[17] **viXra:0908.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro, J. A. Nieto, L. Ruiz, J. Silvas

**Comments:** 34 pages, This article appeared in the International Journal of Modern Physics A 24, no. 7 (2009) 1383 - 1415.

Novel static, time-dependent and spatial-temporal solutions of Einstein field
equations, displaying singularities, with and without horizons, and in several dimensions
are found based on a dimensional reduction procedure widely used in
Kaluza-Klein type theories. The Kerr-Newman black-hole entropy as well as the
Reissner-Nordstrom, Kerr and Schwarzschild black-hole entropy are derived from
the corresponding Euclideanized actions. A very special cosmological model based
on the dynamical interior geometry of a Black Hole is found that has no singularities
at t = 0 due to the smoothing of the mass distribution. We conclude with
another cosmological model equipped also with a dynamical horizon and which is
related to Vaidya's metric (associated with the Hawking-radiation of black holes)
by interchanging t ↔ r which might render our universe as a dynamical black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:0908.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 31 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 2 pages, submission to the Blois 2009 conference proceedings

Initial relic entropy growth is presented as a natural outgrowth of relic graviton production, as a
generalization of Dr. J.Y Ng's infinite quantum statistics. The adaptation and modification of
Ng's (2008) argument, is an outgrowth of string theory cosmology arguments, and is essentially
a counting algorithm for relic graviton production. This article is a very abbreviated version of a
presentation given in Chongquing, PRC, in April, 2009, at the Chongquing University Physic's
department as a guest of Dr. Fangyu Li, and his gravitational research group.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:0908.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 9 pages, This article appeared in Physics Letters B 665, no. 5 (2008) 384-387.

We show the existence of timelike naked singularities which are not
hidden by a horizon and which are associated to spherically symmetric
(noncompact) matter sources extending from r = 0 to r = ∞. Our
asymptotically flat solutions do represent observable timelike naked singularities
where the scalar curvature R and volume mass density ρ(r) are
both singular at r = 0. To finalize we explain the Finsler geometric
origins behind the matter field configuration obeying the weak energy
conditions and that leads to a timelike naked singularity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:0908.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 41 pages, This article appeared in the Journal of Mathematical Physics, vol 49 (2008) 042501.

We argue why the static spherically symmetric (SSS) vacuum solutions of Einstein's
equations described by the textbook Hilbert metric g_{μν}(r) is not diffeomorphic
to the metric g_{μν}(|r|) corresponding to the gravitational field of a point
mass delta function source at r = 0. By choosing a judicious radial function
R(r) = r + 2G|M|Θ(r) involving the Heaviside step function, one has the correct
boundary condition R(r = 0) = 0 , while displacing the horizon from r = 2G|M| to
a location arbitrarily close to r = 0 as one desires, r_{h} → 0, where stringy geometry
and quantum gravitational effects begin to take place. We solve the field equations
due to a delta function point mass source at r = 0, and show that the Euclidean gravitational
action (in ℏ units) is precisely equal to the black hole entropy (in Planck
area units). This result holds in any dimensions D ≥ 3 . In the Reissner-Nordsrom
(massive-charged) and Kerr-Newman black hole case (massive-rotating-charged) we
show that the Euclidean action in a bulk domain bounded by the inner and outer
horizons is the same as the black hole entropy. When one smears out the point-mass
and point-charge delta function distributions by a Gaussian distribution, the areaentropy
relation is modified. We postulate why these modifications should furnish
the logarithmic corrections (and higher inverse powers of the area) to the entropy
of these smeared Black Holes. To finalize, we analyse the Bars-Witten stringy black
hole in 1 + 1 dim and its relation to the maximal acceleration principle in phase
spaces and Finsler geometries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:0908.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 12 pages, This article appeared in Phys Letts B 675, (2009) 226-230

It is shown how Weyl's geometry and Mach's Holographic principle
furnishes both the magnitude and sign (towards the sun) of the Pioneer
anomalous acceleration a_{P} ~ -c^{2}/R_{Hubble} firstly observed by Anderson
et al. Weyl's Geometry can account for both the origins and the value
of the observed vacuum energy density (dark energy). The source of
dark energy is just the dilaton-like Jordan-Brans-Dicke scalar field that is
required to implement Weyl invariance of the most simple of all possible
actions. A nonvanishing value of the vacuum energy density of the order
of 10^{-123}M^{4}_{Planck} is found consistent with observations. Weyl's geometry
accounts also for the phantom scalar field in modern Cosmology in a very
natural fashion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:0908.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 5 pages

The different versions of the Universe structure are reviewed and it mean density is
calculated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:0908.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 23 pages, This article will appear in the IJMPA (2009).

It is rigorously shown how the Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford
spaces (C-spaces) can explain the variable radial dependence a_{p}(r) of the
Pioneer anomaly; its sign (pointing towards the sun); why planets don't
experience the anomalous acceleration and why the present day value
of the Hubble scale R_{H} appears. It is the curvature-spin coupling of
the planetary motions that hold the key. The difference in the rate at
which clocks tick in C-space translates into the C-space analog of Doppler
shifts which may explain the anomalous redshifts in Cosmology, where
objects which are not that far apart from each other exhibit very different
redshifts. We conclude by showing how the empirical formula for the
Flybys anomalies obtained by Anderson et al. can be derived within
the framework of Clifford geometry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:0908.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** Pages.

As we know the Michelson-Morley experiment proves that there is no
ethereal wind on the ground. It is thought at present that the existence of
the stellar aberration necessitates existence of ethereal wind on the ground
if the ether is to exist. Comparison of these two experiments results in
believing that the ether does not exist. We prove that if the ether exists
the stellar aberration can occur with the ether drag and then does not
necessitate existence of the ethereal wind.

A new model in the form of undiscovered tiny particles is presented
for the ether. With accepting this model and by using the results of
the Michelson-Morley and Michelson-Gale experiments a model consisting
of an ethereal stack stuck with the earth in its motion in the space is
presented such that the earth can rotate axially inside this stack freely.
We shall also see why atomic clocks are slow when are in (fast) motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:0908.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** Pages.

We consider point magnetic charges as the sources of the magnetostatic fields, like the
point electric charges for the electrostatic fields. Forms of the mutual effects of
electric and magnetic charges on themselves and on each other are presented in the
forms of vectorial relations. Using these relations incorrectness of a usual manner
which eventually leads to the deviation from the classical physics and to the rejection
of the Galilean transformations and to the resort to the special relativity is proven.
Static potential energy of a distribution of electric and magnetic charges is presented
with a careful view on the actual essence of each involved term; this itself shows a
sample of the usual carelessness existing in the present current electromagnetic theory
even in its static discussions. Almost all the fundamental relations in the present
current electromagnetic theory are rewritten in new forms by using the fundamental
vectorial relations presented at the beginning of the paper. In a more detailed argument
the proportion of the curl of the dynamic field of one kind (ie magnetodynamic or
electrodynamic) to the time derivative of the static field of the other kind (ie
electrostatic or magnetostatic) is established; meanwhile the proportion of the current
density of one kind to the time derivative of the field of the same kind is also shown.
Lenz's law is obtained in its new form. Static and dynamic inductances are presented.
By presenting an aspect which views the space full of much tiny electrostatic and
magnetostatic dipoles, the possibility of the proportion of the static fields to the
dynamic fields is shown.
The way in which the electromagnetic wave propagates through these dipoles is easily
explained by using the mentioned fundamental relations, and by obtaining the new form
of Maxwell's equations and deducing the wave equations from them, this simple explanation
is endorsed. By deducing the dynamic potential energy and explaining its difference with
the static potential energy of a set of charges, the Poynting vector is obtained in its
new form. It is shown that the fields of an electromagnetic wave are continuous across
the boundary interfaces. Fresnel coefficients are obtained in their quite new forms,
and it is explained that the coefficient appearing in the fundamental relations showing
the relations between two electric and magnetic charges moving relative to each other,
μ, must be construed as a world constant. The reflectance and transmittance are
introduced in this new approach, and it is shown that sum of them is identical with one.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:0908.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** John Hunter

**Comments:** 2 pages

A conjecture is discussed whereby the gravitational mass of an object depends on its
mass/radius ratio. If the conjecture is true then solar oscillations of the sun would cause large
signals for LISA. These signals would be greater than those produced by gravitational waves
from distant sources, and potentially spoil the experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:0908.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Rati Ram Sharma

**Comments:** 11 pages

In a universe expanding as per the Big Bang or Steady State theory the cosmic redshifts
should increase exponentially with time, which is not actually observed. So the universe is
NOT expanding. In Unified Theory's non-expanding universe the total energy-mass content
is eternally conserved with NO 'initial creation of matter from nothing' in a single big
explosive event of the Big Bang theory or continuously as in the Steady State theory. The
cosmic redshift is caused not by Doppler effects of receding velocities of stellar light sources
but by depletion of photon energy during long passage through the sharmon medium due to
non-Doppler effects of gravitational, electromagnetic & viscous losses. Cosmic microwave
background follows naturally and plausible explanation given to the observation on Ia type
supernovae, which has amazed & horrified the astronomers. Halton Arp's observation of
high-redshift quasars in the vicinity of low-redshift parent star systems is also
explained. There is no antigravity force permeating space and no likelihood for the universe
to become empty ever in future. Age of the non-expanding universe is about 45 billion years.
Dark energy and dark matter are related to the Sharmon medium. Realistic theory of Nonexpanding
universe replaces Big Bang & Steady State theories of expanding universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:0908.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 10 pages

As the galaxies are formed and the Universe as a whole is reviewed in this article.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:0908.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 8 pages

In the article the problems, bound with the law Habble are reviewed

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:0908.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Rati Ram Sharma

**Comments:** 14 pages

F
A wave exists only in its propagating medium but Einstein erred to discard the
physical medium for light wave and to introduce the non-existent 4-D spacetime continuum instead. It
denied him the chance to address the intrinsic wave-quantum Unity of light and predict the new entity
of 'basic substance' to compose all forms of E & m so compellingly demanded for the inter-conversions
of E & m by the eqn. E=mc^{2}, which is now re-derived. Unified Theory gives cogent arguments and
experimental support for the existence of a real physical medium in space, the all-composing & allpervading
'sharmon medium' as Basic Substance. It propagates light as a wave-quantum UNITY, the
particle aspect showing up at short wavelength e.g. from ~ 7000 A° downward in photochemical effects
and below ~ 3000 A° in photoelectric effects. The non-substantive abstract concepts of space & time
evolve from our perceptions of successive motions & changes in the surrounding objects and cannot
fuse into any concrete spacetime continuum. If existent it would retard motion of heavenly bodies,
which is not actually observed. Any non-composite static spacetime cannot undulate to transmit light.
Various multidimensional spacetime continua are mere mathematical constructs bereft of physical
existence and theories based on them unrealistic. Unified Theory explains from sharmon medium the
constancy & invariance to source-observer motion, the two pillar postulates of Special Relativity
without validating SR. It explains the Michelson-Morley and Sagnac experiments as also the observed
variability of light velocity and superluminality, which invalidate Relativity Theories. Lorentz
transformations do not describe any natural motion since no velocity can vary (like v) with, and be
invariant (like c) to, a source-observer motion at the same time. The actual length of an object, viewed
by say, 100 differently moving observers cannot undergo 100 different objective contractions at the
same time, making 'contraction of length' an unrealistic concept. So is 'dilatation of time'. Unified
Theory derives from sharmon medium the Maxwell equations and the time containing and time free
equations for the propagation of wave-quantum unity in gravitational and electromagnetic radiation.
The Schrodinger wave equation is also derived. It explains the photoelectric effect. Explanation of the
bending of light in a gravitational field shows that photon has mass and gravitation is not a curvature
in 4-D spacetime. All particles and energy-quanta have definite mass & size.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:0908.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** John Hunter

**Comments:** 9 pages

A symmetry principle is discussed whereby the whole universe can change scale.
It is shown that a reinterpretation of 'expansion' of the universe, (due to changing scale factor),
as a 'rescaling', can lead to a redshift of light, due to a changing of Plancks constant
with time. Predictions for the magnitudes of supernovae against redshift are made and found
to be in good agreement with supernovae data, without recourse to dark energy. Matter density,
of one quarter critical density, occurs naturally from Einsteins equations, with an equation
of state parameter of -1 (in accordance with values inferred from WMAP data). It is concluded
that the reinterpretation of a solution of the equations of General Relativity, for the
universe, may be necessary. The question of inertia is considered, and the new interpretation
of General Relativity is found to support modern views on its cause.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:0908.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** John Hunter

**Comments:** 4 pages

It has proved problematic, within General Relativity, to form a general definition of mass.
The results of singularity theorems also seem to indicate an incompleteness of General
Relativity. A simple model of the effect of the gravitational self binding energy of masses,
on both gravitational and inertial mass, is considered. The result is a reduction in
gravitational mass for compact objects, consequently it is proposed that General Relativity, or
its successor, will ultimately show that singularities cannot form. As another consequence it
is found that dark matter can best account for the flat shape of galactic rotation curves, if it is
moving continuously towards the galactic centre. It is proposed that dark matter is ejected
periodically from galactic centres. These proposals may best be tested by computer
simulation, and if found to give a realistic match to observations, they may act as a guide to
those attempting a fully formulated theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:0908.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** António Saraiva

**Comments:** 2 pages

Einstein's spacetime doesn't exist because the Lorentz's invariance equation
is equal to a constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology