[21] **viXra:1607.0560 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-10 13:53:26*

**Authors:** Yuri Heymann

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The universe is characterized by large concentrations of energy contained in small, dense areas such as galaxies, which radiate energy towards the surrounding space. However, no current theory balances the loss of energy of galaxies, a requirement for a conservative universe. This study is an investigation of the physics nature might use to maintain the energy diﬀerential between its dense parts and the vacuum. We propose time contraction as a principle to maintain this energy diﬀerential. Time contraction has the following eﬀects: photons lose energy, while masses gain potential energy and lose kinetic energy. From the virial theorem, which applies to a system of bodies, we ﬁnd that the net energy resulting from the gain in potential energy and the loss in kinetic energy remains unchanged, meaning that the orbitals of stars in galaxies remain unaﬀected by time contraction. However, each object in a galaxy has an internal potential energy leading to a surplus of energy within the object. This internal energy surplus should balance with the energy radiated at the level of a galaxy. We illustrate this principle with a calculation of the energy balance of the Milky Way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1607.0553 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-30 04:27:11*

**Authors:** 蒋春暄

**Comments:** 10 Pages. it is a very important paper

用时空环建立新时空理论

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1607.0537 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-29 06:14:35*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 10 Pages. it is a very important paper

using space-time ring we establish the new space-time theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1607.0535 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-28 09:55:35*

**Authors:** A. Jaster

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We take an idea of Mach and postulate an absolute frame of reference, i.e. there is a state of absolute rest and motions of inertial frames of reference relative to the absolute frame can be measured.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1607.0474 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-25 05:57:48*

Двигатель космолёта на эффекте гравитационного самоускорения

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages. rus

The limited speed of propagation of gravitation leads to a relativistic effect of self-acceleration. The long object increases the speed of its movement without the application of external force to it, so-called, unsupported motion.

Считается, что для разгона космического корабля до больших, вплоть до субсветовых скоростей, необходимы значительные запасы топлива. Однако ограниченность скорости распространения гравитации приводит к возникновению релятивистского эффекта гравитационного самоускорения, когда протяженный объект увеличивает скорость своего движения без приложения к нему внешней силы, так называемое, безопорное движение. И напротив, гравитационное ускорение становится невозможным, если скорость распространения гравитации бесконечна.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1607.0449 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-02 10:30:02*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 166 Pages. This book is published in free pdf version only.

I am a fan of The Matrix Trilogy movies. And this book is inspired in part by that movie. But not only that, I am also inspired by a book written by Chris Seay, with title: The Gospel Reloaded. It is full of new thought provoking ideas based on The Matrix. The basic idea of this book is that it is possible to develop a new cosmology model inspired by Cosmic Christology. In other words, Christology is not a separate matter from science. From Christology as starting point, I began to develop various approaches based on wave physics, which I call: “fractal vibrating string.” Through this new cosmology model, I wish to offer a new path for dialogue between science and theology. Moreover, it offers a new and fresh approach to understand the bible in this modern age. I sincerely hope that you will like this new path, as I like it very much.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1607.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-22 15:26:31*

**Authors:** Randy Sorokowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Gravitational Coupling Constant maybe a universal scaling factor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1607.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-18 16:48:12*

**Authors:** G.N.N Martin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Explanations of the special theory of relativity usually start from an assumption that the speed of light is a constant for all observers, and use that to work out the Lorentz transform. I show that it is not necessary to make any assumption about the speed of light. This is useful because that assumption sometimes misleads people. If they have difficulty accepting the predictions of the special theory, they are tempted to doubt that the speed of light is always constant, and to conclude that we just haven’t tried hard enough to find the exceptions. And if we assume that the theory of relativity depends on the constancy of the speed of light, then it invites speculation about what would happen if the speed of light changed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1607.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-13 02:40:15*

**Authors:** Omar Shabsigh

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

This article discusses the validity of Einstein’s relativity theory. All assumptions of Einstein and his mathematics (where it exists) will be reviewed. Experiments done to show the validity will be restudied then we shall show that special relativity is only theoretically correct under the constraints and conditions made by Einstein but has no practical or scientific value. We shall also show that general relativity is basically wrong and has no scientific foundation and no proof.
Therefore, all relativity theory of Einstein’s, can be righteously considered as a science fiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1607.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-12 09:42:09*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover new solution in gravity field by Einstein’s gravity field equation with cosmological constant term. We treats curvature tensor in new solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1607.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-14 06:04:38*

**Authors:** Mutasim A. Ahmed

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We propose here a totally new mechanism for thrust production, to explain the working of the two reaction-less drives. Namely the EmDrive invented by Roger Shawyer, and the Cannae drive invented by Guido Fetta. The explanation based on a hypothesized directional change of center of mass of the drive, due to the increase in the mass of the dielectric resonator attached to one of the two ends of the drive. This increase in mass is due to the increase in energy in the form of concentrated resonating microwave photons. This energy is in principle and according to special theory of relativity is equivalent to a certain mass, using the famous mass energy relation. This energy is contained inside the dielectric and can be absorbed by the dielectric atoms, and can be added to the rest energy of the dielectric and manifest as a kinetic energy. This conversion of microwaves energy to kinetic energy will restore the original position of center of mass, in a new inertial frame of reference.
We assumed that the combined effect of the change of center of mass, and the conversion of the microwave energy to kinetic energy, is equivalent to the effect of a genuine pull exerted by an external force in the direction of center of mass change. And by a continuous addition of microwaves to the dielectric resonator the process will be repeated again and again. And according to the equivalence of inertial frames dictated by special relativity, the system will be accelerating. And a true reaction-less thrust will ensue. This thrust as we will show is in perfect agreement with the special theory of relativity.
We showed that the Serrano Field Effect Thruster works on the same mechanism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1607.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-16 14:54:34*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, it is established that Einstein’s interpretation of the Lorentz transformation in predicting the length contraction is based on invalid assumption with respect to the reference frame in which the simultaneity of events needs to be considered. It is shown that the correct assumption would lead, within the special relativity framework, to contradictory length expansion through the same Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1607.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-10 08:52:39*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper will present a new theory for what we call “Dark Energy” by explaining it as a form of kinetic energy. It will be presented within General Relativity where we will use new terms and explain them in detail. Some of the new terms that will be presented also fall under Quantum Mechanics. It will be explained in detail how and why dark energy comes to be and why it is now dominant in the Universe which will explain the observational evidence that has been attained on this subject and has so far been rather puzzling to scientists when it comes to the very nature of “Dark Energy”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1607.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-10 10:20:53*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 8 Pages. History of the submissions is presented

The well known calculation of the total mass-energy for the gravitation field of a liquid sphere plus the matter of this sphere, which uses the pseudo-tensor of gravitational energy and momentum, is mistaken. The correct calculation shows that the pseudo-tensor provides a positive contribution to the total mass-energy. So, the pseudo-tensor is pointless

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1607.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-05 22:44:54*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: My recent publication viXra 1606.0057 indicates that spiral galaxy ""Bars" signal a doubling of negative Z dark matter in the galaxy and this means the galactic occurrence of "mono-Z" particles, a dark matter type of weak material characterized by nothing to balance its momentum in the transverse plane of the detector.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1607.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-16 10:39:19*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Time comes into being if two different three-dimensional spaces meet. This is the definition of time in the space-matter theory. Two different three-dimensional spaces exist if their elements have actions at different scales. The actions have their minimum and maximum values in the given dimensions which cannot be changed without loosing the given dimension. Space can be converted into matter and matter can be converted into space, but space and matter have two different ranges of actions. Time is the meeting point of space and matter. The space-matter model allows us to find the common root of space, matter and time. In space-matter model matter causes space waves. Solely through the use of space waves, we can express spatial distance, time and energy. It is possible to express all these phenomena in eVolt, so meter can be converted into second or into kg and vice versa.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1607.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-05 08:39:20*

**Authors:** Todd Sicklinger

**Comments:** Pages.

In his book, “Einstein's Legacy”, Julian Schwinger explained that gravitational redshift is really the blue shift of the massive object that absorbs the photon. Photons do not change energy when moving in a gravity well, but massive objects do change their energy, size, speed, and mass when moving in a gravity well. Likewise velocity redshift can only be adjusted by adjusting the speed of the massive objects. If we extend this concept to galactic redshift and postulate that the apparent redshift of the photon is really a blue shift of the absorbing atom, then it implies that photon energies never change after a photon is emitted and it implies that all massive objects in the universe are getting smaller, getting a faster rate of time, and acquiring additional energy as a function of time. It is proposed that the universe can be modeled as a 4D elastic shell similar to a balloon, where the shell is comprised of energy density and where the surface forms our normal 3D coordinates. When the Universe contracts the galaxies and stars in the universe would contract in a manner similar to what they would if they were drawn on the balloon. This model indicates that the energy for contracting the objects in the Universe comes from the elasticity of space, which gets relaxed as the Universe contracts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1607.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-05 06:16:20*

**Authors:** Vadim N. Matvejev, Oleg V. Matvejev

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The article discusses the results of photographing using a stationary or moving at relativistic speed camera - obscura.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1607.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-04 16:34:41*

**Authors:** Brett A Collins

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Using the Time Dilation equation, Length Contraction equation and Mass Increase equation, all derived within Special Relativity. With a simple substitution I convert the time dilation equation to a Pythagorean equation showing the observed time consists of two time components and I convert the length contraction equation to a Pythagorean equation showing the total length of a moving object has two length components. These new forms of the time dilation and length contraction equations strongly indicate the presence of a new Time Dimension and a new Space Dimension. The additional Time dimension explains exactly what time dilation is and together with the Mass Increase equation I introduce the concept of a Newtonian velocity, which is an alternative velocity of a moving object. I propose the mass of the moving object does not change, because we are in fact measuring momentum with the wrong velocity. The additional Space dimension in fact means length
contraction does not occur because we are seeing the object at an angle within a four
dimensional space, which means it looks shorter when viewed in three space dimensions only. These changes mean Special relativity IS compatible with Quantum Gravity and Doubly-Special Relativity is not required.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1607.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-29 04:50:21*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Space waves. Mass (matter) changes the wavelengths of space waves. Gravity is the difference of wavelengths of space waves caused by masses. This definition of space-matter theory uncovers a new characteristic of mass and space; masses accelerate the Universe. Note space-matter theory has been worked out to describe the force of thought. Thought force seems to be far from gravity. No, it isn't. Thought force and gravity have common roots. The working method of gravity is a multidisciplinary phenomenon. The new definition of gravity is a new and important additional result of space-matter theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1607.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-25 03:02:41*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: put forward a new explanation of the essence of gravitational lens effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology