[19] **viXra:1210.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-13 06:28:17*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Changed signs in equations and changed interpretations (and figures)

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave equations for ‘free’ space have serious draw backs in that they only determine the speed of the wave (as if unrelated to any reference frame) but do not determine the waveform, the frequency, the amplitude and the direction of propagation of the wave at every point in ‘free’ space. In short they do not show any ‘connection’ of the wave with its source. The wave is ‘detached’ from its source. The fundamental problem with Maxwell’s equations for ‘free’ space is the assumption of ‘free’ space in which even the source of the wave has no effect at all on the wave. EM waves are just travelling disturbances on (of) static electric and magnetic fields and these disturbances always originate from changing charges or changing current. Maxwell’s equations do not show how these changes in static fields will be propagated to all points in space. This means they do not show the interaction of the static and dynamic fields. Maxwell’s original equations for ‘free’ space are useful only for qualitative study and understanding of the mechanism of the propagation of electromagnetic waves, by the interaction of E and B fields. In this paper, additional terms to be added to the original Maxwell’s equations and a theory of electrostatic and magneto-static fields as the 'mediums' for electromagnetic waves have been proposed.
One of the important consequences of these equations , assuming they are correct, is if there is any dependence of the speed of the resulting electromagnetic wave function on distance r, angles Θ and ϕ relative to the source (at least on distance r for simplicity). Intuitively, we can guess that this dependence exists by looking at the equations because Es and Bs (the static fields) and E and B (the dynamic fields) depend on r. Another important consequence may be that the speed of EM waves is always greater than the ‘free’ space speed, which is the lowest limit. In this case, the speed of the EM wave (light) is defined and will be approximately constant only relative to its source and hence Einstein’s postulate of the constancy of speed of light for all observers will be wrong. An observer in relative motion with respect to a light source not only measures a different light speed, but also will observe a different light beam due to Doppler effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1210.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-30 10:39:33*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 graph

It is required for a human to travel to various Star Systems to approach the velocity of light in vacuo. Mainstream and popular interpretation of travel velocity requirements is flawed. An explanation is provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1210.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-23 16:58:35*

**Authors:** Aleksandr V. Bukalov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 13th International Gamow Summer School “Astronomy and Beyond: Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Cosmomicrophysics, Radio-astronomy and Astrobiology”, 2013, Odessa, Ukraine.

Application of a quantum theory of superconductivity to the formation of the primary dark energy at the Planck scale allows us to solve the cosmological constant problem and to obtain the observed value of the dark energy density, corresponding to PLANK results. It is oﬀered the new model of exponential expansion and the hot stage of the Universe. It is followed that the modern evolution of the universe can be viewed as a process of phase transition, and the physical time is an indicator of this transition.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1210.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-25 17:44:06*

**Authors:** Steven Zins

**Comments:** 6 pages

Dayton Miller performed an experiment in 1925-1926 that, at face value, contradicted relativity theory. The strongest argument against Miller's experiment is that subsequent Michelson-Morley experiments yielded increasing consistency with relativity, disagreeing with Miller's results. But subsequent experiments were not valid replications of Miller's. Specifically, they failed to replicate the medium in the light path and the scale of Miller's experiment. A valid replication must either be exact or be demonstrably equivalent with regard to its crucial sensing region. The unexplained effects seen by Miller demand exact replication. The proposed experiment is crucial for special relativity but is more than a replication of Miller. This proposed Crucial Experiment should use a Michelson-Morley apparatus with a 4.25 m arm length as Miller used. The novelty of this experiment is that the light path should be in a chamber that can be operated from near zero to one atmosphere. Predictions: (1) At one atmosphere, the result will agree with Miller's and contradict relativity. (2) Near zero atmospheres, the result will agree with Georg Joos' and agree with relativity. (3) Intermediate pressures will yield intermediate results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1210.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-25 12:49:09*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract
Mass energy is created or destroyed according to ‘the law of accelerating universe’.
The universe didn’t start as infinitely dense and infinitely hot space time and mass energy as stated in the Big Bang model. It started as a ‘Nano Bang’ (‘Micro Bang’, ‘Small Bang’) , with infinitely small mass energy and space time and infinitely small rate of expansion. At the beginning the rate of expansion was infinitely small, or zero. So the universe must ACCELERATE to expand. The accelerating expansion of the universe we observe today is just a continuation of the initial accelerating expansion during the ‘moment’ of the ‘Nano Bang’ and is not due to an ‘initial’ cosmic velocity of the ‘Big Bang’ model. The universe accelerated/ is accelerating not only in its expansion but also in its mass energy content and time. Time itself is accelerating. Thus the long standing paradigm of mass energy conservation should be abandoned. The same force that caused the accelerating expansion of the universe during the moment of the ‘Small Bang’ may be causing the accelerating expansion of the universe we observe today. The total energy of the universe is not zero! It is positive! We are already observing the accelerating expansion of the universe. The law of conservation of mass energy applies only ‘horizontally’ and not ‘vertically’. This means that the law of conservation of mass energy only applies at a specific point in time of the universe. Mass energy at a specific time is conserved and cannot be created or destroyed arbitrarily within a short period of time. Mass energy is created or destroyed according to a certain law of creation and destruction of mass energy: the LAW OF ACCELERATING UNIVERSE or the LAW OF CREATION.
Therefore, the accelerating expansion of the universe indicates that the universe came into existence out of nothing, ‘accelerating’ continuously from nothing to something.
The universe may not be considered simply as mass energy and space time. We may understand it better as a ’biological’ entity. Just as a living organism is not considered as simply mass energy and space time, the same may apply to the universe. So the universe should have a ‘DNA’, which contains all the information about the structure of the universe at any point in time. At the beginning of the universe, the ‘seed’ of the universe came into existence out of nothing and this seed had its DNA. Thus, birth, growth and death should also be nature of the universe just as these are the nature of living organisms.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1210.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-21 13:07:59*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We examine the role of particle nucleation in the initial universe, and argue that there is a small effect due to particle nucleation in terms of lowering initial temperature, in tandem with energy density and scale factor contribution. If such scaling exists as a major order effect, then quenching of temperature proportional to a vacuum nucleation at or before the electroweak era is heavily influenced by a number, n, which is either a quantum number (quantum cosmology) or a ‘particle count at/before the electro weak era.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1210.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-20 01:15:55*

**Authors:** Robert Louis Kemp

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Copyright © 2012 - Super Principia Mathematica – The Rage to Master Conceptual & Mathematical Physics

In this paper the various “presence of matter” and “absence of matter” conditions, in gravitational field regions, of the vacuum of space-time, in the General Relativity (GR) Einstein Field Equations (EFEs) is discussed. The Static & Dynamic Vacuum Solutions of the (EFEs) and the various conditions are discussed using simplified Classical Mathematics and Mechanics.
Predicted in the various “absence of matter” or “presence of matter” conditions of the (EFEs), “empty space” is shown to be filled with “Electromagnetic Heat Radiation Energy” or “Dark Expansion Space Energy” in gravitational field regions, of the vacuum of space-time, where there is no mass present in that location. Furthermore, it will be validated in the mathematics, of General Relativity (GR), and the Einstein Field Equations (EFEs), that the solution of the Black Hole Event Horizon, describes the maximum curvature, and the smallest, infinitesimal, most minimum space-time distance, of a gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1210.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-18 11:14:12*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The theory is the general theory of the special relativity theory. You can consider that this theory treats the universe that can treat an inertial system. In this time, the light’s velocity is instead of . In this theory, be able to consider that the light has the velocity instead of .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1210.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-18 01:42:34*

**Authors:** C. Granger

**Comments:** 6 pages primary manuscript; 13 pages supplementary information.

An effective tool for analyzing correlations in disparate dynamical systems is the analogical model; such models can provide insights otherwise unrealistic to obtain. Analogical analysis can be done with any suitably defined set of object theories, but the challenge is in discovering models capable of yielding physical insights. Here I show such an analogical model between momentum and charge; analysis suggests voltage is limited to the speed of light and that capacitive charge becomes unbounded with voltage. If confirmed, the ability to manipulate substantial mass-energy appears possible via electrodynamic means. Possible connections with dark energy and dark matter, vacuum energy, and the weak field are discussed in the supplementary information (SI).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1210.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-19 15:29:56*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The aim of this article is to show that the annihilation paradigma in Standard Model does not reconcile with classical electrodynamics, which in turn predicts the existence of electromagnetically opaque, i.e.: dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1210.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-16 10:01:57*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 3 Pages. List of predictions and observational support are followed by general comments

Fourteen definitive predictions of Discrete Scale Relativity are listed and some general comments are included at the end. Four of the predictions have been vindicated or are strongly supported by observational evidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1210.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-13 22:54:43*

**Authors:** Ioannis Haranas, Omiros Ragos

**Comments:** 4 Pages. NA

There has been a renewed interest in the recent
years in the possibility of deviations from the predictionsof Newton’s “inverse-square law” of universal gravitation.One of the reasons for renewing this interest lies in various
theoretical attempts to construct a unified elementary particle theory, in which there is a natural prediction of new forces over macroscopic distances. Therefore the existence of such a force would only coexist with gravity, and in principle could only be detected as a deviation from the inverse square law, or in the “universality of free fall” experiments.New experimental techniques such that of Sagnac interferometry can help explore the range of the Yukawa correction λ ≥ 10^14 m where such forces might be present. It may be,that future space missions might be operating in this range
which has been unexplored for very long time. To study the effect of the Yukawa correction to the gravitational potential and its corresponding signal delay in the vicinity of the Sun, we use a spherically symmetric modified space time
metric where the Yukawa correction its added to the gravitational potential. Next, the Yukawa correction contribution to the signal delay is evaluated. In the case where the distance
of closest approach is much less than the range λ,
it results to a signal time delay that satisfies the relation t (b <λ)∼=37.7t (b = λ).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1210.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-21 10:15:26*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen Ahmed

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is shown , by clear proofs , that , it is impossible to derive magnetism from electricity, from Coulomb's law and Lorentz transformation . It is also shown by a simple thought experiment that a velocity dependant correction to Coulomb's law is a necessary result of Special Relativity . A new method to derive magnetism from electricity based on a modified covariant form of Coulomb's law is given . The method used in derivation and the formulation shown to be consistent with the theory of relativity and the facts of electromagnetic relations

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1210.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-10 04:22:34*

**Authors:** Miroslav Sukenik, Jozef Sima

**Comments:** 7 Pages. No comment

Abstract: There is a paradigm stating that gravitational field is of non-localizable and stationary nature. Contrary, in our model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe it is hypothesized that gravitational field is always localizable and nonstationary. This assumption allows localizing its energy density. In this contribution, a solution of the issue is offered. This solution can be extrapolated to both the past and future times. Of the solution, the existence of cosmological member and, in turn, the the question of existence of „dark energy“ follows. Moreover, each black hole represents an independent Universe being a subsytem of the infinite Multiverse.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1210.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-17 15:37:33*

**Authors:** Madonna-Megara Holloway, Mark A. B. Garstin, Djwhal Khul

**Comments:** 68 Pages.

The NOE Hypothesis concepts are extracted from the combined work of Blavatsky, Bailey and Besant. The original paper, “A New Cosmological Model for Matter, Energy, Sound, the Origin of the Universe and Gravity” is intended as a bridging paper between esoteric philosophy fact and scientific hypothesis . The concepts have been translated into the language of physics and chemistry from the often abstruse language found in philosophy. This paper expands on the concepts and unifies General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and Consciousness. String Theory is superseded by the Spirilla Hypothesis. Origins of the Universe, definitions for time and space, gravity and Quantum Entanglement are discussed relative to life.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1210.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-09 11:18:33*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The universe’s age almost same the moving light’s lifetime in the special relativity theory. Therefore, be able to consider that the universe’s age effects the special relativity theory of the initial universe. Because the universe’s present age is very huge, consider that this age is the constant time in the special relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1210.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-08 18:19:22*

**Authors:** S.Baune

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Official and full version:Official version @: Physics Essays, Vol. 22, pp. 515, (2009)

We consider the detection of a superluminal signal. We show that there exists a particular inertial frame in which the superluminal signal is not uniquely localizable and that it is detected everywhere at the same instant within the inertial frame. This leads to a novel paradox to which we attribute the relativity of simultaneity.
keywords: superluminal, simultaneity, paradox, tachyons, localization.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1210.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-08 19:04:42*

**Authors:** Richard J. Benish

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 2012 FQXi Essay Contest Entry

Einstein built general relativity (GR) on the foundation of special relativity (SR) with the help of an analogy involving uniformly rotating bodies. Among this analogy's most useful implications are those concerning the need for non-Euclidean geometry. Although GR is well-supported by observations, a curious fact is that almost all of them are of phenomena over the surfaces of large gravitating bodies; i.e., they support the *exterior* solution. Whereas the *interior* solution remains untested. In particular, the prediction that the rate of a clock at the center of a gravitating body is a local minimum remains untested. The Newtonian counterpart for this prediction of GR is the common oscillation prediction for a test mass dropped into a hole through a larger gravitating body. The main point in what follows is that this prediction needs to be checked by direct observation. Einstein's analogy serves as a launching pad for bringing out the significance of this experiment as well as exposing possible weaknesses in a few other assumptions, which are then also duly questioned. To facilitate looking upon these problems with fresh eyes, we invoke an imaginary civilization whose members know a lot about rotation but nothing about gravity. Their home is a large and remote rotating body whose mass is too small to make gravitational effects easily noticeable. What would these people think of Einstein's rotation analogy?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1210.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-08 21:20:06*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Chinese

See paper (in Chinese)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology