[44] **viXra:1606.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-30 03:37:04*

**Authors:** Vadim N. Matvejev

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper deals with the twin paradox within special relativity. The paper reveals the cause of paradoxical time dilation for an inertial stay-at-home twin, occurring, as believed by a non-inertial travelling twin, throughout his motion except for a short-time turn, though by the return of the travelling twin it is the stay-at-home twin who has aged more. This cause is the unconditional approach to the individual observer’s inherent state of rest. Certain kinematic solutions to the paradox are given without resorting to a non-inertial reference frame. The existence of such solutions is shown both in special relativity and in Lorentz ether theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1606.0319 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-24 16:03:32*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre propulsion system in
which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while reducing the energy density and energy by
an arbitrary value, and eliminating the event horizon, for superluminal motions,which would have
otherwise led to to explosion of the spaceship (instability of the warp bubble).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1606.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-29 01:43:16*

**Authors:** David L Berkahn

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Starting with acceleration, the Equivalence Principle is used to argue that the known law of
decreasing acceleration for high speed motion in the domain of low acceleration, produces the same
result in a weak gravitational field with subsequent implications for stronger fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1606.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-28 08:54:37*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Fluid Flow Mechanics deals with flows which move due to internal particle pressure and pressure gradients. This paper attempts to derive a roughly parallel although an entirely different concept of a relatively unknown mathematical and yet potential physical process which the author refers to simply as Field Flow Mechanics and which deals with pressure gradients of a field created by a macroscopic and as yet unknown ‘generator’. The development of Field Flow Mechanics finds a natural exposition in transportation of the ‘generator’ across, for example, interstellar distances, i.e. space travel. These fields are obviously not yet in existence, but if they were, they and their gradients would be presumed to be macroscopic variables. This paper tries to anticipate their existence by predicting what would happen if they were in existence and even to use dimensional analysis in order to get some kind of grip on the possible reality of such fields. The approach is to try and derive from a set of geometric assumptions a Lagrangian structure such that the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion can be invoked. In the course of attempting to derive a geometric Lagrangian structure, several surprising results occur such as the derivation of an antisymmetric tensor which finds a convenient interpretation as a new type of ‘electromagnetic’ field which yields a ‘magnetic’ monopole feature in addition to a rotational feature. This paper also attempts to show how Field Flow Mechanics admits a non-linear partial differential equation of the Hamilton-Jacobi type which allows velocities in excess of the speed of light while allowing a parametric time interval on the ‘generator’ to equate with the coordinate time interval of the source planet in order to make interstellar travel a viable process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1606.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-28 09:02:43*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The prevalent view today is that electron spin, for example, must be considered to be a quantum concept without detailed classical analogy. The author simply did not know if this proposition was true or false, and, subsequently, embarked upon a program (irregardless of whether the spin is quantized or not) to determine if the concept of ‘intrinsic spin’ (i.e. spin which is independent of a coordinate system) could be derived from ideas not considered Quantum Mechanical in nature. This paper is an inquiry into the origin of ‘intrinsic spin’, recognizing that ‘intrinsic spin’ is part of a much larger philosophical problem. This paper attempts to bridge an intellectual gap between two major philosophical issues. The first issue concerns the two major equations used in differential geometry to define a hypersurface, namely, the Gauss and Weingarten equations. Issue two concerns the two monolithic theories discovered in the twentieth century, namely, quantum mechanics and relativity, both of which are the embodiment of description of the hypersurface of the real physical universe. The question is whether or not there is a relationship between these issues from a geometrical point of view which bears on the origin of ‘intrinsic spin’. The answer is in the affirmative, but this answer opens the door to a whole range of other interesting concepts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1606.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-28 09:36:38*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper attempts to delve into the mystery of space travel. Consequently, it will be necessary to
re-examine concepts which scientists hold dear. In addition, it is the author’s contention that the
so-called weak force is the seat of a powerful new energy source which can be used to propel
spacecraft to be unheard of velocities utilizing a variable scalar gravitational “constant”. One of
the major obstacles faced is that normally the so-called “arc length” ds will be equal to zero at
the speed of light (because of its dependence upon relative velocity), and since ds is used in the
denominator of equations of motion, such equations will become meaningless. This paper will
continue to use the arc length ds, along with its implied proper time; however, this paper will use a
different method of approach to this problem which will involve divorcing ds from its dependence
upon relative velocity as a result of the aforementioned generalization. The approach will be to
use a complex mass-velocity vector (not momentum vector) over the usual four dimensional
space-time manifold domain. The mass-velocity vector is introduced, because it is assumed that a
gradient in φ or φ/μ (to be controlled from within the spacecraft) will cause not only a change in
the velocity of the spacecraft, but also a change in the apparent inertial/gravitational mass mo of
the spacecraft in a coordinated way. This is the guiding principle of this paper!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1606.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-27 14:45:09*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The entire world is in your every thought, and your every thought is in the entire world. To understand this paradox we have to understand how thought works. Experiments prove thought force is an existing force that can leave our heads. Thought force is a new fundamental interaction which is not in our physics books. In order to understand this new fundamental interaction, we need a new theory that describes it. This is the space-matter model. In this model, the space waves caused by matter. The space-matter model allows us to find the common root of space, matter and time. Solely through the use of space waves, we can express spatial distance, time and energy. It is possible to express all these phenomena in eVolt, so meters can be converted into seconds or into kgs and vice versa.
Thought is force that appears as change of the wavelengths of space waves. Gravity works the same way. Thought force and gravity have a common character. Gravity is the difference of wavelengths of space waves. This definition of gravity uncovers a new characteristic of it; gravity is able to accelerate the Universe.
Thought as a space wave is more than just a standalone, lonely act. According to our brains, forces that appear in a given spectrum of wavelengths of space waves are thoughts, regardless of who or what created theses forces: we ourselves, other humans or inanimate (non-living) things. We send and receive thoughts as forces. Thought is a kind of communication.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1606.0283 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-17 21:21:44*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In 1922 Alexandre Friedmann obtained, in the context of an unusual spherically-symmetric metric form, formal solutions of the Einstein equation for dust of uniform energy density which as well apply within spherically symmetric dynamic dust balls of uniform energy density. The resulting Friedmann equation for the dynamical behavior of these ostensibly general-relativistic dust-ball solutions exclusively reflects, however, completely non-relativistic Newtonian gravitational dynamics, with no trace at all of the purely relativistic phenomenon of gravitational time dilation, notwithstanding that gravitational time dilation inescapably accompanies gravitation's presence in GR. That paradox wasn't noticed by Friedmann, nor has it since been consciously addressed. As a consequence, accepted dust-ball behavior is Newtonian gravitational in every respect, notably including compulsory deceleration of dust-ball expansion, as well as compulsory assumption by every expanding dust ball of a singular, zero-radius "Big Bang" configuration at a finite earlier time -- despite both behaviors being incompatible with the implications of gravitational time dilation. The source of these inconsistencies is the GR-incompatible nature of Friedmann's unusual metric form, which extinguishes relativistic gravitational and speed time dilation by implicitly utilizing the GR-inaccessible set of clock readings of an infinite number of different observers. However in 1939 Oppenheimer and Snyder carried out a tour-de-force analytic space-time transformation of a Friedmann GR-unphysical dust-ball solution which satisfies a particular initial condition to fully GR-physical "standard" metric form. That Oppenheimer-Snyder transformation was recently extended to arbitrary dust-ball initial conditions, yielding the equation of motion in fully GR-physical "standard" coordinates of any dust ball's radius. This non-Newtonian GR-physical dust-ball radius equation of motion fully conforms to the implications of gravitational time dilation: it in no way forbids acceleration of dust-ball expansion, but it prevents, at any finite "standard" time whatsoever, any dust ball's radius from being smaller than or equal to its Schwarzschild radius-value. Full GR conformity thus needs no "dark energy", but can't support a "Big Bang".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1606.0282 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-07 10:05:36*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Authors: Mesut Kavak
Analysis of the laws which form, direct universe and of the interacting elements in the interactions emerging by these laws. Forming the theoretical, philosophical infrastructure of the some physical concepts and phenomena such as kinetic energy, uncertainty, length contraction, relative energy transformations, gravity, time and light speed to understand universe better manner as well as possible. Some informations about re-derivation of Planck constants, faster than Light, interstellar Jump and instant communication, length contraction, imaginary time, time travel, real black hole radiuses, free energy, new type of closed system thrust engine for classic space travels without external energy, terraforming of Mars, asteroid mining, superiour processors. Also some proofs about Goldbach conjecture, twin primes, Mersenne and Fermat primes, palindromic primes, p=np problem, Collatz problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1606.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-22 17:36:46*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Please contact Gene at genebarbee@msn.com

Data from projects that measure and interpret the Cosmic Background Radiation [4][PLANCK] indicate that nature is “fine-tuned” to expand the universe in a way that it does not collapse or catastrophically expand. The currently popular Lambda CDM cosmology model [4] is strongly supported, meaning that critical density is very near 1. There is discussion regarding the components that make up critical density. Besides normal matter there is cold dark matter (CDM) and a Lambda term that stands for Einstein’s cosmological constant. Many appear to believe that we exist in the bottom shape shown above. Is space time really flat? This concept is associated with the hyperbolic nature of a four dimensional universe [18][19]. To understand what flat means, one must study the Robertson-Walker metric and the Friedmann and Einstein-de Sitter models [3]. I have noticed reluctance by authors to state clearly the shape of the universe. They know that curvature is at the heart of gravitation and can calculate a “Hubble length” describing how far expansion has progressed but leave the shape unstated. If it is a four dimensional sphere, its volume is infinite [19].
This document shows a way to side step the above issues. I believe we live in a spherical finite universe and the key is how we measure time. Quantum mechanics measures time and distance around a quantum circle. For light the ratio between distance and time is C, the speed of light. If space time originates in a quantum circle, the shape of the universe could be similar to the composite of many quantum circles (spheres considering the probabilistic nature of position around a circle). The Robertson-Walker metric [18] satisfies the global condition that space time is homogeneous and isotropic (no preferred position) but the surface of a sphere also has these properties.
The author developed a model called cellular cosmology and a model of the neutron mass that leads to the source of the gravitational constant [5][6][7][8][12][13][23]. A cell is one neutron (that decays to a proton) and its associated space attracted to a central neutron. Each proton contains kinetic energy that expands the cell against the gravitational field and is converted to potential energy. Breaking a large surface we will call the universe into many small cell surfaces introduces an important degree of freedom. A cell is initially the quantum circle for gravity. The circle expands and defines space. As it expands it becomes non-quantum and protons are allowed inside the sphere. Protons appear to be around us and able to move relative to one another obeying special relativity. The space we exist in incorporates the Lorentz transformation and many call this space time.
The general theory of relativity states roughly that “space time is curved by mass and mass follows curvature”, approaching Newtonian gravity. But the other three forces (interactions) of nature are also based on the curvature of quantum circles. The author’s unification theory [12] is reviewed for comparison in Appendix 3.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1606.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-24 11:44:11*

**Authors:** Robin Booth

**Comments:** 20 Pages. 10 figures, 1 table, 1 appendix

We describe a novel interpretation of the time dimension in General Relativity: the Holochronous Principle, and show that the application of this principle in standard cosmological situations is able fully to account for the effects currently attributed to Dark Matter in observational phenomena such as galactic rotation curves and gravitational lensing.
We re-evaluate the role of the Friedman equations in defining a time varying spacetime metric, and in their place postulate a model that is based on the `shrinkage' of baryons in a gravitational field to account for the dynamical behaviour of the cosmic scale factor. We show that integrating the Holochronous Principle into this model gives rise to a solution that takes the form of a resonant universe, in which the resultant damped oscillations can account for the observed accelerating expansion rate of the universe, to a greater level of precision than the standard ΛCDM model. The Holochronous model obviates the need for Dark Energy in the form of a cosmological constant, Λ, and also resolves other issues associated with the ΛCDM model, including the Ω=1 flatness problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1606.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-24 02:44:29*

**Authors:** Sadegh Mousavi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

After proposition of General Relativity theory by Albert Einstein, at 1914, some scientists tried to solve the field equations of this theory. The first one was Schwarzschild, which his solution leads to the discovery of blackholes. In this research a general compound field construction around a blackhole will be considered using tensor calculations. For this purpose at first some mathematical concepts will be introduced.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1606.0246 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-23 09:27:15*

**Authors:** A.H.A.Alfedeel, A. I. Arbab

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Based on the fact that electromagnetic radiation has energy and momentum, and it creates
curvature in the space time, we have used the covariant derivative of second rank tensor
, thus we show that its possible to derive an explicit expression for Maxwell's equations in
curved space time with and without torsion as well as---This is a coupling between gravity to electromagnetism.
We show that the coupling introduced an extra amount of charge and current density--the electromagnetic
and gravitoelectric--which resulting in non vanishing divergence of
the magnetic filed tensor, this is equivalent to a magnetic monopole density.
This is similar to the result that found by
Piplowski, which states that such a coupling breaks the symmetry of $U(1)$ group, and has only significant at early time of the
universe or inside black holes where the energy is very high.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1606.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 09:52:57*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This paper explains Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)observations

A new type of tensor mathematical formation, using 21000 linear equations for 133 bodies, Dynamic Universe
Model is a singularity free N-body problem solution, based on Newtonian physics. It is different from
Newtonian physics, as well as general relativity as they use differential and integral equations. It uses linear
tensors without differential and integral equations, hence it gives unique solution. This approach saves many
unsolved problems in present day physics. Its prediction in 2005 that there is no dark matter came true
experimentally in in Nov, 2013.
Here, using the same math setup but with different initial set of numerical values, (viz., 3d xyz initial positions,
velocities of all the solar system, nearby stars, Galaxy center, nearby Galaxies etc.,), this paper explains the wide
range of values of gravitational deflection (bending) results of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)
observations. The observed VLBI results are in much higher range even after accounting the standard errors.
These higher ranges in VLBI results are beyond explainable values of general relativistic predictions as well as
with parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. Dynamic Universe model’s built in potential of
considering simultaneous and dynamic gravitational effect of Sun, planets, local stars etc., makes these
discrepancies comprehendible. For doing so, the capabilities of Dynamic Universe Model are extended into
micro world i.e., the world of masses of light photons and radio wavelength photons, Neutrinos electrons and
protons etc., (This definition is some thing like a subset of quantum physics, we will use this name further inthis
paper) for the extended by extending the original mathematical formulation for macro world viz., planets, stars,
Galaxies etc. Here it is shown that, Dynamic Universe Model explains reasons for the variations in real world
VLBI deflection (bending) observations.
Keywords: Dynamic universe Model; SITA programming; Micro particle world; VLBI Very Long Baseline
Interferometry; Gravitational deflection (bending): PPN formalism, Tensors, singularity-free cosmology, Dark
matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1606.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 10:01:03*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This paper gives the introduction to Dynamic Universe Model

This is solution for N-body problem without singularities and collisions using only Newtonian Physics.
Here all bodies move and keep themselves in dynamic equilibrium with all other bodies depending on
their present positions, velocities and masses. This model provides solution to problems, like Missing
mass in Galaxies, Blue & red shifted Galaxies co-existence, Pioneer anomaly, New-horizons satellite
trajectory calculations etc. Non collapsing large-scale mass structures formed when non-uniform
density distributions of masses were used. This model explains the force behind expansion of universe
and explains the large voids and non-uniform matter densities in universe. There are no Blackholes and
Bigbang in this mathematical Model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1606.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 10:10:46*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This explains very highvelocities in astronomical jets astro jets

Abstract: Very high velocities like velocity of light are observed in astronomical jets from the centres of many Galaxies including our own Milkyway. The formation of such high velocity jet is explained using SITA simulations in this paper. For this purpose the velocity attained by a test neutron in the path traced by it is calculated and depicted using a setup of 133 bodies. This setup consisting of one densemass of the mass equivalent to Galaxy center, 90 stars with similar masses of stars near Galaxy center, mass equivalents of 23 Globular Cluster groups, 16 Milkyway parts, Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies at appropriate distances.
The velocity of particle attained in the path by this test neutron was found to be very high as observed in an astronomical jet emerging from Galaxy center. Dynamic Universe model can be used for such an application.
Keywords: Dynamic Universe Model, Astronomical Jets, SITA simulations

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1606.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 10:18:18*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 53 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This paper explains Pioneer Anomaly

A new type of tensor mathematics used in Dynamic universe model can
be used to solve the Pioneer Anomaly. “The Pioneer anomaly or Pioneer effect is
the observed deviation from expectations of the trajectories of various unmanned
spacecraft visiting the outer solar system, notably Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11. Both
spacecraft are escaping from the solar system, and are slowing down under the
influence of the Sun's gravity.” as described by Wikipedia. Dynamic universe
model of cosmology explains Pioneer anomaly. It shows effectively the
acceleration due to gravity of SUN increases towards SUN, approximately beyond
Mercury -4.44202E-07 m /sec^2 ; beyond MOON -2.11409E-08 m /sec^2 ;
beyond Mars -2.11E-08 m /sec^2 ; beyond Jupiter -2.30844E-05 m /sec^2 ;
beyond Saturn -2.44565E-06 m /sec^2 ; beyond Uranus -8.91522E-08 m /sec^2
and beyond Neptune -4.3E-09 m /sec^2. The negative sign indicates that the force
is acting towards SUN in the same direction as SUN’s acceleration due to gravity.
These values are approximate and depend not only on distance from SUN to the
test particle, but also overall effect of gravitation of near by stars, Milkyway and
its center, globular clusters and Local system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1606.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 10:31:49*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This paper predicts New Horizons satillite trajectory

In this paper, Dynamic Universe Model is used for prediction of trajectory of New Horizons (NH) satellite from 3rd Jan 2009 to 1st Jan 2017, taking trajectory ephemerides data of Jan 1&2, 2009 from official web of NH as basis. The New Horizons official web gives data up to 1st Sept 2015 as on 20 Jul 2014. The present calculated data from Dynamic Universe Model is given up to 1st Jan 2017, which is 16 months more than available data. And further data also can be calculated. It may please be noted the error percentage in predictions went to a maximum of 0.239356 %, -0.00086751 %, -0.0493872 % of NH NASA's web in XYZ coordinates, where as error percentages started from -0.00225 %, 0.000159 %, -0.00029 % for XYZ coordinates respectively.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1606.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 08:33:12*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This is for CMB.

In this paper the experimentally verified Stephan Boltzmann Law and Planks law are used to calculate the Cosmic
Microwave Background or CMB radiation received on earth in all directions from the sky. This radiation from SUN,
planets, asteroids, stars, interstellar dust and Galaxies is in Microwave range covering all the frequencies including
the K, Ka, Q, V and W bands as measured in WMAP mission. This method explains theoretically about the origin,
propagation uniformity of CMB in our universe. The reasons for this amazing theoretical uniformity are many. One of
the reasons is the uniformity of stars and Galaxies in all most all directions in the sky. Another reason is the averaging
done by main lobe of dish antenna for few degrees around the main direction, which is a measuring instrument
sensor of WMAP satellite. In addition, the side lobe pickup of bright sources in the sky also adds to the problem,
which depends on the three-dimensional gain pattern of the dish. Additional analysis is done, which results into
large angle multipole-l systematic errors. It is found that NO additional Bigbang generated Microwave background
radiation was there after excluding radiation from Stars and Galaxies in these WMAP CMB measurements.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1606.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 08:52:52*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This is CMB uniformity.

“Material objects are more fundamental” is being proposed in this paper; or in other words “IT from Bit” is true. It is
well known that there is no mental experiment, which produced material. There were double slit experiments by John Wheeler
which show some mental dependencies on electron behaviour, but still he did not produce material from information.
Information describes material properties. But a mere description of material properties does not produce material. Similarly
creation of matter from empty space as required in Steady State theory or in Bigbang is another such problem in the
Cosmological counterpart. As evidence the Bigbang based Cosmologies show the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), as
relics of Bigbang. In this paper we will see about CMB, how it is generated from stars and Galaxies around us. And here we
show that NO Microwave background radiation was detected till now after excluding radiation from Stars and Galaxies. Pictures
by COBE and WMAP satellites show variation in CMB intensities in 10-4 scales. In Bigbang based Cosmology, these pictures
were discussed as though they are the starting information for the formation of future Galaxies. This information is the counter
part of “IT from Bit or Bit from IT” in Cosmology. This paper shows a way that we can exclude Cosmology from this concept.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1606.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 08:58:53*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This is is onNO-Dark matter Prediction

This paper discusses about the theoretical "non-requirement" of Dark matter, or in
other words, there is no missing mass in Galaxies. A Singularity free and collision free
N-body problem solution called Dynamic Universe Model was used to find out the
theoretical star circular velocity curves in a Galaxy. Here five cases are presented. In
the first case a HUGE mass at the center of galaxy, Sun like stars and external
Galaxies are assumed, when plotted, the graph of last iteration shows disk formation
and velocities achieved. This circular velocities verses radius graph looks exactly
similar to observations by astronomers. In all the other cases, either the central mass is
missing or external Galaxies are missing or both are missing where resulting graphs
look different. It can be inferred that the theoretical requirement of dark matter is
calculation error, that No dark matter (Missing mass) is required according to Dynamic
Universe Model. This prediction was first presented in Tokyo University in 2005. Later
the findings from LUX in 2013 the (Large Underground Xenon) experiment confirmed
this prediction.
This new Tensor math in Dynamic Universe Model were used for solving a large
variety of physical problems which are otherwise not possible with present day
Physics. This method solved many unsolved problems earlier like Existence of blue
shifted Galaxies Galaxy Disk formations, Missing mass in Galaxies, Pioneer anomaly,
Non-collapsing Large scale mass structures, New horizons trajectory predictions etc.
AMS Subject Classifications: 70F10 (n- Body problems) , 70F15 (Celestial Mechanics),
70E55 ( Dynamics of Multi body systems) 70-05 (Experimental work) 70-08
(Computational methods)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1606.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 09:19:15*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This is on Prediction and finding BLUE shifted Galaxies.

There are many blue shifted Galaxies in our universe. Here in this paper we will see
different simulations to make such predictions from the output pictures formed from the
Dynamic Universe model. There are some old and a few new simulations where
different point masses are placed in different distances in a 3D Cartesian coordinate
grid; and are allowed to move on universal gravitation force (UGF) acting on each
mass at that instant of time at its position. The output pictures depict the three
dimensional orbit formations of point masses after some iterations. In an orbit so
formed, some Galaxies are coming near (Blue shifted) and some are going away (Red
shifted). In this paper the simulations predicted the existence of a large number of Blue
shifted Galaxies, in an expanding universe, in 2004 itself. Over 8,000 blue shifted
galaxies have been discovered extending beyond the Local Group, was confirmed by
Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations in the year 2009. Thus Dynamic
Universe model predictions came true.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1606.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 09:38:24*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This explains astro jets

Astronomical jets are observed from the centres of many Galaxies including our own Milkyway. The formation
of such jet is explained using SITA simulations of dynamic universe model. For this purpose the path traced by
a test neutron is calculated and depicted using a set up of one densemass of the mass equivalent to mass of
Galaxy center, 90 stars with similar masses of stars near Galaxy center, mass equivalents of 23 Globular Cluster
groups, 16 Milkyway parts, Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies at appropriate distances. Five different kinds of
theoretical simulations gave positive results. The path travelled by this test neutron was found to be an astronomical
jet emerging from Galaxy center.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1606.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-20 15:20:55*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show the derivation of the grand transformation equation from the Galilean
transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1606.0210 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-01 17:40:51*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 12 Pages. LIGO data is shown with mass loss continuing during ring down

New data from LIGO for event GW151226 was used to improve the modifications to Polarizable Vacuum Theory, and choose among the many possible solutions of energy and momentum at high speed for deep space transport. Heisenberg Uncertainty Limit provided the best known Modification to Polarizable Vacuum Theory. A constant coefficient was varied over the possible range and also changed to a variable, but provided no improvement over the Heisenberg Limit.
Warp and frame dragging resulted from modifications of Polarizable Vacuum, but with more than one possible solution. A choice of solutions was made eliminating invariant Planck constant and previous cases derived from conservation of energy in blue shifted microwaves near a black hole.
It was found that velocity terms could not be brought into PV theory without formalism for exchange of kinetic energy with the vacuum space. Energy changes in the local vacuum provide the driving force for relativistic frame dragging.
Accumulating kinetic energy in space was found to polarize the vacuum in a way equivalent to the polarizing parameter K of Harold Puthoff.
Frame dragging results from the continual increase of vacuum stress energy trailing longitudinally and propagating transversely from an accelerating deep space vehicle.
Results predict that in the LIGO observations part of the mass loss and speed increase occur during the ring down phase.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1606.0207 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-30 02:26:36*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Giving the composition of the gravitational field

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1606.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-03 20:39:25*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Regarding to special relativity theory, there are some paradoxes. Almost these are derived from the theory. Then these should be resolved with the accurate deduction if possible. On the other hand, there may also be a paradox inside the theory. To solve it, more basic definition should be required.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1606.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-23 09:55:12*

**Authors:** Gary Nash

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the quantum equation (QE) in curved (3+1) spacetime $\nabla_{\alpha}\nabla^{\alpha}\Psi=k^{2}\Psi$, it can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors with the wave function $\Psi$ having spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$. Using a decomposition of symmetric tensors and two guiding principles, a new tensor describing dynamic dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor to form a modified equation of general relativity (GR). GR and dark energy are hidden in the symmetric part of the QE for each spin. As quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime is built from an infinite superposition of mixed frequency single particle solutions of the QE, GR and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of QFT. The metric as a field variable does not appear in the spin 2 QE for a massless graviton. Massless spin 2 particles do not couple to a non-zero energy momentum tensor as force mediators for gravity. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity. By preserving the structure of the Einstein-Hilbert action, it is shown that the cosmological constant must be zero. The dark energy tensor effectively replaces the cosmological constant and describes a cyclic universe which developed after the Big Bang. The dark energy density describes the violent expansion immediately after the Big Bang; and then tends to the present value of the vacuum energy density of the universe. Dark energy provides a natural explanation of why the vacuum energy density is so small, and why it dominates the present epoch of the universe. The Proca equation for a massive vector boson of spin 1 could describe neutral dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1606.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-15 19:11:51*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover new solution in cosmology by Einstein’s gravity field equation. We investigate a light by the new coordinate observer’s time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1606.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-15 11:38:03*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Despite the long-accepted claims by mainstream physicists that the 1887 Michelson-Morley interferometer experiment ‘proved’ that an aether did not exist, based on its alleged ‘null result,’ ‘dissident’ physicists have long contended that it proved the opposite, some citing the ‘null result’ as evidence of its existence due to ‘aether drag,’ others lending credence to the relevance of the alleged ‘noise’ that was dismissed when arriving at the ‘null’ conclusion. The latter group attest that the alleged null result was anything but, with an ‘aether wind’ on the order of 10 km/s detected but dismissed as “noise,” thereby opening the door to Einstein’s special relativity. Repeated interferometer experiments even more sensitive were performed by Dayton Miller, including several with Edward Morley, in the first part of the 20th century, allegedly confirming an ‘aether wind,’ again summarily dismissed as anomalous “noise” to preserve Einstein’s relativity. Now there may be as many aether theories as there are dissident physicists who postulate an aether, some believing it to be fixed against absolute space, others that it can be ‘dragged’ by massive bodies such as Earth (and hence the alleged ‘null result’), and some that believe it flows between ‘sources’ and ‘sinks’ throughout the universe. Some believe it comprises all matter and energy, with light just being one of its various manifestations. I know not whether there is an aether. All evidence appears to be circumstantial, as nothing material has ever been detected (if that is even possible), and I do not begin to claim to even know how such would be possible. My goal here is to examine some phenomena for which an aether, if it exists, could offer an alternate explanation, neither confirming nor denying its existence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1606.0140 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-27 15:07:09*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Presented at/Published in 1st Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference - Florida Atlantic University, August 5-8, 2015

Immanuel Velikovsky’s Worlds in Collision and other books inspired founders of the Electric Universe Theory with its implication of plasma-based electrical interactions between planets, as recorded in historical records such as the Bible. While his theories sparked great controversy by implying close encounters between some of the inner planets (Venus, Earth and Mars) within recorded human history, but were summarily dismissed as fiction by mainstream scientists and continue to be dismissed today. Nonetheless, Electric Universe theorists contend that there may be truth in Velikovsky’s conclusions when these “interactions” are considered in light of a “plasma/electric universe.” Having also read Velikovsky’s works, and Electric Universe Theory, I endeavored to perform a simple set of calculations to ascertain if any of Velikovsky’s interactions could have been possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1606.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-28 07:53:06*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, Richard O Calkins

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Presented at/Published in 2nd Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference - College Park, MD, July 20-23, 2016

A friendly debate between the authors characterizes one that is prevalent among the community of ‘dissident’ physicists who do not accept Einstein’s relativity as the final explanation for the behavior of light. They wonder whether or not light acquires the velocity of its source. Maxwell’s equations strongly suggest a fixed speed for light upon its emission from a source. Is the emission point fixed in space? Would motion of the emitter alter the trajectory (and speed?) of the emitted light? Light’s immense speed makes determining this extremely difficult to answer on a scale less than astronomical. For example, despite supposed ‘definitive’ proof that there is no aether and light speed is universally constant alleged by proponents of a ‘null’ result from the 1887 Michelson-Morley Interferometer Experiment, debate continues over both of these subjects. The authors propose experiments using current technology that might be able to offer a definitive resolution to this debate, or possibly open up even more speculation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1606.0128 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-27 15:22:44*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Presented at/Published in 2nd Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference - College Park, MD, July 20-23, 2016

This article examines the relativistic assumption of a constant speed of light without Einstein’s postulates, building on two dissident physicists’ unique theories as a possible explanation for the phenomena by which light can travel with the speed of its source and, therefore, at variable speeds. Renshaw and Calkins have proposed rather unique theories regarding the propagation of light. First I consider two similar situations for non-light phenomena to extrapolate to a subsequent analogy for light to contend that the speed of light need not be constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1606.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-27 15:16:39*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Presented at/Published in 2nd Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference - College Park, MD, July 20-23, 2016

Einstein resolves the issue of whether or not light travels with the velocity of a moving source by assuming time dilates (and length contracts) in a moving inertial reference frame. Based more on belief than empirical evidence, this resolution enables the theory of special relativity to claim validity, even though there are other explanations and interpretations that are simpler and more consistent with Occam’s Razor. Some dissident physicists counter Einstein both by assuming the constant velocity of light is preserved, albeit without time dilation, as well as assuming light travels with the velocity of its source. While I am in the latter camp, I attempt to examine both sides of the argument from a non-relativistic perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1606.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-13 01:46:33*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 25 Pages. This grew out of a discussion I started on the vixra forums (Ramanujan/Einstein are lucky they lived b4 modern "science" - http://vixra.freeforums.org/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=755).

The idea of gravitational-electromagnetic coupling producing mass, first hinted at by Albert Einstein, allows Isaac Newton's laws of motion and gravitation to be looked at differently. In turn, this gives a new perspective on dark energy, dark matter and expansion of the universe. The work of Stephen Hawking also proved essential to writing this article, which grew out of a discussion I started on the vixra forums (Ramanujan/Einstein are lucky they lived b4 modern "science" - http://vixra.freeforums.org/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=755). As I wrote there, "I've been thinking about John's comments on motion and gravity, as well as Harry's on expansion of the Universe. I started writing a reply and during the last week, I've found it getting combined with other thoughts of mine. In an attempt to explain everything that's relevant, it's been combining with other ideas I've previously written as well as new ideas that come to me while I'm typing, or sleeping. It surprises me, but all the ideas seem to fit together and they seem plausible (if somewhat speculative sometimes) when I check scientific references. So far, I've written 6,000 words and there's a lot more to cover in the rough draft I wrote. That's too much to post in the forum, so it'll have to be an article on vixra.org". By the way, this article reminds me of a "Star Trek" movie I saw in which Spock was writing something but was tempted to stop because it was so hard and seemingly beyond his abilities. Captain Kirk visited him from a year in the future and told Spock he would succeed. I've often felt tempted to give up on my typing. There have been no time-travelling visitors but the ideas that came to me were so satisfying - they encouraged me to somehow reach the end.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1606.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-16 20:42:42*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Parameter derived from blue shifted microwaves

Warp and frame dragging resulted from modifications of Polarizable Vacuum, but with more than one possible solution. A choice of solutions was made based on previous work about conservation of energy in blue shifted microwaves near a black hole.
It was found that velocity terms could not be brought into PV theory without formalism for exchange of kinetic energy with the vacuum space. Energy changes in the local vacuum provide the driving force for relativistic frame dragging.
Accumulating kinetic energy in space was found to polarize the vacuum in a way equivalent to the polarizing parameter K of Harold Puthoff.
Frame dragging results from the continual increase of vacuum stress energy trailing longitudinally and propagating transversely from an accelerating deep space vehicle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1606.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-16 20:19:42*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Properties of space from blue shifted microwaves

A calculation is given for equilibrium temperature of a black hole revised for blue shifted cosmic background microwaves. A high temperature limit is imposed at the Planck energy level
The result leads to a function of variant Planck constant for use in polarizable vacuum theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1606.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-09 02:07:11*

**Authors:** Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Int. J. Therm. 19(2), 102-108, (2016).

This work is devoted to examine the galactic behavior of entropy by checking the validity of thermodynamics laws for the teleparallel reduction of Kaluza-Klein theory in thermal equilibrium state. We assume a flat Friedmann-
Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker type space-time model in which dark matter is interacting with dark energy. With this scenario, calculating the variation of galactic entropy function for each dark component and for the dynamical
apparent horizon itself, we prove that the laws of thermodynamics are independent of the specific interaction term and dependent of the selected Kaluza-Klein model. Finally, some limiting conditions and their implications have
been presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1606.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-06 18:20:22*

**Authors:** Misam Abidi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This Theory sheds light on a fundamental misunderstanding of the "states of the universe" what they are and what factors define them. This correction not only fixes the mathematical misunderstandings of infinities, it also signals toward splendid implications of these findings that I will be expressing in more detail in the next postings.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1606.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-06 10:25:07*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: We have associated central spiral galaxies as galactic locations where -H dark matter annihilates and -Z dark matter doubles, producing a net energy change of H-Z plus -H-Z. This is normal annihilating action and produces 2 gamma rays of 34 GEV each. We identify the central black hole with annihilation and the bar with double -Z production.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1606.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-03 00:26:00*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal

According to standard cosmology, neutrinos should be the most abundant particles in the Universe, after CMB photons. The CMB neutrino is the oldest relic, present since BBN era. However, in the past 5 decades or so, attempts to directly detect Cosmic Neutrino Background have never been succeeded. Taking into considerations two other findings in recent years: (a) Earth Microwave Background by P-M. Robitaille, and (b) theories which suggest that cosmic singularity can be removed; then I submit the following hypothesis: Direct detection of Cosmic Neutrino Background is impossible because there is no such thing as Cosmic Singularity. In other words, we come to conclusion that Big Bang Standard Cosmology fails completely.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1606.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-17 05:49:27*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Extended author's paper published at Journal of Physical Mathematics 2016, Vol 7 Iss 4

In this paper, which is author’s extended published paper [32], the substance of gravity and inertial forces is debunked. The substance of mass is recovered. The nature of time in physics is revealed. The reality of the double-slit experiment is revealed. This paper shows that Quarks and Higgs boson hardly exist. This paper documents that, for past four hundred years, there is no distinguished physicist who would not have recognized the existence of the ether. It shows that filling the space of the Universe with swirl-ing ether is all that is needed for the self-evolution of the Universe. It further provides an overview of the opposition of the physicists against the mainstream physical image of the world for the past hundred years. And finally, it documents the basic historical, philosophical and physical reasons for denial of the main physical theories of the 20th century.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1606.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-01 10:30:59*

**Authors:** Mahgoub Salih

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We generalized equivalence principle to connect between the field and its conjugate to find one single equation governed many equations in physics like Maxwell equations, Newton law, special and general relativity, schrodinger equation Klien Gordan equation, Dirac equation, mass energy equivalence,De Brogly relation and photo electric effect. It can be tested in many fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1606.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-01 03:00:17*

**Authors:** Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Math. Comput. Appl. 21 (2016) 21; doi:10.3390/mca21020021

The search of a logical quantum gravity theory is one of the noteworthy issues in modern
theoretical physics. It is known that most of the quantum gravity theories describe our universe as a dimensional flow. From this point of view, one can investigate whether and how these attractive properties are related with the ultraviolet-divergence problem. These important points motivated us to discuss the reconstruction of a scalar field problem in the fractal theory which is a well-known
quantum theory of gravity. Making use of time-like fractal model and considering the holographic description of galactic dark energy, we implement a correspondence between the tachyon model of galactic dark energy effect and holographic energy. Such a connection gives us an opportunity to
redefine the fractal dynamics of selected scalar field representation by considering the time-evolution of holographic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology