[35] **viXra:1801.0422 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-14 01:01:40*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This article is suggesting that dark energy, dark matter and universal expansion are intimately related. However, they aren't viewed as revolutions in cosmology which are essential to a complete understanding of the modern universe. They are instead viewed as properties which need to be added to the cosmos when Einstein's theory of gravity (General Relativity) is apparently still not thoroughly comprehended a little over a century after it was published. If General Relativity truly does eliminate Dark Energy and Dark Matter plus Universal Expansion, then its treatment of gravitation as a push must necessarily be reflected in every encounter with gravity. The author has developed possible solutions (hypotheses) about this in the second section - which has topics ranging from M-sigma through geysers on Saturn's moon Enceladus and the Law of Falling Bodies to planetary magnetism and tides. The first part proposes that acceptance of gravity as a push could delete the ideas of cosmic expansion, dark energy and dark matter.
Science admires General Relativity. However, respect for tradition seems to prevent science from embracing Einstein's theory completely. General Relativity says gravity is a push exerted by the curvature of space-time. But the world still holds to the Newtonian view that gravity is a pull. Since Isaac Newton's mathematics works so well, it's understandable that his gravitational pull is accepted. It's time to explore ways in which gravitation as a push could produce identical physical results. The second part of this article proposes hypotheses – not formal theories – to this end. The first part proposes that acceptance of gravity as a push could delete the ideas of cosmic expansion, dark energy and dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1801.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 07:20:18*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Famous dissident physicist, Bill Gaede, has a unique theory as to the nature of light. He postulates that light consists of electromagnetic “ropes” where electric and magnetic “threads” intertwine to connect all atoms in the universe. This is akin to a concept I have entertained that the “aether,” if it exists, can be viewed as standing waves making similar connections. Such “waves” may consist of contiguous “aether particles,” each the size of the electron or smaller (neutrino?). At least on a cursory level, it appears that these two independent concepts may be consistent with light speed being constant with respect to its source, but variable with respect to an observer when the observer or the source (or both) are in motion. Of course, in the presence of an all-pervading aether whose perturbation constitutes light itself and limits its speed to c, this variation in light speed would not occur, but would be manifest instead as Doppler shifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1801.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-01 10:22:54*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-7 and Russian, pages 8-15

in the paper a number of existent solutions of the twin paradox are considered. It is shown,
that any solutions aren’t and cannot be principally the solutions, if they are in accordance with the
special relativity theory; the unique correct solution is possible only provided that Matter’s spacetime
is absolute, when in this case the paradox simply doesn’t appear. The file contains two versions of the
paper: English, pages 1-7 and Russian, pages 8-15

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1801.0372 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-15 06:57:26*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Binary Star Systems

All relevant experiments that disagree with static or entrained ether and led to the historical breakthrough of Special Relativity will be revised from the scratch. It will be shown that an alternative assumption, that simply gravity itself is the “luminiferous ether”, is able to explain all the notorious phenomena, if rotational effects are properly interpreted. Invariance of light speed, time dilation and Lorentz contraction will become obsolete. Focus is laid on the most problematic classic subjects as there are: Michelson/Morley experiment, Sagnac effect and Michelson/Gale/Pearson experiment, stellar and terrestrial aberration as well as anomaly of Mercury orbit shift. A series of fateful and fundamental misinterpretations will be disclosed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1801.0338 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-30 02:53:59*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity ( STR ) provides a formula for the Doppler effect of light that differs from conventional formulas based on ether theory and emission theory. The relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined for source-observer relative velocities greater than the speed of light. Since STR asserts that no ( relative ) velocity can ever reach or exceed the speed of light, this has never been seen as a problem. However, it will be shown in this paper that relative velocities greater than the speed of light can be attained even within the framework of STR, i.e. without violating the universal light speed limit. Imagine a light source and an observer at rest relative to each other and located close to each other. Light emitted by the source travels to a distant mirror and reflects back to the observer, while the mirror is moving towards the observer and the source with velocity equal to ( close to ) the speed of light. In this case the relative velocity between the mirror image of the source and the observer is equal to twice the speed of light, 2c. Since it is the relative velocity of the mirror image of the source and the observer that determines the Doppler effect, which is equal to 2c in this case, the relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined because β = V/c = 2c/c = 2, which is greater than 1, resulting in a square root of negative number in the relativistic Doppler effect formula. This disproves relativistic Doppler effect, and hence the Special Theory of Relativity. According to STR the usual analysis is that the mirror image of the source never attains the speed of light because of the relativistic velocity addition formula. Since STR has been disproved logically, experimentally and theoretically, this assertion is not valid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1801.0330 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-02 19:57:38*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Minor revisions to Figure 2 and various wording improvements.

After the physicality of existence, gravity's role in the Universe is the most fundamental thing. This role has various manifestations which, it is argued, have been largely misinterpreted by modern physics. An alternative conception of gravity---one that agrees with firmly established empirical evidence---is most compactly characterized by its definition of Newton's constant in terms of other fundamental constants. This expression and supporting arguments largely fulfill the long-standing goal of unifying gravity with the other forces. Phenomena spanning atomic nuclei to the large-scale cosmos and the basic physical elements, mass, space, and time, are thereby seen as comprising an interdependent (unified) whole. Meanwhile, a virtual industry of fanciful, far-from-fundamental mathematical distractions clog up the literature of what is still called fundamental physics. By contrast with this dubious activity---most importantly---the new conception is empirically testable. The test would involve probing gravity where it has not yet been probed: inside (through the center) of every body of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1801.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 16:39:02*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Time in an inertial reference frame can be obtained from the definition of velocity
in that inertial reference frame.
Velocity depends on coordinate and time. Therefore, coordinate transformation and
velocity transformation between inertial reference frames can lead to
time transformation.
Based on this approach, the time transformation between two arbitrary inertial
reference frames in one dimensional space is derived. The result shows that the
elapsed time is identical in all inertial reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1801.0308 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-16 03:13:37*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This author has already proposed a new theory, Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), that can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect, the Silvertooth experiment, the Roland De Witte experiment, the Venus planet radar range data anomaly ( analyzed and reported by Bryan G Wallace ) and other experiments. According to AST, there will be an apparent change in position of a light source as seen by the observer, for absolutely co-moving source and observer. The 'null' result of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) is explained as follows. The effect of absolute motion is just to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the detector. There will be no (significant) fringe shift in the MMX for the same reason that there will be no (significant) fringe shift if the source position was actually, physically shifted slightly. The fringe shift in Sagnac effect is explained as follows. The source will be apparently shifted away relative to the detector when looking in the backward direction and shifted towards the detector when looking in the forward direction, hence creating a path difference. Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light' ) is re-interpreted and used as one of the foundational arguments in this paper. The new interpretation is that it is the phase velocity of light that is always constant irrespective of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source (absolute) velocity but depends on observer and mirror velocity. For an observer moving near the speed of light away from a light source, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light while the group will be at rest relative to the observer. A contradiction between Apparent Source Theory and the phenomenon of stellar aberration has been found. The contradiction if found to be due to a conflict between conventional stellar aberration theory and the unconventional nature of Apparent Source Theory and hence is only an apparent contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1801.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 06:14:40*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In the brochure (in Russian) "Memoir on the Theory of Relativity and Unified Field Theory" (2000)it is shown that the generally accepted Lorentz transformations have an erroneous form: they lack a scale factor (therefore the whole SRT is incorrect). It is well known, that at first Lorentz considered a more general form of transformations (with a scale factor), but then he, and after him, Poincare and Einstein equated it 1 without due cause. We have revealed the physical meaning of the scale factor -- it characterizes the Doppler effect.
A new kind of transformations (with Doppler factor) immediately removes paradox of twins and Ehrenfest's paradox. The interval is no longer an invariant -- only the condition that the interval is zero rests invariant. As a consequence, we get that the laws of nature are scale invariants.
In GR there will be a grandiose simplification: the gravitational equation will be reduced to the d'Alembert equation. It seems that the way to the construction of a unified field theory is opening

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1801.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-20 14:20:30*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article section 1 and 2 of Einstein’s article about his Special Theory of Relativity have been scrutinized. The conclusion is that Einstein spent a lot of text on the concepts simultaneousness, synchronousness and time, without bringing forth any relevant information. Besides that he made two fundamental mistakes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1801.0255 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-24 06:00:36*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A new conception of relativism is offered, providing a breakthrough development of physics in the new millenium. This new conception is based upon new relativistic space-time theory, founded only on the single relativity principle of Galileo, stating that condition of translational straightforward motion is completely equivalent to the condition of resting, and the Einstein’s second principle is cut-off by Occams sickle as superfluous. A theorem is proven, that is a consequence from the relativity principle, that units of time measurements by clocks of identical design, that are moving each with respect the other uniformly and rectilinearly, are absolutely preciously equal each with other. Its proof is founded on a newly introduced concept “light speed in vacuum of a moving inertial reference frame”. The proven equality of time measurement units for light clocks of identical design, moving each with respect the other uniformly and rectilinearly, transforms Einstein’s theorem about retardation of moving clock with respect to a stationary clock into an antiscientific statement. A transformation is offered for events space-time coordinates from one inertial reference frame to another with noninvariant speed of light. It is proven that in the new space-time theory the causality principle does not forbid motion with superlight speed, mass of moving particles and bodies does not depend but their electrical charge does depend upon their speed of motion. The new conception of relativism offers absolutely new explanation to causes of supernovas and pulsars light flashes, to red shift of far stars spectrums, to microwave background radiation and to Olbers’ paradox. Such explanation results in refusal from Big Bang hypothesis, from accelerated expansion of the Universe, from «dark matter» and from «dark energy». In the new conception of relativism the experiments of 1938 year with cosmic ray particles are explained with superlight speeds and dependence of charge upon speed, but not with existence of particles with masses intermediate between the masses of protons and electrons. In this conception the “neutrino” is excluded from the assembly of particles existing in the Nature

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-24 20:06:20*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Sarkar, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

This article presents a new theory or at least interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.This theory postulates that :

** Postulate 1:** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c.

** Postulate 2:** Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rub into each other.

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron (i.e. its **zitterbewegung** interpretation) indicates that the speed in the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then transitioning between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time. An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal configuration, and therefore does not contribute to its measurable time.

If an observer races against a photon, the photon will always
lead ahead with a relative speed of c because light advances with respect to the observer only for the duration of the observer's intrinsic motion, i.e. for the full duration of its measurable time. During spatial motion, the observer moves at
the same speed as the photon. Consequently the observed relative speed of light - i.e. the spatial advance of light divided by the measurable time is always c. Thus in the limited sense of racing a photon, constancy of its measured speed is a deduced result here. The broader question of relative velocity of an observer with respect to a photon or a light wave-front is clarified in section 5

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1801.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 09:37:19*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this theory I have described the electricity force as a gravitational force.
For read this article is necessary consulting
Vixra 1711.0299, 1711.0362 Author: Piscedda Giampaolo

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1801.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 06:20:20*

**Authors:** Giacomo Roccaforte

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The “Absolute Time Theory” is the natural result of the analysis of specific situations that the Special Theory of Relativity does not take in consideration, or for which it does not provided information about them.
These situations are listed as critical points, scenarios that would lead to ambiguous, contradictory or unexplained conclusions, using the same principles as the theory itself.
Using the same experimental data as the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, and which are normally used to confirm the theory itself, we comes to a solution where these critical points would be eliminated.
We then come to a theory where the results would be unambiguous, not dependent by arbitrary choice, in line with data experiences and established theory principles, such as the constancy of the speed of light and its independence from the motion of the source , means the same elements that are in Special Theory of Relativity, but interpreted in a different way.
The entire theory is now divided into chapters and translate in English in order to be more clear and readable.
Each chapter can be a theory itself or unexplained scenario, all of them with their conclusion, till to arrive to the final conclusion that means the final theory.
The following first chapter is the analysis of the same experimental data used for the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, the Michelson/Morley experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1801.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 11:08:58*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: A revised and improved forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1801.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 02:55:26*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Space gravity look more in line with early thougts of Newton.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1801.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-23 19:48:55*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The x-direction Galilean and Lorentz space-time transformations are both effectively two-dimensional matrix transformations, so a simple four-parameter general framework of which both are special cases is easily devised. Moreover, passing from the general space-time transformation to its velocity counterpart uniquely singles out one of those four parameters as the general transformation's intrinsic x-direction constant velocity. This allows the "principle of relativity" to be extended to such general transformations; it applies when the transformation's inversion is accomplished by reversing the sign of its intrinsic velocity. Both the Galilean and Lorentz transformations abide by the "principle of relativity", and the Galilean transformation in addition refrains from altering the time coordinate. The Michelson-Morley null result, however, motivates the Lorentz transformation to refrain from changing the speed of light, which is readily shown to be outright incompatible with transformation-invariant time. The Lorentz transformation's pairing of invariant light speed with the "relativity principle" is closely allied to its
preservation of the Minkowski quadratic form.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1801.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 12:02:30*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article presents a new interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.
This theory postulates that :

** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c **

**
Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rubs into each other.
**

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron already shows that the spatial speed of intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then time-sharing between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time.
An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal state, and therefore does not contribute to measurable time.

Speed of light is constant regardless of the speed of the observer because light advances with respect the observer only for the duration of its intrinsic motion (i.e. during the relativistic time). During spatial motion, the observer moves with the light. Consequently the spatial advance of light divided by the relativistic time (i.e. the observed relative speed) is always c. Hence constancy of speed of light, which is a postulate for Einstein's relativity, is a deduced result here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1801.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 06:26:44*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The explanation of Michelson-Morley experiment is based on both actual and apparent reduction (equal) of light speed. The actual reduction of light speed happens only when the light is transmitted on moving material systems, on which the cohesive pressure of the proximal space is reduced. The apparent reduction of
light speed happens due to the aberration of light, which can be used as a detection criterion of the absolute motion. Lorentz factor of special relativity is the tool for the mathematical expression of the problem that had arisen from the Michelson-Morley
experiment. Of course, the time dilation was an ingenious and pioneering idea, which
has been accepted, ignoring, though, the real cause of the slowing of the moving clock,
i.e. the phenomenon of motion. However, this same reduction factor appears as
well in the unified theory of dynamic space with the Galilean transformations, by
calculating the actual reduction of the light speed on moving material systems, not
based on the second postulate of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1801.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 12:13:07*

**Authors:** Lex Neale

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Integral Relativity, as an extension of General Relativity, Special Relativity and Advanced Relativity, has four proposed Tenets: (1) The Equation of Energy with Awareness; (2) The Conservation of Awareness; (3) The Continuum of Energy, Consciousness, Mind and Matter via the Kosmic Constant; (4) The Integral Relativity between Observers and the Observed in Hilbert Spaces as specified Frequency Domains. It is corroborated by the Observer Effect in all the related double slit and interferometer experiments, most notably those of Dean Radin’s Sigma 5.7 rated results (2016); by the Unified Spacememory Network, modeled by Nassim Haramein and William Brown (2016); by Elizabeth Rauscher’s Complex Eight Dimensional Model of Minkowsky Space; and is modeled by an extension of Ken Wilber’s All Quadrants, All Levels (AQAL) Integral model called the “AQAL Cube” (Neale, 2011), which correlates non- physical existence with physical existence.
Integral Relativity predicts that the Observer and observed are a mutually inclusive Consciousness/Mind/Energy/Matter continuum. We propose that the terms Consciousness and Mind be no longer used synonymously in the scientific community, but differentiated as an integral Awareness/Energy continuum between Hilbert Spaces, where Consciousness is non-local or Subtle awareness, and Mind is its correlated local or Concrete awareness and means of en-action.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1801.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 17:26:03*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 16 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Russian).

Широко распространено мнение, что эксперименты Майкельсона-Морли с 1887 года и эксперимент Кеннеди-Торндайка с 1932 года показали, что нет универсальной системы отсчета (эфир) и что скорость света в вакууме абсолютно постоянна. Анализ этих экспериментов привел к созданию Специальной Теории Относительности (СТО).
В статье объясняется, почему с помощью экспериментов Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка не могла быть обнаружена универсальная система отсчета.
Кроме того, в этой статье мы выводим на основе геометрического анализа экспериментов Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка другое преобразование координат и времени, чем преобразование Лоренца. Мы выводим преобразование, предполагая, что существует универсальная система отсчета (universal frame of reference - UFR, эфир). UFR является системой отсчета, которая отличается тем, что скорость света в ней постоянна в любом направлении. В инерциальных системах отсчета, движущихся относительно UFR, скорость света может быть разной.
В статье мы получаем формулу для относительной скорости и формулы для максимальной и минимальной скорости света, которая может быть измерена в инерциальной системе. В конце, используя представленную теорию, объясняется явление анизотропии микроволнового фонового излучения. Согласно модели кинематики тел, представленной в этой статье, аберрация микроволнового фонового излучения для наблюдателя, движущегося относительно UFR, обусловлена эффектом Доплера.
Вся статья содержит только оригинальные исследования авторов публикации.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1801.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 17:34:44*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed. (in Russian)

В статье представлен наш новаторский метод вывода многочисленных динамик в Специальной Теории Относительности. Этот метод позволяет выводить бесконечно много динамик в релятивистской механике. Мы показали пять примеров таких выводов. Таким образом, мы доказали, что динамика, известная сегодня как динамика Специальной Теории Относительности, является только одной из бесконечно многих возможных. Также нет никаких оснований, ни по экспериментальным, ни по теоретическим причинам, чтобы считать эту, действующую релятивистскую динамику, исключительной. В связи с этим решение, какая из возможных динамик релятивистской механики является правильной, остаётся открытой проблемой физики.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1801.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-24 06:29:31*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 3 pages, 1 figure

Dark energy, a mysterious and unknown form of energy is rightfully considered as the reason for causing the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Universe expanding at an accelerated rate instead of slowing down or even coming to a stop seems extremely uncanny. In this paper I present a theory/model as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the mysterious accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this theory/model, the large-scale structures are receding away from each other at an accelerated rate instead of space undergoing accelerated expansion. The reason why a large-scale structure recedes into the cosmic wilderness has also been unravelled in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1801.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 22:19:15*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract
Newton’s Bucket has been an enigma since being published in the Principia in 1687.
It was the source of debate between Newton’s absolute space and Ernst Mach’s concept of relative rotation with respect to distant objects.
Wikipedia’s rendition of the Bucket argument provides no solution but just confusion by ignoring some basic facts which will be pointed out in the detailed edits below.
•Relativity is assumed true instead of being proven true
•Kinematics and dynamics are not distinguished
•Arguing against discarded theories is pointless
•Switching reference frames during observations is fatal
•Missing the crucial role of the lab frame
•Fictitious forces are symbols of fictitious physics.
The key is to recognize that:
water at rest in the bucket frame => no rotation => no centrifugal force => no covariance => laws of dynamics are invalid in a non-lab frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1801.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 13:03:11*

**Authors:** Jorge Martinez Fernandez

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to present a new
cosmological model, based on the union of the Wilhelm
De Sitter Model applying the equations of the Russian
physicist Anatoli Logunov in the Relativistic Theory of
Gravitation (TRG).
The general ideas of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation
(GRT) are based on the ideas of Poincaré, Minkowski,
Einstein and Hilbert, all within the framework of Special
Relativity (SR).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1801.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-24 03:26:13*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A moving object in one inertial reference frame always moves at a different speed in another
inertial reference frame. To determine this different speed, a temporary acceleration
is applied to a duplicate of the first inertial reference frame in order to match
the second inertial reference frame. The velocity transformation between two inertial
reference frames is precisely derived based on the applied acceleration. The result shows that
velocity transformation depends solely on the relative motion between inertial
reference frames. Velocity transformation is independent of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1801.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 12:04:26*

**Authors:** Sergio Garcia Chimeno

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Comments welcome

Demonstration how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations without using the Stress-Energy Tensor, without using the Bianchi Identities and without using the Energy Conservation to obtain it.
Demonstration how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations only using the Gauss Curvature and the zoom universe model characteristics.
Gravity in zoom universe model.
Sphere and Hypersphere example to understand it better.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1801.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-26 14:16:27*

**Authors:** Peter C Morris

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 12 figures. Some fixes and improvments

We have obtained new evidence for dynamical space by applying correlation analysis to a year of data from a Random Event Generator (REG) device located in Perth, Australia and from another in Muenster, Germany, recorded between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. The results obtained are consistent with results obtained earlier by applying the same analysis to data obtained from a REG located in Manchester UK and the REG in Perth. Consequently evidence for dynamical space is mounting.
For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by ﬁtting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination and speed for the waves of each day.
A probability density plot of the incoming directions exhibited a peak near RA = 4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations by Reginald Cahill and Dayton Miller. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inﬂow velocities from the observed velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with predictions of Dynamical 3-Space theory. The peak indicated a most probable average galactic space ﬂow direction of RA = 4.50 h, dec = −80.6 deg. Probability density plots of incoming speeds for this direction indicated a space ﬂow speed of 504 km/s. We explain an oversight which previously resulted in a smaller value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1801.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 20:47:43*

**Authors:** Hanna Edwards

**Comments:** Pages. Formal publication (Results in Physics, 2017): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2017.09.053 ; Audio-slides: https://youtu.be/mFgYrEj28Es

The present manuscript aims to clarify why motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable sense, and how this relates to relativistic effects caused by motion. A fresh analysis of motion, build on first axiom, delivers proof with its result, from which significant new understanding and computational power is gained.
A review of experimental results demonstrates, that unaccelerated motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable, observer independent sense. Whilst focusing on this absolute effect, the present manuscript clarifies its context to relativistic effects, detailing their relationship and incorporating both into one consistent picture. The presented theoretical results make new predictions and are testable through suggested experiment of a novel nature. The manuscript finally arrives at an experimental tool and methodology, which as far as motion in ungravitated space is concerned or gravity appreciated, enables us to find the absolute observer independent picture of reality, which is reflected in the comparable display of atomic clocks.
The discussion of the theoretical results, derives a physical causal understanding of gravity, a mathematical formulation of which, will be presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1801.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 04:47:03*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 87 Pages.

About Time and Relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1801.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-04 11:44:23*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

This consciousness theory of everything (TOE) also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory.
Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum rigid stringy fully entangled particles.
Each particle is supposed to be entangled with 8 or 12 CP symmetric particles located inside 8 or 12 universal bubbles at long distance.
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic big bang nucleus as the creation of a limited symmetrical multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity (CP) mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1801.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 12:24:50*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Lorentz transformations rotate the vectors of the electric and magnetic fields referring
to the current position of the source. But there is no physical basis for this.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1801.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-01 18:49:13*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, I’ll propose an exact solution for the Pioneer anomaly and the flyby
anomaly. My solution interprets inertia from an asymmetric Casimir effect, and it
interprets why inertial is related to Unruh effect and a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. My
solution of the Pioneer anomaly and the flyby anomaly is depending on my new
transformation and my equivalence principle. According to my transformation, the
reality is observer dependent as a result of translating the retardation according to the
invariance by the entanglement which is leading to the wave-particle duality and the
uncertainty principle by the vacuum fluctuation. In this case by translating the
retardation according to my transformation, it is resulted the relativistic ether as
observer dependent, and thus in this case the reality in my transformation is observer
dependent. This relativistic ether is not classical, but it is depending on the energy of
the vacuum by translating the retardation according to my transformation. My
transformation expresses about field by the vacuum fluctuation, and that explains also
why field is observer dependent, and that explains also why Unruh effect is observer
dependent.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1801.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 00:38:54*

**Authors:** Dan Ivan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Distances are the result of sensory perception. Physics is based on images created by us through observation and transmitted for mathematical or experimental confirmations. In modern physics and cosmology, what could not be noticed, being below or above the limit of observation of our instruments, are simple hypotheses that mathematical sciences have to confirm. We evaluate the cosmic space in terms of objects, bodies and particles, dividing the universe into the macrocosm and microcosm and establishing absolute results for relative distances, which is illogical.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1801.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-01 11:37:54*

**Authors:** A.Hughmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages

Abstract We previously demonstrated that it is possible to describe the Gravitational Constant in terms of a simple mathematical function and in this paper we examine the first order consequences of that fact. We demonstrate that we can successfully model gravitational acceleration, escape velocity and the Schwarzchild radius without employing the Gravitational Constant or indeed any requirement for an external force. We conclude that Gravity is entirely an effect of the presence of mass, and that the applicable quantity of Gravity is directly proportional to both the quantity and density of local mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology