[36] **viXra:1906.0576 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-30 14:03:25*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The dimensionless constant 1.0000055 appears twice in MHCE8S theory for production of the proton and neutron and the dimensionless constant 1.000055 appears once for a date of extinction. The dimensionless constants 273.55 and 273.55488 also make single appearances

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1906.0515 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-08 06:07:45*

**Authors:** R. Winnubst

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Quantum Physics (QP) perfectly describes subatomic behaviour, yet it offers no fundamental explanation as to why it works. Moreover, it has weird asymmetric concepts like quanta, probability and entanglement and suffers from paradoxes. For nearly 100 years, physicists tried but failed to fundamentally grasp QP. This means either Nature is extremely complex or there is a crucial flaw in the physics we take for granted. Surprisingly, it is the latter:
Used to only the physics of the ‘big’, physicists implicitly assumed that the relation between the four functions of our continuum (Grid, Clock, Potential, Inertia) and the SI base units (Space, Time, Energy, Mass) also applies at the subatomic scale. This assumption is incorrect: In this paper we will unambiguously prove that functions and units pivot symmetrically at the subatomic scale:
SPACE and ENERGY switch orthogonally in their function of ‘Grid’ and ‘Potential’; Likewise, TIME and MASS switch in their function of ‘Clock’ and ‘Inertia’. In practical terms this subatomic ‘energymass’ continuum solves e.g. particle wave duality: A high-energy particle will increasingly display its spiralled ‘Energy as a grid’ property, next to its ‘Energy as potential’ particle property in spacetime.
As demonstrated in this paper, this classic dual symmetric setup solves all QP paradoxes and explains gravity on all scales, linking it to electromagnetism. Additionally, it solves all major macro-issues like dark mass, dark energy, corona heating, matter / antimatter asymmetry.
We have finally arrived at Einstein’s dream of a symmetric construct for physics on all scales. Yet, it remains to be seen if our institutions are willing to accept that physics at its very core is governed by utter binary simplicity in stead of extreme QP complexity…
‘…God does not play dice, he just plays on a double chessboard...’

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1906.0505 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-27 06:44:09*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We consider a static spherically symmetric distribution of matter. Time intervals for a free falling and a stationary clock are compared. This does not agree with that calculated using Newton approximation to gravity and the equivalence principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1906.0480 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-30 17:44:53*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to my theory [1], the space/medium field is an energy field comprised from the sum of the gravitational potentials of all masses in the Universe, with a total value of c^2 in empty space. The Frame Dragging effect is due to a percentage of that total energy being set in motion. The inertia of objects in this energy field is determined by reference to the state of motion of the field, thus if the field itself is set in motion, it affects the state of motion of objects within the field too. Due to this effect on the inertia, there is a difference in the energy of an object in orbit around a large spinning body compared to its orbits around a large stationary body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1906.0464 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-23 17:34:13*

**Authors:** Manuel Urueña Palomo

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a new model that describes the interior of a black hole. The behaviour of spacetime and matter within a real black hole is discussed by the use of the theory of general relativity and relativistic particle physics, together with the fundamental symmetries in physics. Based on the mathematical indications and predictions of these theories, it is suggested that a time transformation takes place at the black hole’s event horizon, changing the signature of energies and masses of all particles inside the black hole. These negative mass particles would behave antigravitationally inside this causally disconnected region of space, avoiding the collapse of the central singularity. It is demonstrated that the possibility of the time inversion does not require modifications of other current theories and it does not contradict any empirical results either. Additionally, this model solves fundamental problems of the real entity of the black hole, such as the gravitational singularity or the information paradox, and clarifies other questions like the Hawking radiation mechanism by which it reduces the mass of the black hole and the question of what is the mass of the black hole assigned to. A way to test one case of this model is proposed by simulating it to explain supermassive black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1906.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-19 11:19:07*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The simplified introduction of ether and the theory of general relativity, allows us through an imaginary experiment, to demonstrate the electromagnetic nature of the gravitational field, to calculate the theoretical value of G and the theoretical value of the proton ray and experimental through the contributions of mass to the proton.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1906.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-19 12:27:20*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

We find the energy-momentum density of electromagnetic field by energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic field in Rindler space-time. We find the energy-momentum density's conservation law of electromagnetic field in Rindler Space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1906.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-19 18:41:26*

**Authors:** Georgi Stanimirov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We present evidence that physicists at the turn of the 20th century, including Lorentz, Poincare, and Einstein, have collectively misconstrued the result of the influential Michelson-Morley experiment from 1887. Physicists have incorrectly assumed that the experi¬ment measured the speed of light in space, when in actual fact it measured the speed of light inside the earth's atmosphere.
In light of these findings, we conclude that the Special Theory of Relativity is not reflective of observation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1906.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-15 15:03:16*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The double-slit interference shows that the product of the wavelength and the distance
from the slit plate to the projection screen is conserved in all inertial reference frames.
This conservation ensures that the observed wavelength in any inertial reference frame
is identical to the original wavelength in the rest frame of the light source.
According to the Doppler effect, the observed frequency depends on the choice of inertial reference frame.
With the same wavelength but different frequency, the speed of light is different in a
different inertial reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1906.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-17 11:52:43*

**Authors:** Gerd Pommerenke

**Comments:** 321 Pages. German version of viXra:1310.0189

Bezugnehmend auf eine früher formulierte Idee von LANCZOS wird eine spezielle Lösung der MAXWELL-Gleichungen vorgestellt, die ein spezielles metrisches Wellenfeld beschreibt, das die Ursache aller relativistischen Effekte und der Gravitation sein soll. Die Gravitation läßt sich zurückführen auf ebendieses elektromagnetische Feld. Interessanterweise ähneln die Eigenschaften dieses Feldes denen, die das bereits seit einiger Zeit postulierten HIGGS-Feld haben müßte, um Widersprüche mit gesicherten Erkenntnissen und Beobachtungen zu vermeiden.
Basierend auf dieser Lösung wird eine alternative Vakuum-Ausbreitungsfunktion für EM-Wellen entwickelt, die im Gegensatz zur bisher als einzig richtig angenommenen Standardlösung für ein verlustfreies Medium auch solche Effekte, wie die kosmologische Rotverschiebung und die nicht erwarteten Meßergebnisse des SN-Ia-Kosmologie-Experiments erklärt, ohne "Dunkle Materie" o.ä. zu bemühen. Ein ganzer Abschnitt ist den Ergebnissen dieses Experiments und deren Interpretation gewidmet. Die Beziehungen zwischen den fundamentalen Naturkonstanten, bei denen es sich nicht immer um echte Konstanten handelt, werden genauer untersucht. So gelingt es, einen Ausdruck für die Berechnung des HUBBLE-Parameters allein aus lokal meßbaren Werten, zu erarbeiten. Ausgehend von der alternativen Vakuum-Ausbreitungsfunktion wird im Anhang die Frage "Ist der Verlauf der Planckschen Strahlungsfunktion das Resultat der Existenz einer oberen Grenzfrequenz des Vakuums?" genauer untersucht. Kein Standardmodell, keine Inflation, keine Dunkle Materie, exakte Kosmologie. Fragen und Anregungen an gerdpommerenke@arcor.de.
English version see viXra:1310.0189

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1906.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-18 04:12:05*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We make some observations regarding a paper by Gianluca Geloni, Vitali Kocharyan and Evgeni Saldin (2016 Misconceptions Regarding Conventional Coupling of Fields and Particles in XFEL Codes, DESY 16017, ISSN 0418-9837).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1906.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-18 04:19:30*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We make some comments on “a realistic experiment to determinate eventual anisotropies in the one-way speed of light independently of specific clock synchronization procedures. This establishes that we are not free to define either the one-way speed of light or time itself and must rely instead on further empirical observations to clarify these concepts, contrary to what was originally proposed in 1905” by Manuel Ricou [Physics Essays, 30, 4 (2017)].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1906.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-16 22:47:04*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Einstein argued that in his Special Relativity Theory all systems are equal. However, Einstein refused to give a simple solution to the twin paradox, which I showed earlier. Because the solution to the twin paradox shows the inequality of the reference systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1906.0299 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-02 05:47:42*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Weber's electrodynamics formula for the force of interaction between moving charged particles, which is a modification of Coulomb's law, may solve many of the paradoxes and puzzles in classical and relativistic electromagnetism. In this paper we propose modification of Newton's law of gravitation according to Weber's formula. This may solve many of the outstanding problems in cosmology such as dark matter, dark energy and the Pioneer anomaly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1906.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-15 14:05:16*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page. I welcome the contribution of Bruce Wallman to my work

Abstract: If the strong force is included in MHCE8S theory a final value of Ho = 74.03 brings in the strong force safely energetically (0.86 %) to the theory whereas a reduction in Ho from 74.03 to 73.24 excludes the strong force by ~ 1/4 %.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1906.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-14 23:51:52*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The speed of light is identical in all directions in the rest frame of the light source.
In a different inertial reference frame, the direction of light may change due to the motion of the light source.
The speed of light in the longitudinal direction of the motion of the light source is compared to
the speed of light in the transverse direction. The result shows that these two speeds are equal only if
the speed of the light source is greater than the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1906.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-10 03:42:20*

**Authors:** José Alberto Pardi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The last century has left us four unresolved facts about a possible Cosmos structure that, according to some theories already existing at that time, it seems that could shed light on some of the great current frustrations of physics, such as, for example, the unification of Quantum Mechanics with the General Theory of Relativity.
These facts have the characteristics of true mysteries because, although their existence has been verified independently by several researchers, they have not found a satisfactory explanation.
They reveal a "fine structure" like that of the H atom, although it is more "discrete" because even though it has some of the characteristics of the quantization of the atom, it does not have all of them and is also less restrictive, more "soft". Due to these characteristics and the lack of an explanation, these facts have fallen into oblivion.
One of the attempts at explanation wrongly used wave mechanics, due to the similarity with the quantization of the atomic orbitals, but the phenomenon is evidently independent of the mass, which makes the use of Quantum Field Theory more plausible.
Although if the basic models of quantum gravity proposed at that time do not fit properly, a review of them shows that if a different constant is used to compute the field energy, everything square up. The computations of the Solar System orbits discretization seem to confirm it.
This article is just an introduction of these mysteries and how they lead to discover a probable fine structure of the Cosmos, giving only a global view of the integration of theories that help explain it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1906.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-13 18:41:59*

**Authors:** Tom Fuchs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I derive an equation to calculate the constant speed needed by an unpowered rocket, such that its crew ages a given time during a trip of a given distance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1906.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-29 08:06:13*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

In this paper, a new theoretical framework for absolute motion and the speed of light is presented. The new theoretical framework consists of two parts: 1. Constancy of phase velocity of light 2. Apparent Source Theory. The theory of constancy of phase velocity of light is a consequence of non-existence of the ether. Thus the phase velocity of light in vacuum is always constant c, irrespective of absolute or relative motion of the light source, the observer and the mirror, for uniform or accelerated motions. The constancy of phase velocity of light leads to a new Exponential Doppler Effect of light: f ' = f eV/c and λ' = λe-V/c , which fulfills the constant phase velocity condition : f ' λ ' = f eV/cλe-V/c = f λ = c . The Exponential Doppler Effect theory can also explain the Ives-Stilwell experiment. The Michelson-Morley disproved the ether hypothesis but failed to detect absolute motion, which was decisively detected by the Silvertooth experiment, in combination with the NASA CMBR anisotropy experiment. Absolute motion is not motion relative to the ether. According to Apparent Source Theory, the effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the point of light emissionrelative to an inertial observer, in the reference frame of an absolutely moving inertial observer. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in point of light emission relative to the observer/detector will create only a small fringe shift for the same reason that an actual/physical change in the source position ( actual change in point of light emission ) will result only in a small fringe shift. This is the small fringe shift observed in the original Michelson-Morley experiment and in the Miller experiments. A profound prediction of Apparent Source Theory regarding the phenomenon of stellar aberration is that the apparent change in star position in not in the same direction as the observer's velocity, but in the opposite direction ! Thus, an observer in absolute motion needs to tilt his telescope backwards, not forward, to see star light.A formulation of Apparent Source Theory for a non-inertial observer is also presented. For a non-inertial observer/detector, the light speed experiment is analyzed based on the following principle.An imaginary inertial observer is assumed who will be at the same point and moving with the same velocity as the instantaneous velocity of the real accelerating observer at the instant of light detection. In other words, the real accelerating observer and the imaginary inertial observer will detect the light at the same point in space, simultaneously, while moving with the same instantaneous velocity.This general formulation ofApparent Source Theory is applied to analyze the Sagnac effect. The Sagnac effect is shown to be an acceleration effect, not an absolute motion effect. Apparent Source Theory is also applied to static electric, magnetic and gravitational sources. A qualitative analysis of Mercury perihelion advance is presented.It is proposed that magnetic field is a form of electric field as described by Weber's formula for electrostatic force between two charges.Weber's formula, which is a modification of Coulomb's formula, is adopted and combined with Apparent Source Theory, which may explain all electromagnetic phenomenon.Analogous Weber's formula for gravitation, which is a modification of Newton's law of gravitation, might solve some of the outstanding problems in physics, such as dark matter, dark energy and Pioneer anomaly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1906.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-10 11:06:38*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

as a continuum to the last paper thr mass vs nothingness9 if you go at a speed that is fast and you have someone going at a slower speed you would beat him in distance covered that fine but then you have to look at stuff happening inside the faster person when he goes faster his subatomic particles spin slower as a compensation to the slower speed the other goes by but then the slower man have to pay tribute to the faster man and so the slower man goes faster in the eye of the faster man

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1906.0158 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-03 10:12:27*

**Authors:** Ting-Hang Pei

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The contribution of the dipole moment in the generation of the gravitational waves is reconsidered here whether it is useful or not. In this article, we find that the contribution of the dipole moment is nonzero. The gravitational wave is responsible for delivering the information of the spacetime structure and gravitational field from the source. Since the general relativity predicts the speed of gravity at most as fast as the speed of light, the change of gravity is not instantaneous and two cosmic objects must produce the gravitational waves to realize the gravitational attraction. The phenomenon that the gravitational wave cannot escape makes the black hole like an isolated system and it results in such black hole losing ability to attract other massive bodies. Therefore, we also discuss the possibility of the gravitational waves escaping the black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1906.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-09 13:31:10*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

E=mc2 is Einstein's mass-energy equation. It is an algebraic equation that uses letters to represent single or composite numbers. Each number type on the right side of the equal sign, mass, distance and a unit time duration are defined as System International basic units. As described, they correctly represent a dimension type. Over a centuries ago, the unit time duration dimension, the second, was improperly used to represent the time duration for the longest wavelength an electromagnetic wave can have and it would have a frequency of “one”. As a result, all current physical law equations that contain a value for electromagnetic wave frequency or the speed of light are using a non-linear scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1906.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-10 10:03:03*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

as in the paper the mass vs nothingness8 if you spin fast you will spin faster than other masses if you spin normal and you will precieve more stuff about normal spin objects and since there is not much to see about the normal spin objects the faster spin masses see the normal spin masses spin faster and if you spin slower you will precieve less about normal spin objects and so the slower spin masses would have more to see about the normal spin masses and so the slower spin masses see the normal spin masses slower hence the time dilation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1906.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-10 09:23:17*

**Authors:** Krzysztof Sudlitz

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the following work, a hypothesis is proposed in which the curvature of space modifies the basic equations of electrodynamics. This is done based on the assumption that the universe is a three-dimensional sphere in four-dimensional space. The modification of the equations results in the slowing of the speed of light over very large distances, which results in the observed redshift of distant galaxies. An experiment is proposed that would ultimately validate or refute the hypothesis: the experiment would require a direct comparison of the angles of incidence and reflection of light from very distant galaxies, and would need to be performed in outer space to avoid atmospheric blur.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1906.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-08 07:29:57*

**Authors:** Bruce Wallman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

There is an open question in cosmology about the significance of the difference between the 2016 Planck collaboration value H0=66.93±0.62 km/s/Mpc and the 2016 Riess et al value H0=73.24±1.74 km/s/Mpc. This paper shows that both the Planck collaboration and Riess et al values are valid. Tracing the cosmological redshift z from SN1a several thousand megaparsecs in the past to those that exploded closer to today describes an increase in our perception of Hv as distance to us lessens. A best fit power function of vr=73.227*Dp0.9907 for recessional velocity versus proper distance (where vr is recessional velocity and Dp is proper distance) is derived connecting these two values of H0 using 1836 SN1a in the NED database3. Taking the derivative of this formula to get Hubble slope gives the power function Hv=dvr/dDp= 72.546*Dp -0.0093. When this formula is used to describe an extrapolation of the universe from near the Milky Way galaxy to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), it describes a change of about 7 km/s/Mpc in the Hubble value for the observable universe increasing smoothly from 66.4 for our measures at the CMB to 73.4 km/s/Mpc locally as the universe expands. Most of the increase occurs in the last 1000 Mpc as was stated in Riess, Perlmutter, and subsequent SN1a studies. This is consistent with ΛCDM cosmology4. After converting distance in megaparsecs to light-seconds, it is possible to show Hv is an acceleration that varies from 6.45 angstrom/s/lt-s when measuring the CMB to 7.13 angstrom/s/lt-s in the local universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1906.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-08 11:30:26*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The 3-digit dimensional constants 0.511, 15.5, 1.55, and 155 are 4 constants based on the 2 digits 1 and 5 and they appear in 4 places in MHCE8S theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1906.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-08 12:26:20*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** Pages.

Abstract
The new special theory of relativity gives in this paper. The new theory presents the new ideas of the processes occurring inside of the inertial moving systems.
The new theory opens up news laws of motion of light wave inside of moving inertial systems and developing the new leys of physical process.
The potential energy of the inertial moving system depends on its velocity and the conservation law of energy of the moving system are need to achieve a consistent theory of special relativity with absolute time.
All experimental practice of the wide range of moving systems shows the integrity of the findings in this work.
The theoretical and experimental conclusions drawn in this work convincingly confirm the importance and authenticity of these new scientific discoveries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1906.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-07 18:15:12*

**Authors:** Dennis A. Bluver

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, the implications of the Planck Voltage as a universally constant voltage are explored. In particular, a surprising result is demonstrated, which is that the resulting modified voltage transformation laws demand the existence of a gravitational interaction. Therefore, there is a strong suggestion that gravitation and electrostatics can naturally be unified through the existence of the Planck voltage. This is directly analogous to the way that electricity and magnetism are unified through the constancy of the speed of light. The impli- cations and also limitations of this new framework are explored, highlighting the analogy with special relativity. It is believed that the general method of unification through Planck units outlined in this paper may ultimately be very fruitful for the unification of classical fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1906.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-08 01:22:53*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The harmonic mode of standing wave requires the number of nodes to be conserved in all inertial reference
frames. The half wavelength is proportional to the width of the microwave cavity. The same cavity width is observed by
all stationary observers in the same inertial reference frame. All observers observe the same
wavelength from the standing wave in a moving cavity. According to the Doppler effect, the observer will
detect a higher frequency if the microwave cavity is approaching. The observer will detect a lower frequency
if the microwave cavity is receding. With the same wavelength but different frequency, the speed of microwave in
the standing wave is different for different observer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1906.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-05 08:30:08*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Сокращения размеров в Теории Относительности Пуанкаре.И решение парадокса Шеста и Сарая ,впервые за 100 лет

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1906.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-27 19:00:42*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 30 Pages. « Le Monde dans une équation : une réévaluation des rayons cosmiques fossiles de Lemaître » is the French version of «The World in an Equation: A Reappraisal of the Lemaître’s Primeval Cosmic Rays» on viXra.org/abs/1906.0036

Prenant appui sur les phénomènes radioactifs (force faible), Georges Lemaître conçoit, dès 1927, l’univers primitif comme un « quantum super-dense unique », dont la désintégration a donné naissance à tous les composants actuels de l’univers [1, 2]. En s’aidant de la mécanique quantique, il se propose d'expliquer les origines du monde du point de vue de la théorie quantique. Il croit trouver dans les rayons cosmiques la manifestation de la fragmentation initiale. Toutefois, quel que soit la cosmologie adoptée, l’hypothèse de l’atome primitif (big bang froid) n’eut aucune équation pour la soutenir et ne fut pas retenue. Comme tous les autres cosmologistes, il se rabattit sur l’équation Friedmann-Einstein avec une constante cosmologique répulsive qui, d’après les observations de supernovae en fin du millénaire, propulse l’expansion vers l’infini. À cette équation de cosmologie relativiste nous juxtaposons notre équation de « cosmologie quantique ». Nous avons déjà proposé cette équation dans un travail antérieur [3], elle prend sa source dans la mécanique quantique et cadre avec l’hypothèse de « l’atome primitif » de Lemaître. C’est une équation dans lequel le concept de la matière-espace-temps est mathématiquement relié ; la gravitation et l’électromagnétisme sont également liés par l’espace-temps. Un mécanisme décrit comment sont corrélés la vitesse, le temps, la distance, la matière et l’énergie. Nous sommes amenés à constater que la gravité et l’électricité sont deux manifestations distinctes d’un même processus sous-jacent : l’électrogravitation. Pour la première fois, le temps cosmologique, considéré comme un objet physique réel, est intégré à une « une équation cosmologique » qui rend cohérent ce que l’on sait du temps (son origine, son écoulement…), de la matière et de l’espace. Par surcroît, l’équation indique une expansion constamment décélérée. La concentration du milieu matériel et l’importance de l’énergie décroissante du vide concourent à l’augmentation progressive de la pression positive qui devient responsable de la décélération croissante de l’expansion. Est-ce à dire que notre équation nous porte inéluctablement à l’hypothèse de l’atome primitif pour l’ensemble du cosmos ? Certainement pas, puisque notre modèle englobe autant le modèle chaud de Gamow que le modèle froid de Lemaître. L’expression « évolution dynamique » (employée au début par les spécialistes pour les modèles de big bang) convient à notre modèle étant donné qu’il y a à la fois une origine explosive et, tout au long de l’expansion, une désintégration d’une matière hyperdense. La découverte du rayonnement de fond cosmologique a confirmé le modèle de big bang chaud, que Gamow et son équipe ont réalisée. La lumière prédite l’emporta sur les rayons cosmiques (particules) primitifs suggérés par Lemaître. Néanmoins, nous pensons que Lemaître avait également raison. La théorie dite du big bang (explosion cataclysmique singulière), outre qu’elle ne répond pas à des critères élémentaires de la science, est contredite par plusieurs observations dont on se refuse à tenir compte. Par exemple, les travaux des astronomes arméniens nous ont convaincus que l’origine des particules cosmiques résulte non seulement des explosions de supernovae, mais encore de la division de radiogalaxies, non seulement de la mort de mondes, mais encore de leur naissance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1906.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-04 14:09:09*

**Authors:** L.Rimsha, V.Rimsha

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Критика статьи N.Ashby,M.Weiss "Why there is no noon-midnight red shift in GPS"

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1906.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-04 16:52:18*

**Authors:** A.P. Mahtessian, G.S. Karapetian, V.H. Movsisyan, L.A. Mahtessian

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In the present work, on the basis of compilations of supernovae Sne Ia Union and Union2, two cosmological models describing the Universe are considered. One of them (a model with a cosmological constant of zero) was widespread until 1998 when a study of type Ia supernovae showed that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. After that, a model for the case of a flat universe, which is also discussed in this paper, received great recognition.
To accept or reject any cosmological model, it is proposed to carry out a test based on the statement that the absolute magnitude of type Ia supernovae should not depend on the redshift (M_SNeIa≠ M_SNeIa (z)), i.e. these supernovae are distance indicators.
It turns out that the values of the model parameters obtained according to this principle are also confirmed by the Hubble diagram. It is with these data that the best approximation of the observed data is obtained. Mathematical analysis of the Hubble diagram speaks in favor of a model with a cosmological constant of zero. This model also has one important advantage: it does not need to accept the idea of such a hypothetical substance as “Dark Energy”.
Thus, it turns out that we are in open space, filled to about 30% of the critical density of matter, which participates in gravitational interaction and expands with deceleration. This value coincides with the accepted amount of visible and dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1906.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-27 18:53:41*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Based on radioactive phenomena (weak force), Georges Lemaître conceives, as soon as 1927, the primeval universe as a "unique super-dense quantum", whose disintegration gave birth to all the current components of the universe [1, 2]. Using quantum mechanics, he proposes to explain the origins of the world from the point of view of quantum theory. He believes to find in the cosmic rays the manifestation of the initial fragmentation. However, regardless of the adopted cosmology, the hypothesis of the primeval atom (cold big bang) had no equation to support it and was not retained. Like all other cosmologists, he fell back on the Friedmann-Einstein equation with a repulsive cosmological constant which, according to supernova observations at the end of the millennium, propels expansion towards infinity. We juxtapose our equation of "quantum cosmology" to this equation of relativistic cosmology. We have already proposed this equation in an earlier paper [3], it has its source in quantum mechanics and fits Lemaître's hypothesis of the "primeval atom". It's an equation in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electrogravitation. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated in a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter and the space. Moreover, the equation indicates a constantly decelerated expansion. The concentration of the material medium and the importance of the decreasing energy of the vacuum contribute to the progressive increase of the positive pressure which becomes responsible for the increasing deceleration of the expansion. Does this mean that our equation leads us inevitably to the hypothesis of the primeval atom for the whole cosmos? Certainly not, since our model includes both the hot Gamow model and the cold Lemaître model. The term "dynamic evolution" (used in the beginning by specialists for big bang models) is appropriate for our model since there is both an explosive origin and, throughout the expansion, a disintegration of a hyper-dense matter. The discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation has confirmed the hot big bang model that Gamow and his team have achieved. The predicted light prevailed over the primitive cosmic rays (particles) suggested by Lemaitre. Nevertheless, we think that Lemaitre was also right. The so-called big bang theory (singular cataclysmic explosion), in addition to not meeting basic criteria of science, is contradicted by several observations that are ignored. For example, the work of Armenian astronomers has convinced us that the origin of cosmic particles results not only from supernova explosions, but also from the partition of radio galaxies, not only from the death of worlds, but also from their birth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1906.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-15 17:31:14*

**Authors:** Mark Titleman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper puts forward the notion that the universe possesses two scalar fields similar to those proposed by E.T. Whittaker in which waveforms travel longitudinally. It is proposed that these scalar fields form through black holes, creating both normal transverse EM radiation as well as gravity. This conception of the universe opens up new methods of analyzing the universe and black holes, allows for an increase of the speed limit of light to 1.14c within a black hole, applies parsimonious explanations of dark matter and dark energy, and accounts for theories such as MOND. These conclusions are arrived at on the basis of an original cosmology as well as mathematical representations of universal rudiments and gravity. Newton’s gravitational constant is given a range that may be used at long distances.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1906.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-01 12:48:11*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

all objects time dilate just as photons redshift as in my paper photons redshift0 now when all masses start slowing down they vibrate at lower frequencies and they end up seeing stuff slower even thoug they gone at a faster speed and they end up being like at rest and so they see the speed of light constant

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology