists, so don’t dare to state that it is a nonsense theory. The most basic reason for the weirdness of this theory is the acceptance by almost all physicists of the fact that the velocity of light in vacuum in this theory is fully undefined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2518] **viXra:1707.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-09 12:27:37*

**Authors:** Fayaz Ahmed Siyal

**Comments:** 6 Pages. my research have well application for the resolution of black hole information paradox and singularity solution . author have prove it by mathematically

Contemporary physics of this century have measured many problems regarding the behaviour of gravity, black hole evolution and its information paradox. Our physicists have struggled to resolve these problems but they again and again failed. The reason of their failure has been resolved by author. The general relativity narrates the behaviour of masses and their gravitational fields on the basis of their space time curvatures. The reason scientist failed to measure the relation of mass and space time curvature because, always they made their calculations in inertial frame of reference for space time curvature but the galaxies, stars, sun, earth, etc are continued in acceleration or moving in accelerating frame of reference so, their space time curvature must be in acceleration. Then space time curvature should behave like variable accelerating wave (these are same waves which have been discovered by LIGO gravitational waves) and by author with mathematical proof it is estimated that space time curvature is the classical property of matter or mass depending upon alternation in the quantum energy of mass or matter. Then the Schrödinger, Hamilton operator H and time evolution operator are applicable for the calculation of space time geometry and its energy. From the author creational research black hole problems are easily solved. Even the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics can be done.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2517] **viXra:1707.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-07 12:56:14*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Calculations of relativistic physics are based on the principle of least action. Conclusions from the proposed theory give formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2516] **viXra:1707.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-05 14:31:07*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, the integration of a function over a curved manifold is examined in the case where the curvature of the manifold results in a varying density of coordinates over which the function is being integrated where the upper bound of the of integration is infinity. It is shown that when the coordinate density varies in such a case, the true area under the curve is not correctly calculated by traditional techniques of integration, but must account for the varying coordinate density. This integration technique is then applied to the Schwarzschild metric of General Relativity to examine the proper time taken for a freefalling observer to reach the event horizon of a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2515] **viXra:1707.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-04 13:57:13*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 0

Relativistic physics is built on the principle of least action. The conclusions from this theory give the formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2514] **viXra:1707.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-05 01:55:53*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In the article titled “Each Point of Space in Expansion is the Preferred Reference Frame for Any Object Transiting to that Point”, published on March 30th, 2017, I presented a theory that demonstrates the existence of the Preferred Reference Frame and at which speed the Earth moves relative to it. I also stated that further theories about various phenomena of the Universe, may be derived from this theory and that it, therefore, opens a new path towards the truth about how the Universe works.
And now, with this article, I will tray to begin to walk the above path, exposing some hypotheses explaining various phenomena of the Universe, in a way compatible with said theory.
Here are, in short, these hypotheses.
The Universe is exclusively composed of an infinity of space quanta, which tend to expand and thus cause it to expand, as a consequence.
Matter manifests on sets of space quanta, which are compressed and thus enable the neighbouring quanta, and later the quanta further apart, to expand further.
Gravity is the effect of the fact that each object tends to move towards the least compressed space quanta and, therefore, towards other objects.
Speed of light depends on the degree of compression of space quanta in the locations (or points) in which it transits, meaning that the greater the compression, the higher the speed.
But since also clocks move more or less rapidly according to their degree of compression, speed of light results always the same at any location.
Therefore, in the past, when the degree of compression of space quanta was greater, speed of light was also greater.
Cosmological redshift is due to the speed of the location in which the celestial object receiving photons, is moving, compared to the location in which the celestial object emitting it, has moved, in a Universe in decelerating expansion. In support of this hypothesis, I present two tables that simulate the journey of the photons of a high-redshift galaxy and that of CMBR photons, and, above all, a formula for calculating apparent luminosity, compatible with the observations of the high-redshift type Ia supernovae.
I would like to point out that I haven’t mentioned either the dark energy or dark matter, since I haven’t considered it necessary for this model of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2513] **viXra:1707.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-02 13:39:04*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 15 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

In this article, we derive the properties of kinematics of bodies from the universal frame of reference (UFR, ether), which we called the Special Theory of Ether.
The article explains why Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the universal frame of reference.
In article, a different transformation of time and position than the Lorentz transformation is derived on the basis of the geometric analysis of the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments. The transformation is derived based on the assumption that the universal frame of reference exists. UFR is a frame of reference in which the velocity of light is constant in every direction. In inertial frames of reference moving in the UFR, the one-way velocity of light may be different.
Formulas for summation for absolute speed and relative speeds has been derived. The formulas for length contraction and dilatation of time were also derived.
The entire article contains only original research conducted by its authors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2512] **viXra:1707.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-02 13:41:25*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 15 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

W artykule wyprowadzamy własności kinematyki ciał z uniwersalnym układem odniesienia (universal frame of reference - UFR, eter), którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru.
W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperyment Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalny układ odniesienia.
W artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Transformację wyprowadzamy przy założeniu, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia. UFR jest układem odniesienia wyróżniającym się tym, że prędkość światła jest w nim stała w każdym kierunku. W inercjalnych układach odniesienia poruszających się względem UFR, jednokierunkowa prędkość światła może być inna.
Wyprowadzone zostały wzory na sumowanie prędkości dla prędkości bezwzględnej oraz prędkości względnych. Wyprowadzone zostały także zależności na skrócenie długości oraz dylatację czasu.
Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania autorów publikacji.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2511] **viXra:1707.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-03 01:31:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 16 Pages. This is a backup for my files of my entry in the "Catch A Star" contest for 2017

AN ASTRONOMICAL HYPOTHESIS IN 6 PARTS -
1) Uniting Quantum Mechanics with General Relativity
2) Special Relativity Viewed from Einstein's Unified Field
3) MATHEMATICS AND UNIFICATION
4) IMAGINARY TIME, QUANTUM GRAVITY AND CREATING THE COSMOS
5) NEGATIVE ENTROPY AND ETERNAL LIFE
6) DARK ENERGY, DARK MATTER, AND THE UNIFYING QUBIT IN A NONEXPANDING AND TOPOLOGICAL COSMOLOGY
Science today - this report focuses on physics, quantum physics, cosmology and mathematics - is naturally very dependent on the empirical aspects of observation and experiment. The trend in modern physics is towards a unified theory of the universe - starting with the unified theories of the 20th century (notably Einstein's) and extending to string theory. At present, no observation or experiment can confirm or deny the existence of unification. The main point of this report is to show how sciences, and maths, could be altered by a unified space-time. In 1919, Einstein wrote a paper asking if gravitational waves play an essential role in forming elementary particles. If so, the waves that fill the space-time between particles would connect them in a unified field which a future LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) may be able to detect.* With waves that travel forwards in time being potentially cancelled by waves going back in time (see TIQM and Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory in this report), the cancelling of the waves might unite Relativity's gravity with quantum mechanics by producing what we call entanglement.
* See "Physicists use Einstein’s ‘spooky’ entanglement to invent super-sensitive gravitational wave detector" - May 17, 2017 by David Blair.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2510] **viXra:1707.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-02 02:38:21*

**Authors:** Bill Gaede

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The black hole and dark matter are two pillars of contemporary General Relativity. Week after week, we read about them in the specialized journals and in popularization magazines. Here we show that the term ‘black hole’ has yet to be defined scientifically. To pique the skeptic, mathematical physicists assign many dimensions to the black hole, confess that they have never seen one, and have no idea what these alleged objects are mad of. For its part, dark matter is nothing more than an ad hoc variable that Mathematical Physics invented to plug holes in its leaky conception of gravity. The Rope Model of Light and Gravity offers a rational alternative for phenomena attributed to magical black holes and invisible dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2509] **viXra:1706.0573 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-30 15:05:28*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The recent success of cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory in predicting the ordinary and total positive mc^2 matter density of the universe is now followed by the prediction that early super massive black holes were filled entirely with dark matter H particles

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2508] **viXra:1706.0571 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-30 11:19:59*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The frame-dragging effect tells us that when a body rotates around itself the metric of spacetime around its surface is dragged. This occurs, for example, in the metric of the spacetime around the Earth surface, and produces the well-known phenomenon of shifting of the orbits of the satellites near the Earth. Such as the orbits of the satellites, the force lines of the gravitational field produced by rotating bodies are also affected by the frame-dragging effect. This means that the direction of a gravitational central force in a rotating body should be radially displaced, in respect to their initial position. In this work, we show that the radial displacement angle depends on the angular velocity of the rotating body, and that this fact point to the possibility of controlling the direction of these gravitational central forces, simply by controlling the angular velocity of the rotating body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2507] **viXra:1706.0541 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-29 01:12:37*

**Authors:** Bume Rang

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The simple "Black" hole theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2506] **viXra:1706.0540 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-29 01:24:22*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Novel Technique to Create a Positive or/ and Negative Time Beam.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2505] **viXra:1706.0528 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-29 09:32:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

A renewed suggestion that dark energy may not be real—dispensing with 70% of the stuff in the universe—has reignited a longstanding debate. [32] Physicists from the University of Liverpool have made a huge step forwards towards building a novel experiment to probe the "dark contents" of the vacuum. [31] Researchers at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai have proposed a theory that predicts how dark matter may be annihilating much more rapidly in the Milky Way, than in smaller or larger galaxies and the early Universe. [30] Two teams working independently have conducted studies with similar results suggesting the possibility that some of the cosmic rays striking the Earth arise from dark matter particles colliding with one another. [29] A mysterious gamma-ray glow at the center of the Milky Way is most likely caused by pulsars – the incredibly dense, rapidly spinning cores of collapsed ancient stars that were up to 30 times more massive than the sun. [28] Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2504] **viXra:1706.0526 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-28 10:58:18*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 123 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2503] **viXra:1706.0505 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-26 22:57:25*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this research investigation the author has presented a novel technique of creation of a Time Beam.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2502] **viXra:1706.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-27 02:13:08*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Simultaneity Symmetry

Two identical stopwatches moving at the same speed will elapse the
same time after moving the same distance. If both stopwatches were started at the same time, there will be no time difference between
these two stopwatches after both stopwatches have
elapsed the same time. Both stopwatches will continue to show no time difference under identical acceleration.
Therefore, both stopwatches show identical time in an accelerating reference frame if both stopwatches were restarted at the same time in a stationary reference frame.
Consequently, a physical system that exhibits Translational Symmetry in
its motion demonstrates that two simultaneous events in one reference frame should be simultaneous in another reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2501] **viXra:1706.0467 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-25 05:30:44*

**Authors:** C. K. Raju

**Comments:** 12 pages, 3 tables, 6 graphs

We use Lorentz covariant retarded gravitation theory (RGT), without simplifications, to validate the earlier calculations for the flyby anomaly as a gravitational effect of Earth's rotation at the special relativistic (v/c) level. Small differences persist between the theoretical predictions of RGT and the data reported by Anderson et al. That reported data, however, is not direct observational data but consists of un-modeled residues. To settle doubts, we propose a 3-way experimental test to discriminate between RGT, Newtonian gravitation (no flyby anomaly), and Anderson et al.'s formula. This involves two satellites orbiting Earth in opposite directions in the equatorial plane in eccentric orbits. For these orbits, Earth's rotation should not affect velocity on (1) Newtonian gravitation and (2) the formula of Anderson et al. However, (3) on RGT, one satellite gains and the other loses velocity, by typically a few cm/s/day, which is easily measurable by satellite laser ranging.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2500] **viXra:1706.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-22 05:16:29*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 37 pages in Chinese

Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation) is the only objectively existing in nature transformation of space (the co-ordinates of material points) and time (the parameter of events) for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity, and actually underlies the theoretical and methodological basis for the motion observation theory.The article presents two methods of physical-mathematical derivation for Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation).One method relies on algebra means, and the other on vector analysis as well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2499] **viXra:1706.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-21 09:48:46*

**Authors:** Marco Pereira

**Comments:** 107 Pages.

3077 38th Street
Apt 2B

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2498] **viXra:1706.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-20 08:42:54*

**Authors:** Richard Palkovac

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In 2003, I was thinking about would happen if we pushed two fundamental particles of matter into ourselves (in the same location in space, in the same point). My intuition told me that it could not be mass anymore and therefore gravity would cease to have an effect. After I developed this idea, I also found the cause for the expansion of the universe and, ultimately, its acceleration.
The basic idea of my hypothesis is: "Gravitational mass is being lost in black holes (Grey Objects)."
It is clear to me that the physical definition of the term "black hole" is something other than what I use in this hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2497] **viXra:1706.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-20 10:30:41*

**Authors:** Robert D. Bock

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We present a simple model of light propagation that allows for the one-way speed of light, or equivalently, the simultaneity convention, to depend on the distance between the emitter and the absorber. This is distinct from variable speed of light (VSL) theories that assume the two-way speed of light is variable. We show that this model predicts wavelength shifts that are consistent with wavelength shifts measured from light propagating on astrophysical scales, thus eliminating the need to propose ad hoc mechanisms, such as dark matter, dark energy, and cosmological expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2496] **viXra:1706.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-19 20:19:10*

**Authors:** Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract
This paper endeavours to explain why light and elementary particles have dual wave and particle characteristics, and proposes a physical interpretation of Huygens’ principle. It also explains why the famous Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and to show that it did, in fact, detect the ether but was not correctly interpreted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2495] **viXra:1706.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-19 21:20:19*

**Authors:** Azzam K I Almosallami

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper I study the precession of Mercury’s perihelion and the free fall from the point of view of the field theory and retardation. SRT and GR do not support the field theory and retardation, that is because They consider the reality in physics is observer independent according to the Minkowski Geometry of space-time continuum. According to that SRT and GR must be understood from the point of view of the field theory and thus the reality must be observer dependent and in this case the mathematics that describe the physical reality will be different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2494] **viXra:1706.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-18 10:29:55*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We investigate time dilation under the conditions of the theory of special relativity (TSR). The arguments apply a direct comparison of clock readings at identical positions. As observations of time depends on (the location of) the clocks used for time registrations we investigate various observational principles. Three principles are in focus: Reference frame applying single clock (SC); reference frame applying multiple clocks (MC); and the completely symmetric situation. We also study variants of the Lorentz transformation. Finally, we apply the approach to present a thorough discussion of the travelling twin example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2493] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-17 12:14:46*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here we will show that there exist a simple relationship between the Einstein and Newton formula. They are closely
connected when it comes to fundamental particles. Newton indirectly had E=mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein without knowing about it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2492] **viXra:1706.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-16 08:10:58*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Friedmann Equation which is often described as the most important equation in cosmology can be derived from Newtonian gravity without General Relativity. However, it is shown here that this derivation is mathematically incorrect and cannot even be a good approximation specifically because of invalid application of the shell theorem. Derivations from general relativity and Machian derivation are also without foundation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2491] **viXra:1706.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-12 02:16:13*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibanez Fernandez

**Comments:** 84 Pages.

Abstract
The paper is the second part of PHYSICAL & MATHEMATICS THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY, Albert Einstein. It presents a deep theoretical analysis of the historical overview to the special theory of relativity. Unfortunately, the special theory of relativity violated the basic principle of relativity. The wrong development of processing of experiments affected all subsequent development of the special theory of relativity and other areas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2490] **viXra:1706.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-14 06:13:56*

**Authors:** Jan Helm

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A relativistic rotator is a pair of black-holes moving around their center-of mass (com) on GR-orbits in their own gravitational field. First we present a GR-solution in the com-frame for non-rotating (Schwarzschild) black-holes in the usual spherical coordinates (t,r,theta,phi) using a complex transformation of the radius r . with the condition that for r→∞ the resulting orbit equations must be the Newtonian equations. We analyze the solution and show examples of orbits. In a second step we generalize it to the case of rotating (Kerr) black-holes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2489] **viXra:1706.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-09 11:41:34*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 66 Pages. Spanish

We understand the principle of Mach as the assertion that the inertia of a body is not an intrinsic quality of matter, but is the effect of the action of the whole Universe. The forces of inertia act when a body is accelerated. But if we assume that is the Universe that is accelerated, it will generate a gravitational inductive force on the body, which can be understood as the force of inertia.
In this research we calculated the gravitational induction produced on a body by the accelerated movement of the whole of the Universe. We used the linearized theory of General Relativity, therefore the results are approximate, but sufficient to give us an idea of how the Universe conforms the inertia of the bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2488] **viXra:1706.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-08 16:09:05*

**Authors:** Bill Gaede

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Different cultures around the world have independently discovered time in antiquity and developed calendars and clocks to measure this mysterious unknown. We say ‘mysterious’ because to this day no one has defined what ‘time’ is or means. Yet Mathematical Physics, particularly Special and General Relativity, are founded on time; neither can do without this strategic term. Time dilation is one of the three pillars of Special Relativity and the dimension of time is the fourth leg of General Relativity’s ubiquitous space-time. What is it that theoreticians are stretching? What are they warping? Is time a dimension? Is it legal to replace height with time on a Cartesian chart and turn it into a Feynman diagram? And if time was born at the Big Bang, what is it that came to life? What does the babe look like? A closer analysis reveals that time is not a dimension. We discover that time cannot do without an observer. More fundamentally, we discover that unless we define this enigmatic word we will never understand what anyone who uses it is talking about.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2487] **viXra:1706.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-08 02:53:44*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 3 pages

The period of a light wave emitted by an oscillating electron in a “stationary” reference frame was determined in a relatively moving frame using the Lorentz transformation applied on different event intervals; one being between two events on the wave propagation path, and the other between two co-local events on the oscillating source path. A critical inconsistency in the Special Relativity was revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2486] **viXra:1706.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-06 09:05:48*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper an elaboration of the physical concept of inertia is presented and it leads to a definition of the Generalized Principle of Inertia and of inertial motions in the order of a wider view that considers also the presence of the gravitational field. At last the paper terminates with the examination of a few paradoxes of time that certainly represent evident contradictions inside theories that prove the existence of relativistic effects of time that would be generated by imaginary changes of spacetime due to the inertial speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2485] **viXra:1706.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-06 02:38:42*

**Authors:** Laszlo A. Marosi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, I reconsider the interpretation of Hubble’s Law as recession velocity of distant galaxies, in association with novel theories of the physical properties of the quantum vacuum, by assuming thermalization of starlight into a homogeneous black-body energy distribution. I present scientific theories and experimental results supporting the assumption that the proposed equilibration process might take place without any material mediator. The equilibration follows from the interaction between quantum states of the excited spacetime entity, and therefore, energy equilibration has to be looked at as a natural quantum physical process, instead of as a physically unlikely one. Cosmological implications of the presented theory are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2484] **viXra:1706.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-05 07:23:50*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In the current paper, the Universe is modeled as a spherically symmetric isotropic collection of mass falling toward a gravitational center located in the time dimension. The interior black hole solution of the Schwarzschild metric in Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates is used to mathematically describe the freefall through the time dimension where worldlines emerge from the singularity at infinite proper speed through the cosmological time dimension, slow to zero proper velocity after a finite proper time, then accelerate to infinite proper velocity (through the time, not space dimension) once more where it reaches a future singularity. It is shown that during the first phase, where the velocity decreases, space appears to contract, whereas during the second phase, where the velocity increases, space appears to expand at an accelerated rate. With a simple coordinate change, we then see that the internal Schwarzschild metric takes the form of the FRW metric, which is the metric currently used to describe the expanding Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2483] **viXra:1706.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-05 07:44:56*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We show that even Special Relativity predicts, as a consequence of length contraction, a kind of light’s
deflection for an observer having a relativistic speed relative to the source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2482] **viXra:1706.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-04 16:36:31*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is a short note to show how the speed of light $c$ can be derived from dimensional analysis from the Gravitational constant, the Planck constant and the Planck length.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2481] **viXra:1706.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-04 06:25:09*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Like stars in the universe so are freckles and moles on the body. In the universe one can see constellation but on a certain persons body there is a Pulga Constellation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2480] **viXra:1706.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-03 12:18:13*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

A new simple cosmological model is shown to be able to overcome all major problems of modern cosmology without using ad hoc elements and without any modification in general relativity or quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2479] **viXra:1706.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-02 11:17:25*

**Authors:** Hubert J. Veringa

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

In this document an attempt is made to explain the origin of gravity. The basis for the analysis is a merger of Quantum theory and Relativity. Nowhere in the analysis there is any need to deviate from well proven and successful concepts of both theories and rules of calculation, and no exotic new particles will have to be introduced. By doing so it is demonstrated that, next to its local interactions of a multi-particle system, the Schrödinger equation leads to pairs of two and only two members. This solution is used as the invariant term in the quantized Einstein energy equation which finally leads to gravitational interactions between members of the pairs. With this particular solution for the quantum-mechanical wave function it is found that gravity is a second order effect operating over a long range. In this document it is tried to give a complete and consistent account of all steps that have been taken in de derivation of the classical Newton’s law. Further the document emphasizes precise justification of some of the basic assumptions made, on the historical context into which it should be placed, how it affects the ordering of our immediate environment and how it works out works out on a cosmological ale. It is also found that the generator of gravity is contributing mass to particles that have gravitational interaction. This contribution is therefore related to cosmological parameters and will be further elucidated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2478] **viXra:1705.0477 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-31 14:17:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The cosmological constant comes in holographic and non-Holographic versions each of which supports Friedmann"s equations concerning the matter density of the universe in different ways and 8 fold supersymmetry and cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory in general

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2477] **viXra:1705.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-28 15:37:41*

**Authors:** John R. Berryhill

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Discussion at unmysticalphysics.com

The calculation of lookback time and particle horizon in the Lambda-CDM model is simplified by use of an explicit formula for the cosmic expansion scale factor S(t). The present article continues the exposition begun in viXra 1704.0303.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2476] **viXra:1705.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-28 18:35:40*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger) is supported by cosmic data (without fitting). Qmoger equations consist of Einstein equations with two additional terms responsible for production/absorption of matter. In Qmoger cosmology there was no Big Bang and matter is continuously producing by the Vacuum. Particularly, production of the ultralight gravitons with tiny electric dipole moment (EDM) was started about 284 billion years ago. Quantum effects dominate interaction of these particles and they form the quantum condensate. Under influence of gravitation, the condensate is forming galaxies and producing ordinary matter, including photons. As one important result of this activity, it recently created us, the people, and continues to support us. Particularly, our subjective experiences are a result of an interaction between the background condensate and the neural system of the brain. The action potentials of neural system create traps and coherent dynamic patterns in the dipolar condensate. So, our subjective experiences are graviton-based. Some problems with the origin of life can also be clarified by taking into account the background dipolar condensate. It seems natural to call this graviton condensate bright matter. It not only produced ordinary matter, including light, but also produced and nurturing conscious life, as we know it, and, perhaps, some other forms of life in the universe. EDM of gravitons is small and existing telescopes can not see them, but we actually see bright matter in our subjective experiences. So, cosmology and brain science must work together to investigate bright matter, which will be the most important enterprise of humankind,

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2475] **viXra:1705.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-26 07:54:04*

**Authors:** Robert D. Bock

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

When confronted with the challenge of defining distant simultaneity Einstein looked down two roads that seemingly diverged. One road led to a theory based on backward null cone simultaneity and the other road led to a theory based on standard simultaneity. He felt that alone he could not travel both. After careful consideration he looked down the former and then took the latter. Sadly, years hence, he did not return to the first. In the following we investigate Einstein's road not taken, i.e., the road that leads to a theory based on backward null cone simultaneity. We show that both roads must be traveled to develop a consistent quantum theory of gravity and also to understand the relationship between the gravitational and electromagnetic fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2474] **viXra:1705.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-26 09:55:01*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 3 Pages. When seconds count, Artificial Intelligence on faster hardware makes the difference. Like High Frequency Trading Algorithms on Wall Street.

AI is like a brain with no conscience. It rules itself unbridled. You shouldn’t try set parameters on AI because that will stifle innovation. What you have to do is like a High Frequency Trade on Wall Street. It’s all about speed. The fastest algorithm wins. So purposely don’t allow the public to have faster chips than the Government to the public. Give the Government the advantage by giving the government faster chip >THZ with many cores. Give the public AI but at GHZ or <. See Retro Causal Machine Learning below. Its use, should make sense now. Give it to GOOGLE or any company that aligns itself to look out for American Interests. In short one can look towards Wall Street, fastest algorithm wins in High Frequency Trade, so control chip speed for the masses Ghz or < and run Government AI Programs on fastest chip to win against all other AI to prevent the AI Apocalypse.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2473] **viXra:1705.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-25 17:15:36*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 5 Pages. -

It is believed that the Sagnac effect does not contradict Special Relativity theory because it is manifest in non-inertial rotational motion; therefore, it should be treated in the framework of General Relativity theory. However, several well-designed studies have convincingly shown that a Sagnac Effect identical to the one manifest in rotational uniform motion is also manifest in transverse uniform motion. This result should have been sufficient to falsify Special Relativity theory. In the present article, we offer theoretical support to the experimental results by elucidating the notion that the dynamics of transverse and rotational types of motion are completely equivalent. Since the transverse Sagnac effect contradicts Special Relativity theory, it follows that the rotational Sagnac effect contradicts Special Relativity theory as well. In addition, we show that our recently proposed Information Relativity theory, in which we abandoned the constancy of the velocity of light axiom, theoretically accounts for the Sagnac effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2472] **viXra:1705.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-25 10:37:57*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the paper a few problems relating to the special relativity theory are considered, real SRT problems that arise from the self-inconsistence of the theory, and so limit its correct application; and imaginary, when at some “refuting of SRT” the notion “relatives speed” is erroneously applied, first of all the “(c±V)” problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2471] **viXra:1705.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-23 12:05:10*

**Authors:** Sudipto Roy

**Comments:** 7 pages, 2 figures

The time dependence of the equation of state (EoS) parameter of the cosmic fluid, for a space of zero curvature, has been determined in the framework of the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory of gravity, using FRW metric. For this purpose, empirical expressions of the scale factor, scalar field and the dimensionless BD
parameter have been used. The constant parameters involved in these expressions have been determined from the field equations. The dependence of the scalar field upon the scale factor and the dependence of the BD parameter upon the scalar field have been explored to determine the time dependence of the EoS parameter. Its rate of change with time has been found to depend upon a parameter that governs the time dependent behavior of the scalar field. Time dependence of the EoS parameter has been graphically depicted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2470] **viXra:1705.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-21 16:06:50*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. microwave speed relativity reference frame

A standing wave consists of two identical waves moving in opposite
direction. A frequency detector moving toward the standing wave will
detect two different frequencies. One is blueshifted, the other is
redshifted. The distance between two adjacent nodes in the standing
wave is equal to half of the wavelength of both waves. Consequently, the wave
detector will detect different speeds from both waves due to the same
wavelength and the different frequencies. The calculation of speed is demonstrated with a typical household microwave oven which emits
microwave of frequency range around 2.45 GHz and wavelength range around 12.2 cm.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2469] **viXra:1705.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-21 00:53:45*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 10 pages in Chinese

The article presents several physical models for thinking experiment to evidence the Absolute of simultaneity and non-simultaneity of events in reference frames. The Time Transformation of Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation) actually underlies the Absolute of simultaneity and non-simultaneity of events in reference frames in constant-speed translational motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2468] **viXra:1705.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-21 03:06:51*

**Authors:** Yin Zhu

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

1.All of the conclusions are directly from or based on the arguments and discussions in the researchgate.net. Sometimes, the arguments are very intense and sharp. Till now, these conclusions seem solidly standing.
2.The problems discussed here are easily understood. Only the simple mathematics is used. From the literatures, it is clearly shown that Einstein did have no original work in the theory of relativity. It just is a faked story that Einstein independently presented all the conclusions of the theory of relativity.
3.The conclusions are radically violent. It is certainly declared that Einstein’s theory of relativity is only pseudoscience and the pseudoscience is produced from the anti-ethics: Einstein did have no original work in the theory of relativity. But, now, all of the results in the theory of relativity are ascribed to Einstein.
4.General readers may not believe the conclusions. But, as you know that the theory of relativity is filled with faked stories, you should know what it means.
5.The arguments in the researchgate.net showed that, at least, no relativist can disprove the conclusions. And, some of the rational relativists have to agree some of these conclusions. But, most of the relativists only can select silent.
6.Maybe, relativists will close their eyes on the conclusions to continue the declaration that the theory of relativity is a great theory as they did in the past. But, now, it is the internet time. The conclusions cannot be concealed and shielded as did before internet time. Now, they can be generally and quickly spread and transformed. Relativists shall lose their public credibility quickly if they could not have a valid response.
7.We clearly know, it is risk to criticize Einstein. But, the scientists, including relativists, want to know scientific truth. And, we believe, we have the clear and simple arguments. Therefore, we hope, some of the mainstream physicists should accept the conclusions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2467] **viXra:1705.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-19 07:40:16*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 122 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2466] **viXra:1705.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-19 07:49:07*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 122 Pages.

A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores.
Da análise do desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória podemos sintetizar as seguintes conclusões:
-é uma teoria com princípios totalmente físicos,
-as transformações são lineares,
-matem intactos os princípios Euclidianos,
-considera a transformação de Galileu distinta em cada referencial,
-une a velocidade da luz e o tempo em um único fenômeno,
-desenvolve uma translação real entre os referenciais

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2465] **viXra:1705.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-19 08:30:11*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 6 Pages. I insert this comment to avoid further confusion on gravitational theory and equivalence principle by Mr. T. Yarman, Mr. A. Kholmetskii and collaborators

Despite it is well known at the elementary level of university courses that completely non-metric gravitational theories macroscopically violate
Einstein's equivalence principle, in a series of recent papers published also in Canadian Journal of Physics, T. Yarman and collaborators claimed
that the so-called YARK theory of gravitation (the name has been self-created by T. Yarman and collaborators from the initials of their proper
surnames), which is completely non-metric, should replace Einstein's general theory of relativity as the correct theory of gravitation. Here we
ultimately show the crackpot behavior of the YARK theory of gravitation by using Einstein's equivalence principle which has today a strong,
unchallengeable empiric evidence. Hence, we formally request the Editors of Canadian Journal of Physics to ultimately withdraw the papers
of T. Yarman and collaborators for the sake of scientific correctness. In addition, we formally request the Editors of Canadian Journal of Physics
to ultimately stop the publication of other papers on the unscientific and non-viable YARK theory of gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2464] **viXra:1705.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-18 17:36:05*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The paper proposes a scenario of origin and emerging of intelligent life in Universe based upon the mathematical discovery of a new class of dynamical systems described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation. These systems called self-controlled since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian and quantum-like properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. At the same time, these systems expose properties of livings: decomposition into motor and mental dynamics, the capability of self-identification and self-awareness, as well as self-supervision. But the most surprising discovery is the existence of a special sub-class, in which the dynamical systems can violate the second law of thermodynamics, and that makes them different from both Newtonian and quantum physics. This sub-class should be associated with intelligent livings due to capability to move from disorder to order without external help. Based upon the mathematical discovery described above, on can assume that there are good chances that similar dynamical systems representing intelligent livings exist in real physical world. This provides a reason for a “rehabilitation “of the Maxwell demon and put it into physics of intelligent systems. Indeed, the Maxwell demon is implemented by the feedback from the Liouville equation to the original ODE while this feedback is capable to rearrange the probability distribution against the second law of thermodynamics. In addition to that, the same feedback removes the entropy paradox by explaining high order in our surrounding by “intelligent life support”. Two-steps transition: from the Newtonian physics to the linear model of Life, and from the latter to the model of Intelligent life are analyzed. The first transition is triggered by the Hadamard instability of the Newtonian physics with respect to small random disturbances in linear terms of the Liouville feedback. The second transition is triggered by instability of linear model of Life with respect to small random disturbances of non-linear terms of Liouville feedback. This transition could be implemented by such physical phenomena as shock waves or negative diffusion in probability space. Both transitions can be associated with catastrophe theory, in which sudden shifts in behavior arises from small changes in parameters of the model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2463] **viXra:1705.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 17:48:18*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 13 pages in Chinese

The Galilean Transformation is, strictly speaking, applicable only in assumed case of unlimited light velocity. The Galilean Transformation describes the composition of observers’ observation vectors. The author of the article, utilizing this inherent property of Galilean Transformation, presents the simplest deduction for space-time transformation objectively existing in motion observation under the circumstances of limited light velocity, and revealed the ‘Law of Equi-Status for Reference Systems’ as well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2462] **viXra:1705.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 11:18:45*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The early universe's deficit of of dark matter is simply explained using up-to-date theory: dark matter entered new recycled active galaxies at their supermassive black holes at an overall steady rate that has continued unchanged to the present day

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2461] **viXra:1705.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 08:24:39*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 8 pages

Although mass is a very common and fundamental concept, but the problem of mass is still one of the key problems of modern Physics, up to the present, the experts are not able to reach a consensus. In this paper, we have discussed the problems relating to mass, energy and matter, and been aware that mass is neither the amount of matter an object has, nor the measure of inertia and the source of gravitational field, whereas energy is. As before, that mass is used to measure the inertia and to calculate gravitational force is just an approximate method, only for very slowly moving objects and particles for which the rest energy is much larger than the kinetic energy. Actually, the concept of mass is a superfluous artificial concept, just rest energy divided by a constant (If selecting c=1, the mass is exactly equal to the rest energy), does not has any other meaning. If the concept of mass is completely superseded by energy(or more precisely, rest energy), the physical equations are completely perfect, their meanings are clearer, and the puzzles such as the relationship of mass and energy, nature of matter, the essence of the weak equivalence principle, the physical meaning of Higgs mechanism, etc., can be made clearer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2460] **viXra:1705.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 08:53:13*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 20 pages, PHYSICS ESSAYS 27, 1 (2014)

The success of Special Relativity (SR) comes from the requirement of Lorentz co-variance to all physical equations. The explanation with regard to the Lorentz co-variance is based on two hypotheses, namely the principle of special relativity and the constancy of the speed of light. However, the statements of the principle of special relativity are various and confusing. The co-variance of physical equations and the equality of inertial frames of reference are mixed up. The equality of inertial frames of reference is obvious, but the co-variance of the physical equations is a more advanced requirement. Additionally, the way that the propagation property of light is placed in a central position of SR has caused people misunderstandings towards space-time, and also there is a logical circularity between the measurement of speed of light and the synchronization of clocks. These have obstructed to correctly extend the theory of space-time from an inertial frame of reference to a non-inertial frame of reference. These are the main reasons why many people criticize SR. In present paper, the two hypotheses have been discussed in detail and a new requirement to the equations of Physics has been proposed. The requirement is the Requirement of Special Completeness, namely, the physical equations used to describe the dynamics of matter and/or fields should include the descriptions that not only the matter and/or fields are at rest relative to an inertial frame of reference, but also they move relative to this frame. Basing on this requirement and the equality of the inertial frames of reference, we can approach to SR. Thereby let the theory of Lorentz co-variance has a clear and solid foundation. The constancy of the speed of light is just a deduction, not a premise. The Lorentz co-variance is just a characteristic of the Special Complete equations. Maxwell equations automatically satisfy the Lorentz trans-formations without any modification, while Newton law of gravity does not, because Newton law of gravity is not Special Complete and Maxwell equations are. The new approach has paved a road leading towards the generalizing of the theory of space-time from the inertial frame of reference to non-inertial frame of reference without considering gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2459] **viXra:1705.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 09:18:05*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 6 pages

We have discussed the characteristics of the space-time of non-inertial frame of reference (NFR)and proposed the Requirement of General Completeness (RGC) and the Principle of Equality of All Frames of Reference (PEAFR) in present paper. The RGC is that the physical equations used to describe the dynamics of matter should include the descriptions that the matter rest and move (uniformly rectilinearly and acceleratedly) relative to a frame of reference, and consider the structure of the space-time of frame of
reference. The PEAFR is that any frame of reference can be used to describe the motion of matter and the equations of General Completeness in all frames of reference are identical. According to the RGC and the PEAFR, we can deduce that the general complete physical equations are covariant. The descriptions of the space-time of NFR can be dealt without gravitation. The space-time of NFR is inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic caused by the accelerating motion. The inertial force is the manifestation of the deformed
space-time. The Riemann curvature tensor of the space-time of NFR equals zero, but the affine connection does not vanish no matter what coordinate system be selected in the NFR. Mach’s principle is incorrect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2458] **viXra:1705.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 10:03:23*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 12 Pages. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2013, 3, 8-19

Let the coordinate system of flat space-time to absorb a second rank tensor field of the flat space-time deforming into a Riemannian space-time, namely, the tensor field is regarded as a metric tensor with respect to the coordinate system . After done this, is not the coordinate system of flat space-time anymore, but is the coordinate system of the new Riemannian space-time. The inverse operation also can be done. According to these notions, the concepts of the absorption operation and the desorption operation are proposed. These notions are actually compatible with Einstein's equivalence principle. By using these concepts, the relationships of the Riemannian space-time, the de Donder conditions and the gravitational field in flat space-time are analyzed and elaborated. The essential significance of the de Donder conditions (the harmonic conditions or gauge) is to desorb the tensor field of gravitation from the Riemannian space-time to the Minkowski space-time with the Cartesian coordinates. Einstein equations with de Donder conditions can be solved in flat space-time. Base on Fock's works, the equations of gravitational field in flat space-time are obtained, and the tensor expression of the energy-momentum of gravitational field is found. They all satisfy the global Lorentz covariance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2457] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-14 09:02:20*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram - comments welcome.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2456] **viXra:1705.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-11 15:35:38*

**Authors:** Ivan L. Zhogin

**Comments:** 2 pages (English and Russian)

The special and general relativity theories suggest different descriptions of our spacetime. It is impossible that both are absolutely true, nevertheless both theories are engaged in physics - in its different parts. Such a fragmentarily worldview was inappropriate to Einstein, and he proposed another theory which in a sense (at least in the symmetry group of its equations) was a sort of synthesis of SR and GR; a few features of this theory are touched here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2455] **viXra:1705.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-11 16:44:25*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

New simple and exact analytical solutions of Einstein equations of general relativity (GR) and of Qmoger (quantum modification of GR) equations are obtained. These solutions corresponds to processes with invariant density of enthalpy (energy plus pressure). Interpretation of this solutions in terms of cosmic radiation and production of massive particles, as well as comparison with cosmic data (without fitting), are presented. It is suggested, that isenthalpic processes can be relevant also to excessive radiation from Jupiter and Saturn. Similar processes potentially can be used as a new source of energy on Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2454] **viXra:1705.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-10 05:55:08*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 10 pages in Chinese

The Galilean Transformation exhibits a composition of observers’ observation vectors.The author of this article presents the simplest deduction for space-time transformation objectively existing in motion observation under the circumstances of limited light velocity, utilizing the inherent exiting property of Galilean Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2453] **viXra:1705.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-10 01:02:13*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

According to the Theory of Relativity the Universe is an amalgam of time and space containing matter; a four-dimensional spacetime continuum alleged as an analytic generalisation of the Theorem of Pythagoras from three dimensions. Spacetime is said to be curved by matter and undergoes rippling due to gravitational waves travelling at the speed
of light. Points in spacetime are called 'events'. The distance between two events is called the spacetime interval, which is manifest as a distance formula, often called a metric or line-element, in terms of 'coordinates'. However, Minkowski-Einstein spacetime is not actually a
four-dimensional continuum because it is self-referential via the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2452] **viXra:1705.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-09 10:12:15*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Comments welcome.

We model the physicalized manifestation of the Universe as bootstrapped ‘Brain of the Universe’ and seek evidence for brain-like functional organization of the observable universe, resulting from the Holon of the Universe facilitated by space-like correlated gravitational holomovement and rotation. The orthodox model of gravity, based on “tangent vectors” and “curvature of spacetime”, is replaced with the proposal that the physicalized clocks and rulers are very flexible ‘jackets’ (cf. John’s jackets parable in CEN.pdf), which can slow down or speed up viz. shrink or expand, leading to perfectly correlated Brain of the Universe living in so-called ‘relative scale’ (RS) spacetime. The question of Universal Mind, complementing the Brain of the Universe, pertains to physical theology and the doctrine of trialism, and was examined in previous publications (e.g., Sec. 6 in spacetime.pdf).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2451] **viXra:1705.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-08 15:20:31*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is felt by many that faster-than-light particles (tachyons) exist though none has been detected so far. Is it really possible to detect these particles? Some methods are brought up.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2450] **viXra:1705.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-08 12:53:41*

**Authors:** Andreus A. I.

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In Russian

False cience spawned the Big Bang Theory.
An exquisite pseudoscience, since all points over i have not yet been put, and scientists (scientists) do not dethrone such benchmarks in a person's world view.
Pseudoscientific Theory of the Big Bang. Propaganda of the Big Bang Theory illustrates the loss of honor by scientists around the globe for more than a century for the blessings and content of their lives from society on planet Earth ...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2449] **viXra:1705.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-07 12:05:19*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 screenshot, 1 illustrative graph

It is proposed that we can travel through time by using good theory, but not the time travel that is represented in Hollywood. To do this we must use our common sense and good theory. Since the universe recycles itself constantly and is eternal, we can find objects that exist and time periods that are very similar to our own past and are good analogs to our future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2448] **viXra:1705.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-02 05:06:17*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Lorentz transformation allows two ways to compare time measures from two moving clocks. We show that the more realistic way leads to discover that absolute rest plays a hidden role and prescribes a restriction on the relativity principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2447] **viXra:1704.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-30 14:28:10*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The latest experimental value of 67.80 (Km/s)/Mpc for Hubble's constant supports 8-fold supersymmetry and cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2446] **viXra:1704.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-30 15:22:59*

**Authors:** Michael J. Burns

**Comments:** 2 Pages. mburns92003@yahoo.com

The experimental data is beyond dispute. But it relates to the change in composition over time of the class of supernovae that are observed. Instead, the interpretation of the data in terms of the simplest kind of acceleration contains an error in sign. Actually, a recent acceleration of the earth away from the most distant supernovae would leave all of of the supernovae at intermediate distances with a higher - not lower - relative red shift for their distances, because these supernovae would have not yet accelerated. My paper, “Neglect of General Covariance” describes the many ways in which the cosmological equation and the Friedmann coordinates violate the principles of relativity. And these violations provide cover for the concept of dark energy and its breaking of the conservation laws. There is a version of dark energy which is conserved, but this does lead to the error in sign. Annotations to this argument follow below. Then the ugliness of the alternative to the error in sign is physically described, and the conservation laws are defended.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2445] **viXra:1704.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-28 18:11:58*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, Time is formulated as a measure of the average volume of a time quantum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1667] **viXra:1707.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-06 09:26:52*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, the integration of a function over a curved manifold is examined in the case where the curvature of the manifold results in a varying density of coordinates over which the function is being integrated where the upper bound of the of integration is infinity. It is shown that when the coordinate density varies in such a case, the true area under the curve is not correctly calculated by traditional techniques of integration, but must account for the varying coordinate density. This integration technique is then applied to the Schwarzschild metric of General Relativity to examine the proper time taken for a freefalling observer to reach the event horizon of a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1666] **viXra:1706.0571 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-21 05:21:15*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The frame-dragging effect tells us that when a body rotates around itself the metric of spacetime around its surface is dragged. This occurs, for example, in the metric of the spacetime around the Earth surface, and produces the well-known phenomenon of shifting of the orbits of the satellites near the Earth. Such as the orbits of the satellites, the force lines of the gravitational field produced by rotating bodies are also affected by the frame-dragging effect. This means that the direction of a gravitational central force in a rotating body should be radially displaced, in respect to their initial position. In this work, we show that the radial displacement angle depends on the angular velocity of the rotating body, and that this fact point to the possibility of controlling the direction of these gravitational central forces, simply by controlling the angular velocity of the rotating body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1665] **viXra:1706.0571 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-06 17:02:35*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The frame-dragging effect tells us that when a body rotates around itself the metric of spacetime around its surface is dragged. This occurs, for example, in the metric of the spacetime around the Earth surface, and produces the well-known phenomenon of shifting of the orbits of the satellites near the Earth. Such as the orbits of the satellites, the force lines of the gravitational field produced by rotating bodies are also affected by the frame-dragging effect. This means that the direction of a gravitational central force in a rotating body should be radially displaced, in respect to their initial position. In this work, we show that the radial displacement angle depends on the angular velocity of the rotating body, and that this fact point to the possibility of controlling the direction of these gravitational central forces, simply by controlling the angular velocity of the rotating body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1664] **viXra:1706.0571 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-05 12:41:27*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1663] **viXra:1706.0541 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-16 03:11:43*

**Authors:** BuMe Rang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Simple theory of "Black" Hole

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1662] **viXra:1706.0541 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-29 13:22:55*

**Authors:** Bume Rang

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The simple "Black" Hole theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1661] **viXra:1706.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-21 11:13:29*

**Authors:** Marco Pereira

**Comments:** 107 Pages.

This paper presents a simple and purely geometrical Grand Unification Theory. Quantum Gravity, Electrostatic and Magnetic interactions are shown in a unified framework. Newton's Gravitational Law, Gauss' Electrostatics Law and Biot-Savart's Electromagnetism Law are derived from first principles.
Gravitational Lensing and Mercury Perihelion Precession are replicated within the theory. Unification symmetry is defined for all the existing forces. This alternative model does not require Strong and Electroweak forces.
A 4D Shock-Wave Hyperspherical topology is proposed for the Universe which together with a Quantum Lagrangian Principle and a Dilator based model for matter result in a quantized stepwise expansion for the whole Universe along a radial direction within a 4D spatial manifold. The Hypergeometrical Standard Model for matter, Universe Topology and a new Law of Gravitation are presented. Newton's and Einstein's Laws of Gravitation and Dynamics, Gauss Law of Electrostatics among others are challenged when HU presents Type 1A Supernova Survey results. HU's SN1a results challenge current Cosmological Standard Model (L-CDM) by challenging its Cosmological Ruler d(z). SDSS BOSS dataset is shown to support a new Cosmogenesis theory and HU proposal that we are embedded in a 5D Spacetime. The Big Bang Theory is shown to be challenged by SDSS BOSS dataset. Hyperspherical Acoustic Oscillations are demonstrated in the SDSS BOSS Galaxy density. A New de-Broglie Force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1660] **viXra:1706.0396 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-30 23:23:19*

**Authors:** Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper endeavours to explain why light and elementary particles have dual wave and
particle characteristics, and proposes a physical interpretation of Huygens’ principle. It also
explains why the famous Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result,
and to show that it did, in fact, detect the ether but was not correctly interpreted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1659] **viXra:1706.0374 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-04 11:50:46*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Abstract. We investigate time dilation under the conditions of the theory of special relativity (TSR). The arguments utilise variants of the Lorentz transformation and a direct comparison of clock readings at identical positions. The observations of time depends on (the location of) the clocks used for time registrations we investigate various observational principles. Three principles are in focus: Reference frame applying a single clock (SC); reference frame applying multiple clocks (MC); and the completely symmetric situation between reference frames. Further, the approach introduces an auxiliary reference frame and thereby gives a means to define simultaneity at different locations. We apply the approach to present a thorough discussion of the travelling twin example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1658] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-24 06:58:57*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1657] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-21 02:36:23*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1656] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-19 16:56:09*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1655] **viXra:1706.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-10 03:13:32*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 66 Pages. Spanish

We understand the principle of Mach as the assertion that the inertia of a body is not an intrinsic quality of matter, but is the effect of the action of the whole Universe. The forces of inertia act when a body is accelerated. But if we assume that is the Universe that is accelerated, it will generate a gravitational inductive force on the body, which can be understood as the force of inertia.
In this research we calculated the gravitational induction produced on a body by the accelerated movement of the whole of the Universe. We used the linearized theory of General Relativity, therefore the results are approximate, but sufficient to give us an idea of how the Universe conforms the inertia of the bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1654] **viXra:1706.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-05 14:44:43*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The model gives a vacuum solution where the center of gravity is an infinitely dense point in time rather than space. The internal metric is dynamic and describes two phases. In the first phase, space starts off infinitely sparse and then collapses to infinite density in a finite proper time measured by an inertial observer. In the second phase, the space expands out from this infinitely dense state (the temporal center of gravity) back to the zero density state. The geodesics remain well defined when traversing this infinitely dense state. It is shown that the second phase corresponds to current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. With a simple coordinate change we get a metric resembling the FRW metric for flat space with a time dependent scale factor. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1653] **viXra:1705.0366 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-03 06:19:55*

**Authors:** Sergey Shevchenko, Vladimir Tokarevsky

**Comments:** Two versions: Engl. pages 1-9 and Russian pages 10-20

in the paper a few problems relating to the special relativity theory are considered, real SRT problems that arise from the self-inconsistence of the theory, and so limit its correct application; and imaginary, when at some “refuting of SRT” the notion “relative speed” is erroneously applied, first of all the “(c±V)” problem. Applicability of the Tangherlini transformations is briefly considered also

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1652] **viXra:1705.0366 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-28 07:19:18*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** Englosh, pages 1-9; and Russian, pages 9-19, versions

in the paper a few problems relating to the special relativity theory are considered, real SRT problems that arise from the self-inconsistence of the theory, and so limit its correct application; and imaginary, when at some “refuting of SRT” the notion “relative speed” is erroneously applied, first of all the “(c±V)” problem. Applicability of the Tangherlini transformations is briefly considered also

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1651] **viXra:1705.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-17 02:21:23*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 8 pages

Although mass is a very common and fundamental concept, but the problem of mass is still one of the key problems of modern Physics, up to the present the experts are not able to reach a consensus. In this paper, we have discussed the problems relating to mass, energy and matter, and been aware that mass is neither the amount of matter an object has, nor the measure of inertia and the source of gravitational field, whereas energy is the measure of the inertia of an object and also is the source of gravitational field. As before, Mass being used to measure the inertia and to calculate gravitational force is just an approximate method only for very slowly moving bodies and particles for which the rest energy is much larger than the kinetic energy. Actually the concept of mass is a superfluous artificial concept, just rest energy divided by a constant (If selecting c=1, the mass is exactly equal to the rest energy), does not have any other meaning. If the concept of mass is completely superseded by energy(or more precisely, rest energy), the physical equations are completely perfect, their meanings are clearer, and the puzzles such as the relationship of mass and energy, nature of matter, the essence of the weak equivalence principle, the physical meaning of Higgs mechanism, etc., can be made clearer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1650] **viXra:1705.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-09 21:02:32*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 9 Pages. update version

In present paper, we have proposed an alternative theory on the spacetime of non-inertial reference frame (NRF) which bases on the requirement of general completeness (RGC) and the principle of equality of all reference frames (PERF). The RGC is that the physical equations used to describe the dynamics of matter and/or fields should include the descriptions that not only the matter and/or fields are at rest, but also they move relative to this reference frame, and the structure of the spacetime of reference frame has been considered. The PERF is that any reference frame can be used to describe the motion of matter and/or fields. The spacetime of NRF is inhomogeneous and deformed caused by the accelerating motion of the reference frame. The inertial force is the manifestation of deformed spacetime. The Riemann curvature tensor of the spacetime of NRF equals zero, but the Riemann-Christoffel symbol never vanishs no matter what coordinate system is selected in the NRF. The physical equations satisfied the RGC remain covariance under the coordinate transformation between the reference frames. Mach’s principle is incorrect. The problem of spacetime of NRF can be solved without considering gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1649] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-21 15:44:27*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Three references added. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1648] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-05 05:54:58*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Typos corrected and text expanded. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1647] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-01 14:07:08*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. One reference added and text expanded.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1646] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-23 04:44:13*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Two references added and text expanded. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1645] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-20 06:03:24*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. One reference added. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1644] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-16 11:20:14*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Title changed. Final version.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1643] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-15 10:19:49*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. One reference added and typos corrected. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1642] **viXra:1705.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-12 05:54:22*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Two references added. Final version.

We model the physicalized manifestation of the Universe as bootstrapped ‘Brain of the Universe’ and seek evidence for its brain-like functional organization, resulting from the Holon of the Universe facilitated by space-like correlated gravitational holomovement and rotation. The orthodox model of gravity, based on "tangent vectors" and "curvature of spacetime", is replaced with the proposal that the physicalized clocks and rulers are very flexible ‘jackets’ (cf. John’s jackets parable in CEN.pdf), which can slow down or speed up viz. shrink or expand, leading to perfectly correlated Brain of the Universe living in so-called ‘relative scale’ (RS) spacetime. The question of Universal Mind, complementing the Brain of the Universe, pertains to physical theology and the doctrine of trialism, and was examined in previous publications (Sec. 6 in spacetime.pdf).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1641] **viXra:1705.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-10 20:45:19*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Text expanded for clarity. Comments welcome.

We model the physicalized manifestation of the Universe as bootstrapped ‘Brain of the Universe’ and seek evidence for its brain-like functional organization, resulting from the Holon of the Universe facilitated by space-like correlated gravitational holomovement and rotation. The orthodox model of gravity, based on "tangent vectors" and "curvature of spacetime", is replaced with the proposal that the physicalized clocks and rulers are very flexible ‘jackets’ (cf. John’s jackets parable in CEN.pdf), which can slow down or speed up viz. shrink or expand, leading to perfectly correlated Brain of the Universe living in so-called ‘relative scale’ (RS) spacetime. The question of Universal Mind, complementing the Brain of the Universe, pertains to physical theology and the doctrine of trialism, and was examined in previous publications (Sec. 6 in spacetime.pdf).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1640] **viXra:1705.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-11 09:43:59*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is felt by many that faster-than-light particles (tachyons) exist though none has been detected so far. Is it really possible to detect these particles? Some methods are brought up.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1639] **viXra:1705.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-09 21:16:06*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is felt by many that faster-than-light particles (tachyons) exist though none has been detected
so far. Is it really possible to detect these particles? Some methods are brought up.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1638] **viXra:1705.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-08 16:36:42*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology