[19] **viXra:1110.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-14 01:29:54*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Hadronic Journal, February 2012, Vol. 35, No. 1, P. 35 - 70.

The integral equations for calculation of metric, equations of substance motion, as well as equations for gravitational and electromagnetic fields in covariant theory of gravitation are obtained by means of variation of action functional. In covariant form stress-energy tensor of gravitational field, strength tensor of gravitational field and 4-current of mass are determined. The meaning of the cosmological constant and its relation to the components of energy density in action functional are explained. The results obtained prove the validity of Mach's principle, assuming that gravitation effects are due to the flows of gravitons. The idea that metric can be entirely determined by variables describing fields’ properties is substantiated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1110.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 7 pages

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s gravity field equation and acceleration
in the spherical skin’s
condition, prove that the spherical inner solution don’t exist .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1110.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 5 pages

We mathematically proved that the inertial forces, which appears in a noninertial
frame of reference, such as accelerating and rotating reference frame,
are equivalent to the real forces which appears, when the body moves in the
gravitomagnetical field. We will remind the rotating bucket with water
problem with the new proposal of the solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1110.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-31 11:13:50*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 7 Pages. A revised version of the original paper

We argue that the phenomenon of the cosmological
acceleration can be easily and naturally explained from first principles of quantum theory
without involving empty space-time background, dark energy and other artificial notions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1110.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 pages.

The paper describes the relation between quantum particles,
consciousness, the unified field theory and relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1110.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Stephan J. G. Gift

**Comments:** 7 pages

The one-way speed of light in an East-West direction over short distances is
examined by exploiting the successful operation of the Global Positioning System. This
system has been rigorously and extensively tested and verified in the Earth-Centred
Inertial frame, a frame that moves with the Earth as it revolves around the Sun but does
not share the Earth’s rotation. The result is a simple demonstration of one-way light
speed variation depending on the direction of propagation that indicates the need for a
change in the practice of the routine application of the principle of light speed constancy
in the frame of the Earth

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1110.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 6 pages

In this paper are discussed the physical consequences of using the fourvector
field of velocity (V_{g})^{μ} in gravitation and gravitomagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1110.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 32 pages

Recently Superluminal Neutrinos have been observed in the OPERA experiment at CERN.Since the
neutrino possesses a non-zero rest mass then according to the Standard Model,Relativity and Lorentz
Invariance this Superluminal speed result would be impossible to be achieved.This Superluminal OPERA
result seems to be confirmed and cannot be explained by errors in the measurements or break-ups in the
Standard Model,Relativity or Lorentz Invariance. In order to conciliate the Standard Model,Relativity
and Lorentz Invariance with the OPERA Superluminal Neutrino we propose a different approach: Some
years ago Gauthier,Gravel and Melanson introduced the idea of the micro Warp Drive:Microscopical
particle-sized Warp Bubbles carrying inside sub-atomic particles at Superluminal speeds. These micro
Warp Bubbles according to them may have formed spontaneously in the Early Universe after the Big
Bang and they used the Alcubierre Warp Drive geometry in their mathematical model.We propose
exactly the same idea of Gauthier,Gravel and Melanson to explain the Superluminal Neutrino at OPERA
however using the Natario Warp Drive geometry.Our point of view can be resumed in the following
statement:In a process that modern science still needs to understand,the OPERA Experiment generated a
micro NatarioWarp Bubble around the neutrino that pushed it beyond the Light Speed barrier.Inside the
Warp Bubble the neutrino is below the Light Speed and no break-ups of the Standard Model,Relativity
or Lorentz Invariance occurs but outside the Warp Bubble the neutrino would be seen at Superluminal
speeds.Remember that the CERN particle accelerators were constructed to reproduce in laboratory
scale the physical conditions we believe that may have existed in the Early Universe so these micro
Warp Bubbles generated after the Big Bang may perhaps be re-created or reproduced inside particle
accelerators. We believe that our idea borrowed from Gauthier,Gravel and Melanson can explain what
really happened with the neutrinos in the OPERA experiment

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1110.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 2 pages

This paper touches on the subject of whether light really needs a medium, which is termed the
luminiferous ether, for its transmission as is in the case of sound which requires a fluid such as air or
liquid as the medium for its transmission, and the subject of the velocity of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1110.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Stephan J. G. Gift

**Comments:** 8 pages

In a paper in 1910 Tolman pointed out that the light speed invariance postulate
of special relativity requires that the time for light to traverse a fixed distance between
two points is independent of the movement of those points relative to the light source.
The range equation of the GPS is used to directly test this proposition. This equation has
been rigorously tested and verified in the Earth-Centred Inertial frame where light signals
propagate in straight lines at constant speed c. The result is a simple demonstration of
light speed anisotropy that is consistent with light speed variation detected in other
experiments and inconsistent with the light speed invariance postulate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1110.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 13 pages, submitted to Physics Letters B

Superluminal particles are studied within the framework of the Extended
Relativity theory in Clifford spaces (C-spaces). In the simplest
scenario, it is found that it is the contribution of the Clifford scalar component
π of the poly-vector-valued momentum which is responsible for
the superluminal behavior in ordinary spacetime due to the fact that the
effective mass M = (see paper)
is imaginary (tachyonic). However, from
the point of view of C-space, there is no superluminal (tachyonic) behavior
because the true physical mass still obeys M2 > 0. Therefore, there are
no violations of the Clifford-extended Lorentz invariance and the extended
Relativity principle in C-spaces. Furthermore, to lowest order, there is no
contribution of terms involving powers of the Planck mass (1/m2P ) indicating
that quantum gravitational effects do not play a role at this order.
A Born’s Reciprocal Relativity theory in Phase Spaces leads to modified
dispersion relations involving both coordinates and momenta, and whose
truncations furnish Lorentz-violating dispersion relations which appear in
Finsler Geometry, rainbow-metrics models and Double (deformed) Special
Relativity. These models also admit superluminal particles. A numerical
analysis based on the recent OPERA experimental findings on alleged
superluminal muon neutrinos is made. For the average muon neutrino
energy of 17 Gev, we find a value for π = 119.7 Mev that, coincidentally,
is close to the mass of the muon m_{μ} = 105.7 Mev.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1110.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 9 pages, This essay was first submitted to the 2nd FQXi essay contest in early october 2009. The link can be found here:
http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/577

The Lorentz Transformations imply that time and length are in some sense interconvertible,
much in contrast to our ordinary intuitions. This paper attempts to present an approach which is
supposed to make it intuitively evident that time and length are in fact interconvertible and,
furthermore, that this approach is compatible with two well-known phenomena predicted by SR, namely
time dilation and length contraction. This is accomplished by demonstrating how a clock can be used
as a ruler, and vice versa, leading to the realization that length contraction and time dilation
directly imply each other in the context of the motion of the same measurement device.
What makes both kinds of measurements using the same device really possible in the first place is the
existence of a finite upper limit on motion. Because of this limit, length measurements cannot be
completed without involving the passage of time, and time measurements cannot be completed without
involving finite displacement. But that means any clock or ruler really measures both time and length.
Hence one constraint on what is fundamentally possible in physics is our ability to build measurement
devices that can be exclusively used just as rulers or just as clocks

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1110.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 8 pages

The speed of light postulate, one of the two fundamental assumptions upon which the special theory
of relativity (SR) is based, still seems as mysterious today as when it was first introduced. This paper
presents a derivation of the postulate from three axioms:1) A definition of motion in proper time that
captures most of the mathematical aspects of SR except for the speed of light postulate itself, 2) An
axiom concerning the nature of the existence of entities which do not age, and finally 3) an axiom which
defines existence in a spacetime to be transitive. The second axiom is motivated by an apparent paradox
inherent in the structure of SR, called the existence paradox, pertaining to entities which do not age. The
duration of existence of such entities in their proper frame is precisely equal to zero, which would normally
be interpreted to be consistent with non- existence and inconsistent with the empirical evidence for the
existence of such entities. The resolution of this apparent paradox is guided by a quasi-philosophical
principle, called the Principle of least Speciality. The second axiom presents a resolution to the existence
paradox that follows this principle while at the same time providing the essence of the explanation for
the speed of light postulate. Given the three axioms, it is straightforward to show that the speed of light
postulate is a logical consequence. Furthermore, this framework implies a direct experimentally testable
prediction that is, according to currently prevailing views, unexpected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1110.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-01 13:19:27*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Gravity is the force conquering the structure of the universe. By recognizing the components of the universe, we are estimating the quantity of components composing the universe through size of gravity and gravitational potential energy (GPE). In this paper, it is being shown that the universe can be born and expanded through pair creation of positive energy (mass) and negative energy (mass) from zero energy condition. Also, GPE is composed by 3 units of U++, U--, and U-+ when negative and positive energy exists, U-+ (GPE between negative mass and positive mass) has positive values and is the component that makes repulsive gravitational effect. U-+ corresponds with the inner energy of the system and can be interpreted as dark energy. The force by U-+ is F = (4piG/3)k_h(t)Mρr = (1/3)Λ(t)Mc^2r shaped. Also, situations in which U-+ has much higher value than |U--| + |U++| depending on the distribution of negative mass and positive mass is possible. This doesn't mean that 72.1% of dark energy independently exists, but means that explanation from GPE occurring from 4.6% of negative energy, which is the same as 4.6% of positive energy, is possible. Moreover, 4.6% of negative energy is the energy which is inevitably required from zero energy, which is the most natural total energy value in the universe. This discovery implies that our belief that size of gravitational effect and size of components of the universe would always 1:1 correspond was wrong. We set up each model from the birth of universe to the present, and calculated GPE using computer simulation in each level. As a result, we could verify that “pair creation model of negative mass and positive mass” explains inflation of the early universe and decelerating expansion, and present accelerating expansion in time series.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1110.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Akindele (Adekugbe) Joseph

**Comments:** 18 pages

The hierarchy of masses/intrinsic masses of a particle or body in a hierarchy of spacetimes
/intrinsic spacetimes in a universe, isolated in the first part of this paper, is extended
to the hierarchies of other physical parameters/intrinsic parameters. Spacetime
and intrinsic spacetime are proposed to be composed of the ponderable (or metric) gravitational
components and the non-ponderable (or affine) dynamical components, and the
mass and intrinsic mass of a particle or body as composed of the ponderable (or metric)
gravitational components and non-ponderable (or affine) dynamical components. The
constant speed of ‘signals’, c = 300,000 Km/s, is separated into the constant dynamical
speed of electromagnetic waves, c
= 300,000 Km/s in vacuo and the constant static
(or gravitational) speed of gravitational waves cg = 300,000 Km/s, where cg being a
static (or gravitational) speed, is not made manifest in actual translation through space
of the massless graviton. The time dimension ct is likewise split into the metric static
(or gravitational) component cg t and the affine dynamical component c
t. The static
(or gravitational) speed of gravitational waves cg is incorporated into the gravitational
local Lorentz transformation (GLLT)in the context of the theory of gravitational relativity
(TGR) on flat spacetime and the absolute intrinsic line element, absolute intrinsic
metric tensor and absolute intrinsic Ricci tensor of the metric theory of absolute intrinsic
gravity (MAIG) on curved ‘two-dimensional’ absolute intrinsic spacetime in every
gravitational field of the present theory, developed in a previous paper, while the dynamical
speed c
of electromagnetic waves should appear in local Lorentz transformation
(LLT) of the special theory of relativity (SR), derived on flat spacetime in an external
gravitational field in the present theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1110.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Akindele (Adekugbe) Joseph

**Comments:** 23 pages

Three stages of evolutions of spacetime/intrinsic spacetime and mass/intrinsic mass in
a universe are isolated. The ab initio absolutely immaterial state of a universe with flat
‘four-dimensional’ absolute-absolute spacetime containing absolute-absolute rest mass
and its underlying flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic spacetime
containing absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic rest mass, evolved into an intermediate
absolute material state with flat ‘four-dimensional’ absolute spacetime containing absolute
rest mass and its underlying flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute intrinsic spacetime
containing absolute intrinsic rest mass, at the first stage; followed by evolution into
yet an intermediate relative material state with flat four-dimensional proper spacetime
containing rest mass and its underlying flat two-dimensional proper intrinsic spacetime
containing intrinsic rest mass, at the second stage. These are then followed by evolution
into a final relative material state with flat four-dimensional relativistic spacetime containing
relativistic (or inertial) mass and its underlying flat two-dimensional relativistic
intrinsic spacetime containing relativistic intrinsic mass (or intrinsic inertial mass), at
the third (and final) stage. The three stages commenced and progress simultaneously
and are still on-going in every universe at present. The second and third stages of evolutions
of spacetime/intrinsic spacetime and mass/intrinsic mass in a universe, correspond
to the first and second stages in a gravitational field, already developed in the previous
papers. The associated hierarchies of spacetimes and masses (comprising of three layers
of space-time-mass) in every universe is highlighted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1110.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Lukasz Andrzej Glinka

**Comments:** 8 pages

Recently, on the conference ”Quantum Theory and Gravitation”
held in Zürich on June 14-24, 2011, V.F. Mukhanov has been
presented talk ”Massive Gravity” discussing the relationships between
massive gravitational waves and Cosmological Perturbations
of the Minkowski background. His crucial result was modification
of the Newtonian potential of universal gravitation due to
a multiplicative constant equal to 4=3.
However, this presentation has been stirred up my negative
opinion. The controversy has been caused by absence of a lot of
details, what have been made the talk manifestly misleading. The
lecturer did not respond to my questions satisfactory.
Mukhanov’s deductions are at most half-true, and they can be
easily verified by straightforward calculations. In this paper I explain
shortly what is right and what is wrong in the approach
propagated by Mukhanov. Particularly, I shall to show that restoration
of the Newton law of universal gravitation is unambiguous.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1110.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Rafael-Andrés Alemañ-Berenguer

**Comments:** 9 pages

Theoretical research has paid little attention to the influence on chemical
kinetics of the motion of reference frames where chemical reactions are carried on. In
order to improve this situation, in this paper the main chemical-kinetics relations with
regards to inertial and gravitational frames in the relativistic range are developed, and
also some simple experiments designed to test their scope are suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1110.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 8 pages

The Theory of Reference Frames considers two speeds of light: the physical speed which
is an universal constant and the relativistic speed which instead is variable and depends
on the relative speed between the considered reference frames. We analyse physical
consequences of the not constant speed of light as per principles of the Theory of
Reference Frames which makes use of different relativistic transformations of space-time.
Specifically we consider variation of mass, relativity of space-time and the revealing
physical effect concerning the muon average life. At last we make a few considerations
about the recent experiment on the speed of muon neutrino from CERN to LNGS.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology