[17] **viXra:1209.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-30 15:49:59*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 14 pages.This will be submitted to appreciation by NASA scientists

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both
Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the
known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor
is negative implying in a negative energy density. While from a
classical point of view the negative energy is forbidden the
Quantum Field Theory allows the existence of very small amounts of
it being the Casimir effect a good example as stated by Alcubierre
himself.The major drawback concerning negative energies for the
warp drive is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain
the warp bubble.Ford and Pfenning computed the amount of negative
energy needed to maintain an Alcubierre warp drive and they
arrived at the result of $10$ times the mass of the entire
Universe for a stable warp drive configuration rendering the warp
drive impossible.However Harold White manipulating the parameter
$@$ in the original shape function that defines the Alcubierre
spacetime demonstrated that it is possible to low these energy
density requirements.We repeat here the Harold White analysis for
the Natario spacetime and we arrive at similar conclusions.From
$10$ times the mass of the Universe we also manipulated the
parameter $@$ in the original shape function that defines the
Natario spacetime and we arrived at a result of $10$ billion tons
of negative mass to maintain a warp drive moving with a speed
$200$ times faster than light.Our result is still a huge number
about the weight of the Everest Mountain but at least it is better
than the original Ford-Pfenning result of $10$ times the mass of
the Universe.The main reason of this work is to demonstrate that
Harold White point of view is entirely correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1209.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-30 06:54:46*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Apeiron, 2007, Vol. 14, No. 4, P. 385 – 413.

The review of the theory of electromagnetic field together with the special and general theories of relativity has been made. The similar theory of gravitation has been presented which has the property of Lorentz-invariancy in its own representation in which the information is transferred at the speed of propagation of the gravitational field. Generalization of the specified gravitation theory on noninertial reference systems has been made with the help of the mathematical apparatus of the general relativity. It allows to avoid some drawbacks of the standard general relativity theory and to expand its applicability. The possibility of complementary descriptions of the physical phenomena with the help of simultaneous use of the theories of gravitational and electromagnetic fields has been shown.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1209.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-30 06:18:15*

**Authors:** Sergey G Fedosin

**Comments:** 11 Pages. FQXi 2012 Essay Contest "Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?"

With the help of the theory of infinite hierarchical nesting of matter the need for change in the theoretical foundations of the scientific world outlook is derived – in the philosophy; in the logic of thinking; in the system theory; in cosmology; in interrelation of matter levels; in describing the properties of matter carriers and the laws of their interaction; in the theory of gravitation; in the analysis of the mass origin; in the theory of relativity; in the theory of elementary particles; in thermodynamics and other fields of knowledge. The possible ways are described of overcoming the difficulties and challenges existing in a number of modern physical theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1209.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-28 10:52:47*

**Authors:** M. Lopez-Corredoira

**Comments:** 3 Pages. invited "book review" published in: Journal of Cosmology, 18, VI (2012)

One might well question the need for a new reference work on cosmology, given that plenty of them have already been published. In my opinion, there is a need to offer a complete overview of the subject taking on board a wider range of
opinions than is at present the case with typical reference works on cosmology. A student can easily get the impression that everything is now well known, and that only a few minor conceptual details or finer measurements of parameters
remain to be worked out. Only standard viewpoints are usually offered in some detail, all others being entirely neglected. There are also books by heterodox authors who present their own alternative theories, but most of these are
sectarian, aiming to press home a particular view, rather than representing all current knowledge of the subject. There is a dearth of books on cosmology with well-balanced content that present the fundamentals and current knowledge of this area with rigor while at the same time covering controversial observations
and discussions that might cast doubt on the science which is being built. This book stands out as an attempt to cover both goals. It offers "Fundamental Questions" rather than "definitive answers".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1209.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-28 10:57:40*

**Authors:** M. Lopez-Corredoira, A. Gabrielli

**Comments:** 23 Pages. accepted to be published in Physica A

The purpose of our study is to understand the mathematical origin in real space of modulated and damped sinusoidal peaks observed in cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies. We use the theory of the Fourier transform to connect localized features of the two-point correlation function in real space to oscillations in the power spectrum. We also illustrate analytically and by means of Monte Carlo simulations the angular correlation function for distributions of filled disks with fixed or variable radii capable of generating oscillations in the power spectrum. While the power spectrum shows repeated information in the form of multiple peaks and oscillations, the angular correlation function offers a more compact presentation that condenses all the information of the multiple peaks into a localized real space feature. We have seen that oscillations in the power spectrum arise when there is a discontinuity in a given derivative of the angular correlation function at a given angular distance. These kinds of discontinuities do not need to be abrupt in an infinitesimal range of angular distances but may also be smooth, and can be generated by simply distributing excesses of antenna temperature in filled disks of fixed or variable radii on the sky, provided that there is a non-null minimum radius and/or the maximum radius is constrained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1209.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-25 22:58:29*

**Authors:** Zhou Fang

**Comments:** 210 Pages.

本文介绍周方变换

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1209.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-24 12:10:08*

**Authors:** Akindele O. Adekugbe Joseph

**Comments:** 37 Pages. A paper from volume one of the Fundamenatl Theory... (monograph)

Propagation of light in the gravitational field is studied in the context of the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR). A local gravitational red shift relation is derived as a consequence of the gravitational time dilation formula in the context of TGR. A light ray emitted at a given position in a gravitational field, or a light ray emitted elsewhere, which is momentarily passing through the given position, suffers local gravitational red shift at that position. And when the light ray has propagated to another position, it suffers the local gravitational red shift at the new position. The gravitational red shift as a light ray passes through two positions of different gravitational potentials is inferred from the local gravitational red shifts at the two positions. The invalidity of the underlying assumptions of two theories of gravitational red shift encompassed by the general theory of relativity (GR), which invalidates those theories, are shown, while upholding the theory of gravitational red shift in the context of TGR as the valid theory. The prediction of gravitational red shift for a terrestrial light ray in the context of TGR is in agreement with the result of the Pound, Rebka and Snider experiment (PRS) to within 99.94% accuracy. Although the prediction of Einstein's theory of gravitational red shift of light (in GR) is in agreement with the result of this experiment to within the same accuracy of 99.94%, it is shown that this does not imply the validity of that theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1209.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-01 10:52:13*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor(the right side of the Einstein Field Equations) for the Einstein tensor $G_{00}$ is negative implying in a negative energy density. While from a classical point of view the negative energy is forbidden the Quantum Field Theory allows the existence of very small amounts of it being the Casimir effect a good example as stated by Alcubierre himself.The major drawback concerning negative energies for the warp drive are the so-called Quantum Inequalities(QI) that restricts the time we can observe the negative energy density.This time is known as the sampling time.Ford and Pfenning computed the QI for the Alcubierre warp drive using a Planck Length Scale shape function and concluded that the negative energy in the Alcubierre warp drive can only exists for a sampling time of approximately $10^{-33}$ seconds rendering the warp drive impossible for an interstellar trip for example a given star at $20$ light years away with a speed of $200$ times faster than light because such a trip would require months not $10^{-33}$ seconds. We repeated the QI analysis of Ford and Pfenning for the Natario warp drive using the same Planck Length Scale but with a shape function that although different from the function choosed by Ford and Pfenning it obeys Natario requirements and because the Natario warp drive have a very different distribution of negative energy when compared to its Alcubierre counterpart this affects the QI analysis.We arrived at a sampling time that can last longer than $10^{-33}$ seconds enough to sustain a warp bubble for the interstellar travel mentioned above.We also computed the total negative energy requirements for the Natario warp drive and we arrived at a comfortable result.This leads us to conclude that the Natario warp drive is a valid solution of the Einstein Field Equations of General Relativity physically accessible for interstellar spaceflight. We also discuss Horizons and infinite Doppler blueshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1209.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-17 13:56:29*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The theoretical calculated percentages of dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter are 72.8. 22.7, and 4.53, respectively, in agreement with observed 72.8, 22.7, and 4.56, respectively. According to the calculation, dark energy started in 4.47 billion years ago in agreement with the observed 4.71 +/- 0.98 billion years ago. The calculation is based on the unified theory of physics derived from the zero-energy universe and the space-object structures. In this model, the maximum percentage of variable dark energy is 75%, and the ratio of dark matter to baryonic matter is 5 to 1. For our universe, the zero-energy universe produced the symmetrical positive-energy and negative-energy universes, which then underwent a symmetry breaking through the Higgs mechanism to generate eventually our universe of baryonic-dark matter with massless particles and the parallel universe of dark energy without massless particles, respectively. The further symmetry breaking through the Higgs mechanism differentiated baryon matter with massless electromagnetism and dark matter without massless electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1209.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-15 13:09:30*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 16 pages

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor(the right side of the Einstein Field Equations) for the Einstein tensor $G_{00}$ is negative implying in a negative energy density. While from a classical point of view the negative energy is forbidden the Quantum Field Theory allows the existence of very small amounts of it being the Casimir effect a good example as stated by Alcubierre himself.The major drawback concerning negative energies for the warp drive are the so-called Quantum Inequalities(QI) that restricts the time we can observe the negative energy density.This time is known as the sampling time.Ford and Pfenning computed the QI for the Alcubierre warp drive and concluded that the negative energy in the Alcubierre warp drive can only exists for a sampling time of approximately $10^{-10}$ seconds rendering the warp drive impossible for an interstellar trip for example a given star at $20$ light years away with a speed of $200$ times faster than light because such a trip would require months not $10^{-10}$ seconds. We repeated the QI analysis of Ford and Pfenning for the Natario warp drive and because the Natario warp drive have a very different distribution of negative energy when compared to its Alcubierre counterpart this affects the QI analysis.We arrived at a sampling time that can last longer than $10^{-10}$ seconds enough to sustain a warp bubble for the interstellar travel mentioned above.We also computed the total negative energy requirements for the Natario warp drive and we arrived at a comfortable result.This leads us to conclude that the Natario warp drive is a valid solution of the Einstein Field Equations of General Relativity physically accessible for interstellar spaceflight. We also discuss Horizons and infinite Doppler blueshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1209.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-15 03:59:57*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 22 Pages + 18 Pages of Appendices, 25 Figures, 2 Tables

In general, science accepts that both the structure of the universe and the laws of physics were created simultaneously at the beginning of the Big Bang, and have since remained constant
throughout the observable universe. The experimental evidence detailed in this paper
demonstrates that consciousness, in its widest sense, was also created at the time of the big
bang, and together with the storage,communication and perception of information, is intimately connected to the structure of the universe and the laws of physics. The introduction
of this concept of consciousness helps to explain the “weird” effects of quantum physics and
hitherto other inexplicable phenomena including entanglement, dark energy, inflation theory,
the universe’s expansion against gravity, and the possible connection between the essence of
consciousness and the Higgs field. This paper augments existing knowledge with published
findings from recent mind science experiments. Using noetics and without the use of physical
equipment, equations are found with high correlation coefficients which include universal
constants such as the Golden Ratio, 1.61803... (φ), Feigenbaum’s Constant, 4.6692... (δ), sine
1/3, and polyhedra angles. It is thus demonstrated that both consciousness and the structure of the universe are closely linked to concepts including: universal constants, geometry, chaos theory, numbers and mathematics, vortices, fractal geometry, interaction of mind and matter, multi-body interactions, entanglement and information. General acceptance of the above facts should lead to a monumental paradigm shift in mankind’s understanding of the cosmos and
its incorporation of consciousness.
Key Words mind; consciousness; spirals; torus; vorticity; chaos; Feigenbaum’s constant; golden ratio; gravity; electromagnetism; entanglement; cosmic and subtle energies; Planck level; Higgs
field; structure of the universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1209.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-10 11:52:58*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 21 pages

This article is about the concept of mass and electric charge: When the fundamental relativistic equation E^2=m^2 c^4+〖|p|〗^2 c^2 is solved in the complex, this inevitably leads to an irreducible representation of the extended Lorentz group as U(4) operating on the complex Clifford algebra Cl(1,3) in which mass is a complex 4x4-spinor. Spinors are a direct consequence of taking the root of the Minkowski square distance. Doing so with the Minkowski square of differentials then gives a spinor-valued differential form. With that, classical electrodynamics is shown to be extendable into a relativistically invariant theory, in fact the simplest possible relativistically invariant one. Its symmetries reveal a unified concept of classical charge and mass. A dynamical system based on this, splits into the direct sum of a dynamical system of pure electromagnetic charges and one of purely neutral particles. In it, charged particles must be fermionic in order to conserve their net charge, and neutral non-magnetic ones are bosonic in order to be able to assign to them a positive mass.
Also, it will be seen that within the Clifford algebra, the Hamiltonian of a self-interacting mechanical dynamical system of particles can be given in a closed form. I end the paper with a section on superconductivity, where it is shown that superconducting material should electromagnetically behave as opaque, dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1209.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-08 19:23:31*

**Authors:** A. Laidlaw

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Apeiron Vol 11, no. 3 July 2004

The relationships between two alternative theories of gravity, the "physicalist", Electromagnetics based, "Polarisable Vaccuum"
theory of Puthoff and Dicke, and Yilmaz's "phenomenological" variation of the General Theory of Relativity, are explored by virtue of a simple physical model based in the application of
Newtonian mechanics to propagative systems. A particular virtue of the physical model is that, by introducing distributed source terms, it anticipates nonlocal relationships between observables within the framework of local realism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1209.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-26 14:37:45*

**Authors:** A. Laidlaw

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Accepted for publication. New abstract, small changes throughout.

It is shown that Lorentz Invariance is a wave phenomenon. The relativistic mass, length contraction and time dilation all follow from the assumption that energy-momentum is constrained to propagate at the speed of light, $c$, in all contexts, matter as well as radiation. Lorentz Transformations, and both of the usual postulates, then follow upon adopting Einstein clock synchronisation. The wave interpretation proposed here is paradox free and it is compatible with quantum nonlocality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1209.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-04 14:59:49*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the special relativity theory, the acceleration about the accelerated matter in 2-Dimension inertial coordinate system and the other acceleration about the accelerated matter in 2-Dimension inertial coordinate system are same. Therefore using it, derive the transformation of the power. And if the acceleration is the constant acceleration , the acceleration in 2-Dimension inertial coordinate system and in 2-Dimension inertial coordinate system is the constant acceleration .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1209.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-02 06:39:06*

**Authors:** Richard J. Benish

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Based on the work of Jacobson [1] and Gibbons, [2] Schiller [3] has
shown not only that a *maximum force* follows from general relativity, but
that general relativity can be *derived* from the principle of maximum force.
In the present paper an alternative derivation of maximum force is given.
Inspired by the equivalence principle, the approach is based on a modification
of the well known special relativity equation for the velocity acquired from
uniform proper acceleration. Though in Schiller's derivation the existence of
gravitational *horizons* plays a key role, in the present derivation this is not the
case. In fact, though the kinematic equation that we start with does exhibit
a horizon, it is not carried over to its gravitational counterpart. A few of the
geometrical consequences and physical implications of this result are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1209.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-01 12:53:02*

**Authors:** Albert Zotkin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A complete Doppler formula is deduced from first principles and it can dispute predictions to the famous relativistic one.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology