[27] **viXra:1807.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-16 20:35:54*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 1 Page.

When we discuss the ether, we must specify what type of ether we are referring to: Dirac's ether, Einstein's ether, Lorentz's ether, Weyl's ether, etc. Among the physicists the word ether became gradually unusual over time. It has been replaced by the empty term, but the meaning has not changed. Currently, we have return to the use of the wird ether. The use of the term: stationary ether, new ether, relativistic ether, has already becomes normal during son international conferences.
See the book of LUDWIK KOSTRO title: EINSTEIN AND THE ETHER.
In this article we combine reconciles the Lorentz's ether with the relativistic ether of Einstein

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1807.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-15 12:00:32*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: A chargeless Z(4430) tetraquark acts physically like a ~ 270X heavier neutrino

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1807.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-16 01:08:43*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Based on Fizeau's experiment, the single cogwheel is replaced with two rotating disks to measure the one-way speed of light. A single slit is cut out in the radial direction on each disk for the light to pass through the disk. With both disks rotating at the same angular speed, the light can pass through both disks only if the second slit is in a different radial direction from the first slit. The light takes time to travel from the first disk to the second disk. With both slits rotating into the straight path of light, the one-way speed of light can be calculated from the distance between two disks, angular speed of the disks and the angular difference between two slits.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1807.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-16 15:06:38*

**Authors:** Xiaogang Ruan

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In 1905, based on the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein proposed the hypothesis of invariance of light speed (ILS). He then theoretically deduced the Lorentz transformation from ILS, established the theory of special relativity (SR), and revealed the relativistic phenomena of matter motion. Up till today, however, we still don’t exactly know what role light plays in Einstein’s theory, or why the speed of light is invariant; moreover, we still don’t exactly understand relativistic phenomena. Based on the locality of physical world, this paper establishes the principle of observational locality (POL), proposes the hypothesis of observational limit (HOL), and tries to accertain the role of light in observation and the root and essence of ILS. According to POL and HOL, the Michelson-Morley experiment does not really mean ILS, but does demonstrate to us a significant phenomenon in physical observation: the speeds that observational media transmit the spacetime information about observed objects possess observational invariance. In Michelson-Morley experiment, light acts as both the observed object and the observational medium, and therefore, its speed is observationally invariant. Perhaps, this paper could provide new knowledge on light speed and new understanding on relativistic phenomena including ILS. Perhaps, in the future, the observational locality of light would be broken through with technological progress so that we could observe a more real objective world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1807.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-12 10:10:05*

**Authors:** Albert Zur Ph.D

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

All Lorentz four-vectors of Special Relativity (SR) are derived from a basic Lorentz four-position in a Minkowski space. This article explores use of a Lorentz four-displacement, describing translatory motion of particles in a 4-dimensional space irrespective of position, as a basic four-vector. Derivations based on this assumption have striking outcomes and impact: All four-vectors of SR associated with frame invariants are intact and valid. All postulates and predictions of SR are intact and valid, with two exceptions - Length contraction in the boost direction and relativity of simultaneity are both obviated. Notably, these two aspects of SR have never been definitively proven in experiments and can therefore be challenged. We propose an adapted SR theory, based on four-displacement of particles, predicting the following revolutionary and far-reaching consequences:
1. 4D-space is absolute and Euclidean relative to which all particles, mass and massless, are never at rest and perform an equal distance of translatory displacement at a universal displacement rate equivalent to the speed of light. Inertial frames of 3D-space+time remain relative.
2. What appear as Lorentz four-vectors in a Minkowski metric of a relative spacetime are actually Lorentz four-vectors in an absolute Euclidian 4D-space.
3. Special Relativity actually emerges from describing properties of particles in 4 momentum-space, irrespective of position and localization in space. In this form, SR achieves inherent compatibility with Quantum theories, reflecting the particle-wave duality of particle fields.
4. Time is a property of mass particles associated with their displacement in 4D-space, as opposed to a Minkowski-space property.
5. Frames of 3D-space+time represent mixed domain coordinates: 3 spatial coordinates of position-space and a temporal coordinate of momentum-space, unlike the position-space status of 4 spacetime coordinates in conventional SR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1807.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-11 04:55:19*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In Polish.

Przyjęcie hipotezy o dwu-potencjalności stacjonarnego pola grawitacyjnego umożliwiło znalezienie w ramach Ogólnej Teorii Względności rozwiązań równań pola i równań ruchu, które w granicznym przypadku prowadzą do zgodności z newtonowską teorią grawitacji zarówno wewnątrz jak i na zewnątrz źródłowej masy.
###
The acceptance of the hypothesis about two-potentiality of the stationary gravitational field made it possible to find solutions of field equations and equations of motion within the General Relativity, which in extreme case lead to compliance with the Newtonian theory of gravity both inside and outside of the mass source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1807.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-11 05:00:44*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The acceptance of the hypothesis about two-potentiality of the stationary gravitational field made it possible to find solutions of field equations and equations of motion within the General Relativity, which in extreme case lead to compliance with the Newtonian theory of gravity both inside and outside of the mass source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1807.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-09 11:05:25*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Paul Langevin’s so-called “Twin Paradox,” based upon Albert Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity, seems to be by far the most argued topic in physics. Many hundreds of articles have been written about the “Twin Paradox,” but all they seem to accomplish is to make the subject even more confusing. This is an attempt to simplify the subject by identifying the causes of the confusion. And it proposes a relatively simple experiment to clarify how time dilation works.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1807.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-09 11:34:07*

**Authors:** Sangwha1 Yi

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Thank you for reading.

In the general relativity theory, we find the representation of the gravity field equation and solutions.We treat the representation of Schwarzschild solution, Reissner-Nordstrom solution, Kerr-Newman solution, Robertson-Walker solution. Specially Robertson-Walker solution is an uniqueness.We found new General relativity(we can call it Data General Relativity Theory;DGRT).We treat the data of Hawking radiation by Data General relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1807.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-09 15:39:23*

**Authors:** Saif Mohamed

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Arabic

Dark energy is energy that fills the universe with a lot and is the reason for the expansion
The Universe Accelerates Scientists believe that they have the energy or negative pressure they have
Anti-gravity but scientists did not know its interpretation or what it is or who
I came and my hypothesis solved this problem and explained it

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1807.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-16 03:38:45*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages. I had to change my paper after a discussion with physicists, I decided to explain it in different way

Time dilation is not the dilation of time itself, it's the dilation of a second. A clock runs faster or slower in a certain situation, but that doesn't mean that time itself dilates. It means that a clock is able to create a second more quickly or more slowly, so it's second dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1807.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-10 20:11:09*

**Authors:** Wan-Chung Hu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

New Planck units as well as gravity wave formula can be derived by using the spinity constant (2G/c^2). Thus, the original Planck units can be simplified. I call these new Planck units. The deduction is listed below.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1807.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-09 04:16:53*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 7 pages

The ‘quantum/classical connection’, a set of equations found in an analysis of dynamical vacuum energy, maps: the age of the universe at the onset of inflation onto the GUT scale, the age at nucleosynthesis onto the mass scale of light nuclei, the age at the onset of recombination onto the mass of the electron and the age at the onset of the accelerating expansion of the universe onto a mass scale of 7 keV—the mass of a dark matter candidate. The analysis suggests that as the universe expands and the vacuum (dark) energy density reduces, a particle emerges from the vacuum when the Hubble radius surpasses the length scale that maps onto the mass of the particle. When the Hubble radius maps onto, in turn, the weak, QCD, electromagnetic and 7 keV scales, the value of the dark energy density takes specific values that have a binary basis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1807.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-10 05:00:42*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Everything in the universe has one, two or three dimensions, and the next dimension cannot exist in the previous dimension. So it's obvious that the fourth dimension (4-dimensional spacetime) or higher dimensions (string theory) cannot exist in our 3-dimensional universe, but there is another dimension that we cannot see. Logic dictates that there must be one more dimension, why?, because each dimension is based on the previous dimension(s).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1807.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-07 11:02:18*

**Authors:** Edward Henry Dowdye Jr. Ph.D.

**Comments:** 20 Pages. A German language version of Extinction Shift Principle publshed in Refereed Journals

The observational evidence in Astrophysics clearly shows that if the light bending rule of General Relativity were actually valid, then the following would be the consequences: The star-abundant skies would be filled with images of Einstein rings. At high impact parameters far above the plasma rim of the stars, the astrophysical observations of deep space would be totally denied to all modern Astronomy. Deep space images of the skies due to gravitational lensing effects, would be completely blurred to all modern astronomy. The sought after Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) or simply put, the modification of Newton's law and/or General Relativity, in the attempt to satisfactorily explain the prevailing observations pertaining to the subject matters of gravitational lensing and the so-called dark matter would be totally unnecessary. These findings are clearly supported by the observational evidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1807.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-07 11:44:30*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Due to a mistake on HCE8S flow diagram the accuracy of the neutron mass was less than it should have been. Correction of this error leads to both up neutron and down neutron quark mass changes for neutronic quarks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1807.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-06 21:28:06*

**Authors:** Jonathan W. Tooker

**Comments:** 17 Pages. 15 figures

The golden ratio $\Phi$ is very important in the modified cosmological model (MCM). In previous work, we have inserted it artificially rather than showing where it comes from. Where the real numbers $\mathbb{R}$ are extended to the complex numbers $\mathbb{C}$ for routine physical applications, we extend the complex numbers to the hypercomplex numbers $^\star\mathbb{C}$ and show that $\Phi$ is inherent to the transfinite structure. We formalize the transfinite concept of continuation beyond infinity. We improve upon previous motivations for deriving general relativity and the fine structure constant in the MCM, and we propose an origin for the Yang--Mills mass gap.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1807.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-07 02:51:08*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli1, Uros Dobnikar2, Santanu Kumar Patro3, Magi Mageshwaran4, Davide Fiscaletti

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This is already published in the journal of NeuroQuantology,

Recent research has introduced a novel model where a fundamental arena of the universe is infinite Euclidean
space of Planck metrics, where time is merely mathematical parameter of universal changes. The history of the
universe has merely a mathematical existence and is nonexistent in the physical sense. On the other hand, the
future is not yet existent. The only existent physical reality is the universe, which exists in the timeless space of
Euclidean-Planck metrics. This view is the basis of an “Energy-Mass-gravity” Model that unifies energy, mass, and
gravity. Additionally, this model reveals some discrepancies in the Big Bang cosmology model that need to be
examined in details in order to keep the Big Bang cosmology as the leading model of today’s physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1807.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-06 08:13:06*

**Authors:** Friedhelm Jöge

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The rudiments of a theory of dark energy. The theoretical result is confronted with the numerical value calculated from the available data. Excellent matching of numerical values resulting in three independent paths makes the approach plausible. The work at hand is analogous to Kepler's laws of planetary orbits. Only Isaac Newton put Kepler's laws on a theoretical basis, which is provided here by Thomas Görnitz [1]. The empirical Balmer formula was also theoretically justified by Niels Bohr.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1807.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-04 14:46:47*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 3 Pages

We show there is a gauge and coordinate choice such that the electromagnetic field is zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1807.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-03 06:41:57*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

a fascinating development surrounding PABHs, primordial antimatter black holes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1807.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-03 10:08:53*

**Authors:** V.A.Kasimov

**Comments:** 244 Pages. in Russian

The properties of space-time relations at three levels of matter organization are analyzing: micro-, macro- and mega-;
the possibility of combining their coordinate characteristics on the basis of a single ordering factor in distinguishing dynamic and evolutionary times. The thesis about the secondary nature of space-time relations and anout their conceptual origin as parameters of averaging procedures in macro observation of microprocesses is formulated. The book is the result of physical and philosophical understanding of the problem of space-time relations - a topic that is currently very relevant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1807.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-03 10:11:20*

**Authors:** V.A.Kasimov

**Comments:** 73 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that the "Twin paradox" is a consequence of the conceptual symmetry of relativity. The twin paradox is not successfully resolved in a continuous coordinate time, nor a STR, nor in GTR due to the symmetry of twin-brothers reference frames. Resolution of the paradox is seen by the author in the distinction between dynamic and evolutionary times. However, the twin paradox is successfully resolved within the discrete time, that is, when the metric measurement scale used for continuous coordinate time is changed to the ordinal one for the discrete time. This can be achieved by changing the metric scale of measurement used for continuous coordinate time, to sequence one, as for discrete own time; that is the paradox disappears when we consider continuous coordinate time in the affine scale representation, in other words, by refusal from metric measurability. The development of the concept of time in this direction greatly enhances the Leibniz aspect of relativity versus Newtonian - substantiality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1807.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-02 08:36:51*

**Authors:** V.A.Kasimov

**Comments:** 340 Pages. In Russian

Special theory of relativity (without the second postulate).
The possibility of constructing a STR without the second postulate is considered. The necessity of abandoning the metric factorization of the properties of space-time relations in favor of affine relations is discussed. And from the analysis of the "Twin paradox" it is proposed to distinguish between dynamic and evolutionary ordering time factors.
General theory of relativity (principles).
Discusses the principles of GTR as a generalization of STR, and the principles of Relativistic Theory of Gravity (RTG) as a theory of filling GTR of metric specifics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1807.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-02 15:52:01*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The current article is a next stage of construction of the alternative Special Relativity. The problems of Special Theory of Relativity (STR) arise from their colliding assumptions. The correct postulates of STR do not match the seemingly obvious assumption that space-time is real. In our articles, we try to prove the hypothesis that space-time has a complex structure, and the real one is only locally in a system related to an observer. The misleading impression that space-time is real results from the fact that the information carrier is energy that is always real. This article shows how the complex space-time phenomena can be seen by the observer in his real coordinate system. The concept of realisation of the complex orthogonal paravector, which represents a compound boost, to the form of the real velocity paravector has been introduced on the basis of energy equivalence . The realisation of coordinates of the state paravectors of any object is interpreted as a choice of real coordinates in the observer's frame, which in classical mechanics corresponds to the choice of the object's axis of motion with which the coordinates of the motion of another object are distributed. Mathematical properties of realisation are studied and an attempt to apply it to describe the physical object states.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1807.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-01 15:05:43*

**Authors:** Larry Allen West

**Comments:** 12 Pages. tnx

The SuperConducting Ether (SCE) reinterprets Dirac’s negative energy sea of electrons as a filled Fermi sea (FFS) of both spin-up and spin-down electron neutrinos with collective modes on the Fermi surface (FS), BCS condensation, and particles with mass and charge created when excited across the BCS energy gap. Newtonian gravitation derives from zero sound phonons with propagation velocity, s=c/√3, and with a Doppler force effect. Electric and magnetic fields are collective modes of dipolar quasi-particles and holes. The fine structure constant is interpreted to be a Thomas-Fermi many body screening effect. Special relativity is a byproduct of interactions occurring on the Fermi surface (FS) with c = vF. Quantum single pair decays cause photon propagation losses that result in a distance-dependent red shift superseding the geocentric Doppler red shift. The Fermi surface has a finite temperature that results in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Gravitational Wave Background (GWB) with black body like spectra. Particles are categorized as composites of their final stable decay products resulting in a self-consistent buildup of particle number consistent with the two-neutrino FFS. Quarks are nonexistent. Neutrino mass is disregarded. Matter and antimatter are balanced. The SCE is therefore a steady state universe. Black holes are problematic. The quantum nature and limitations of classical field theory are made evident. SI units are used for explicit expression of free space constitutive parameters. SCE is a physical realization of the Plank units.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1807.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-02 01:01:18*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Time in a reference frame can be represented by a rotating ring with constant angular
velocity. The rotational motion of this ring is not affected by any acceleration parallel to its
axis of rotation. The rotation period remains constant as the ring accelerates along the axis of
rotation. The rotation period in the rest frame of the ring is always constant. Therefore,
the rotation period is independent
of reference frame. The rotation period represents the elapsed time in a reference frame.
As a result, the elapsed time is also independent of reference frame.
Consequently, time is independent of reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology