Relativity and Cosmology

1110 Submissions

[19] viXra:1110.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2012-05-14 01:29:54

The Principle of Least Action in Covariant Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 29 Pages. Hadronic Journal, February 2012, Vol. 35, No. 1, P. 35 - 70.

The integral equations for calculation of metric, equations of substance motion, as well as equations for gravitational and electromagnetic fields in covariant theory of gravitation are obtained by means of variation of action functional. In covariant form stress-energy tensor of gravitational field, strength tensor of gravitational field and 4-current of mass are determined. The meaning of the cosmological constant and its relation to the components of energy density in action functional are explained. The results obtained prove the validity of Mach's principle, assuming that gravitation effects are due to the flows of gravitons. The idea that metric can be entirely determined by variables describing fields’ properties is substantiated.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18] viXra:1110.0063 [pdf] replaced on 18 Nov 2011

The Spherical Inner Solution's Non-Existence of the General Relativity Theory and the Gravity Field Equation

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 7 pages

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein's gravity field equation and acceleration in the spherical skin's condition, prove that the spherical inner solution don't exist .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:1110.0062 [pdf] submitted on 24 Oct 2011

Motion in a Non-Inertial Frame of Reference vs. Motion in the Gravitomagnetical Field

Authors: Mirosław J. Kubiak
Comments: 5 pages

We mathematically proved that the inertial forces, which appears in a noninertial frame of reference, such as accelerating and rotating reference frame, are equivalent to the real forces which appears, when the body moves in the gravitomagnetical field. We will remind the rotating bucket with water problem with the new proposal of the solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1110.0057 [pdf] replaced on 2012-05-31 11:13:50

Do We Need Dark Energy to Explain the Cosmological Acceleration?

Authors: Felix M. Lev
Comments: 7 Pages. A revised version of the original paper

We argue that the phenomenon of the cosmological acceleration can be easily and naturally explained from first principles of quantum theory without involving empty space-time background, dark energy and other artificial notions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15] viXra:1110.0048 [pdf] submitted on 15 Oct 2011

Quantum Particles, Consciousness, Unified Field Theory and Relativity

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 3 pages.

The paper describes the relation between quantum particles, consciousness, the unified field theory and relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:1110.0037 [pdf] submitted on 12 Oct 2011

A Simple Demonstration of One-Way Light Speed Anisotropy Using GPS Technology

Authors: Stephan J. G. Gift
Comments: 7 pages

The one-way speed of light in an East-West direction over short distances is examined by exploiting the successful operation of the Global Positioning System. This system has been rigorously and extensively tested and verified in the Earth-Centred Inertial frame, a frame that moves with the Earth as it revolves around the Sun but does not share the Earth's rotation. The result is a simple demonstration of one-way light speed variation depending on the direction of propagation that indicates the need for a change in the practice of the routine application of the principle of light speed constancy in the frame of the Earth
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[13] viXra:1110.0036 [pdf] replaced on 19 Oct 2011

Consequences of Using the Four-Vector Field of Velocity in Gravitation and Gravitomagnetism

Authors: Mirosław J. Kubiak
Comments: 6 pages

In this paper are discussed the physical consequences of using the fourvector field of velocity (Vg)μ in gravitation and gravitomagnetism.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:1110.0033 [pdf] submitted on 10 Oct 2011

Can The Natario Warp Drive Explain The OPERA Superluminal Neutrino At CERN??

Authors: Fernando Loup
Comments: 32 pages

Recently Superluminal Neutrinos have been observed in the OPERA experiment at CERN.Since the neutrino possesses a non-zero rest mass then according to the Standard Model,Relativity and Lorentz Invariance this Superluminal speed result would be impossible to be achieved.This Superluminal OPERA result seems to be confirmed and cannot be explained by errors in the measurements or break-ups in the Standard Model,Relativity or Lorentz Invariance. In order to conciliate the Standard Model,Relativity and Lorentz Invariance with the OPERA Superluminal Neutrino we propose a different approach: Some years ago Gauthier,Gravel and Melanson introduced the idea of the micro Warp Drive:Microscopical particle-sized Warp Bubbles carrying inside sub-atomic particles at Superluminal speeds. These micro Warp Bubbles according to them may have formed spontaneously in the Early Universe after the Big Bang and they used the Alcubierre Warp Drive geometry in their mathematical model.We propose exactly the same idea of Gauthier,Gravel and Melanson to explain the Superluminal Neutrino at OPERA however using the Natario Warp Drive geometry.Our point of view can be resumed in the following statement:In a process that modern science still needs to understand,the OPERA Experiment generated a micro NatarioWarp Bubble around the neutrino that pushed it beyond the Light Speed barrier.Inside the Warp Bubble the neutrino is below the Light Speed and no break-ups of the Standard Model,Relativity or Lorentz Invariance occurs but outside the Warp Bubble the neutrino would be seen at Superluminal speeds.Remember that the CERN particle accelerators were constructed to reproduce in laboratory scale the physical conditions we believe that may have existed in the Early Universe so these micro Warp Bubbles generated after the Big Bang may perhaps be re-created or reproduced inside particle accelerators. We believe that our idea borrowed from Gauthier,Gravel and Melanson can explain what really happened with the neutrinos in the OPERA experiment
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:1110.0031 [pdf] submitted on 9 Oct 2011

The Uncertainties of Light

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 2 pages

This paper touches on the subject of whether light really needs a medium, which is termed the luminiferous ether, for its transmission as is in the case of sound which requires a fluid such as air or liquid as the medium for its transmission, and the subject of the velocity of light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1110.0029 [pdf] submitted on 9 Oct 2011

Another Test of the Light Speed Invariance Postulate

Authors: Stephan J. G. Gift
Comments: 8 pages

In a paper in 1910 Tolman pointed out that the light speed invariance postulate of special relativity requires that the time for light to traverse a fixed distance between two points is independent of the movement of those points relative to the light source. The range equation of the GPS is used to directly test this proposition. This equation has been rigorously tested and verified in the Earth-Centred Inertial frame where light signals propagate in straight lines at constant speed c. The result is a simple demonstration of light speed anisotropy that is consistent with light speed variation detected in other experiments and inconsistent with the light speed invariance postulate.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9] viXra:1110.0028 [pdf] submitted on 9 Oct 2011

On Superluminal Particles and the Extended Relativity Theories

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 13 pages, submitted to Physics Letters B

Superluminal particles are studied within the framework of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford spaces (C-spaces). In the simplest scenario, it is found that it is the contribution of the Clifford scalar component π of the poly-vector-valued momentum which is responsible for the superluminal behavior in ordinary spacetime due to the fact that the effective mass M = (see paper) is imaginary (tachyonic). However, from the point of view of C-space, there is no superluminal (tachyonic) behavior because the true physical mass still obeys M2 > 0. Therefore, there are no violations of the Clifford-extended Lorentz invariance and the extended Relativity principle in C-spaces. Furthermore, to lowest order, there is no contribution of terms involving powers of the Planck mass (1/m2P ) indicating that quantum gravitational effects do not play a role at this order. A Born's Reciprocal Relativity theory in Phase Spaces leads to modified dispersion relations involving both coordinates and momenta, and whose truncations furnish Lorentz-violating dispersion relations which appear in Finsler Geometry, rainbow-metrics models and Double (deformed) Special Relativity. These models also admit superluminal particles. A numerical analysis based on the recent OPERA experimental findings on alleged superluminal muon neutrinos is made. For the average muon neutrino energy of 17 Gev, we find a value for π = 119.7 Mev that, coincidentally, is close to the mass of the muon mμ = 105.7 Mev.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1110.0027 [pdf] submitted on 7 Oct 2011

On the Impossibility of Separating Clocks from Rulers

Authors: Armin Nikkhah Shirazi
Comments: 9 pages, This essay was first submitted to the 2nd FQXi essay contest in early october 2009. The link can be found here: http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/577

The Lorentz Transformations imply that time and length are in some sense interconvertible, much in contrast to our ordinary intuitions. This paper attempts to present an approach which is supposed to make it intuitively evident that time and length are in fact interconvertible and, furthermore, that this approach is compatible with two well-known phenomena predicted by SR, namely time dilation and length contraction. This is accomplished by demonstrating how a clock can be used as a ruler, and vice versa, leading to the realization that length contraction and time dilation directly imply each other in the context of the motion of the same measurement device. What makes both kinds of measurements using the same device really possible in the first place is the existence of a finite upper limit on motion. Because of this limit, length measurements cannot be completed without involving the passage of time, and time measurements cannot be completed without involving finite displacement. But that means any clock or ruler really measures both time and length. Hence one constraint on what is fundamentally possible in physics is our ability to build measurement devices that can be exclusively used just as rulers or just as clocks
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1110.0025 [pdf] submitted on 7 Oct 2011

A Derivation of the Speed of Light Postulate

Authors: Armin Nikkhah Shirazi
Comments: 8 pages

The speed of light postulate, one of the two fundamental assumptions upon which the special theory of relativity (SR) is based, still seems as mysterious today as when it was first introduced. This paper presents a derivation of the postulate from three axioms:1) A definition of motion in proper time that captures most of the mathematical aspects of SR except for the speed of light postulate itself, 2) An axiom concerning the nature of the existence of entities which do not age, and finally 3) an axiom which defines existence in a spacetime to be transitive. The second axiom is motivated by an apparent paradox inherent in the structure of SR, called the existence paradox, pertaining to entities which do not age. The duration of existence of such entities in their proper frame is precisely equal to zero, which would normally be interpreted to be consistent with non- existence and inconsistent with the empirical evidence for the existence of such entities. The resolution of this apparent paradox is guided by a quasi-philosophical principle, called the Principle of least Speciality. The second axiom presents a resolution to the existence paradox that follows this principle while at the same time providing the essence of the explanation for the speed of light postulate. Given the three axioms, it is straightforward to show that the speed of light postulate is a logical consequence. Furthermore, this framework implies a direct experimentally testable prediction that is, according to currently prevailing views, unexpected.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1110.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-01 13:19:27

The Change of Gravitational Potential Energy and Dark Energy in the Zero Energy Universe

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi
Comments: 25 Pages.

Gravity is the force conquering the structure of the universe. By recognizing the components of the universe, we are estimating the quantity of components composing the universe through size of gravity and gravitational potential energy (GPE). In this paper, it is being shown that the universe can be born and expanded through pair creation of positive energy (mass) and negative energy (mass) from zero energy condition. Also, GPE is composed by 3 units of U++, U--, and U-+ when negative and positive energy exists, U-+ (GPE between negative mass and positive mass) has positive values and is the component that makes repulsive gravitational effect. U-+ corresponds with the inner energy of the system and can be interpreted as dark energy. The force by U-+ is F = (4piG/3)k_h(t)Mρr = (1/3)Λ(t)Mc^2r shaped. Also, situations in which U-+ has much higher value than |U--| + |U++| depending on the distribution of negative mass and positive mass is possible. This doesn't mean that 72.1% of dark energy independently exists, but means that explanation from GPE occurring from 4.6% of negative energy, which is the same as 4.6% of positive energy, is possible. Moreover, 4.6% of negative energy is the energy which is inevitably required from zero energy, which is the most natural total energy value in the universe. This discovery implies that our belief that size of gravitational effect and size of components of the universe would always 1:1 correspond was wrong. We set up each model from the birth of universe to the present, and calculated GPE using computer simulation in each level. As a result, we could verify that “pair creation model of negative mass and positive mass” explains inflation of the early universe and decelerating expansion, and present accelerating expansion in time series.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:1110.0018 [pdf] submitted on 6 Oct 2011

Three Stages of Evolutions of Spacetime/intrinsic Spacetime and Parameters/intrinsic Parameters and the Associated Hierarchies of Spacetimes/intrinsic Spacetimes and Parameters/intrinsic Parameters in a Universe. Part II.

Authors: Akindele (Adekugbe) Joseph
Comments: 18 pages

The hierarchy of masses/intrinsic masses of a particle or body in a hierarchy of spacetimes /intrinsic spacetimes in a universe, isolated in the first part of this paper, is extended to the hierarchies of other physical parameters/intrinsic parameters. Spacetime and intrinsic spacetime are proposed to be composed of the ponderable (or metric) gravitational components and the non-ponderable (or affine) dynamical components, and the mass and intrinsic mass of a particle or body as composed of the ponderable (or metric) gravitational components and non-ponderable (or affine) dynamical components. The constant speed of 'signals', c = 300,000 Km/s, is separated into the constant dynamical speed of electromagnetic waves, c = 300,000 Km/s in vacuo and the constant static (or gravitational) speed of gravitational waves cg = 300,000 Km/s, where cg being a static (or gravitational) speed, is not made manifest in actual translation through space of the massless graviton. The time dimension ct is likewise split into the metric static (or gravitational) component cg t and the affine dynamical component c t. The static (or gravitational) speed of gravitational waves cg is incorporated into the gravitational local Lorentz transformation (GLLT)in the context of the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR) on flat spacetime and the absolute intrinsic line element, absolute intrinsic metric tensor and absolute intrinsic Ricci tensor of the metric theory of absolute intrinsic gravity (MAIG) on curved 'two-dimensional' absolute intrinsic spacetime in every gravitational field of the present theory, developed in a previous paper, while the dynamical speed c of electromagnetic waves should appear in local Lorentz transformation (LLT) of the special theory of relativity (SR), derived on flat spacetime in an external gravitational field in the present theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[4] viXra:1110.0017 [pdf] submitted on 6 Oct 2011

Three Stages of Evolutions of Spacetime/intrinsic Spacetime and Parameters/intrinsic Parameters and the Associated Hierarchies of Spacetimes/intrinsic Spacetimes and Parameters/intrinsic Parameters in a Universe. Part I.

Authors: Akindele (Adekugbe) Joseph
Comments: 23 pages

Three stages of evolutions of spacetime/intrinsic spacetime and mass/intrinsic mass in a universe are isolated. The ab initio absolutely immaterial state of a universe with flat 'four-dimensional' absolute-absolute spacetime containing absolute-absolute rest mass and its underlying flat 'two-dimensional' absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic spacetime containing absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic rest mass, evolved into an intermediate absolute material state with flat 'four-dimensional' absolute spacetime containing absolute rest mass and its underlying flat 'two-dimensional' absolute intrinsic spacetime containing absolute intrinsic rest mass, at the first stage; followed by evolution into yet an intermediate relative material state with flat four-dimensional proper spacetime containing rest mass and its underlying flat two-dimensional proper intrinsic spacetime containing intrinsic rest mass, at the second stage. These are then followed by evolution into a final relative material state with flat four-dimensional relativistic spacetime containing relativistic (or inertial) mass and its underlying flat two-dimensional relativistic intrinsic spacetime containing relativistic intrinsic mass (or intrinsic inertial mass), at the third (and final) stage. The three stages commenced and progress simultaneously and are still on-going in every universe at present. The second and third stages of evolutions of spacetime/intrinsic spacetime and mass/intrinsic mass in a universe, correspond to the first and second stages in a gravitational field, already developed in the previous papers. The associated hierarchies of spacetimes and masses (comprising of three layers of space-time-mass) in every universe is highlighted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3] viXra:1110.0013 [pdf] submitted on 5 Oct 2011

Gravitational Waves Versus Cosmological Perturbations: Commentary to Mukhanov's Talk

Authors: Lukasz Andrzej Glinka
Comments: 8 pages

Recently, on the conference "Quantum Theory and Gravitation" held in Zürich on June 14-24, 2011, V.F. Mukhanov has been presented talk "Massive Gravity" discussing the relationships between massive gravitational waves and Cosmological Perturbations of the Minkowski background. His crucial result was modification of the Newtonian potential of universal gravitation due to a multiplicative constant equal to 4=3. However, this presentation has been stirred up my negative opinion. The controversy has been caused by absence of a lot of details, what have been made the talk manifestly misleading. The lecturer did not respond to my questions satisfactory. Mukhanov's deductions are at most half-true, and they can be easily verified by straightforward calculations. In this paper I explain shortly what is right and what is wrong in the approach propagated by Mukhanov. Particularly, I shall to show that restoration of the Newton law of universal gravitation is unambiguous.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1110.0009 [pdf] submitted on 5 Oct 2011

A Relativistic Approach to Macroscopic Chemical Kinetics

Authors: Rafael-Andrés Alemañ-Berenguer
Comments: 9 pages

Theoretical research has paid little attention to the influence on chemical kinetics of the motion of reference frames where chemical reactions are carried on. In order to improve this situation, in this paper the main chemical-kinetics relations with regards to inertial and gravitational frames in the relativistic range are developed, and also some simple experiments designed to test their scope are suggested.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:1110.0007 [pdf] submitted on 4 Oct 2011

If the Speed of Light is Not an Universal Constant According to the Theory of Reference Frames: on the Physical Nature of Neutrino

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 8 pages

The Theory of Reference Frames considers two speeds of light: the physical speed which is an universal constant and the relativistic speed which instead is variable and depends on the relative speed between the considered reference frames. We analyse physical consequences of the not constant speed of light as per principles of the Theory of Reference Frames which makes use of different relativistic transformations of space-time. Specifically we consider variation of mass, relativity of space-time and the revealing physical effect concerning the muon average life. At last we make a few considerations about the recent experiment on the speed of muon neutrino from CERN to LNGS.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology