[33] **viXra:1601.0365 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-23 11:36:31*

**Authors:** john Linus O'Sullivan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Space is from two kinds of energy in standing waves; (1) energy with mass which is finite energy and (2) energy without mass which is infinite energy. Given light speed is equal to frequency times wavelength C = f λ then photon half waves are twice light speed on contraction before reversal expansion at light speed. Light speed is a constant relative to mass in Special Relativity but photon half waves are twice light speed on contraction from the fundamental frequency. Infinity is half wave photon energy on contraction at twice light speed without mass-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1601.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 05:46:37*

**Authors:** Jae-Kwang Hwang

**Comments:** 147 Pages. extended standard model

Three-dimensional quantized spaces are newly introduced. Four three-dimensional quantized spaces with total 12 dimensions are used to explain the universes including ours. The warped three-dimensional quantized spaces with the quantum time width (t=tq) (see Fig. 4B) are applied to explain the origin of the charges and evolution of the universe. Also, the warped quantized time with the quantum space size (x=xq) of the three-dimensional spaces (see Fig. 4C) is used to explain the magnetic charges. In the present work, the positive energy has the positive time momentum (E/c>0) flowing toward the positive time direction and the negative energy has the negative time momentum (-E/c<0) flowing toward the negative time direction (see section 17). The birth of our positive energy matter universe is justified from the production of the positive and negative energy warped space pair. This birth is the beginning of the physical universe with the big bang. The energy is newly defined as the space-time volume of E = ctV in the present work. It is shown that the quantum length (xq) and time (tq) of our universes are 2x_p^2 = 5.223 10-70 m and xq/c = 1.7422 10-78 s, respectively, which give the present masses of the elementary particles. The time is originated from the unobservable quantum space fluctuation.
There are many physical problems which we do not know how to solve. Based on the present model, those problems are discussed in the present work. Those problems are including the matter universe question, three generations of the leptons and quarks, the quark confinement, the proton decay, Majorana particle, dark matter, dark energy, dark flow, magnetic monopoles, graviton, hadronization, time before the big bang, a black hole, relative theory, very high energy cosmic rays, hard x-rays, high temperature superconductor, quantum entanglement, quantum wave function collapse, neutrino oscillations, CP violations and proton spin crisis. Also, it is shown for the first time that the wave function in the quantum mechanics is closely connected to the energy of the warped space caused by the moving elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1601.0318 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-03 23:28:09*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

When contemplating the theory of evolution, many people assume evolution belongs exclusively to the biological sciences. It's maintained here that complete comprehension also requires physics. Since discovery of gravitational waves in Sep. 2015 is a recent milestone in physics, it's fitting that evolution should be reassessed by that milestone. Without a conviction that time doesn’t exclusively operate in a straight line and that time travel to the past is possible, science would have to totally agree with the evolutionary concepts Charles Darwin proposed.
This article also attempts to combine Einstein's two Relativity theories and Unified Field Theory with quantum physics and tomorrow's hyper-computers. It also uses the concepts of "real", "imaginary" and "complex" time to try to bring cosmology's Big Bang theory, the Steady State's infinity and eternity, and the Inflationary theory into the 21st century.
Einstein believed stars, planets, even quantum particles were part of, and not distinct from, the rubber-sheet geometry (the topology) comprising space-time. To read an explanation in plain English of subuniverses or observable universes using topology, go to the intimately related - indispensably so - "Topological monoverse" at the end of this article. This says that, from a purely spatial aspect, there is no multiverse (universes existing alongside ours). But remember, it regards the 13.8 billion year old structure we live in as merely a subuniverse within an infinite universe. It's saying there are no other universes beyond our infinite universe. If each subuniverse is viewed as the entire universe, the multiverse does indeed exist. From the temporal aspect of the space-time union: everything in space-time is unified into one thing - a product of the gravitational field. All past and future universes are unified with the present cosmos (is this the real meaning of the word "multiverse"?)
In some circles, the multiverse is not regarded as science but as philosophy or even sci-fi. Referring to the latter, the following was stated on the program "Catalyst" on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) and its edition of Tuesday, 1 March 2016 entitled "SCIENCE OF SCI FI FILMS – FACT OR FICTION?" (http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/4415534.htm) -
"science-fiction can give a false sense of how science progresses." To this, Professor Lawrence Krauss added, "One of the things that always amazes me in Star Trek is having a problem and they get the engineers to gather around and they solve the problem within an hour. Whereas in the real world, as a scientist, it can take decades and baby steps to make any major progress."
What about science's own work on the Unified Field Theory and Theory of Everything? Accomplished completely, these must surely allow any problem to be solved immediately (if not sooner) by providing access to all knowledge in space-time.
I agree that my proposals are based on many things that are still theory only. My ideas have been developing for 30 or 40 years, and I've found them to be very "internally consistent" (that's the way string theory has been described). String theory may have limits that future experiments* will reveal, but is worth pursuing at the moment. I think my ideas are worth pursuing - time will reveal their value or nonvalue.
* According to Special Relativity, experiments are overrated by modern science since the truths revealed by experimentation are necessarily restricted to one frame of reference. Regarding the question of length contraction in Special Relativity - Einstein wrote in 1911 that "It doesn't 'really' exist, in so far as it doesn't exist for a co-moving observer; though it 'really' exists, i.e. in such a way that it could be demonstrated in principle by physical means by a non-comoving observer." [Einstein, Albert (1911). "Zum Ehrenfestschen Paradoxon. Eine Bemerkungzu V. Variĉaks Aufsatz". Physikalische Zeitschrift 12: 509–510]. Demonstration "in principle by physical means by a non-comoving observer" is the same meaning as "demonstration by experiments performed by scientists not moving at the speed of light".
Cosmic unification via the gravitational field is one of my deep beliefs. The example of radiating gravity waves causing draining of energy does not incorporate this gravitational unification. Taking matter as an example - mass, EM (electromagnetic) energy and nuclear forces are capable of greatly varying degrees of renewal (from the microscopic to regeneration of a liver/rib to eventual total renewal) if matter and its properties are part of the G (gravitational) field. That field always exists and only changes form, including between matter and energy - the law of conservation says things always exist and merely change form.
I have the most intense desire to understand how everything works (my main interest is cosmology). My feeling as I typed these thoughts has always been that they already exist (though, since physics' Unification appears to connect every point and time in the Cosmos, not on early 21st-century Earth in every case). And I'm just a student, learning about them. Albert Einstein is quoted as saying - "If you can't explain it to a six year old, you don't understand it yourself." Since part of me takes Einstein literally, I avoid equations and jargon as much as possible and prefer to write clearly in plain English.
“We need a very different view of basic physics. This is the time for radical, new ideas” (theoretical physicist Neil) Turok concluded in early October, 2015. He believes that this is a great time in human history for the revolution to occur.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1601.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-28 11:01:26*

**Authors:** Andrew Banks

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An experiment is proposed in Special Relativity (SR) such that two given coordinate systems are in relative motion and a light pulse is emitted from the origins along the positive x-axis when they are common. In a specific configuration of the two coordinate systems, it will be shown that the output of the Lorentz transformations (LT) for the position of light in the primed frame does not match the position of light according to the light postulate (LP) in the primed frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1601.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-28 09:32:48*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Oral presentation, PMS_002, Andhra Pradesh Academi of Sciences, 1st Science Congress, Tirupati, AP, India. (27/29-Jan-2016)

In an optimistic approach, some of the modern cosmologists believe that, during cosmic evolution, Planck scale quantum gravitational interactions might have an observable effect on the current observable cosmological phenomena. Clearly speaking, with respect to ‘Quantum gravity’ and Planck scale early universal laboratory, current universe can be considered as a low energy scale laboratory. If so, cosmological quantum gravity can be considered as scale independent. If one is willing to consider the current observable universe as a low energy scale laboratory, currently believed cosmic microwave back ground temperature can be considered as the low energy quantum gravitational effect. At any time in the past, i.e as the operating energy scale was assumed to be increasing; past high cosmic back ground temperature can be considered as the high energy quantum gravitational effect. Thinking in this way, starting from the Planck scale, quantum cosmology can be considered as ‘scale independent model’ and the universe can be considered as the best quantum gravitational object. With reference to the current concepts of modern cosmology, probability of ‘this’ to happen may be zero, but its possibility cannot be ruled out. By considering the current observable universe as an evolving primordial black hole, many fundamental issues of cosmology can be resolved. Proceeding further, observed deep space redshift nonlinearity can be expected to be connected with cosmological gravitational and relativistic effects and cannot be considered as a major criterion of cosmic evolution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1601.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-27 12:01:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Deviations in the shadow of our Galaxy’s supermassive black hole could reveal violations of general relativity. [10]
That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9]
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1601.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-25 16:51:23*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

A new hypothesis for stellar Discrete-transitional Mechanics (DTM) is presented based on the Infophysical Spacetime Model (ISM). The concept of spatiotemporal scale-constants is explained using familiar computer jargon and later applied to the stellar scope of Reality. The DTM are used to derive the de Broglie matter-wave relativistic relations by means of the stellar spatial density (frequency) spectrum (SDS) in the Fourier spatial density domain. A tentative value for the stellar spatiotemporal scale-constant is also postulated. The energy, mass and momentum de Broglie relativistic relations are derived, by the same means, without resorting to four dimensional Minkowsky spacetime or to the isotropy of the speed of light, resulting in novel implications such as, discrete-transitional motion and its kinematical properties, natural uniform circular motion in the absence of gravity, universal 3-sphere motional geometry, interscopal coupling, wave-particle equivalence, apodization/containment functions, transitional variables, transactional particles, etc., thus resulting in a novel Discrete-transitional Mechanics (DTM) hypothesis which encompasses Quantum Mechanical concepts, de Broglie matter-waves, Special Relativity and Classical Mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1601.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-26 03:09:11*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this paper, we will present a new perspective of certain dimensions that manifest physically
and therefore can be studied. Theoretical ground work will be set within General Relativity since
it provides the highest accuracy in cosmology, but we will also “bridge” to quantum mechanics
near the end of the paper.
Using the notion of “physical dimensions” we will explain some aspects that have puzzled
physicists so far, including what is known as “the arrow of time”. It will be proven theoretically
that there is no such thing and that time has no direction since temporal motion requires only
expansion and a velocity of that expansion, time expands in all directions and influences the
expansion of space, hence inflating space and forming the spacetime continuum from the earliest
age of the Universe, the Big Bang, to present time.
We will first take a relatively short part of the paper to introduce the reader in the necessary
subjects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1601.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-25 10:12:06*

**Authors:** M. Hassan, Ayman A. Aly, M.M. Maghraby, H. Motaweh

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this work we study the interacting dark energy (DE) models with Garnda-Oliveros cutoff (LGO) within the work of Kaluza-Klein (KK) universe. We established mathematical formulas for the equation of state parameter wA the decelaration parameter q and the geometrical statefinder parameters r and s. The results show that the universe is in an expansion mode for the model under study.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1601.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-24 16:08:33*

**Authors:** Gary Nash

**Comments:** Pages.

A first principles approach was used to derive the non-relativistic Schrödinger's equation from a generalized wave equation with a spatially dependant phase velocity. The Planck-Einstein relation $E=h\nu$ and the de Broglie relation $\lambda=\frac{h}{p}$ were used as postulates to derive the fundamental equation $(\nabla^{2}+\frac{p^2}{\hbar^2})\Psi=0$ from which Schrödinger's equation was obtained. The well known quantum equation in tensor form $\partial_{\alpha}\partial^{\alpha}\Psi=k^{2}\Psi$ follows naturally from special relativity. A symmetrized second rank tensor $N^{\alpha\beta}$ was formulated from the quantum equation with real vector components in curved (3+1) spacetime. A new tensor describing dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor from the orthogonal decomposition theorem. Being divergenceless, the symmetric part of $N^{\alpha\beta}$ hides general relativity and dark energy in the quantum equation. The antisymmetric part of $N^{\alpha\beta}$ yielded the Proca equation for a massive vector boson of spin 1 which could describe neutral dark matter. When the rest mass of the boson is zero, dark matter gives rise to electrodynamics or dark photons, if they exist. The dark energy tensor is dynamic, and with positive energy density and pressure, tends to accelerate the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1601.0266 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-20 11:22:31*

**Authors:** Kim YoungCheol

**Comments:** 7 Pages. I found my mistake, so I corrected it.

Because I felt a paradox about the age of the universe of modern cosmology, I have calculated the universe's age to compare with it based on special relativity.
As result, I found another cosmology model that is consistent with current cosmology in a flat and constantly expanding Universe.
Theoretically, my calculation is an examination for any kind cosmology for the case of flat and constant expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1601.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-24 07:51:06*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The well known Planck Constants Length, Time and
Mass will be extended by the Planck Acceleration. This paper shows howto solve Einstein's Field Equations evaluated in Robertson Walker metric, within the Planck Era context

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1601.0238 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-04 04:01:46*

**Authors:** Tobias Wowereit

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

The Einstein equations are completed. The electromagnetic nature of energetic phenomena is derived. Alternative units are introduced.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1601.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-20 00:36:54*

**Authors:** Rongchao Ma

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Baryogenesis, or the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, is one of the major unsolved problems in physical cosmology. Here we present a new interpretation to the baryogenesis based on the theory of packaged entanglement states in which the particles are indeterminate and hermaphroditic. A measurement or an external perturbation to these packaged entanglement states will cause the wave function to collapse and therefore break the system's C-symmetry. This process satisfies the Sakharov conditions. By further proposing an entanglement selection principle, we can give a self-consistent interpretation to the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry produced in early universe. Thus, the collapse of packaged entanglement states with C-symmetry breaking could be or at lease contribute to the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1601.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-24 07:32:11*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Ensuing from first principles, the theory of spacetime and its metaphysical axioms are introduced as prerequisites to physical theology and the so-called relative scale spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1601.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-19 10:46:04*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Orbits are parameterized with the space−time dimensions of the gravitational constant. Novel solutions for the flyby anomaly, dark matter, and the gravitational lensing effect are deduced from first principles. Observable evidence is provided with several experimental predictions to test the modified Keplerian dynamics (MoKD) hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1601.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-22 00:48:36*

**Authors:** Mohammad Humayoun Khan

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

For thousands of years philosophers and scientists have struggled to understand the phenomenon of time. We have known for the last one hundred years about time dilation or slowing of time with motion and in gravity yet true understanding of time have evaded us. I believe there is a clear solution to the enigma of time. This brings to light the reason behind many predictions of Special and General Relativity such as why time slows with motion and in gravity? What is the cause of gravity and why it is only attractive? Why space is curved by gravitational fields? Why objects gain mass when accelerated by a force but do not gain mass when falling in gravity? What is the cause of inertia and length contraction and why there cannot be a twin paradox? The concepts are simple so that anyone with knowledge of high school physics and math should be able to follow.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1601.0162 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-25 11:58:52*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages. My math is cumbersome for a 92 year-old, right-brained stroke person but correct

Abstract: Annihilation of spin 0/spin 1 negative-energy mass produces expansion of space in our after-big bang broken-E8 symmetry epoch in which generation of new negative-energy matter is not possible and that presently is redundant. Expansion of space in this way minimizes big bang radiation energy loss external to the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1601.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-28 09:49:41*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 10 Pages. 1 Figure

Currently, the rest mass of photons has been assumed to be = 0. Otherwise, according to the expression of moving mass, the moving mass of photons becomes infinite, because the velocity of photons has been assumed to be = c (constant) according to Einstein’s postulate of theory of relativity. Since the moving mass (or any type of mass) of photons (or of any particle) cannot be infinite, their rest mass has been assumed to be = 0. But the current assumption cannot be true. Because, there are several evidences and plausible arguments to prove that the photons possess some finite rest mass. And therefore, presently a plausible solution has been determined such that the moving mass of photons may not become infinite despite they possess some finite rest mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1601.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-16 09:12:42*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

In this article it is shown that it is possible to explain the thrust generated by the EM Drive as a reaction force of emitted gravitational waves. This eliminates the controversy that surrounds the experiments performed with this device showing positive results that seemingly violate the Newton’s third law of action and reaction.
Keywords: EM Drive, Hubble constant, dark matter mass density, dark matter mass quantum, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation temperature, finite space model of the universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1601.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-25 06:23:53*

**Authors:** H. Kubel

**Comments:** 3 pages

With Einstein’s interpretation, “everything is relative”, the so-called twin experiment discloses what is called a paradox, when the travelling twin returns and they compare watches (and aging). Some assign the solution to acceleration, which they claim should be taken into account so that the paradox evaporates. However, it’s easy to construct an experiment in which any acceleration lays outside the considered part of the experiment, so that within the measured part we have only constant velocities. We can then have one observer at rest, and two travelers who run through the travelling twin’s route, but without acceleration. Within a hypothetical absolute underlying medium, particles oscillate slower for an observer who moves through the Aether than they do for an observer at rest. An acceleration free experiment can be made in which all three agree on that. The conflict appears if the traveling ‘twins’ measure how fast the first observers clock runs, based on their respective lines of simultaneity, because then the travelling ‘twins’ then insist that A’s particles oscillate slower than their own. Even without the physical experiment, the thought experiment itself discloses that the twin-paradox is a product of the “everything is relative” interpretation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1601.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 07:28:07*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Pavlovich Telnin

**Comments:** 3 Pages. look to the viXra paper 1407.0190

Two ideas : 1) The existence of H – the Hubble constant, and 2) The possibility of tachyons existence. They gives me the hope to try to describe the motion of galaxies on the other side of the border between visible and invisible parts of the Universe. And also how to expand the visible Universe part with the help of the tachyons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1601.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-27 14:48:22*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Presented at/Published in 20th Annual Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference - College Park, MD, July 10-13, 2013

The following is an attempt to explain that time dilation in relativity is an apparent phenomenon only, i.e., when one frame moves relative to another at a constant speed, it only appears that its clock runs slower than the other. In the first (simple) case, the box remains stationary. In the second, it moves horizontally at speed = 0.5c. By having lights flash simultaneously at the ends of the box, the “photos” that reach the observers (at positions = 0 in each frame) record simultaneous positions for comparison to determine the “true” box length because both photos are taken at the same time, even though they do not reach the observers simultaneously. Each photo records the light flash and the corresponding positions and times in both frames when the flash occurred. The conclusion drawn from this analysis is that, whether or not reference frames are moving relative to one another, time does not vary – any such variation is apparent only.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1601.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-27 14:57:49*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Presented at/Published in 1st Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference - Florida Atlantic University, August 5-8, 2015

The Michelson-Morley Interferometer Experiment of 1887 is often cited as one of the cornerstones (and perhaps THE cornerstone) upon which Einstein built his theory of special relativity. Allegedly, it “proved” there was no aether. Once Einstein postulated that the speed of light was invariant, the only explanation that became accepted was that time slowed and length contracted due to relative motion according to the Lorentz Transformation formulae, adopted by Einstein as tenets of his special relativity. Despite subsequent experiments contradicting the alleged “null result,” reanalysis of the results indicating positive (“non-null”) results, and even maintaining the validity of the null result but explaining it via classical physics, the M&M Interferometer Experiment remains a special relativity foundation. However, if the limitation of the invariance of the speed of light is removed, the “null result” can be easily explained without resort to special relativity and its postulates of time dilation and length contraction. Yet this is seldom done.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1601.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-27 14:53:09*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Presented at/Published in 1st Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference - Florida Atlantic University, August 6-8, 2015

Linked with the concept of a cosmological Doppler red-shift is an expanding universe with rapidly receding stars, galaxies, etc. Assuming no form of matter, especially a reasonably macroscopic and tenuous one like a star, let alone an entire galaxy, could possibly travel at speeds approaching that of light and remain ‘intact’ (except, perhaps, something as dense as a neutron star), the only possible way for such an entity to exhibit recession speeds approaching that of light would be for space itself to be expanding. And whether one accepts the traditional or Galilean Doppler red-shift as the correct explanation, one is still left to conclude that ‘something’ is ‘racing away.’ I endeavor to cast doubt on the traditional explanation of a cosmological Doppler red-shift due to universe expansion. A Galilean Doppler red-shift may be an equally plausible explanation for those who adhere to the premise of stars, galaxies, etc., receding for whatever reason.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1601.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-27 15:12:16*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Presented at/Published in 1st Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference - Florida Atlantic University, August 5-8, 2015

Einstein’s relativity contends that time, as measured by clocks, slows with increasing speed, becoming especially noticeable as the speed of light is approached. Discussions of this usually focus on constant speeds, albeit near the speed of light, and phenomena such as muon decay (near light speed), or even the Hafele-Keating experiment (at much slower speeds), are cited as ‘proof.’ Dissident scientists often contend that time remains invariant, although clocks may appear to run slower at increasing speeds. At least one such scientist contends that accelerated clocks can run both slower and faster, an interesting departure that I decided to examine via some examples. To the extent that my examples are correct, I too would agree with this conjecture, namely that, while time remains invariant, clocks can run faster and slower when accelerated (but not at constant velocity).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1601.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-07 07:46:03*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper, we will present a new perspective of certain dimensions that manifest physically and therefore can be studied. Theoretical ground work will be set within General Relativity since it provides the highest accuracy in cosmology, but we will also “bridge” to quantum mechanics near the end of the paper.
Using the notion of “physical dimensions” we will explain some aspects that have puzzled physicists so far, including what is known as “the arrow of time”. It will be proven theoretically that there is no such thing and that time has no direction since temporal motion requires only expansion and a velocity of that expansion, time expands in all directions and influences the expansion of space, hence inflating space and forming the spacetime continuum from the earliest age of the Universe, the Big Bang, to present time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1601.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-07 00:35:00*

**Authors:** Ross Nickel

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An equation (1) is presented which introduces a velocity term based upon Newton’s law of gravity. This term is included in equation (2) which is proposed as a universal velocity law. These two equations are then used to: 1. establish a maximum energy ceiling for cosmic rays, 2. account for the rotational velocities of stars formed from interstellar clouds, 3. predict solar planetary velocities, 4. apply them to the universe itself, 5. calculation of radius of quarks. Quantities are calculated which have not been calculated before, with modest success.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1601.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-05 09:24:47*

**Authors:** J Arnold

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The so-called “Twin Paradox”, wherein a relativistic effect is hypothesized to produce different clock rates between bodies, has not been resolved to the satisfaction of many theorists, and it is disbelieved entirely by others. Experiments have confirmed the relativistic effect of acceleration, but there has been an abiding difficulty with clarifying how arbitrary periods of uniform motion between accelerations, when both twins will observe the other’s clock to move more slowly, can be resolved at their reunion. Spacetime diagrams are used here to demonstrate visually and conceptually that there is a non-paradoxical explanation for the effect of periods of uniform motion that has not been previously proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1601.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-04 03:59:49*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll.

**Comments:** 16 Pages. This upgraded paper deals with the issues of entropy and metallicity in a non-expanding universe and the effects of lensing at high and low redshifts. The author welcomes critical feedback.

Abstract. The author proposes that a reinterpretation of cosmological redshift as arising from the small positive spacetime curvature of a 4-rotating Hyperspherical Universe of constant size can eliminate the current requirement for spacetime singularities, cosmic inflation, dark matter, and dark energy from cosmological models. This second paper further addresses angular diameter at low and high redshifts, and the constant metallicity of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1601.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-09 02:32:25*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

There is an equation that eluded Einstein for the last 30 years of his life: the one-inch equation that will in a sense summarize everything we know about the physical laws governing the universe we live in. Dr. Kaku believes that one day, perhaps the destiny of all intelligent life in the universe may hinge on this equation. Finding it is the goal of a lifetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1601.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-22 07:32:06*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** Pages. To be published, spring 2017, in Springler series Progress in Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, n°30 'Quantum systems in Physics, Chemistry and Biology' : 'A Coherent Resonant Cosmology Approach and its Implications in Microphysics and Biophysics'

Analysis of present day cosmology crisis suggests a return to the steady-state model, but adding a new source of the cosmic microwave background: the Grandcosmos. Indeed, elementary dimensional analysis shows the temporal invariance of both the horizon radius, the mean material density and the background temperature, reestablishing the perfect cosmological principle. This temporal invariance permits to apply the holographic principle, with 1D terms explaining both Grandcosmos, extending Universe radius by 1061, and critical condition (flatness), with a general quantization reducing the Plank units by a factor of 1061, while a tachyonic parallel world (C ≈ 1061c) resolves the vacuum energy dilemma. The time quantization is tied to a general mono-frequency coherence principle, so that the Universe would be a computer ruled by a 10104 Hz Big-Bang/Big-Crunch oscillation. The dramatic appearance of the neutrino background wavelength in the special holographic series confirms the need for a synthesis of the two main cosmological models. This explains the apparent confirmations of the standard model, but with necessity of a radical re-interpretation (inflation and multiverse are unnecessary). The non-Doppler Kotov-Lyuty coherent cosmic oscillation confirms tachyonicity and is an absolute clock in tight holographic connexion with the background temperature, itself tied to Grandcosmos, absolute space. The rejection of Relativity at Universe level leads to the critical condition and matter density 3/10, eliminating the dark energy problem, and corresponds to the Eddington prediction for the hydrogen atom number 136 × 2256. The formula shows a symmetry between the Newton and Fermi constants supporting an oriented cosmical sweeping character (parity violation) of the matter-antimatter oscillation (dark matter would vibrate in quadrature). A hydrogen gravitational molecule model confirms the formula and precises the black matter density, while a Black atom model relies directly micro and macro physics. Holographic analysis leads to graviton and photon masses, and to a Topological Axis rehabilitating the tachyonic bosonic string theory. Physical and biological essential parameters are interconnected, in relation with musical and economic numbers, as the Combinatorial Hierarchy, pointing to a Diophantine Grand Theory, rejecting Darwin evolution and favoring universality of Intelligent Life. Keywords: Quantum Theory, Holographic Principle, Steady-state Cosmology, Coherent Cosmology, Eddington Theory, Dark energy, Antimatter, Dark matter, Combinatorial Physics, Photon mass, String Theory, Cosmo-biology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1601.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-01 06:06:12*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

About Time, True, God and other things

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology