[56] **viXra:1904.0587 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-30 14:06:07*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Three times the factor 1.0000055 used to accurately calculate the mass of the proton or neutron in MHCE8S theory also yields 165 MeV partial energy needed for the 3-quark-gluon hadronization process

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[55] **viXra:1904.0586 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-30 14:00:20*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley, the Miller, and other experiments have detected an ``ether wind'' and have stirred a long--standing controversy. The Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) is applied to the measurements of the Miller experiment. The STOE's plenum is comparable to the ether. The result is the divergence of the plenum caused by the Sun and Moon and the measured direction of the ``ether wind'' are at an angle of $ 91^\circ \pm 8^\circ$ with a confidence of $1 \sigma$. This suggests that these experiments are measuring the degree of tilt relative to the plenum divergence. That is, the measurements are not detecting the changing light path that results in the real Lorentz matter contraction hypothesis, but rather the measurements are detecting the changing light speed and direction caused by the divergence of the plenum. The support for the Lorentz matter contraction hypothesis as a real contraction is removed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1904.0579 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-14 08:40:23*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The writing delineates some peculiar aspects of the covariant operator. It appears that the metric coefficients have to disappear.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[53] **viXra:1904.0567 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-29 22:44:56*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

It has now been proved that, in general relativity, gravitational energy,
momentum, stress, force and power do not exist. A new theory of gravitation
is required. In the new theory, gravitational dynamics is expressed in terms
of a field strength tensor. This tensor arises from the scalar, three-vector
structure of time and space.
The theory predicts that longitudinal waves are responsible for the flux of
gravitational energy. It is time to launch a dedicated search for
longitudinal gravitational waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[52] **viXra:1904.0519 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-26 09:09:39*

**Authors:** T H Ray

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Yaneer Bar-Yam1 based his theory of multi-scale variety on the law of requisite variety 2 that underlies information science. Once we have accepted requisite variety as a theorem for complex systems science, we are compelled to ask:
How deep is the structure of complexity? In complex systems science, it has to be deep enough to include gravity, because there can be no coherent system, simple or complex, without negative feedback—and gravity, even though we don’t understand it as a unitary theory, is demonstrably such a universal control (negative feedback) mechanism.
We will introduce a mathematical framework by which irreducibly complex spacetime—as the only independent cosmological variable—has the potential to create and interact with matter, and mediate feedback.
What is the “ ... Many which allows itself to be thought of by us as a One”, in the words of Georg Cantor, 3 such that gravity is contained in the Many that manifests in our rational judgments as a One? The question begs a set-theoretic construction, and thus we present our result in a set-theoretic context.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1904.0518 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-26 09:13:21*

**Authors:** Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Planck length, time and mass follow the Lorentz contraction. The speed of light is different in higher dimensions. The Gravitational Constant not Really Constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1904.0511 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-26 17:10:47*

**Authors:** Ji Xueshi, Ji Yuan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The planet drags the ether around it to move together, and the ether has mass. The density of the ether is distributed according to the size of gravity. The closer to a certain planet, the greater the density of the ether. The higher the density of the ether, the slower the speed of light, and the lower the density of the ether, the faster the speed of light. The higher the density of the ether, the slower the chemical reaction rate and the slower the nuclear physical reaction speed. The T-CUP camera developed by the California Institute of Technology has a shooting speed of 10 trillion frames per second. The camera is placed on an airplane and is flying at a supersonic speed. The camera is used on an airplane to measure the speed of light all directions. If the speed of light does not change, indicates that Einstein's hypothesis is correct, and the revised etheric theory is wrong. If there is an etheric wind, the speed of light that is moving forward is slow, and the speed of light that is backward is faster. Explain that the revised etheric theory is correct and the theory of relativity is wrong.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1904.0500 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-25 09:03:23*

**Authors:** Igor Hrnčić

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This paper puts forward the idea that vacuum is a collection of un-localized quantum oscillators inside a horizon. The characteristics of such vacuum are studied inside the black hole and Hubble horizons. The results suggest that energy is quantized, with the minimal energy depending on the size of the horizon. This suggests that vacuum is more dense in black holes than in the surrounding universe, demanding by continuity the existence of a vacuum halo around every black hole. This vacuum halo could act exactly like dark matter if it exerted no pressure on matter, thus not interacting with matter in any way other than gravitationally. A suitable cosmological model presented here suggests that such vacuum could accelerate the universal expansion. This suggests that the vacuum studied in this paper could successfully stand instead of dark matter, cosmological vacuum and quantum vacuum of quantum theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:1904.0463 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-20 07:50:51*

**Authors:** Manuel Urueña Palomo

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

An expected behaviour of space-time and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, and solving the mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[47] **viXra:1904.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-23 09:15:12*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

why dont masses cover space instantly?because for every new volume of space discovered the masses need to cover the whole space again but why the limit of the speed of light and the slowing of time?because if you want to push forward you need to wait till other masses cover the forward space and there is the need to wait for other masses to cover backwards space

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1904.0449 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-23 11:31:41*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Published as section 8.3 of the book: A. P. Kirilyuk, Theory of Everything, Ultimate Reality and the End of Humanity: Extended Sustainability by the Universal Science of Complexity (LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Beau Bassin, 2017), viXra:1802.0168

Unified and causal complex-dynamic origin of standard (special and general) relativistic and quantum effects revealed previously at the lowest levels of world interaction dynamics is explicitly generalised to all higher levels of unreduced interaction processes, thus additionally confirming the causally complete character of complex-dynamical, naturally quantised relativity, which does not contain any artificially added, abstract postulates. We demonstrate some elementary applications of this generalised quantum relativity at higher levels of complex brain and social interaction dynamics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1904.0444 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-23 22:26:15*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

could we push a photon? no we cant because ots at the speed of light or c constant for speed that is why we end up time dilating when we go at the speed of light

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1904.0443 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-24 02:09:56*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

Parity symmetry maps one object to another object as inverse image. It shows that a displacement and its
inverse image are of the same length. The length of a displacement is conserved in all reference frames.
The wavelength of a wave is the length of the displacement between two adjacent crests.
Therefore, the wavelength is conserved in all reference frames.
However, Doppler effect shows that the frequency of light is not conserved in all inertial reference frames.
As a result, the speed of light is not conserved in all inertial reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1904.0442 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-24 03:17:26*

**Authors:** Nabin Timalsina

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This is continuation of my previous paper " Explaining Magnetism by Relativity"

Fleming's Right Hand Rule and Left Hand Rule for Motors can be explained in very simple way as just 'Relativistic Interaction of Moving Charged particles' which cannot explained by classical electrodynamics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1904.0400 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-24 07:40:05*

**Authors:** Nabin Timalsina

**Comments:** 27 Pages. copyright to writer .

In this paper , equations of Magnetism are rediscovered by using Special Relativity and Coulomb's law with different method and various cases are studied . Magnetic field near a current carrying conductor is redefined as ratio of relativistic electric field experienced by reference frame of a moving charge near the conductor to velocity of that reference frame with respect to the conductor. Mathematically, it is found that the existing formulas of magnetism given by Biot- Savart Law are valid only for normal velocities and completely fail for higher or microscopic velocities of moving charge. 'Fleming's Right/Left Hand Rules' can easily be explained by Relativity as just interaction between charges. Unlike existing idea, a magnet or current carrying conductor can exert some force even on charges at rest. Magnetic field due to a current carrying conductor is nothing but ratio of approximate relativistic electric field to the velocity of reference frame. Lorentz force can be calculated as 'Just Electric Force' rather as 'Sum of Electric and Magnetic Force' by using Relativity. Magnetic force is just an electric force in Relativistic Electrodynamics that could not be explained by Classical Electrodynamics. The values of speed of light in vacuum and permittivity of free space are fundamental and permeability depends upon them given by formula µ = 1/εc^2. It is claimed that "As Maxwell's Equations are based upon existing equations of Magnetism which are only approximation for lower velocities and fail in higher velocities, they are likely to be useless now". It is suggested that, "As Magnetic Force is nothing but Electric Force in Relativistic Electrodynamics, the name of one of the four fundamental forces ; 'Electromagnetic Force' should be changed into just 'Electric Force'." It is claimed that radiations are just non-mechanical waves that can propagate at velocity of light and are not necessarily electromagnetic in nature. Moreover, the writer suggests that electromagnetic waves may not exist at all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1904.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-19 14:56:28*

**Authors:** Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Assume mass is the fifth dimension in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity and transformation of gravity constant between them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1904.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-17 21:10:40*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Discussion about the basics of the Special Theory of Relativity.

The article shows that there are infinitely many kinematics in which one-way speed of light is always equal to c. The kinematics of Special Theory of Relativity (STR) is only one of those infinitely many kinematics.
It presents that mathematics on which STR kinematics is based can be interpreted differently and this leads to other conclusions on the properties of this kinematics.
In this article, the whole class of linear coordinate and time transformations was derived. Transformations were derived on the assumption that conclusions from Michelson-Morley’s and Kennedy-Thorndikea’s experiments are met for the observer from each inertial frame of reference, i.e. that the mean velocity of light in the vacuum flowing along the way back and forth is constant. It was also assumed that there is at least one inertial frame of reference, in which the velocity of light in a vacuum in each direction has the same value c, and the space is isotropic for observers from this distinguished inertial frame of reference (universal frame of reference).
Derived transformations allow for building many different kinematics according to Michelson-Morley’s and Kennedy-Thorndikea’s experiments.
The class of transformations derived in the study is a generalization of transformations derived in the paper [10], which consists in enabling non-zero values of parameter e(v). The idea of such a generalization derives from the person, who gave me this extended transformations class for analysis and publication.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1904.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-17 23:26:26*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

We find Einstein’s notational equation of the electro-magnetic field equation and the
electro-magnetic field in Rindler space-time. Because, electromagnetic fields of the
accelerated frame include in general relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1904.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-16 07:31:44*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Author's Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

The article aims to provide a mathematical equation for my new discovery .
Link to my new discovery : http://vixra.org/abs/1904.0013

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1904.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-16 10:03:58*

**Authors:** Marc J. Meurens

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The fundamental particle is the elementary particle of which the active mass corresponds to the fundamental quantum of action and to the fundamental time unit equal to the number 1. The universal temporality is the relation between the unit, the course and the duration of the Universe expansion time. The identification of the fundamental particle in the Planck’s constant and its integration in the Newton’s constant reveal that its interaction simultaneously causes the expansion and the gravitation. The mechanical modelling of this primordial interaction with the Newton’s cradle completes the general relativity with the cosmological relativity and the quantum mechanics with the primordial mechanics. In relating the notions of mass, space and time, the discovery of the fundamental particle and its primordial interaction links the mechanics with the relativity. In relating the unit, the course and the duration of the universal time, the theory of the universal temporality demystifies the black energy as well as the black matter. The spectral time signature is the gravitation weakening hidden behind the expansion acceleration in the spectrum of the universal temporality. The Moon distancing measured since 50 years in the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment is a spectral time signature which allows calculate the Universe age with the Newton’s constant more easily and precisely than with the Hubble’s constant. Together the theory of the universal temporality and the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment unveil the time nature and demonstrates that in its unit, its course and its duration the universal time is an energy ratio between the Universe and the fundamental particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1904.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-16 15:28:51*

**Authors:** Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Assume mass is the fifth dimension in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity and find the mass limit for any body is moves

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1904.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-15 08:28:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Scientists believe that time is continuous, not discrete—roughly speaking, they believe that it does not progress in "chunks," but rather "flows," smoothly and continuously. [27] Physicists theorize that this time-reversal violation is the key ingredient needed to unravel the cosmic mystery of the missing antimatter. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1904.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-15 14:58:20*

**Authors:** Mohamed Ababou

**Comments:** 02 Pages.

the news about capturing a black hole are spreading quickly all over the globe, but it is clear and according to physical and Mathematical evidences that it can't be a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1904.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-14 11:27:30*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: A forward-time, reverse-time cycle of the 4th cycle of an MHCE8S universe emphasizing 2 new neutron quarks and holography extending back to at least the 3rd cyclic universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1904.0251 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-16 17:33:32*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Causality and Information are linked variables characterizing atomic matter, bridging the conceptual gap between Quantum Mechanics and Relativity theory. A brief summary of a Unified Field Theory is included.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1904.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-13 17:27:15*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I show that the universe is a perfect sphere and provide a theoretical calculation of the TCMBR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1904.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-14 03:28:58*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 3 pages, written in french

We define Einstein spinors and Einstein equations for spin geometry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1904.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-12 09:09:45*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

1.the distance at 3*10^8 m is independent of time
2.any amount of time is independent of the distance 3*10^8 m
1.this means that the distance 3*10^8 m is the distance that you cant add more time more than 1 second
2.this means that no matter how much time you add or take the distance 3*10^8 is the same in all casesv

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1904.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-12 18:22:15*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Einstein's theory of relativity is based on Ether. Einstein's statements that there is no Ether and that all systems are equal are just an attempt to hide the fact that Einstein's Theory of Relativity and the Poincare Principle are one and the same.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1904.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-11 17:12:55*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 343 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The Wrong ‘EHT Black Hole image’ and money; the Ferent image. Einstein and all the scientists did not understand Gravitation
“Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black; Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White”
Adrian Ferent
“In Ferent Quantum Gravity the supermassive Black Hole image is white because around it there are a lot of collisions between stars and planets. The large luminosity is the result of gas and matter being accreted by the supermassive Black Hole.”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume”
Adrian Ferent
“In Ferent Quantum Gravity the Event Horizon doesn’t exist, at the Event Horizon there are Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
The first Black Hole image of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is Wrong, it is a Fraud. The image of the supermassive Black Hole that lies at the centre of the huge Messier 87 galaxy is Einstein Black Hole image, it is Einstein description of gravity!
EHT image is Einstein Black Hole image:
Galaxy image and Ferent Black Hole image:
“Black holes are Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
85% of the matter in the universe is Dark Matter.
More accurate:
“Black Holes are Ferent Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with density higher than Planck density”
Adrian Ferent
Ferent Matter is high density Dark Matter:
Ferent density ≥ Ferent matter density > Planck density
“Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass: md = m × c^2 / vp^2”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who calculated the mass and the energy of a Black Hole”
Adrian Ferent
“Everything what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about Dark Matter and Black Holes is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
We do not need to look for Black Holes in another galaxy.
Sagittarius A* is the location of the supermassive Black Hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy.
Milky Way galaxy has a supermassive Black Hole, 4.1 million solar masses, at its center, 26000 light-years from the Solar System.
Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity!
Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume!
The Planck density = 5.155 × 10^96 kg/m^3
At Planck wall the volume of the Black Hole:
V = 1.59 × 10^(-60) m^3
“The volume of this supermassive Black Hole is much smaller than V = 1.59 × 10^(-60) m^3”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space”
Adrian Ferent
Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black!
Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White!
“In Ferent Quantum Gravity the supermassive Black Hole image is white because around it there are a lot of collisions between stars and planets. The large luminosity is the result of gas and matter being accreted by the supermassive Black Hole.”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black; Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White”
Adrian Ferent
“Because inside the Black Holes, the Gravitational force is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force, nobody was able to explain Gravitation”
Adrian Ferent
“The energy of the Gravitons inside a Black Hole, is much higher than the energy of the gluons”
Adrian Ferent
That is why:
“Gravitational radiation is the most penetrating type of radiation”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitons emitted by Black Holes kill people”
Adrian Ferent
But you see on TV, YouTube wrong things about Wormholes, how scientists like Michio Kaku, Kip Thorne… can travel trough a Black Hole!
“Newton and Einstein did not understand Gravitation, they calculated Gravitation”
Adrian Ferent
Money and Fraud!
Living in Romania, the most corrupt country, I understand very well the corruption in science.
Like LIGO and the discovery of Higgs boson, the ‘EHT Black Hole image’ is another Fraud!
LIGO: “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?”
Adrian Ferent
“The reaction of the Swedish Academy to Higgs boson discovery appears to be a result of being beguiled by CERN’s attempts to justify the billions of dollars of public money being spent.“
This is another proof that Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is right and Einstein Gravitation theory, String theory, LQG… are wrong theories.
“Scientists who are not capable to work with Planck units, they can work with atoms in chemistry, medicine, biology, technology, they can work in mathematics to build wrong models, they can work in economics, they can work in AI…”
Adrian Ferent
“In Ferent Quantum Gravity the Event Horizon doesn’t exist, at the Event Horizon there are Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
198. I am the first who explained why Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black; Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White
199. I am the first who explained why Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume
200. I am the first who discovered that in Ferent Quantum Gravity the Event Horizon doesn’t exist, at the Event Horizon there are Gravitons

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1904.0217 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-13 09:42:13*

**Authors:** Ulrich Berger

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract:
As described previously, the concept of a “Net Charged Universe” (NCU) assumes that the expansion of the universe is driven by a slight excess of positive charge in the universe’s matter. This excess charge comes into being by means of quantum fluctuations at the universe’s horizon. Excess protons experience electrostatic acceleration and therefore gain high relativistic mass, which is the source of the creation of neutral matter at the universe’s horizon.
Based on the NCU model, the present article aims to explain the observed fraction of Helium (approximately 7%) in the universe’s baryonic matter. For this purpose, calculations on collision rates of excess protons are performed and applied to determine the Helium fraction in the universe’s matter.
The results of these calculations correspond very well to the observations and thus, they further support the NCU model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1904.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-10 12:50:06*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Repulsive gravity at large distances has been included in the universal solution of Einstein’s equations by introducing a cosmological constant, excluding the dark energy interpretation. For a new cosmological model, the big-bang singularity has been replaced by a granular primeval particle and expansion is controlled by the velocity of light. Subsequently, well known problems inherent in the standard model of cosmology do not arise.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1904.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-04 18:01:06*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 16 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

Celem artykułu jest pokazanie, że eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie są wystarczające do uzasadnienia Szczególnej Teorii Względności. Możliwe jest bowiem wyjaśnienie tych eksperymentów przy pomocy innej teorii, w której występuje uniwersalny układ odniesienia.
W artykule wyprowadzamy nową teorię kinematyki ciał z uniwersalnym układem odniesienia, którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru (STE).
W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalnego układu odniesienia.
W artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Wyprowadzona została także transformacja prędkości, wzór na sumowanie prędkości dla prędkości bezwzględnej, wzór na skrócenie długości oraz wzór na dylatację czasu.
Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania autorów publikacji.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1904.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-31 05:02:44*

**Authors:** Henry-Couannier Frederic

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

Dark Gravity (DG) is a background dependent bimetric and semi-classical extension of General Relativity with an anti-gravitational sector. The foundations of the theory are reviewed. The main theoretical achievement of DG is the avoidance of any singularities (both black hole horizon and cosmic initial singularity) and an ideal framework to understand the cancellation of vacuum energy contributions to gravity and hopefully solve the old cosmological constant problem. The main testable predictions of DG against GR are on large scales as it provides an acceleration mechanism alternative to the cosmological constant. The detailed confrontation of the theory to SN-Cepheids, CMB and BAO data is presented. The Pioneer effect, MOND phenomenology and Dark Matter are also investigated in the context of this new framework.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1904.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-09 11:32:13*

**Authors:** David Colasante

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Euclidean interval-time coordinates reveal a surprisingly simple explanation of gravity. From this, gravitational mass, inertial mass and energy inextricably arise with inherent duality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1904.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-09 17:28:04*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Is shown the field and energy momentum tensor solutions of the Total Relativity equations for a discretized distribution of point-particle energy with a shell in spherical symmetry. A generalization of the Schwarzschild and Reissner Nordström solutions with an equivalent of the spherical atomic model with shell, mass and electric charge in radial static distribution is obtained. An equivalence between mass, radial distance and electric charge is observed. The solution is vacuum with no singularities and points to incompleteness and error in the Schwarzschild Vacuum Solution due to the problem of total energy conservation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1904.0178 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-22 11:45:10*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The concept of ‘basic clocks’ was introduced in Hokstad (2018b). These are moving clocks to be applied in the theory of special relativity (TSR). They experience an initial synchronization at a common location, and provide the basis for defining time and simultaneity. Here we further motivate and elaborate the concept, e.g. by utilizing symmetry. We provide a general criterion of simultaneity, for any event on any reference frame of arbitrary velocity. Further we allow a chain of events with successive ‘initial synchronizations’. Such a feature is required in the ‘travelling twin’ example, in order to handle the turning of the twin. Finally, the approach is used to discuss the interpretation of the case of the µ-mesons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1904.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-08 10:46:02*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The starting energy for the 4th cyclic universe came from Bekenstein collapse energy produced by the 3rd cyclic universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1904.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-08 22:57:13*

**Authors:** Tom Fuchs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I show an issue with an experiment involving the event horizon of a black hole, and use it to solve the black hole information paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1904.0158 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-06 09:28:36*

**Authors:** Rolf Warnemünde

**Comments:** 150 Pages. c 2019 CC BY-NC-ND

The central focus of the theory lies on the solution of the since more than
165 years unsolved problem of turbulence. To achieve this aim the following
interstations are reached successfully:
1. definition of a pure continuum corresponding uniquely to a fluid,
2. stochastic turbulent particle transport by a fluctuating continuum,
3. context of deterministic turbulence and its stochastic counterpart in the sense
of an ensemble theory.
The result turns out to be geometrodynamics:
1. a pure geometrodynamics of turbulence in a 1+3-dimensional Euclidian Space,
2. a pure geometrodynamics of deformation.
Both geometrodynmics lead to
1. evolution equations of General Relativity,
2. the quantitative unification of Maxwell Field and Gravitational Field,
3. the facilitation of quantizing gravitational fields,
4. considerations of general gravitational waves from a new perspective.
The importance of the Einstein-Equations for microphysics is proved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1904.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-07 09:10:07*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 2 Pages. -

Space is quantized. The Hubble extension makes all these areas non-inertial. Limit speeds in these areas will be different. Because of this, there is some extra force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1904.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-17 13:05:03*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Inertia, the force you feel pulling on you as you accelerate, and gravity – the force that attracts all. Are two separate and distinct phenomena, yet they share an equivalence which has yet to be explained. In this paper, we will show how and why inertial and gravitational mass are equivalent, and how time is the underlining mechanism that links and governs them. To accomplish this, we took a step back and reanalyzed the nature of time, which subsequently led us to an undeniable conclusion. One that finally reconciles gravity with quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1904.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-06 08:34:40*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

in our previous paper we noted that space is the envelope of masses and that time is the effects done till the rupture of time now we will study how masses interact with space time lets study first why masses accelerate in space now imagine having three types of masses in the universe a mass that is sprinkled in the universe in the form of electromagnetic waves and masses that are agglomerated together in groups and masses that are in blackholes now when we look at the first case we find that electromagnetic waves are taking the whole volume of the universes space and that means that they cover the whole space and so the effect of time of space time is not much and cannot make it accelerate now in masses agglomerated together in groups we find that masses do not take the whole space and so time of spacetime effects starts to happen much intensively and so the agglomerated mass start to escape its own domain shared with other masses and thus they accelerate away from each other now in blackholes the effect of time of spacetime on black holes is left to conclude that they only happen because of the expansion of the agglomerated masses

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1904.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-07 05:52:10*

**Authors:** Fabien Sabinet

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Pioneer 10 anomaly, discovered at the end of the 70's by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is a supplemental acceleration, in addition to the normal gravity from the solar system, acting on the probe with a magnitude of 8.7×10-10 m/s².
I calculated here that the value of this anomaly is surprisingly exactly equal to the difference between the result given by the Doppler relativistic formula based on the Einstein's second postulate (used by JPL), and the result given by the Doppler classic Galilean velocity addition formula.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1904.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-05 12:08:38*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 5 pages, 2 figures

In contemporary physics the relativity theory states that the length of moving bodies contracts and the local time of a moving system dilates. This paper discloses an analysis of basic relativity equations which show that length contraction and time dilatation are apparent.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1904.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-09 12:13:38*

**Authors:** J Mark Morris

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A neoclassical model of nature is proposed, based upon two equal and opposite fundamental particles. These particles may also be considered as conserved excitations.
This model is derived from thought experiment and re-interpretation of modern physics and cosmology.
A parsimonious neoclassical model of nature is proposed where the electrino ε- and positrino ε+ are the basis of all matter, the carriers of all energy, and form a superfluid gas which permeates most of the universe. At high energies matter and gas change phase to plasma wherein general relativity does not apply. Neither general relativity nor quantum mechanics include the electrino, positrino, nor graviton particles. The neoclassical model informs solutions to many open problems in physics and cosmology. A new narrative emerges that requires recasting and reframing the interpretations of experimental results and theory from physics, cosmology, and astronomy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1904.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-05 20:54:25*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this work we discuss a possibility to resolve Olbers paradox that states that if the universe is static, infinite and distributed over with an infinite number of stars then the sky should always be brightly illuminated, and obviously, this contradicts with the observed darkness of the night. Our discussion is based on the observation that matter seems to be distributed mainly on the boundaries of geometric and topological structures in the spatiotemporal continuum, which can be formulated in terms of a CW complex composed of n-cells. And in the case of the three-dimensional observable universe the observation can be justified from our work on the spacetime transcription of physical fields that shows that massive matter can only be formed as three-dimensional objects and all four-dimensional physical fields must have the structure of a static electromagnetic field. From the analysis of the possibility of physical creation from spacetime through the process of transcription we may conclude that most of the observable massive matter are formed and distributed on the boundary, which may be composed of 3D balls, of a 3-sphere and therefore the Oblers paradox can be resolved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1904.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-04 07:00:53*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

in einsteins theory of relativity there is the concept of time dilation its an effect that happens when you tend to reach the speed of light in this paper we will study why does time dilation happens in our previoud paper on einsteins spacetime we have seen how mass inside space acts up now when we move a mass that means that we are moving it from one space domain to the other and since we are moving it from one domain to the other we could assume that space is excluding the mass and accepting new masses which is perfectly normal but then the time part of spacetime starts to act up when you add mass from space domain to the other at high speeds you end up having masses that are passing through lots of space and when you pass through much space thtough much speeds(near the speed of light) you end up passing through lots of time pressing effects and then time starts to increase and then time dilates

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1904.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-23 11:37:18*

**Authors:** Lahcen Aderras

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

By adjoining the local time to the Newtonian mechanics together with the constancy of the speed of light;a new unprecedented and insightful derivation of the Lorentz transformation (LT) is proposed. The procedure consist of elementary arguments and simple but rigorous mathematical techniques. The usually assumptions concerning the linearity and homogeneity in the standard derivations of the LT are obtained as results. Moreover, an other, entirely new, transformation is established. As expected, a new special relativity theory ensue from this new transformation. Unlike the special relativity theory (SRT), with this new theory we can tame superluminal velocities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1904.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-03 14:15:19*

**Authors:** Sunil Thakur

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, we have examined some important proposals of the big bang theory. We have also examined a few important interpretations of the quantum mechanics. We have shown that these proposals are not correct but not too far from the reality.
We have explained the mechanism of the quantum jump and quantum tunneling. We have also analyzed the peculiar motion of the galaxies.
We have shown that the singularity did appear everywhere and that the space emerged from the singularity has been expanding ever since the big bang. However, we have explained that the physical world is only a projection. The concept of multiverse or the principle of holographic universe are not correct, because the fact is that the universe is still being projected from each of the singularity. Every singularity projects the same universe because every singularity is a hologram, but this hologram is changing constantly because the information is being created continuously in the universe. We have also explained the mechanism that ensures that the hologram is updated constantly to ensure that at any given time, all the singularities project the same universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1904.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-03 17:24:44*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Matter and antimatter are in a perfect balance in the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1904.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-02 11:50:56*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The article aims to prove gravity spread out with the speed of light c using relativistic mass equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1904.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-27 00:46:50*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The article in the first two sections proves decisively that the Ricci scalar and the norm of the Ricci tensor are constants on the manifold. In the subsequent sections Ricci tensor and Riemannian curvature tensor turn out to be null tensors. The Ricci scalar works out to zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1904.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-01 11:42:01*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The article aims to prove the non-existence of gravity at infinite distances and prove
gravity has a limited range this range is extendable by the speed of light c.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1904.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-01 18:01:18*

**Authors:** Thanh Nguyen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This argument is a section in my book, Beyond the World of Relativity to the World of Invariance. In this argument, we are going to analyze the light aberration to show that the special theory of relativity is inconsistent with the constancy of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1904.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-02 04:47:18*

**Authors:** Fumitaka Inuyama

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Published studies in the literature have stated that the mass of dark matter and the mass of dark energy are approximately five times and 14 times greater in mass, respectively, than ordinary substances such as atoms. However, the detection and thus proof of the existence of dark matter and dark energy have not been successfully realized to date. I believe that there are some fundamental problems that must be addressed and that the universal space-time itself has its own hidden characteristics. In this work, I have estimated the universal space-time based on the special theory of relativity i.e. the combined velocity and the increasing mass. Based on this estimate, it can be concluded that “the ternary space-times” exist in the modern universe and that each of these space-times has its own specific light velocity. And the ternary space-times were created in inflationary epoch of the immediate early universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology