[42] **viXra:1303.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-04 07:28:55*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Using the Oblique-Length Contraction Factor, which is a generalization of Lorentz Contraction
Factor, one shows several trigonometric relations between distorted and original
angles of a moving object lengths in the Special Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1303.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-17 20:12:06*

**Authors:** Michael J. Burns

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is verifiable by inspection of the geometry of gravitational fields that have been constructed expressly to behave as electromagnetic fields and their sources would. This geometry consists of a field of red partitions and a field of blue partitions that are orthogonal everywhere. These red and blue partitions are derived in my paper, “Draw the Metric!”. The sources for the two Kaluza-Klein component fields are two dilation horizons, that are at Cartesian right angles to each other (in a diagram including the ct axis), and both almost at light speed in opposite directions. These sources are conserved by the Bianchi identities, that apply to them as a matter of definition. The orientation of the source of the field of blue partitions is necessarily slightly superluminal, and with the superluminal dilation horizon being almost parallel to the surface of the blue partitions. And the source horizon for the red partitions is slightly subluminal. Together these components present a small gravitational field to objects that are stationary in spacetime, but a very large magnitude of field is apparent to other Kaluza-Klein fields. Furthermore, in the presence of other Kaluza-Klein fields, the Kaluza-Klein fields and sources polarize in a push-me-pull-you manner so that the response of a Kaluza-Klein charge is far in excess of what external spacetime curvature justifies. Neglecting vacuum physics still allows a Kaluza-Klein emulation of an electron to be very close to Planck scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1303.0217 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-14 01:44:08*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Portuguese

We built the Virtual Special Relativity which is a generalization of Einstein's Special Relativity.Moreover, this theory predicts the expansion and contraction of the time, which is not provided by Einstein's Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1303.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-21 14:43:33*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 6 Pages. published in the Hadronic Journal, 36(2) 2013

This paper examines Einstein’s derivations of the mass-energy
relationship E=mc2 using the Lorentz transformations applied to a slowly
accelerating charge of mass m, and also applied to a moving system
emitting photons in opposite directions. In the first case, it is shown that
Einstein’s use of the transformations is inconsistent with the classical
definition of electrostatic force, F= qE, and that the expression given by
Einstein for the kinetic energy of the charge due to its motion relative to
the stationary system must be interpreted as a modification of the
classical electrostatic interaction. In the second case, it is shown that
Einstein’s conclusion does not follow from his example, and that the
Lorentz transformations give no information about the kinetic energy of
the excitation energy of a system due to its motion relative to a stationary
coordinate system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1303.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-29 19:48:06*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana, B.V.S.T. Sai

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

If light is coming from the atomic matter of the galaxy, then the observed redshift can be interpreted as an index of the galactic atomic matter ‘light emission mechanism’. Clearly speaking redshift may not be connected with ‘galaxy receding’. The proposed basic idea is - during cosmic evolution, as age of the hydrogen atom increases, emitted photon energy increases. If so current cosmological changes may be reflected in any existing atom. At any given cosmic time, Hubble length can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. By highlighting the six major shortcomings of modern cosmology, in this paper an attempt is made to verify the cosmic acceleration in a quantum mechanical approach. The four possible assumptions are : 1) Reduced Planck’s constant increases with cosmic time. 2) Being a primordial evolving black hole and Hubble’s constant being the angular velocity, universe is always rotating with light speed. 3) Atomic gravitational constant is squared Avogadro number times the classical gravitational constant and 4) Atomic gravitational constant or the classical gravitational constant shows discrete behavior. This may be the root cause of discrete nature of revolving electron’s angular momentum. With reference to the present atomic and nuclear physical constants, obtained Hubble’s constant is (67.88 to 71.75) km/sec/Mpc and is very close to the recommended value. This is a remarkable coincidence and seems to play a vital role in future unified physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1303.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-22 08:32:27*

**Authors:** Shreyak Chakraborty

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We formulate the origin of a spacetime from a naked singularity using
elementary set theory and modal logic. This leads to the proof of the
existence of statements/results which govern the initial state of any
universe originating from a ?big bang-like? event. We provide a qualitative
description of the dynamics and mechanism of spacetime formation.
We use certain assumptions and axioms which may be related to the
statements in G?del?s Ontological Proof [1.] and can be further used in the
FaTe Model of Hyperspace [2.]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1303.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-08 08:52:52*

**Authors:** V.V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In the №12 (2012) of journal Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk Professor Aleshkevich V.A. out Moscow State University (MSU) wrote an article about how the experiments of the 20th century on the relativistic particles (note – with a particles) prove absolute correctness of relativistic physics in comparison with of her classical interpretation. Conscientiously collected experimental data gives worthy rebuff to all "adversaries relativism", which calling for back to the classics. But why do not keeps on giving anti-relativistic mood among physicists, receiving education in universities, which more than 100 years old them instill "without-etherial specialization of" SRT, professor MSU could not explain. The mention of ethical problems birth SRT in 1905, very an unexpected for apologetics of SRT, explains nothing. Recognize same, that only merit Einstein in 1905 was the failure from aether, in the almost finished of aether-dynamic theory of relativity (ADTR) Lore ntz and Poincaré, in which remained only to overcome the "latent unobservability of aether", apologetics SRT even today still is not ready.
"Without-aether" Lorentz's contraction and "relativistic mass growth" were declared "seeming", and same isotropism "emptiness" and "the negativity of" the Michelson's experiment become seeming "as obvious". Such a "without-etherial specialization of" in physics for many very liked, and his began to study in the universities of world. But discordant criticism of the "without-etherial" SRT does not cease. Professor of MSU offers a "improved" teaching SRT based on the latest experiments on the "hard" of relativistic particles, ignoring criticism of Abraham, Minkowski, Brillouin, and others on the "non-applicability" of vacuum transformations SRT of ideal world without particles (n=1.) to the real world with particles (n>1). A true a invariant of inertial of system, suitable and for the abstract world (with n=1.) and for real world (with n>1) with the observed rates of c */c=1/n < 1, hitherto "not open". To access it, we have to admit aether and develop the teaching ADTR instead of SRT.
Comments:

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1303.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-20 13:28:21*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Authors made an attempt to highlight the 6 major shortcomings of modern cosmology. Observed cosmic redshift can be considered as a measure of age difference of our galaxy and observed galaxy. It can be suggested that - during cosmic evolution, as age of the hydrogen atom increases, emitted photon energy increases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1303.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-12 10:14:41*

**Authors:** Andrew Banks

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Assume a light pulse is emitted from the origins of two frames, F and F’ that are in
relative motion, when the origins are common. Based on the relativity and light
postulates of special relativity (SR), all light beams travel at c. Therefore, the light pulse
expands spherically from the origin of F if and only if it expands spherically from the
origin of F’. However, by using the derivative, this paper will report a mathematical
violation of this logic. Additionally, it will be proven SR predicts one spherical light
wave (SLW) moves two different directions along a single line.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1303.0137 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-19 09:43:28*

**Authors:** Robert Louis Kemp

**Comments:** 36 Pages. Copyright © 2013 - Super Principia Mathematica - The Rage to Master Conceptual & Mathematical Physics

This paper is a mathematical treatise and historical perspective of Karl Schwarzschild’s original 1916 solution and description of a Non-Euclidean Spherically Symmetric Metric equation. In the modern literature of the Schwarzschild Metric equation, it is described as predicting an output of a “Coordinate Singularity” anomaly located at the surface of the Black Hole Event Horizon. However, in Schwarzschild’s original 1916 metric solution there is not a “Coordinate Singularity” located at the Black Hole Event Horizon, but there is an actual quantitative value for space and time, that is predicted there. This paper and work compares the Schwarzschild Spherically Symmetric Metric equation original 1916 results with the results predicted by the modern literature on the Schwarzschild Metric. This work also describes conceptually the physics behind the Gaussian Distance Curvature and Reduction Density equation that Schwarzschild used to eliminate and avoid a “Coordinate Singularity”. This work reveals that Schwarzschild’s original 1916 solution, predicts that the Inertial Mass Volume Density, Escape Velocity, and gravitational field acceleration is reduced at all points in the inhomogeneous gradient gravitational field. This reduced Schwarzschild Gaussian density also reduces the gravitational tangential velocity, and acceleration in the inhomogeneous gradient gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1303.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-17 12:48:41*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Authors made an attempt to highlight the 6 major shortcomings of modern cosmology. Suggested solution is - During cosmic evolution, growing Hydrogen atom emits energetic photon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1303.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-16 18:20:09*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper one generalizes the Lorentz Contraction Factor for the case when the
lengths are moving at an oblique angle with respect to the motion direction. One shows
that the angles of the moving relativistic objects are distorted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1303.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-16 18:23:07*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We have parameterized Einstein’s thought experiment with atomic clocks, supposing
that we knew neither if the space and time are relative or absolute, nor if the speed of
light was ultimate speed or not. We have obtained a Parameterized Special Theory of
Relativity (PSTR), first introduced in 1982. Our PSTR generalized not only Einstein’s
Special Theory of Relativity, but also our Absolute Theory of Relativity, and introduced
three more possible Relativities to be studied in the future. After the 2011 CERN’s
superluminal neutrino experiments, we recall our ideas and invite researchers to deepen
the study of PSTR, ATR, and check the three new mathematically emerged Relativities
4.3, 4.4, and 4.5.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1303.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-15 14:09:47*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Thirty Four Pages

Dr. Roger A. Rydin joins us in this issue writing about Special Relativity and other topics, as well as your Editor, Glenn A. Baxter, P.E., both authors in disagreement with Dr. Albert Einstein’s Relativity theories, the foundations of 21st century physics. Dr. Rydin’s doctorate from MIT places him on our ever growing list of highest level “credentialed” physicists who openly and convincingly disagree with Dr. Einstein. Physcist Roger Anderton also joins us with his just published book, THE FIRST UNIFIED FIELD THEORY WAS BY BOSCOVICH IN THE 18th CENTURY.
The Belgrade Lakes Institute For Advanced Research Foundation is greatly expanding its Physics Colloquium program to invite and fund all travel expenses for leading world-wide scientists to visit and present their newest papers/lectures at selected universities in the United States. If you or your university are interested, e-mail Institute@k1man.com.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1303.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-14 15:19:18*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Two spaceships, A and B, are in motion relative to each other. Their motion relative to the empty space they are in is undefined and undefinable. We can consider ship A to be stationary relative to space and ship B to be moving or vice versa. The two situations are entirely equivalent. Each ship’s motion relative to the other is symmetric. Relative to a clock in either ship, an identical clock in the other ship appears to tick more slowly. This reciprocity paradox, also termed the twin paradox, is unresolvable in a geometric analysis. The history of which ship accelerated to produce their velocity difference is irrelevant and offers no solution to the paradox. If the two ships are brought together, motionless relative to each other, their clocks will tick at the same rate and neither clock will have lost time relative to the other. The symmetry of their motion relative to each other is inviolable. Both clocks cannot tick more slowly than their counterparts. Therefore, neither clock can tick more slowly than the other. The reciprocity paradox is an illusion. The motion between two reference frames in a space without properties that yields the inviolable symmetry of the reciprocity paradox tells us that geometric relationships cannot govern the physics of time dilation. The motion that violates this symmetry must be motion relative to a space with properties. This space must contain something that can be used to reckon motion. This something is a field that supports the propagation of photons and other force particles. This field is identified as the temporal-inertial (TI) field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1303.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-14 16:19:26*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

This paper challenges the possibility of electromagnetic waves might be reflected differently by moving mirrors in comparison to resting mirrors following a logic conclusion on Huygens principle, thus the common law upon which the incident angel would equal the reflected angle would be not valid on such systems. A modified static ether concept will be tested on the assumption that angles will be deflected in correlation of relative velocities of the transversal movement of the observation setup against the emerging center of one particular light wave front. Further on it will be demonstrated that reflection angles from any ray emerging from sources laying at the focal point of a parabolic mirror then will not be reflected parallel to the parables axis but on a distinct differing angle that proves to be identical with the resultant angle of both velocity components of ray and mirror at any transversal movement of source and observer. Moreover it will be shown that this applies on multiple reflection between two parabolic mirrors with congruent focal point as in principle being used for laser arrays as well. Based on the results thereof and based on a modified static ether concept a possible approach to explanation of terrestrial and stellar aberration will be shown, as well as an alternative solution for the results of the Michelson- Moreley- experiment without stressing special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1303.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-14 20:09:45*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The main idea in this paper is that physicists should have either explored the universe to discover a ‘solar system’ in which Newton’s law of gravitation applied exactly or should have explained the discrepancy between the implication of the simple Newton’s law of gravitation (circular orbits) and actual observation (non circular or ‘elliptic’) orbits, with sound logical consistency and validity. Discrepancies between a theory and actual observation should never be tolerated or given ad hoc explanations and carried forward. The discrepancy between Newton’s law of gravitation and actual observation turned out to be of fundamental importance as presented in my previous paper:
“ ‘Elliptic’ Orbits and Mercury Perihelion Advance as Evidence for Absolute Motion ”

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1303.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-13 10:09:59*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A correct time translation operator must have an unbounded spectrum. Here we propose that there
exists a mass operator with this property that replaces the conventionally used Hamiltonian. Simple consequences are a negative gravitational mass for anti-particles, a zero-energy vacuum and a prospect of benign modifications of quantum field theory, including a quantum theory of gravitation. The advent of negative gravitational mass might help to overcome some of the most fundamental problems in cosmology, but it also questions whether General Relativity is the appropriate theory of gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1303.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-15 00:23:22*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s revised gravity field equation (add the cosmological term), discover the spherical solution of the cosmology. In this time, the cosmology constant is concerned about the Hubble’s constant. In this case, the general relativity theory only treats the present universe because the Hubble’s constant is the inverse of the present universe’s age.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1303.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-13 11:51:39*

**Authors:** Martin Lopez-Corredoira

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Accepted to be published in Int. J. Mod. Phys. D

In a previous paper (part I), the mathematical properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation power spectrum which presents oscillations were discussed. Here, we discuss the physical interpretation: a power spectrum with oscillations is a rather normal characteristic expected from any fluid with clouds of overdensities that emits/absorb radiation or interact gravitationally with the photons, and with a finite range of sizes and distances for those clouds. The standard cosmological interpretation of "acoustic" peaks is just a particular case; peaks in the power spectrum might be generated in scenarios within some alternative cosmological model that have nothing to do with oscillations due to gravitational compression in a fluid.
We also calculate the angular correlation function of the anisotropies from the WMAP-7yr and ACT data, in an attempt to derive the minimum number of parameters a polynomial function should have to fit it: a set of polynomial functions with a total of 6 free parameters, apart from the amplitude, is enough to reproduce the first two peaks. However, the standard model with six tunable free parameters also reproduces higher order peaks, giving the standard model a higher confidence. At present, while no simple function with six free parameters is found to give a fit as good as the one given by the standard cosmological model, we may consider the predictive power of the standard model beyond an instrumentalist approach (such as the Ptolemaic astronomy model of the orbits of the planets).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1303.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-13 05:15:35*

**Authors:** Kapil Chandra

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Abstract We derived the gravity through the quantum form of force and shown, it will not have Planck constants in this scenario. We found an expression to relate the mass of body to its corresponding gravitational wave’s wavelength, which leads us a new expression for force which is just inverse of classical gravity. Inverse in the sense, force is directly proportional to square of distance and inversely proportional to square of mass. It has been shown that this inverse gravity is responsible for Hawking radiation and particle creations by black holes, probably this force leads to the explosions of black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1303.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-14 10:19:58*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper probes further into the Special Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1303.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-11 20:50:49*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

According to Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity, the speed of light always remains constant at 186,000 miles per second regardless of whether it is gauged from a stationary reference point, a moving reference point or any other reference points, no object could travel faster than 186,000 miles per second (the speed of light itself) because the mass of the object would then be so great (infinitely great) that it could not accelerate anymore, on approaching the speed of light a moving object contracts in length in the direction of motion while a clock gauging the time slows down, at the speed of light the length of the moving object contracts to zero while the clock (and time) becomes at a standstill, and, importantly, the mass of an object multiplied by the square of the speed of light gives energy (E = MC2), i.e., mass could be converted to energy and vice versa; on approaching the speed of light the brain and bodily functions of a person slow down; observers do not agree on the simultaneity of events - two simultaneous events for one observer might not be simultaneous for another; in the Special Theory time-travel (in the space-time continuum) is an apparent possibility. A deeper look at the Special Theory of Relativity is presented in this paper, employing some strong, subtle and important mathematical reasoning in the process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1303.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-11 20:57:12*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity postulates that the speed of light always remains constant at 186,000 miles per second at all inertial frames. This paper describes an anomaly in the standard computation pertaining to the constancy of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1303.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-11 12:25:57*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The concept of relativity of motion was first introduced by Galileo. In his principle of invariance he stated that the laws of motion are the same in all inertial frames. He used the Galileo’s ship thought experiment in his argument, among other arguments. This principle of invariance was then modified by Einstein (special relativity), which included the speed of light to be invariant in all inertial frames. Therefore, the relativity theory we know today is based on Galileo’s principle of invariance. There is no sound argument yet in support of relativity of motion. Simply because an observer hasn’t been able to identify between illusion of motion and real motion cannot be taken as a sound argument to support relativity of motion. In the usual arguments for relativity of motion, such as an observer closed inside a ship that is moving steadily on the sea , an observer flying in an aircraft steadily with windows closed, etc. to detect absolute motion is difficult. Detection of absolute motion requires a more fundamental approach, and not just looking through the windows. Absolute motion can be detected by observing change of the law of gravitation in our reference frame. Despite the advance of physics, the cause for the ‘elliptic’ shape of planetary orbits is unknown at a fundamental level todate. Newton’s law doesn’t predict the perihelion advance exactly and the discrepancy is said to have been corrected by Einstein’s general relativity and this is one of the evidences claimed to confirm Einstein’s general relativity. The finding in this paper shows that redefinition of Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation with respect to an absolute reference may solve the problem, without the need of Einstein’s general relativity.
In this paper, a sound argument against Galileo’s principle of invariance will be presented, which will prove the notion of absolute motion to be correct and disprove relativity of motion, both Galileo’s and Einstein’s. Elliptic orbits are a result of absolute motion of the solar system in space, where as Mercury perihelion advance is a result of absolute centripetal acceleration of the solar system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1303.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-29 17:10:18*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

World – Universe Model is based on three primary assumptions:
1) The World is finite and is expanding inside the Universe with speed equal to the electrodynamic constant c. The Universe serves as an unlimited source of energy that continuously enters into the World from the boundary.
2) Medium of the World, consisting of protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter particles, is an active agent in all physical phenomena in the World.
3) Two fundamental parameters in various rational exponents define all macro and micro features of the World: Fine-Structure Constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World.
The World – Universe Model explains experimental data accumulated in the field of Cosmology over the last decades: the size and age of the World; critical energy density and the gravitational parameter; temperatures of the cosmic microwave background radiation and black body radiation of cosmic dust; fractal structure of the World and its evolution; observed expansion of the World and cosmological redshift. Additionally, the Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter particles, photons, axions, and neutrinos; proposes new types of particle interactions (Super Weak and Extremely Weak) and the fundamental physical parameters of the World; gives a new “low density small white dwarf” model of Ball Lightning and dineutrino model of Extreme Ball Lightning based on super weak interaction; explains “Pioneer Anomaly”; and resolves paradoxes like “Matter – Antimatter Asymmetry” and “Faint Young Sun”. The Model proposes to introduce a new fundamental parameter Q in the CODATA internationally recommended values for calculating time dependent parameters of the World.
Keywords: World – Universe Model, Fractal Cosmology, Fine-Structure Constant, Dark Matter, Microwave Background Radiation, Maxwell-Lorentz Equations, Dirac’s Equations, Fractal Particle Structure, Grand Unified Theory, Ball Lightning, CODATA

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1303.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-09 16:56:18*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 65 Pages.

Prevailing science itself tells us the electric force (which fully rules the motion of an electron around a proton, in a hydrogen atom H, for instance, is enormously stronger than the gravitational one, which, on the contrary, fully rules the motion of galaxies and that of the Universe, as well, more generally. But now, we cannot avoid to see that the dimensions of atoms are, by the same token, enormously smaller than those of the Universe and, more consistently, than those of my Universe.
On the basis of all that, do you think it’s all about a coincidence? Come on!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1303.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-08 16:46:28*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The new theory of (Special) Relativity of Electromagnetic Fields proposed earlier is based on the assumption that the observer and the source are in uniform relative speed and is based on the ‘postulate’ of absolute constancy of the speed of light. It was disappointing at first when I discovered that the theory implied a variation of the speed of light with the acceleration of an observer relative to the source. Later I found out that this variation to be vitally important as it might explain the results of the well known ‘time delay’ experiments claimed as evidences supporting Einstein’s relativity! Perhaps the variation of the speed of light with source-observer relative acceleration might explain ‘GPS correction’, Ives-Stilwell experiment and Hafele and Keating Experiment! There is a common factor in all these experiments: acceleration. However, the new theory of General Relativity of EM waves should be completed quantitatively to know its real significance. The purpose of this paper is only to announce the new theory by presenting a briefly and preliminarily; the details and more accurate quantitative analysis will be presented in future versions of this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1303.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-08 19:26:31*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 5 references

The scientific consensus, (religious dogma), that quasars are powered by super-massive black holes or black holes of any size is mathematically and observationally false.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1303.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-08 19:51:35*

**Authors:** Robert Louis Kemp

**Comments:** 71 Pages. Copyright © 2013 - Super Principia Mathematica - The Rage to Master Conceptual & Mathematical Physics

A question that the physics community is asking today, is, “What is a Singularity?”, and “Are Singularities Detectable and Measurable?” This work, will describe five (5) different types or classifications of “Singularities” in nature: the Inverse Distance Power Law Singularity, the Physical Singularity, the Naked Singularity, the Coordinate Singularity, and the Big Bang Singularity. Correlating the nature of these singularities, with the mathematics, theory, and the real physical world, is a conundrum in physics.
This work extends the “Strong and Weak Cosmic Censorship” hypotheses originally proposed an debated by Roger Penrose, Steven Hawking, and Kip Thorne, by adding an additional thirteen (13) “Censorships” which removes some of the contradiction that exists with just the two (2) original “Cosmic Censorship Hypotheses” alone. The “Penrose–Hawking–Thorne” singularity theorems, of General Relativity Theory, described in this work, addresses mathematically the concept of “Geodesic Incompleteness”; which is another name for a geodesic with infinite curvature, which at one end of the geodesic is a singularity. And “Geodesic Completeness” another name for a geodesic with infinite curvature, on a 2-Sphere Riemann Manifold; there the Non-Euclidean geometry still predicts a singularity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1303.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 01:42:47*

**Authors:** Muteru michael

**Comments:** 1 Page. n/a

in this article i present a braneworld scenario incorporating Mtheory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1303.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-15 20:37:14*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 6 Pages. v3 corrects typos and adds a sentence to the 3rd from last paragraph

In a previous paper, “On the Applicability of the Lorentz Transformations”, the issue of the physical vs. apparent velocity of a photon, c vs. (c±v), was examined in the cases of the emitter moving relative to the detector and vice versa. In the present paper, the case is examined of both the emitter and detector moving relative to the origin of a third coordinate system, the case used by Einstein for his derivation of the Lorentz transformations. It is shown that both Einstein’s derivation and a more general derivation are inconsistent with the behavior of the photon, and that the physical (not apparent) velocity of the photon as measured in the stationary coordinate system in this case must be (c±v). It is also noted that because the velocity of the photon is independent of its momentum and energy, the dispersion relations between conjugate Fourier variables of energy and time, ∇E∇t ≥ ħ/2, and momentum and position, ∇p∇x ≥ ħ/2, do not affect its velocity. As a result, unlike for non-zero rest mass quanta, the position of a photon as a function of time can in principle be determined with an arbitrary accuracy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1303.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-05 16:50:29*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif, Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 1 Page. short commentary

A short explanation and definition on what is Quasars and how this idea disproves Hawking's belief that Quasars are small in size.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1303.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-05 09:40:06*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Six pages

A @@brief, simple, and solid disproof, by contradiction, of Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1303.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-05 05:21:25*

**Authors:** Muteru michael

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This is a cosmological application of the TOE

I PRESENT A MATHEMATICAL SOLUTION TO THE DUAL BRANE AT THE HEART OF M-THEORY IN SUPER-SYMMETRIC STRING THEORY,Which i have herein termed as the Mbrane.hence solve M theory.i build a fractal which yields a universe consisting Dark matter and dark energy similar to the one we live in

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1303.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-03 15:16:54*

**Authors:** Emmanuil Manousos

**Comments:** Pages. published in PROGRESS IN PHYSICS, 2013, Vol. 9, issue 3

The law of selfvariations quantitatively determines a slight increase of the masses and charges as the common cause of quantum and cosmological phenomena. It predicts and explains the totality of the cosmological data. In this article we present the prediction of the law concerning the increased luminosity distances of distant astronomical objects. The prediction we make is in agreement with the cosmological data for the luminosity distances of type Ia supernovae.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1303.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-04 02:08:13*

**Authors:** Dirk J Pons, Arion D Pons

**Comments:** Pages. Published as:

A physical interpretation of the holographic principle is derived, using a specific non-local hidden-variable theory called the Cordus conjecture. We start by developing an explanation for the vacuum, and differentiate this from the void into which the universe expands. In this theory the vacuum comprises a fabric of discrete field elements generated by matter particules. The outside void into which the universe expands is identified as lacking a fabric, and also being without time. From this perspective the cosmological boundary is therefore the expanding surface where the fabric colonises the void. Thus the cosmological boundary is proposed to contain the discrete field elements of all the primal particules within the universe, and therefore contains information about the attributes of those particules at genesis. Inner shells then code for the changed locations of those particules and any new, or annihilated, particules. Regarding the notion of holographic control of inner contents of the universe from the outer surface, this theory identifies the infeasibility of placing a physical Agent at the boundary of the universe, and also predicts there is no practical way to control the universe from its outer boundary as the holographic principle suggests. It also rejects the notion that the boundary contains information about the future and past, or about all possible universes. The Cordus model suggests that there is no causality from the boundary of the universe to its inner contents.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1303.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-02 21:58:25*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper you will find a short treatise on the obviousness of a collapsing Universe; a short one, but full of reference links which will better help you to understand the environment in which such an obviousness is.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1303.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-03 08:45:13*

**Authors:** Hontas Freeman Farmer

**Comments:** 161 Pages. A monograph

This is a comprehensive review of the published research in cosmology focusing on the time period from the big bang to the last scattering of cosmic microwave background radiation. This is a period of approximately 380,000 years. Theoretical, observational, and experimental research with a bearing on cosmology will be covered. First, a time line of events from the big bang to last scattering of CMB photons will be provided. Then, a review of theoretical research related to the big bang, cosmic inflation, and baryogenesis will be covered. Next, a review of observational as well as experimental work on the cosmic microwave background, big bang nucleosynthesis, and efforts to directly detect gravitational waves. After that, a look at research on the edge of accepted cosmology such as loop quantum cosmology, and the possible time variation of fundamental constants. Last but not least this author will present a tiny, and novel theoretical idea, a Lagrangian which captures all of the physics of the standard model of cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1303.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-02 14:49:37*

**Authors:** Nasir Germain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Nasir germain describes his theories in a quick paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1303.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-01 18:12:59*

**Authors:** Henrik Agerhäll

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A new extension to Newtonian celestial mechanics is examined. We focus on the scenario of a point-like body with negligible mass orbiting a spherically symmetric massive body. We take the implicitly time-dependent mass of electrodynamics one step further. We let the mass of the orbiting body vary not only with the velocity, but also with the position within the gravitational field. We find a family of expressions for the gravitational acceleration that explains the anomalous precession of perihelion of the planets and in the strong field limit results in orbits in close agreement with the predictions of the Schwarzschild solution. Regarding the orbital velocity of a body in circular orbit and the acceleration of a body at rest, the new theory gives the same results as classically. This is not the case with the post-Newtonian expansion even if terms at the third post-Newtonian, 3PN, level are included. Arguably, the major benefit of the new theory is that it presents a method that is much less intricate and more practical to deal with than general relativity, while reproducing most of its results, at least in the spherically symmetric case. While the differences between the final expression and the corresponding expression from the post-Newtonian expansion are small and subtle, the new theory gives results that in several ways are closer to both the classical results and to what the Schwarzschild solution predicts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1303.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-01 08:34:44*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 18 Pages

Dr. D. Sasso of Italy has just filed a new paper: On Basic Physical Properties of Baryon Matter According To The Non-Standard Model. See www.k1man.com/a20.pdf Regarding underlying scientific thinking, Dr. Sasso writes: ”…(Dr.) Einstein’s Special Relativity …..is.…obsolete because Lorentz’s kinematic transformations on space-time are wrong…”
See www.k1man.com/f58.pdf Dr. Sasso then explores electromagnetic theory in the paper: The Maxwell Equations, The Lorentz Field and The Electromagnetic Nanofield To The Qxzuestion of Relativity See www.k1man.com/a17 Accordingly, we now further focus on the problems of different approaches to the Lorentz transformation and a current suggestion by Dr. Al McDowell that we look at 21st Century physics with Special Relativity totally removed. We must therefore look further into an explanation of unipolar induction. See Harry Ricker’s (MSEE, UNH) as well as Mueller’s papers on unipolar induction: www.k1man.com/RickerUnipolar1.pdf http://www.marmet.org/louis/induction_faraday/mueller/muller.htm Antonio Saraiva and Martin Plaun join us this edition with papers in disagreement with Special Relativity, and Roger Anderton disputes General Relativity. J. C. Edwards proves Fermat’s last theorem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology