[48] **viXra:1807.0535 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-13 10:34:51*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 1 Page.

a brief overview of the concise unification between gravitation and strong-nuclear

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[47] **viXra:1807.0525 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-31 11:42:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The HCE8S theory accuracy of the neutron, proton, Z boson and other particle masses has been further improved

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1807.0524 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-31 11:46:17*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

In a rather old paper, Mario Liu described a hydrodynamic Maxwell equations. While he also discussed potential implications of these new approaches to superconductors, such a discussion of electrodynamics of superconductors is made only after Tajmar's paper. Therefore, in this paper we present for the first time a derivation of fluidic Maxwell-Proca equations. The name of fluidic Maxwell-Proca is proposed because the equations were based on modifying Maxwell-Proca and Hirsch's theory of electrodynamics of superconductor. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in superconductor. It may be expected to have some impact to cosmology modeling too, for instance we consider a hypothetical argument that photon mass can be origin of gravitation. Then, after combining with the so-called chiral modification of Maxwell equations (after Spröessig), then we consider chiral Maxwell-Proca equations as possible alternative of gravitation theory. Such a hypothesis has never been considered in literature to the best of our knowledge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1807.0501 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-29 09:59:17*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic wave function and equation
in Rindler space-time. Specially, this article is that electromagnetic wave equation is corrected by the gauge fixing equation in Rindler space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1807.0490 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-30 07:08:56*

**Authors:** Dariusz Dudało

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Next part of Simply Theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1807.0458 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-26 09:59:56*

**Authors:** Tcherepanov O.A.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is possible that the so-called "anomaly of the Pioneers" is actually caused by the "blue shift", that is, gradually as the approach to the ground transmitter changes in the frequency of the returned signals of the radar tracking of space vehicles, the cause of which may be the weakly refracting properties of the near-solar space. Considering the near space as an optical medium that is inhomogeneous in the direction "from" the Sun or "to" the Sun, we supplement the calculation using the Doppler formula by the Mikhelson rule.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1807.0454 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-26 14:44:54*

**Authors:** Jonathan W. Tooker

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 15 figures, 2 tables

We construct time arrow spinor states and define for them a Stern--Gerlach analogue Hamiltonian. The dispersion relations of the allowed modes are derived in a few special cases. We examine experimental data regarding negative frequency resonant radiation and show that the energy shift of the negative frequency mode is on the characteristic scale of the energies of the new Hamiltonian. We describe the similitude of the modified cosmological model (MCM) and the Stern--Gerlach apparatus, and we also show how the Pauli matrices are well-suited to applications in MCM cosmology. Complex and quaternion phase are combined in the wavefunction to generate new multiplectic structures. The principles described in this paper are oriented toward a time circuit application so we briefly describe an electrical circuit whose constructive elements elucidate the requirements needed for a working time circuit. The algebraic graph representation of electrical nodes with different electric potentials is replaced with time nodes that have different times in the time circuit graph.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1807.0447 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-27 04:21:03*

**Authors:** Lann N. Ramez

**Comments:** 4 pages

In his referenced paper (Khan 2012), Khan concluded that Einstein’s basic equation obtained in his paper (Einstein 1905) to derive the Special Relativity equations is based on trickery. This paper reveals that Khan conclusion is based on misconceptions and wrong interpretation of the Einstein’s derivation method.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1807.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-26 01:18:40*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the projectile motion under vertical gravity, the horizontal speed remains constant
while the vertical speed increases. The elapsed time to travel over a fixed length
in the horizontal direction remains constant regardless of the vertical speed. Such elapsed
time is independent of any reference frame in vertical motion. Therefore, the elapsed
time is independent of the reference frame. Consequently, time is independent of the reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1807.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-26 04:20:07*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The kinetic energy of a moving mass is attributed to the mass increase because of its velocity. Thus, mass is recognized as a special form of energy. In contast to mass, charge is believed to be a constant entity, not affected by its velocity.
From the above, two questions might be asked:
1. Why charge remains a distinct entity while mass was discovered to be a special sort of enery.
2. If mass increase by velocity is recognized to be the cause of the kinetic enrgy embeded in a moving mass, what is the cause for the generation of a magnetic field while the charge is moving?
This article deals with these questions by executing the following "thinking exercise":
It assumes that charge is also another form of energy, as mass turned to be. This assumption makes Energy as the only distinct entity, a simpler and cleaner view of nature.
Then, it uses that assumption as follows:
It adds the following two assumptions:
1. The charge magnitude value is not a constant entity and it is affected by the charge velocity.
2. The increase of the charge magnitude because of its velocity is the cause for the generation of the magnetic field of a moving charge.
Then, by analyzing the existing experimental results related to charges and the fields they create from a new point of view, and applying these assumptions, the article tries to evaluate if these assumptions lead to new insights.
The result is the following four conclusions:
1. Charge magnitude increase because of its velocity is described by the following formula:
1/2))2/c21v –/((1 0q = q
- 2 -
- 2 -
This is very similar to the equation:
1/2))2c/2v -((1 /0m = m
Which describes the increase in mass when the mass is moving.
2. The magnetic field generated by a moving point charge is actually two moving field components. One of these moving field components is a moving electric field component. Another moving field component is perpendicular to this moving electric field and it can be seen as the actual magnetic field created. These two moving fields resemble and might be related to the electromagnetic emission from moving charges.
3. Since charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then the energy embeded in charge also comes in two energy types. The article assigns these energy types to one set of Energy Pairs.
4. A magnetic field energy conservation paradox is resolved using the above concept of Energy Pairs. This is done by assuming that Energies belonging to Energy Pairs, cancel each other if they coexist in the same space volume, such that only the net energy intensity of the energy type in the Energy pair that had initially more intensity, remains in the space volume where the two Energy Pairs coexist. Thus, energy conservation exists only when the total amount of energy in a specific volume in space contains only the net amount of one member of the energies which belong to an Energy Pair.
Thus, by assuming that charge is a special form of energy, and analyzing the existing data and knowledge according to this assumption, it seems that new insights can be found, and also an explanation can be supplied to a magnetic field energy conservation paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1807.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-23 19:51:43*

**Authors:** Dariusz Dudało

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Uwzględnienie dylatacji czasu przy analizowaniu Czarnych Dziur.Time dilation with black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1807.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-22 08:52:02*

**Authors:** W.Berckmans

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

There seems to be a fundamental conflict between a PhR model, proposing a cosmos on a double layered grid and Einstein's Special Relativity Theory".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1807.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-22 12:14:10*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Polish.

Równania pola modelujące czarną dziurę z maksymalną otoczką antygrawitacyjną oraz Nasz Wszechświat można sprowadzić do postaci opisującej tzw. przestrzeń Einsteina.
###
Field equations modeling a black hole with maximal anti-gravity halo and Our Universe can be reduced to the form describing the so-called. Einstein space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1807.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-22 12:17:46*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Field equations modeling a black hole with maximal anti-gravity halo and Our Universe can be reduced to the form describing the so-called. Einstein space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1807.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-21 20:53:05*

**Authors:** John Lawrence Duval

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

What we have done in this work is remove the misdirection Relativity Theory employs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1807.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-20 22:35:41*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 30 Pages. a preprint of a paper accepted for publication

The nature and properties of dark matter and dark energy in the universe are among the outstanding open issues of modern cosmology. Despite extensive theoretical and empirical efforts, the question "what is dark matter made of?" has not been answered satisfactorily. Candidates proposed to identify particle dark matter span over ninety orders of magnitude in mass, from ultra-light bosons, to massive black holes. Dark energy is a greater enigma. It is believed to be some kind of negative vacuum energy, responsible for driving galaxies apart in accelerated motion.
In this article we take a relativistic approach in theorizing about dark matter and dark energy. Our approach is based on our recently proposed Information Relativity theory. Rather than theorizing about the identities of particle dark matter candidates, we investigate the relativistic effects on large scale celestial structures at their recession from an observer on Earth. We analyze a simplified model of the universe, in which, large scale celestial bodies, like galaxies and galaxy clusters, are non-charged compact bodies that recede rectilinearly along the line-of-sight of an observer on Earth. We neglect contributions to dark matter caused by the rotation of celestial structures (e.g., the rotation of galaxies) and of their constituents (e.g., rotations of stars inside their galaxies). We define the mass of dark matter as the complimentary portion of the derived relativistic mass, such that at any given recession velocity the sum of the two is equal to the Newtonian mass. The emerging picture from our analysis could be summarized as follows:
1. At any given redshift, the dark matter of a receding body exists in duality to its observable matter, such that the sum of their masses is equal to the body's mass at rest. 2. The dynamical interaction between the dark and the observed matter is determined by the body's recession velocity (or redshift). 3. The observable matter mass density decreases with its recession velocity, with matter transforming to dark matter. 4. For redshifts z < 0.5, the universe is dominated by matter, while for redshifts z > 0.5 the universe is dominated by dark matter. 5. Consistent with observational data, at redshift z = 0.5, the densities of matter and dark matter in the universe are predicted to be equal. 5. At redshift equaling the Golden Ratio (z ≈ 1.618), baryonic matter undergoes a quantum phase transition. The universe at higher redshifts is comprised of a dominant dark matter alongside with quantum matter. 6. Contrary to the current conjecture that dark energy is a negative vacuum energy that might interact with dark matter, comparisons of our theoretical results with observational results of ΛCDM cosmologies, and with observations of the relative densities of matter and dark energy at redshift z ≈ 0.55, allow us to conclude that dark energy is the energy carried by dark matter. 7. Application of the model to the case of rotating bodies, which will be discussed in detail in a subsequent paper, raises the intriguing possibility that the gravitational force between two bodies of mass is mediated by the entanglement of their dark matter components.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1807.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-21 04:26:05*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The description of the experiment, published in 1972 in Science by J.C. Hafele and R.E. Keating, shows in the first part, called: Predicted Relativistic Time Gains, the theoretical background for the calculated time gains. In the second part: Observed Relativistic Time Gains, the results of the measurements are shown. This analysis shows several theoretical errors and a tendentious presentation of the measurements, so clear that the reader cannot avoid a feeling of being deceived in order to get convinced of the correctness of the Special Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1807.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-19 13:38:40*

**Authors:** John S. Huenefeld

**Comments:** 20 Pages. A simple elegant theory of the cosmos - easy to understand.

An inward dynamic, within a gravitational field of General Relativity, provides the basis to propose a space-time contraction field around matter. This can only be achieved by making a fundamental shift in thinking from Einstein’s conception of GR. This shift, if fully embraced, will change the paradigm of understanding for both space-time and matter, with implications ranging from quark behavior to the expanding cosmos.
Adding mass is not the only way to influence orbital velocities. A field of contracting space-time surrounding a massive object will also increase orbital velocities above that of Newtonian gravity alone. When applied to a model galaxy, a contraction field yields a flat rotation curve consistent with observations. The contraction field will also create gravitational lensing and hold galactic clusters together, explaining all observations attributed to dark matter.
Cosmologically, space-time contraction fields surrounding galaxies embedded within intergalactic regions of expanding space-time can lead to an observed acceleration of universal expansion. Over time, a greater proportion of the universe becomes occupied by expanding space-time. In the early universe, contraction fields acting within vast clouds of hydrogen gas , can explain the rapid formation of super-massive black holes, quasars, and large early stars.
The theoretical contraction field arises from consideration of a special class of inertial reference frames in freefall around a gravitating body. This class of inertial reference frame, falling from an infinite distance, reveals not only the metric of the GR field, but also a dynamic process where space-time is continuously contracted around matter in a very specific way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1807.0335 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-03 08:24:10*

**Authors:** Lann N. Ramez

**Comments:** 3 pages

This reply to Khan’s referenced paper (Khan 2012) shows that Khan performed invalid operations on a wrongly assumed equation to obtain Einstein’s basic partial differential equation that Einstein derived in in his paper (Einstein 1905) to develop the Special Relativity equations. Khan concluded that the latter Einstein’s equation must be an “equation of trickery”, without realizing that performing invalid operations on a wrong equation to force it to lead to a desired equation doesn’t necessarily falsify the forced equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1807.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-20 03:25:22*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Exterior of the Kerr black hole is considered as the likely spacetime geometry around a black hole formed by gravitational collapse. However the Kerr black hole has chronology violating Closed Time-like Curves (CTCs), near the ring singularity in interior. Hawking has considered formation of CTCs using a scalar field and shown that back reaction of nature - divergence of energy-momentum tensor - would prevent formation of CTCs. The question being raised here is whether the physics behind Hawking's concept of "chronology protection", will actually prevent formation of the Kerr black hole - through gravitational collapse. On the other hand, if the Kerr black hole indeed gets formed by gravitational collapse, then one has a counter example to Chronology Protection Conjecture. Chronology protection thus imposes the constraint that formation of a rotating black hole through gravitational collapse should be such that the interior metric of the black hole does not match that of the Kerr black hole, or any other black hole with CTCs. It is possible that the quantum gravity effects rule out formation of CTCs during gravitational collapse - as they are expected to remove singularities. There may however be classical solutions to the problem. Angular momentum orginating from the rotation and the formation of CTCs are intimately related - through the off diagonal term $g_{t \phi}$ i.e., the coefficient of the $dtd\phi$ term (corresponding to the temporal coordinate $t$ and the longitudinal angular coordinate $\phi$) - of the metric tensor. A possible solution is that during the gravitational collapse, all the angular momentum of the star, is radiated away by gravitational waves - leaving behind as residual, the Schwarzschild black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1807.0320 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-20 10:13:48*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In a previous paper, I gave my opinion on some significant questions of physics. This note is to reinforce that opinion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1807.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-19 03:10:22*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 178 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The size of the Universe and the speed of the Gravitons
“The diameter of the universe D:
D = 2 × 13.8 × v
where v is the Gravitons speed”
Adrian Ferent
“The diameter of the universe D = 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years, much bigger than 93 billion light-years how you learned from your professors, from your books”
Adrian Ferent
“The universe is a sphere with a diameter of 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years”
Adrian Ferent
The age of the universe is estimated to be 13.8 billion years.
We know that parts of the universe are too far away for the light emitted since the Big Bang to have had enough time to reach Earth and so lie outside the observable universe.
The expansion rate of the universe is accelerating due to dark energy.
What is dark energy?
“Dark Energy is Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
What you learned from your professors about the size of the universe:
The universe doesn’t expand at a particular speed, it expands at a speed per distance.
Light and objects within spacetime cannot travel faster than the speed of light, this limitation does not restrict the metric itself.
A metric defines the concept of distance, by stating in mathematical terms how distances between two nearby points in space are measured, in terms of the coordinate system.
Diameter of the observable universe is 93 Gly
From Earth to the edge of the observable universe the comoving distance is about 46.5 billion light-years.
Anyway nothing in the universe can travel faster than light.
In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory Gravitons travel faster than light.
“I quantized the gravitational field with gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“During the Big Bang first emerged the gravitational force with the speed of the gravitons: v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m / s”
Adrian Ferent
Gravitons speed is v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m/s, how I explained in my Gravitation theory close to the speed of light squared.
“The diameter of the universe D:
D = 2 × 13.8 × v
where v is the Gravitons speed”
Adrian Ferent
This means:
D = 2 × 13.8 × 1.001762 × 10^17
D = 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years
“The diameter of the universe D = 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years, much bigger than 93 billion light-years how you learned from your professors, from your books”
Adrian Ferent
The size of the universe:
“The universe is a sphere with a diameter of 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein, Hilbert General Relativity theory, String theory, LQG, all Quantum gravity theories are incorrect because are limited to the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
89. I am the first who calculated the size of the universe, a sphere with a diameter of 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1807.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-16 20:35:54*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 1 Page.

When we discuss the ether, we must specify what type of ether we are referring to: Dirac's ether, Einstein's ether, Lorentz's ether, Weyl's ether, etc. Among the physicists the word ether became gradually unusual over time. It has been replaced by the empty term, but the meaning has not changed. Currently, we have return to the use of the wird ether. The use of the term: stationary ether, new ether, relativistic ether, has already becomes normal during son international conferences.
See the book of LUDWIK KOSTRO title: EINSTEIN AND THE ETHER.
In this article we combine reconciles the Lorentz's ether with the relativistic ether of Einstein

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1807.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-15 12:00:32*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: A chargeless Z(4430) tetraquark acts physically like a ~ 270X heavier neutrino

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1807.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-16 01:08:43*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Based on Fizeau's experiment, the single cogwheel is replaced with two rotating disks to measure the one-way speed of light. A single slit is cut out in the radial direction on each disk for the light to pass through the disk. With both disks rotating at the same angular speed, the light can pass through both disks only if the second slit is in a different radial direction from the first slit. The light takes time to travel from the first disk to the second disk. With both slits rotating into the straight path of light, the one-way speed of light can be calculated from the distance between two disks, angular speed of the disks and the angular difference between two slits.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1807.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-16 15:06:38*

**Authors:** Xiaogang Ruan

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In 1905, based on the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein proposed the hypothesis of invariance of light speed (ILS). He then theoretically deduced the Lorentz transformation from ILS, established the theory of special relativity (SR), and revealed the relativistic phenomena of matter motion. Up till today, however, we still don’t exactly know what role light plays in Einstein’s theory, or why the speed of light is invariant; moreover, we still don’t exactly understand relativistic phenomena. Based on the locality of physical world, this paper establishes the principle of observational locality (POL), proposes the hypothesis of observational limit (HOL), and tries to accertain the role of light in observation and the root and essence of ILS. According to POL and HOL, the Michelson-Morley experiment does not really mean ILS, but does demonstrate to us a significant phenomenon in physical observation: the speeds that observational media transmit the spacetime information about observed objects possess observational invariance. In Michelson-Morley experiment, light acts as both the observed object and the observational medium, and therefore, its speed is observationally invariant. Perhaps, this paper could provide new knowledge on light speed and new understanding on relativistic phenomena including ILS. Perhaps, in the future, the observational locality of light would be broken through with technological progress so that we could observe a more real objective world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1807.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-12 10:10:05*

**Authors:** Albert Zur Ph.D

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

All Lorentz four-vectors of Special Relativity (SR) are derived from a basic Lorentz four-position in a Minkowski space. This article explores use of a Lorentz four-displacement, describing translatory motion of particles in a 4-dimensional space irrespective of position, as a basic four-vector. Derivations based on this assumption have striking outcomes and impact: All four-vectors of SR associated with frame invariants are intact and valid. All postulates and predictions of SR are intact and valid, with two exceptions - Length contraction in the boost direction and relativity of simultaneity are both obviated. Notably, these two aspects of SR have never been definitively proven in experiments and can therefore be challenged. We propose an adapted SR theory, based on four-displacement of particles, predicting the following revolutionary and far-reaching consequences:
1. 4D-space is absolute and Euclidean relative to which all particles, mass and massless, are never at rest and perform an equal distance of translatory displacement at a universal displacement rate equivalent to the speed of light. Inertial frames of 3D-space+time remain relative.
2. What appear as Lorentz four-vectors in a Minkowski metric of a relative spacetime are actually Lorentz four-vectors in an absolute Euclidian 4D-space.
3. Special Relativity actually emerges from describing properties of particles in 4 momentum-space, irrespective of position and localization in space. In this form, SR achieves inherent compatibility with Quantum theories, reflecting the particle-wave duality of particle fields.
4. Time is a property of mass particles associated with their displacement in 4D-space, as opposed to a Minkowski-space property.
5. Frames of 3D-space+time represent mixed domain coordinates: 3 spatial coordinates of position-space and a temporal coordinate of momentum-space, unlike the position-space status of 4 spacetime coordinates in conventional SR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1807.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-11 04:55:19*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In Polish.

Przyjęcie hipotezy o dwu-potencjalności stacjonarnego pola grawitacyjnego umożliwiło znalezienie w ramach Ogólnej Teorii Względności rozwiązań równań pola i równań ruchu, które w granicznym przypadku prowadzą do zgodności z newtonowską teorią grawitacji zarówno wewnątrz jak i na zewnątrz źródłowej masy.
###
The acceptance of the hypothesis about two-potentiality of the stationary gravitational field made it possible to find solutions of field equations and equations of motion within the General Relativity, which in extreme case lead to compliance with the Newtonian theory of gravity both inside and outside of the mass source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1807.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-11 05:00:44*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The acceptance of the hypothesis about two-potentiality of the stationary gravitational field made it possible to find solutions of field equations and equations of motion within the General Relativity, which in extreme case lead to compliance with the Newtonian theory of gravity both inside and outside of the mass source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1807.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-09 11:05:25*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Paul Langevin’s so-called “Twin Paradox,” based upon Albert Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity, seems to be by far the most argued topic in physics. Many hundreds of articles have been written about the “Twin Paradox,” but all they seem to accomplish is to make the subject even more confusing. This is an attempt to simplify the subject by identifying the causes of the confusion. And it proposes a relatively simple experiment to clarify how time dilation works.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1807.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-03 07:12:09*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, we find the representation of the gravity field equation and solutions.We treat the representation of Schwarzschild solution, Reissner-Nordstrom solution, Kerr-Newman solution, Robertson-Walker solution. Specially Robertson-Walker solution is an uniqueness.We found new General relativity(we can call it Data General Relativity Theory;DGRT).We treat the data of Hawking radiation by Data General relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1807.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-09 15:39:23*

**Authors:** Saif Mohamed

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Arabic

Dark energy is energy that fills the universe with a lot and is the reason for the expansion
The Universe Accelerates Scientists believe that they have the energy or negative pressure they have
Anti-gravity but scientists did not know its interpretation or what it is or who
I came and my hypothesis solved this problem and explained it

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1807.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-20 14:49:11*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A clock mechanism registers time in the form of a second, and that second doesn't say anything about what time is. We say that a clock tells us what time it is, but the seconds only represent a time period (an amount of time). So when you measure that there is a difference in the rate of two synchronized clocks then you cannot conclude that time itself dilates, you can only conclude that the seconds dilate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1807.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-09 04:16:53*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 7 pages

The ‘quantum/classical connection’, a set of equations found in an analysis of dynamical vacuum energy, maps: the age of the universe at the onset of inflation onto the GUT scale, the age at nucleosynthesis onto the mass scale of light nuclei, the age at the onset of recombination onto the mass of the electron and the age at the onset of the accelerating expansion of the universe onto a mass scale of 7 keV—the mass of a dark matter candidate. The analysis suggests that as the universe expands and the vacuum (dark) energy density reduces, a particle emerges from the vacuum when the Hubble radius surpasses the length scale that maps onto the mass of the particle. When the Hubble radius maps onto, in turn, the weak, QCD, electromagnetic and 7 keV scales, the value of the dark energy density takes specific values that have a binary basis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1807.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-26 15:55:02*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Everything in the universe has one, two or three dimensions, and the next dimension cannot exist in the previous dimension. So it's obvious that the fourth dimension (4-dimensional spacetime) or higher dimensions (string theory) cannot exist in our 3-dimensional universe, but there is another dimension that we cannot see. Logic dictates that there must be one more dimension, why?, because each dimension is based on the previous dimension(s).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1807.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-07 11:02:18*

**Authors:** Edward Henry Dowdye Jr. Ph.D.

**Comments:** 20 Pages. A German language version of Extinction Shift Principle publshed in Refereed Journals

The observational evidence in Astrophysics clearly shows that if the light bending rule of General Relativity were actually valid, then the following would be the consequences: The star-abundant skies would be filled with images of Einstein rings. At high impact parameters far above the plasma rim of the stars, the astrophysical observations of deep space would be totally denied to all modern Astronomy. Deep space images of the skies due to gravitational lensing effects, would be completely blurred to all modern astronomy. The sought after Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) or simply put, the modification of Newton's law and/or General Relativity, in the attempt to satisfactorily explain the prevailing observations pertaining to the subject matters of gravitational lensing and the so-called dark matter would be totally unnecessary. These findings are clearly supported by the observational evidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1807.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-07 11:44:30*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Due to a mistake on HCE8S flow diagram the accuracy of the neutron mass was less than it should have been. Correction of this error leads to both up neutron and down neutron quark mass changes for neutronic quarks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1807.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-26 19:14:20*

**Authors:** Jonathan W. Tooker

**Comments:** 17 Pages. 15 figures

The golden ratio Phi is very important in the modified cosmological model (MCM). In previous work, we have inserted it artificially rather than showing where it comes from. Where the real numbers are extended to the complex numbers for routine physical applications, we extend the complex numbers to the hypercomplex numbers and show that Phi is inherent to the transfinite structure. We formalize the transfinite concept of continuation beyond infinity. We improve upon previous motivations for deriving general relativity and the fine structure constant in the MCM, and we propose an origin for the Yang-Mills mass gap.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1807.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-07 02:51:08*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli1, Uros Dobnikar2, Santanu Kumar Patro3, Magi Mageshwaran4, Davide Fiscaletti

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This is already published in the journal of NeuroQuantology,

Recent research has introduced a novel model where a fundamental arena of the universe is infinite Euclidean
space of Planck metrics, where time is merely mathematical parameter of universal changes. The history of the
universe has merely a mathematical existence and is nonexistent in the physical sense. On the other hand, the
future is not yet existent. The only existent physical reality is the universe, which exists in the timeless space of
Euclidean-Planck metrics. This view is the basis of an “Energy-Mass-gravity” Model that unifies energy, mass, and
gravity. Additionally, this model reveals some discrepancies in the Big Bang cosmology model that need to be
examined in details in order to keep the Big Bang cosmology as the leading model of today’s physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1807.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-08 14:28:23*

**Authors:** Friedhelm M. Jöge

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The derivation of a formula for calculating dark energy is described in this article. The result is tested on the basis of the available data from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy. Further formulas are deducted. The dark matter of the cosmos is calculated. A balance sheet is drawn up. Conclusions are drawn.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1807.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-04 14:46:47*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 3 Pages

We show there is a gauge and coordinate choice such that the electromagnetic field is zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1807.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-03 06:41:57*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

a fascinating development surrounding PABHs, primordial antimatter black holes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1807.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-03 10:08:53*

**Authors:** V.A.Kasimov

**Comments:** 244 Pages. in Russian

The properties of space-time relations at three levels of matter organization are analyzing: micro-, macro- and mega-;
the possibility of combining their coordinate characteristics on the basis of a single ordering factor in distinguishing dynamic and evolutionary times. The thesis about the secondary nature of space-time relations and anout their conceptual origin as parameters of averaging procedures in macro observation of microprocesses is formulated. The book is the result of physical and philosophical understanding of the problem of space-time relations - a topic that is currently very relevant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1807.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-03 10:11:20*

**Authors:** V.A.Kasimov

**Comments:** 73 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that the "Twin paradox" is a consequence of the conceptual symmetry of relativity. The twin paradox is not successfully resolved in a continuous coordinate time, nor a STR, nor in GTR due to the symmetry of twin-brothers reference frames. Resolution of the paradox is seen by the author in the distinction between dynamic and evolutionary times. However, the twin paradox is successfully resolved within the discrete time, that is, when the metric measurement scale used for continuous coordinate time is changed to the ordinal one for the discrete time. This can be achieved by changing the metric scale of measurement used for continuous coordinate time, to sequence one, as for discrete own time; that is the paradox disappears when we consider continuous coordinate time in the affine scale representation, in other words, by refusal from metric measurability. The development of the concept of time in this direction greatly enhances the Leibniz aspect of relativity versus Newtonian - substantiality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1807.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-02 08:36:51*

**Authors:** V.A.Kasimov

**Comments:** 340 Pages. In Russian

Special theory of relativity (without the second postulate).
The possibility of constructing a STR without the second postulate is considered. The necessity of abandoning the metric factorization of the properties of space-time relations in favor of affine relations is discussed. And from the analysis of the "Twin paradox" it is proposed to distinguish between dynamic and evolutionary ordering time factors.
General theory of relativity (principles).
Discusses the principles of GTR as a generalization of STR, and the principles of Relativistic Theory of Gravity (RTG) as a theory of filling GTR of metric specifics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1807.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-02 15:52:01*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The current article is a next stage of construction of the alternative Special Relativity. The problems of Special Theory of Relativity (STR) arise from their colliding assumptions. The correct postulates of STR do not match the seemingly obvious assumption that space-time is real. In our articles, we try to prove the hypothesis that space-time has a complex structure, and the real one is only locally in a system related to an observer. The misleading impression that space-time is real results from the fact that the information carrier is energy that is always real. This article shows how the complex space-time phenomena can be seen by the observer in his real coordinate system. The concept of realisation of the complex orthogonal paravector, which represents a compound boost, to the form of the real velocity paravector has been introduced on the basis of energy equivalence . The realisation of coordinates of the state paravectors of any object is interpreted as a choice of real coordinates in the observer's frame, which in classical mechanics corresponds to the choice of the object's axis of motion with which the coordinates of the motion of another object are distributed. Mathematical properties of realisation are studied and an attempt to apply it to describe the physical object states.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1807.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-01 15:05:43*

**Authors:** Larry Allen West

**Comments:** 12 Pages. tnx

The SuperConducting Ether (SCE) reinterprets Dirac’s negative energy sea of electrons as a filled Fermi sea (FFS) of both spin-up and spin-down electron neutrinos with collective modes on the Fermi surface (FS), BCS condensation, and particles with mass and charge created when excited across the BCS energy gap. Newtonian gravitation derives from zero sound phonons with propagation velocity, s=c/√3, and with a Doppler force effect. Electric and magnetic fields are collective modes of dipolar quasi-particles and holes. The fine structure constant is interpreted to be a Thomas-Fermi many body screening effect. Special relativity is a byproduct of interactions occurring on the Fermi surface (FS) with c = vF. Quantum single pair decays cause photon propagation losses that result in a distance-dependent red shift superseding the geocentric Doppler red shift. The Fermi surface has a finite temperature that results in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Gravitational Wave Background (GWB) with black body like spectra. Particles are categorized as composites of their final stable decay products resulting in a self-consistent buildup of particle number consistent with the two-neutrino FFS. Quarks are nonexistent. Neutrino mass is disregarded. Matter and antimatter are balanced. The SCE is therefore a steady state universe. Black holes are problematic. The quantum nature and limitations of classical field theory are made evident. SI units are used for explicit expression of free space constitutive parameters. SCE is a physical realization of the Plank units.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1807.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-24 15:31:13*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Time in a reference frame can be represented by a rotating ring with constant angular
velocity. The rotational motion of this ring is not affected by any acceleration parallel to its
axis of rotation. The rotation period remains constant as the ring accelerates along the axis of
rotation. The rotation period in the rest frame of the ring is always constant. Therefore,
the rotation period is independent
of reference frame. The rotation period represents the elapsed time in a reference frame.
As a result, the elapsed time is also independent of reference frame.
Consequently, time is independent of reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology