[21] **viXra:1309.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-30 08:53:34*

**Authors:** Milen V. Velev

**Comments:** 36 pages, 6 figures. This article appeared in Physics Essays, Vol. 25, No. 3 (2012) 403-438.

This article discusses the motion of particles in multiple time dimensions and in multiple space dimensions. Transformations are presented for the transfer from one inertial frame of reference to another inertial frame of reference for the case of multidimensional time. The implications are indicated of the existence of a large number of time dimensions on physical laws like the Lorentz covariance, CPT symmetry, the principle of invariance of the speed of light, the law of addition of velocities, the energy-momentum conservation law, etc. The Doppler effect is obtained for the case of multidimensional time. Relations are derived between energy, mass, and momentum of a particle and the number of time dimensions in which the particle is moving. The energy-momentum conservation law is formulated for the case of multidimensional time. It is proven that if certain conditions are met, then particles moving in multidimensional time are as stable as particles moving in one-dimensional time. This result differs from the view generally accepted until now [J. Dorling, Am. J. Phys. 38, 539 (1970)]. It is proven that luxons may have nonzero rest mass, but only provided that they move in multidimensional time. The causal structure of space-time is examined. It is shown that in multidimensional time, under certain circumstances, a particle can move in the causal region faster than the speed of light in vacuum. In the case of multidimensional time, the application of the proper orthochronous transformations at certain conditions leads to movement backwards in the time dimensions. It is concluded that the number of different antiparticles in the k-dimensional time is equal to 3^k - 2^k. Differences between tachyons and particles moving in multidimensional time are indicated. It is shown that particles moving faster than the speed of light in vacuum can have a real rest mass (unlike tachyons), provided that they move in multidimensional time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1309.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-29 16:27:05*

**Authors:** Scott Lesch

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Section 1 outlines tests to determine if expanding space is the best explanation of lights changing wavelengths. Section 2 proposes tests to determine if if the curvature of space (gravity) is the best explanation for lights changing wavelengths.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1309.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-29 04:07:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1309.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-26 06:17:18*

**Authors:** Albert Zotkin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this short paper it is given to you a derivation of the Complete Doppler effect formula in the framework of Galilean Relativity, and such a formalism is compared with that of Special Relativity (SR). Then, it is shown how useful this enhanced Galilean Relativity can be. An example of a proton-antiproton computation is provided as exercise, and finally, it is proved that time dilation isn't necessary for explaining some phenomena, as the time of light of cosmic ray muons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1309.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-26 06:48:43*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 6 Pages. No comments

In the paper [1] we presented the concept of the effective mass tensor (EMT) in the General Relativity (GR). According to this concept under the influence of the gravitational field the bare mass tensor becomes the EMT. The concept of the EMT is a new physical interpretation of GR, where the curvature of space-time has been replaced by the EMT. In this paper we consider the concept of the EMT in GR but in the aspect of the clocks and rods.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1309.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-27 23:55:34*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages. Published in Physics Essays, Vol. 27(2): 198-203, June 2014. Post-print available at http://physicsessays.org/browse-journal-2/product/622-3-radwan-m-kassir-on-special-relativity-root-cause-of-the-problems-with-lorentz-transformation.html

In this paper the Lorentz Transformation is shown to be merely a set of restricted equations stemmed from the Galileo transformation applied to a particular conversion reflecting the theorized principle of the speed of light invariance implemented in the direction of the relative motion between the inertial reference frames. Consequently, the Lorentz transformation is shown to be restricted to time and longitudinal space coordinate values different from zero. The deduction of the time dilation and length contraction becomes unfeasible under such restrictions. It follows that the Lorentz transformation possesses no other effects than mathematically expressing the speed of light postulate in the relative motion direction; that is, the coordinate of the tip point of a light ray traveling in the direction of the relative motion, given by x=ct in the “stationary” frame, is transformed to x'=ct' with respect to the “traveling” frame, with c being the light speed in empty space. Furthermore, the application of the Lorentz transformation to events having restricted coordinates is shown to result in mathematical contradictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1309.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-24 17:37:04*

**Authors:** V. N. Matveev, O. V. Matvejev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A possible cause of the finiteness of the velocity of tangible objects is demonstrated without reference to the provisions of the special theory of relativity. A condition is formulated on the basis of which the assumption of the movement of tangible objects at any prescribed velocities proves to be self-contradictory in instances when the prescribed velocities of the objects exceed a certain value. This condition consists of the presence of interaction signals and carrier particles in material bodies that are propagated at a velocity greater than any prescribed velocity of the material bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1309.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-23 07:35:51*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Laymen need to understand that the Big Bang is officially false, and any theory that is based on Big Bang is also false regardless of all the propaganda in the media and its state sponsorship in the school system. The Big Bang has been falsified by the Huge LQG, which stands for the “Huge Large Quasar Group”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1309.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-22 16:07:26*

**Authors:** V.N. Matveev, O.V. Matvejev

**Comments:** 21 pages, 1 figure

The special theory of relativity is simulated in this article based on the simplest examples of the movement of barges, shuttles, and boats in an aquatic environment. Relativistic time and the relativistic effects of Einstein’s special theory of relativity – Lorentz contraction, time dilation, relativistic Doppler effects, the Skobeltsyn-Bell effect, and the relativistic addition of velocities – are simulated using elementary methods of classical physics. Lorentz transformations are obtained. Means for simulating four-dimensional space-time are shown.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1309.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-24 13:36:38*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 12 Pages. V2

Einstein’s relativity ideas have not yet exhausted their applications to elucidate the physical realities of the universe and will be demonstrated to have been instrumental in the origin of the cosmic inflationary epoch for which there is still no clear explanation. The biggest problem in cosmology is our current ignorance about what preceded time 0 of our cosmological history. Moreover all published concepts about how a universe or universes could originate are highly speculative and simplistic. For this reason this paper is one of a series dealing with the micro and macro scale realities of the universe which aim to eventually lead to a proper and self-explanatory concept of the origin of our universe right from whatever could have preceded time 0. Pending this new concept we agree with the generally accepted occurrence of the Planck epoch followed by a grand unification epoch up to 10x -36 s to be immediately followed by the inflationary epoch. Minkowski’s reputed space/time statement that space and time being separate entities was doomed could evolve towards the realization that energy, matter, and gravitation might all together constitute an independent integrated reality of its own which encompasses the basis of consciousness in all its expressions. Such an integrated reality, intimately linked to the mechanism which created our universe, could, we are quite confident, help us to eventually understand the scientific basis of what constitutes metaphysics. Anticipating this possibility we show how Einstein relativity is still alive in the new concept, we report here, of the inflationary epoch believed to have occurred sometime at 10x -36 s after the appearance of the initial energy mass which would produce the universe. The initial pure energy, soon after time 0 with c as average velocity, should have an infinitely contracted space-time and would, in the presence of, first, a small fraction of massive hadron particles, inevitably begin inflating cataclysmically and exponentially. The successive formation of another small fraction of leptons like electrons, positrons and others would accentuate this inflation. We show that Einstein’s special relativity theory and the second law of thermodynamics, also called the law of increased entropy, satisfactorily explain the exponential inflationary epoch.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1309.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-21 06:31:59*

**Authors:** Vitaliy Voytik

**Comments:** 12 Pages. in Russian

The article proposes and checked invariant equations for proper kinematic properties of rigid frame. From these conditions follow the equation of motion of its proper tetrad and equations of inverse kinematics problem, i.e., the differential equations that solve the problem of recovering the motion parameters of a rigid frame of reference for known his proper acceleration and angular velocity. In particular, we show that if moving reference frame have original Thomas precession, then she a relatively new lab frame will have a combination of two rotations: a new proper Thomas precession and Wigner rotation, which together give the original frequency of the Thomas precession.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1309.0140 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-16 18:32:35*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrections per Armak's feed backs.

A constant one-way light speed is essential for the Theory of Relativity. This detailed study examines two postulates of Special Relativity and concludes that the claim of “constant one-way speed of light” contradicts itself. The equations of Special Relativity are foundations of many physics theories. The findings on controversial Relativity postulates shake the foundation of these theories. Fortunately, equations similar to Special Relativity equations can be derived, assuming that two-way light speed is constant, without the use of Special Relativity Postulates. These new equations provide a better foundation that is compatible with the correct existing physics theories. There is no threat of invalidating all existing physics theories, only incorrect ones. Instead, we can take a new look at some fundamental questions shared among physicists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1309.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 10:26:07*

**Authors:** J.P. Baugher

**Comments:** Pages.

In spite of the widespread fanfare of the 1998 discovery of a positive accelerating expansion and the subsequent need for a “Dark Energy” placeholder in physics, the one geometric component that seems to share a relationship, the Cosmological Constant, has become shrouded in even more questions by it. After a century of concentrated efforts, the mounting lack of forthcoming answers has “driven” the NSF/ NASA/DOE Dark Energy Task Force to consider whether general relativity is “incorrect”. In keeping with this reluctant but forced skepticism we subject an early competitor to general relativity, Gunnar Nordstr¨oms version of the Poisson equation, to a more stringent definition utilizing an asymmetric property of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
We derive from this property a new metric Laplacian definition for flatness that in perturbed spherical symmetry form greatly resembles the Schwarzschild solution. However, this metric version would seem capable of uniting gravity with QFT by utilizing the widely considered equivalence of the Cosmological Constant with a proposed large value vacuum energy density but at the expense of differential topology and our understanding of tensors in general. A much larger penalty though seems to be that it results in a geometrical counterpoint to the physical explanations for general relativity, QFT and energy density.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1309.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-17 02:44:54*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

Further mathematical evidences of the unviability of the special relativity’s constancy of the speed of light postulate are presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1309.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-12 08:37:18*

**Authors:** Albert Zotkin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Pound-Rebka experiment is a famous experiment to test the theory of general relativity and is taken as paradigm for probing that Einstein's relativity is true. In this experiment there are two Doppler effects involved, namely the gravitational Doppler effect predicted by GR (General Relativity) and the inertial Doppler effect predicted by SR (Special Relativity). Each kind of effect is modelled by its own equations. In this experiment, the aim was to balance both effects in order to attain a null effective Doopler effect, so electromagnetic frequency resulted to yield the same measured value as the original emitted frequency. That implied that if photons were emitted from the top of the tower towards the ground detector, the gravitational Doppler effect would be a Doppler blue shitf, it is to say, a frequency increase. But, if those photons were emitted fron the ground towards the top of the tower, the detector sited in that top would measure a lower frequency for the same gravitacional Doppler effect. In order to achieve the relative inertial movement required by SR, the emission source of photons was placed in the center of a loudspeaker cone, so by vibrating the speaker cone the source moved with varying speed, thus creating varying Doppler shifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1309.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-12 05:06:43*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Comments are most welcome and sort for.

This is the second installment in a four part series, the aim of the work being to introduce absolute motion into Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (STR). Herein, we depart from the traditional case where one twin stays put while the other rockets into space, we consider the case of identically accelerated twins. Both twins depart at uniform relativistic speeds in opposite directions for a round trip from the Earth on their 21th birthday destined into space to some distant constellation that is a distance L_0 in the rest frame of the Earth. A proper application of Einstein's STR tells us that the Earth bound observers will conclude that on the day of reunion, both twins must both have aged the same albeit their clocks (which where initially synchronized with that of the Earth bound observers) will have registered a duration less than that registered by the Earth bound observers. In the traditional twin paradox, it is argued that the stay at home twin will have aged more than the traveling twin and the asymmetry is attributed to the fact that the traveling twin's frame of reference is not an inertial reference frame during the periods of acceleration and deceleration making it ``illegal" for the traveling twin to use the STR in their frame, thus ``resolving" the paradox. This same argument does not hold in the case considered here as both twins will undergo identical experiences where each twin sees the other as the one that is in motion. This means, each twin must conclude that the other twin is the one that is younger. They will conclude that their ages must be numerically different, thus disagreeing with the Earth bound observers that their ages are the same. This leads us to a true paradox that throws Einstein's Philosophy of Relativity into complete disarray.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1309.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-12 05:13:24*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Correcte typo at equation (1): Comments on this paper are most welcome and sort for.

This is the first instalment in a four part series, the aim of the work being to introduce absolute motion into Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (STR). In the traditional treatment of Einstein's famous twin paradox, it is argued that the stay at home twin will age more than the ``travelling" twin and the asymmetry is attributed to the fact that the travelling twin's reference system is not an inertial reference system during the periods of acceleration and deceleration thus making it ``illegal" for the ``travelling" twin to use the STR in their reference system, hence ``resolving" the paradox altogether. From within the domains, confines and provinces of Einstein's STR, we argue without considering the accelerations and decelerations, where we show that, indeed, it is the ``travelling" twin that is younger at the point of reunion. This brings us to a point of admission that there is indeed a twin who really does the travelling and another that does t
he staying at home. Hidden within the labyrinth of its seemingly coherent and consistent structure and fabric, does Einstein's STR imply absolute motion -- we ask? This is the question that we leave hanging in the mind of the reader. In the next reading, we propose a new version of the twin paradox, where the scenario is truly symmetric from either of the twin's reference systems -- we have coined this, the ``Symmetric Twin Paradox (STP)". This version (STP) unearths an irretrievable contradiction hidden at the deepest and subtle level of Einstein's STR. It is shown that Einstein's STR is unable to resolve this irretrievable contradiction, even if the accelerations and decelerations are taken into. Not even Einstein's General Theory of Relativity can be brought to the rescue in the case of the STP. In our third instalment, we shall setforth a new version of the STR where absolute motion is permitted. This version solves the symmetric twin paradox and any known paradox of relativity. Lastly, we apply this new STR where absolute motion is permitted to experimental efforts that have been made to measure absolute motion. Most well trained physicists tend to ignore completely, readings purporting to go against Einstein's STR. We would like to persuade our reader to make a brief stop and consider for a minute, what we have to say in our four part series of readings.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1309.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-16 18:26:30*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrections per Armak's feed backs

A constant one-way light speed is essential for the Theory of Relativity. This detailed study examines two postulates of Special Relativity and concludes that the claim of "constant one-way speed of light" contradicts itself. The equations of Special Relativity are foundations of many physics theories. The findings on controversial Relativity postulates shake the foundation of these theories. Fortunately, equations similar to Special Relativity equations can be derived, assuming that two-way light speed is constant, without the use of Special Relativity Postulates. These new equations provide a better foundation that is compatible with the correct existing physics theories. There is no threat of invalidating all existing physics theories, only incorrect ones. Instead, we can take a new look at some fundamental questions shared among physicists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1309.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-31 00:25:28*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The principle, which says “the state of low energy is stable”, is one of the fundamental principles of Physics, and it has its influences on across all the fields of Physics. In this article, we will reveal that this principle is an incomplete. It is stable at a low energy state in the case of positive mass (energy), whereas, it is stable at a high energy state in the case of negative mass (energy). Due to this, “the problem of transition to minus infinite energy level” does not occur, therefore negative energy and positive energy can coexist. Moreover, we will show that negative energy provides an explanation for dark matter and dark energy, which are the biggest issues posed to cosmology at the present. We demonstrate the ratio between matter, dark matter and dark energy through this model, and computer simulation shows that this assumption is appropriate. ΛCDM model expects that the ratio of matter and dark matter will be constant, but this model suggests that as the universe expands, the gravitational effect of matter vs. dark matter differs. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the change of the ratio (Ω_d/Ω_m).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1309.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-04 10:25:44*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Two Pages

Dr. Einstein’s fundamental career error in physics was incorrectly using the correct idea that the speed of light in his Special Theory of Relativity is constant and extending that to the faulty idea that the speed of light can also be equated to the relative speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1309.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-04 03:24:58*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 31 Pages. First paper of the "Trilogy on the knowable Universe".

This paper represents the first essay belonging to the "Trilogy on the Knowable Universe". Main physico-mathematical fundamentals of the Theory of Reference Frames concerning kinematic, dynamic, electrodynamic and electromagnetic aspects of the physical reality, already introduced in previous papers, are presented here methodically. We demonstrate the importance for observer of reference frame in order to understand and to describe a physical event; we use new definitions of space, time, simultaneity and introduce the new concept of electrodynamic mass. We demonstrate besides an important relation between time and mass and a new expression for the relativistic mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology