[27] **viXra:1402.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-14 12:52:02*

**Authors:** Hugh Wilkinson

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A hypothesis of anti-gravity between matter and antimatter is presented that results in an alternative to the conventional Einstein field equations. Using the vacuum metric relationships identified by Schwarzschild in 1916, the radially symmetric vacuum anti-gravity metric is derived for the vacuum between a spherical core of either matter or anti-matter and an enclosing spherical shell of the other type of matter; anti-gravity prevents the shell from collapsing. Candidate black holes are hypothesized to consist of such a shell and core, and the gravitational behaviors of such a composite body are approximated. Observations of kinematics consistent with these behaviors would validate the existence of anti-gravity.
(Version 4: Corrected equations 11 and 18a; added equation 18b, showing that the formulation of gRR is unchanged by the alternate boundary conditions.)
(Version 3: Revised discussion before equation 16.)
(Version 2: Revised 2nd paragraph section II; edits to equations 15a, 16, 18a.)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1402.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-22 08:27:43*

**Authors:** Valentino Giudice

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Language: Itaian

In questo articolo descrivo un modello pentadimensionale di universo.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1402.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-24 10:24:49*

**Authors:** Laszlo varadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Revised [V2]

Based on the Planck units, we can describe the entire universe as a black hole expanding and rotating with speed of light. In this model, there is no need for dark energy or inflation, and the nature of dark matter is solved as well. We can deduce the Planck-temperature and the average temperature of the universe from the energy density of thermal radiation, and we can determine the Hubble constant from the age of the universe, as well as those basic parameters of the universe which coincide with current measurements. According to the Planck power, all masses of the universe radiate gravitational energy, which will then propagate through space with speed of light. It can be proven that the interaction of gravitational waves with matter is the reason for the attractive force (exerted by) of gravity, that is the boson that mediates gravitational interactions is the graviton. Since the mass of a body also determines the power and frequency of the gravitational wave, the reverse is also true, and the power and frequency of an electromagnetic wave can determine the mass of a given body as well, because of the similarity of gravitational and electromagnetic waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1402.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-21 21:17:13*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

The center of the universe and an absolute reference frame can be both defined and found by measuring linear accelerations along three mutually perpendicular directions as well radial accelerations with respect to similar directions, whether the physical universe is finite or infinite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1402.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-27 02:39:52*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 8 pages, 1 figure - [v2]: minor editing

The speed of light postulate is closely examined from the perspective of two inertial reference frames―unprimed (‘stationary’) and primed (‘traveling’)―in relative motion, revealing that the speed of light postulate actually requires length contraction with respect to the unprimed reference frame, and length expansion with respect to the primed frame. It is shown that when symmetry is imposed on the inverse length transformation (i.e., to make it exhibit the same length contraction from the perspective of the primed frame), the common length contraction factor becomes nothing but the Lorentz contraction factor "gamma". However, this would necessarily result in "gamma = 1" implying that the frames are being at rest with respect to each other, and thus refuting the special relativity predictions! When the coordinate’s transformation symmetry assumption is applied on the direct transformation resulting from the light speed postulate―which is shown incompatible with this assumption―, the Lorentz transformation and its inverse are erroneously obtained; it is shown to be restricted to certain coordinate relations, resulted in mathematical contradictions, and thus demonstrated to be unviable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1402.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-20 02:38:22*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskiy

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The article presents the results of exact analytical calculations of values of fundamental physical constants. Given the finite formulas and calculations. Presents a table comparing the sample data CODATA 2010 with theoretical calculations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1402.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-20 07:16:41*

**Authors:** Oleg Kupervasser

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Natural Science, 2014, 6, 809-817

In this paper we resolve the grandfather paradox in non-quantum and quantum gravitation theories for time travelling in a time wormhole. For macroscopic bodies, the main solution is alignment of the thermodynamic time arrows, resulting in the time traveller destroying. For microscopic bodies and for small probability cases of macroscopic bodies, the main solution is fracture of the time wormhole. As a result, multi-world system appears. These explanations are similar in non-quantum and quantum gravity. On the contrary, we can clarify some problems of quantum gravity by this consideration. “Indestructible finite gravitation interaction of an observer with an observable system (resulting in the time arrows alignment)” and “instability with respect to even infinitesimally small interaction in the gravitation theory” can resolve the wave function reduction paradox of quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1402.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-16 02:30:04*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

World – Universe Model is based on the following primary assumptions:
1) The World is finite and is expanding inside the Universe with speed equal to the electrodynamic constant c . The Universe serves as an unlimited source of energy that continuously enters into the World from the boundary.
2) Medium of the World, consisting of protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter particles, is an active agent in all physical phenomena in the World. All elementary particles are fully characterized by their four-momentum.
3) The Model is based on Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism and gravitoelectromagnetism which have two measurable characteristics: energy density ρ and energy flux density I . All other notions are used for calculations of these two measurable characteristics.
4) Two Fundamental Parameters in various rational exponents define all macro and micro features of the World: Fine-structure constant α and dimensionless quantity Q . While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the Size and the Age of the World.
5) Three Fundamental Units define all physical dimensional parameters of the World: basic unit of momentum p_0 , basic unit of energy density ρ_0 , and basic unit of energy flux density I_0 .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1402.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-14 19:40:59*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This article is not yet submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome

There is a quite recent paper (2011) by Santiago-German which says that the Einstein's general theory of relativity is formally equivalent to the Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity (http://arxiv.org/pdf/1112.1179v1.pdf). He further wrote that this fact lead us to suspect that the superconductivity of gravitation ought to be a real physical process occurring in the outskirts of galaxies. If such a proposition is correct, then perhaps we can view some problems in cosmology from new angle. Not only dark matter but perhaps the solar system and planets can be viewed as superconductors too. Other possible analogy is between cosmology and condensed matter phenomena such as superfluidity. This analogy has been explored for instance by G. Volovik et al.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1402.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-14 11:55:11*

**Authors:** I.E. Bulyzhenkov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. MSC[2010]: 83F05, 83C40; PACS:04.20.Cv; 03.50.-z

Extended carriers of mass-energy with r^{-4} radial densities correspond to observable particles obeying Newtonian attractions in weak fields but repulsions in strong ones. Space interference of such overlapping radial monopoles maintains unobservable r^{-2}\times r^{-2} dipole formations of dark mass-energy which conserves the metric energy integral of the material space continuum. The Newton fall attraction followed by strong field gravitational repulsion in such a continuum can quantitatively explain the Hubble expansion rate rH_o, with calculated acceleration r(H_o)^2, and qualitatively comply with Penrose's cyclic cosmology. Laboratory tests with precise clocks may justify in principle the non-empty, material space paradigm for nonlocal physical reality of everywhere overlapping continuous bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1402.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-13 05:53:02*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A four-page proposal

This paper reports result of an experiment performed by this author; and proposes more experiments based on ‘wave’ or ‘particle’ nature of light; so that it can help us to understand the observations of ‘cosmological red-shift’. (i) While considering the propagation of light from a distant galaxy, the astrophysicists currently think that only the intensity of light gets reduced with distance. But as soon as we mathematically-describe the electric-field of light varying with distance, we have to write E ( r, t ) = A sin ( k r ) / r ; and we know that sin x / x is known as sink-function, and its Fourier-transform gives a wide-spectrum, whose spot-frequency is expected to vary with reduction of intensity due to the recession of galaxies; so I experimentally verified this possibility and confirmed that while reducing the amplitude of a wave, its frequency also gets shifted; depending upon the rate of reduction of amplitude; as reported here. (ii) Even if we treat light as a stream of ‘photons’, whose density goes on reducing with distance, then also we do expect a spectral-shift towards zero-frequency; as described here. (iii) The spherically-expanding-wave of light can also be viewed as an expanding-cavity-of-wave-guide; and the photon can travel only at close-to but slightly lesser speed than EM-waves; and the observed increase of wavelength of the extra-galactic-photon can be in accordance to the expression first proposed by Lord Rayleigh (iv) It may not be the hundred-percent correct assumption, that there is no reflected-power during the transmission of light through space, because the wave-impedance of the sphere containing the waves, keeps on changing with distance; expected to cause an input-output mismatch, possibly leading to some reflected power. It is proposed here that the observed ‘cosmological-red-shift’ may be partly due to these new ‘propagation-property’ of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1402.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-10 23:52:08*

**Authors:** Arindam Sinha

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

This paper reconciles General Relativity (GR) and Mach's Principle into a consistent, simple and intuitive alternative theory of gravitation. The background gravitational potential from the Universe's matter distribution plays an important role in relativity. This potential far from massive bodies is c^{2}, and determines *unit* rest mass/energy, which is the essence behind E=mc^{2}. The matter distribution creates a local inertial rest frame at every location, in which the Universe gravitational potential is a minimum. A velocity in this frame increases gravitational potential through net blue shift of Universal gravity, causing velocity time dilation, which is a gravitational effect identical to gravitational time dilation. Time dilation increases with velocity, but does not become boundless in general rectilinear motion. The Lorentz factor is the appropriate metric for time dilation only in certain constrained motions. The low velocity approximation of the Lorentz factor scales for all velocities in general rectilinear motion, and speed of light is not the maximum possible speed in such situations. Gravitational time dilation is derived first, and velocity time dilation is derived from it. The mathematics becomes simpler and more intuitive than GR, while remaining consistent with existing experiments. Some experiments are suggested that will show this theory to be more accurate than GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1402.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-17 09:55:45*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

With the Planck 'constants' length, time, mass and
acceleration will be shown, that a Quantum Gravity of the cosmos exists.
This paper shows how Planck-Satellite-Data solves Einstein's Field Equations in Friedmann Robertson Walker Metric.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1402.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-19 17:29:38*

**Authors:** Ken S. Tucker

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Interdefinition of Length and Time.
Since 1983, the meter, second and speed of light ”c” have been defined by
N meters = c ∗ 1 second with N = 299,792,458.
We find, that’s had a profound effect on Relativity Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1402.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-08 02:07:02*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Three-page-letter

According to the inverse square law, the brightness of every source-of-light reduces with distance. And the rate of reduction of brightness at various radial distances keeps on reducing with distance. From our experience of ‘amplitude-modulation’, we know that change of amplitude of a stable, single-frequency-source produces a wide spectrum, depending upon the ‘rate-of-change-of-amplitude’; so the varying ‘rate-of-reduction-of-brightness’ with distance of the galaxies and super-novae, must have contributed ‘additional-red-shift’; in addition to the well known Doppler-shift. It is proposed here, that: since this ‘additional-contribution-to-the-red-shift’ is non-linear, the ‘red-shift-distance-curve’ observed by Perlmutter and Riess shows non-linearity; but this ‘additional-contribution-to-the-red-shift’ does not mean ‘additional-recession-of-galaxies’ and ‘accelerated-expansion-of-the-universe’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1402.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-23 02:12:35*

**Authors:** Fredrick W. Cotton

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The addition of a scalar term to the classical, Maxwellian stress-energy tensor is sufficient to describe force-free, spherically symmetric charge distributions in both flat space and curved space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1402.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-16 11:48:12*

**Authors:** Theodore J. St. John

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Please contact me at email: stjohntheodore@gmail.com with comments, questions or discussion

The purpose of this paper is to present a relational model that portrays space and time as conformal projections of motion. It is not biased by the presumption that time is 1D, and thus reveals the universality of relationships between space-time (relativistic model) and energy-frequency (quantum model); it accurately depicts the well-known relationship for total relativistic energy of a particle; it includes the Lorentz factor as the magnification that results from projection of the rest-frame units onto the moving reference frame; and provides a reinterpretation of the “event horizon” as an “event reference” that is a perceptual separation between past and future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1402.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-06 04:09:26*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 7 Pages, 1 Figure - This paper presents a clear, simplified refutation of the Special Relativity.

In this paper the speed of light postulate is closely examined from the perspective of two inertial reference frames―unprimed and primed―in relative motion, revealing that the resulting inverse space-time transformation is in disagreement with the corresponding Lorentz transformation following from the light speed postulate and the coordinate’s transformation assumed symmetry with respect to the reference frames. It is demonstrated that the speed of light postulate actually requires length and time contraction with respect to the unprimed reference frame, length and time dilation with respect to the primed frame, resulting in the frames being at rest with respect to each other! When the coordinate’s transformation symmetry assumption is applied on the direct transformation resulting from the light speed postulate―which is shown incompatible with this assumption―, the Lorentz transformation and its inverse are erroneously obtained; it is shown to be restricted to certain coordinate relations, resulted in mathematical contradictions, and thus demonstrated to be unviable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1402.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-10 06:20:56*

**Authors:** James Dunn

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A foundation from which non-relativistic artifacts can be modeled in conjunction with relativistic models.
Axiom of Choice is applied to Quantum Entangled Singularities ( QESdunn ) and treats quantum entanglement as two different but similar, vast systems of causality that differ by one or a few causal differences. This potentially provides an experimentally verifiable relationship between non-relativistic causality and relativistic causality through synchronous programming.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1402.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-05 06:22:38*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Foigel, Sara A. Ramazanova, Yury G. Kaminsky

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The independence of the unidirectional speed of light upon the velocity of the light source indicates that the luminiferous aether is presented in the physical space. Any particle is some excitation of the rigid aether. The expansion of space and Universe is not possible. The stability of atoms is due to complete overlap of the de Broglie matter waves. The ordinary Euclidean geometry is sufficient for relativistic mechanics. The gravitational field is a pressure in aether created by excitations without any matter inside field. The aether plays the unifying role in physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1402.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-06 09:58:34*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

With new cosmological equation's will be shown, that the Universe is a Black Hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1402.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-04 05:44:12*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Three-page note

It was recently proposed in my previous note, that reduction in amplitude of electromagnetic wave with time should cause 'additional-red-shift', proportional to the rate of reduction of the brightness of a super nova. In this note it is proposed, that: is the non-linearity of red-shift-distance-curves of distant super novae, as observed by Perlmutter and Riess, due to reduction in this 'additional-red-shift' caused due to reduction in 'rate-of-reduction-of-brightness' of those super-novae?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1402.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-02 07:53:40*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

To a detector on a rotating Sagnac device, the source appears to be farther away when 'looking' in the backward direction than when 'looking' in the forward direction. The effect of rotation is just to create an apparent change in the position of the source relative to the detector, in proportion to the angular velocity of the device. This paper does not present any new mathematical analysis for the difference between path lengths of the forward and backward light beams in the Sagnac interferometer. The well known equation for the difference in path lengths, 4ωA / C , is given a new interpretation. The new interpretation in this paper is that the apparent source is always at the center of the wave fronts. Regarding the Michelson-Morley (MM) experiment, this paper presents a surprising result: no fringe shift will occur even on an accelerated MM device, in contrast to the title of this paper! This is because the apparent shift of the position of the source relative to the detector has the same, common effect on the time delays of both light beams. The path length of both the forward and lateral beams are affected equally. This paper, together with the Relativity of Electromagnetic Waves theory [1] which was proposed earlier by this author, provides a new theoretical framework which can explain all or most of the phenomena and experiments related to the speed of light. The new theoretical framework is a fusion between Ritz's emission theory and Einstein's light postulate, together with a truly empty notion of space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1402.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-02 04:23:17*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A Single-page note

The terms: 'space' and 'time' need some clarification. What contracts in special-relativity is 'length' of 'physical-objects', not 'space'. What gets dilated in special-relativity is 'duration' of a 'process', not 'time'. 'Space' is there, and 'objects' are in 'space'; so a ruler can measure 'length' of an 'object'. Our eyes can directly see the 'space'. Whereas 'time' is a 'mental-concept'; the 'duration-between-two-tiks-of-a-clock' is defined as a 'duration-of-one-second'; actually there is nothing like 'time'.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1402.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-01 13:29:15*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

My theory of the universe following the 8-fold SU(3) symmetry of life (see viXra 1310.0261) requires that before the big bang when time was not active the concept of negative intrinsic energy (-mc2) had to be viable.This was an epoch of unbroken E8 symmetry. It was during this early epoch that huge entities of fermibosonic type formed and these were composed of equal amounts by weight of fermions (ordinary matter)of positive intrinsic energy and massive gauge bosons of negative intrinsic energy. The two polarities of intrinsic energy were necessary to obtain cancellation of energy making possible transfer of mass from the previous universe without violation of flatness requirements. When the big bang took place the E8 symmetry was broken and the negative and positive distinction of intrinsic energy was lost and the arrow of time and concept of entropy established.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1402.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-03 10:01:58*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

With the Planck 'constants' length, time, mass and acceleration will be shown, that a Quantum Gravity of the cosmos exists. This paper shows how Einstein's Field Equations in Friedmann Robertson Walker Metric solves the Planck Era context.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1402.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-01 03:53:51*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 11 pages, 9 equations, 15 references

For cosmological theory without the bizarre vacuum-driven acceleration, and in the spirit of "realistic non-singular cosmology", we examine the effect of adjusting the value of the Hubble fraction in order to obtain a reasonable fit with the large data set of supernovae magnitudes and redshifts. Adopting a value of the Hubble fraction equal to 0.53, we obtain a pleasing fit for a theory with a negative graviton density, with a matter fraction of 1.12, a decelerating parameter of 0.56, and the remaining time before the return to contraction of about 770 Gyr. For a theory with a negative vacuum density, we obtain a pleasing fit with a matter fraction of 1.02, a decelerating parameter of 0.53, and a remaining time of about 125 Gyr.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology