[48] **viXra:1704.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-30 14:28:10*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The latest experimental value of 67.80 (Km/s)/Mpc for Hubble's constant supports 8-fold supersymmetry and cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[47] **viXra:1704.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-30 15:22:59*

**Authors:** Michael J. Burns

**Comments:** 2 Pages. mburns92003@yahoo.com

The experimental data is beyond dispute. But it relates to the change in composition over time of the class of supernovae that are observed. Instead, the interpretation of the data in terms of the simplest kind of acceleration contains an error in sign. Actually, a recent acceleration of the earth away from the most distant supernovae would leave all of of the supernovae at intermediate distances with a higher - not lower - relative red shift for their distances, because these supernovae would have not yet accelerated. My paper, “Neglect of General Covariance” describes the many ways in which the cosmological equation and the Friedmann coordinates violate the principles of relativity. And these violations provide cover for the concept of dark energy and its breaking of the conservation laws. There is a version of dark energy which is conserved, but this does lead to the error in sign. Annotations to this argument follow below. Then the ugliness of the alternative to the error in sign is physically described, and the conservation laws are defended.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1704.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-28 18:11:58*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, Time is formulated as a measure of the average volume of a time quantum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1704.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-27 05:08:15*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The interaction of the non-gravitating Higgs field with an inertial mass, due to the fifth force, resulting from the dynamic viscosity of the inertial mass and Higgs field, causes the inertial mass to be surrounded by non-gravitating/inertial gravitational field which is the gradient in the Higgs field. Such gravitational clothing does not result in the appearance of a new mass type commonly referred to as gravitational mass. Since there is only one kind of mass, that is inertial mass, so the challenge is not to answer the question of why the inertial and gravitational masses are the same. The challenge is to answer why the gravitational constant G does not depend on the internal structure of bodies - this is the fundamental problem of the Equivalence Principle. Here we justify that the invariance of the gravitational constant is due to the fact that the second component of spacetime, i.e. the Einstein spacetime, and all bodies consist of inertial masses-charges having invariant inertial mass. Interactions such as gravity, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and nuclear strong interactions can not change the mass of the inertial masses-charges - they can only change their number in the system under consideration. The same concerns the quantum entanglement which is a result of simultaneous exchanges of the same parts of the inertial masses-charges. In formula ma = GMm/(rr), M and m are the inertial masses, not some gravitational masses, whereas G depends on properties of Higgs field and dynamic viscosity of it and indirectly of the invariant masses-charges. The inertial masses-charges produce only the invariant negative gradients in the Higgs field so gravitational force is always attractive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1704.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 13:41:24*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Einstein in his works from 1905 till 1907 discarded the ether from physics but his more than 5 papers from 1920 to 1934 deal with the ether as an unexceptionable physical reality. In these papers Einstein becomes more an enthusiastic advocate of the testification of the ether than supporters of the ether before the year 1905. It is regrettable that except of Einstein’s widely cited less important paper presented at a conference in Leiden in 1920 other more important papers on ether in which Einstein comes with the definitive claim that without the ether it is not possible to explain the physical world around us are not known to wider physical community and even not known to dissident physicists community as well. In this paper we show that Einstein by his own declarations after 1920 about testified existence of the ether himself openly repudiated his Special and General theories of relativity. In amendment we bring the text of Einstein’s 1924 paper “On the ether”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1704.0349 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-12 06:23:56*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper challenges to overcome one of the greatest misunderstanding in historic physics concerning the stellar aberration. It will be shown, how stellar aberration is functioning with a solely wave nature of light without stressing pointing vector concepts. Further on it will be shown, that even in dragged ether concepts stellar aberration must exist. Since failure of dragged or drift ether concepts to explain stellar aberration such were abandoned and gave room for special relativity. Based on the concept, questions such as light being dragged by gravity, mercury orbit variation will have to be reconsidered as well as special relativity throughout.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1704.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-03 18:27:35*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Somehow, most of my reviews have misconstrued my ideas, which has caused me to add revisions.

"Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) proposes that all velocities, including radial recessive and rotational, will naturally appear to increase per distances of great magnitude as an illusion between scales viewed in magnification.
In the introduction, I cite a clear deviation from Kepler’s orbital laws with a correlation study of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. However, TPD explains this as only an illusion.
In section: 4, I explain why galaxy rotations appear to deviate from Kepler’s laws.
In section: 5, I generalize how velocities appear to increase with distance, using a pulsar application.
In section: 6, I Show how galaxy rotational velocity appears to increases with distance.
In section: 8, I show how TPD is a factor in galaxy rotational curves.
In Section: 9, I show how TPD affects the spherical asymmetry of supernova remnant velocity.
In section: 10, I provide a mathematical proof to distinguish TPD from accelerated expansion.
Please note: TPD is only evident over great distances. For instance, TPD predicts an apparent increase in comet orbital velocities over distance, however the margin of error (especially from unstable gas emissions) is greater than observable results.
TPD is distinct from time dilation and does not contradict or violate either time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥) subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t.
"

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1704.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-25 13:19:25*

**Authors:** Eva Deli

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Recent cosmological data shows the Milky Way galaxy being pushed ahead of a void. Independently, laboratory research created matter with negative mass. A possible relationship between these seemingly unrelated results indicates the need to reexamine our understanding of gravity. According to Page and Wootter mechanism, time is globally static, but emergent for ‘internal’ observers. That is, interaction increases the energy-information differences among the constituents of the cosmos. Such temporal evolution engenders polar singularities, known as black and white holes, in accordance with general relativity. The second law of thermodynamics leads to Landauer’s principle, which shows that the emitted heat is proportional to the erased information of the system. Thus, information accumulates heat in black hole horizons, which have been found to be two dimensional; whereas information-free areas are energy rich and cold. The principle of static time dictates information and dimensional complementarity between antipodal areas of the universe. Two dimensional, positive curvature black holes must be balanced by negative curvature, four dimensional white holes, which expand space and lead to the experience of ‘dark energy.’ Positive curvature forms great field strength, which stabilizes the universe with a pressure experienced as excess gravity, called dark matter. Enhanced field strength leads to clumping, forming planets, stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters, which slows expansion. The dimensional anisotropy (two in the black holes and four in the white holes) straddle unstable three dimensional galactic environments between them. An object’s position in space corresponds to a freely hanging plumb. Deviations in angle of that plumb (position of the object) – thereby changes the equilibrium of the whole universe and leads to inertia, a force that is proportional to both the mass of the object and the field strength (i.e. radial topological distance from the center). Therefore inertia is greatest in the vicinity of the black holes. On the positively curved polar surfaces of space (such as a planet) a path that curves toward the pole forms the shortest distance. On positive curving temporal surfaces the shortest time is acceleration, which leads to the twin paradox. The hypothesis is congruent with the latest CMB data, satisfies Mach’s principle as well as Occam’s razor by uncovering a surprisingly simple, stable and unified alignment of the universe. This new physical world view is presented without equations, reflecting the futility of a universal calculation method.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1704.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-24 06:54:45*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 62 pages in Chinese

The only objectively existing in nature transformation of space and time for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity is first revealed in the article.The discovered transformation ,referred to as Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation), is logically derived, using in derivation the concepts of both the principle of relativity and the postulate of constant light velocity. The Z-Transformation takes the typical form of Galilean Transformation. Moreover, a theoretical interpretation for Hubble’s Law is given firstly by the author as well, utilizing the Z-Transformation revealed .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1704.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-23 09:42:42*

**Authors:** John R. Berryhill

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Discussion at unmysticalphysics.com

An explicit closed-form solution applicable to the lambda - CDM model has been known, or perhaps forgotten, for decades. It incorporates zero spatial curvature and a nonzero cosmological constant, as recent observations support. The model incorporating these essential points is presented here in updated form. An explicit, closed-form, solution is displayed, together with useful formulas and graphs. The presentation is accessible with first-year physics and calculus.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1704.0302 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-30 10:01:48*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

Powszechnie uważa się, że eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a z 1887 roku oraz eksperyment Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a z 1932 roku wykazały, że nie istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter) oraz, że prędkość światła w próżni jest absolutnie stała.
Analiza tych eksperymentów doprowadziła do powstania Szczególnej Teorii Względności (STW). W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperyment Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalny układ odniesienia.
W tym artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza.
Transformację wyprowadzamy przy założeniu, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter). Eter jest układem odniesienia wyróżniającym się tym, że prędkość światła jest w nim stała w każdym kierunku.
W inercjalnych układach odniesienia poruszających się względem eteru, prędkość światła może być inna. W oparciu o nową transformację została stworzona Szczególna Teoria Eteru (STE).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1704.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-19 10:09:41*

**Authors:** G.N.N.Martin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

I argue that maximal extension makes improbable assumptions about future conditions. I start by looking at the Schwarzschild metric, and showing that it does not quite represent the exterior of a collapsed star, although it is easy to argue that the mismatch is immaterial. I then look at the collapse of a cloud of dust using the Robinson Walker metric, which might seem to justify using the Schwarzschild metric to describe the exterior of a black hole. I then show how the Schwarzschild metric is modified when the interior is a collapsed dust cloud, and finally show how the maximal extension of a Schwarzschild black hole makes unrealistic assumptions about the future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1704.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-25 16:15:36*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple
galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time convergence (TC) rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant
expansion with apparent decreasing time intervals. TC is a corollary of Minkowski’s
assertion that ”Whatever happens to space also happens to time”, and can be conceptualized
as a linear perspective in the time dimension.
TC proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event
over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale. Thus,
accelerated expansion is interpreted to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
Please note that TC is not time dilation. Time intervals do not actually decrease per distance, rather appear to decrease per distance similar to linear spatial perspective from subtended arcs. Thus, there is no contradiction or violation of special relativity nor GR
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TC.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1704.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-18 15:55:52*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 1 Page.

What dominates the other, Special Relativity or light ? Einstein believed to have submitted bodies
and light to the same laws. In what follows, we show that there are light-clocks which do not matches
with his Special Relativity exigences. The equivalence between bodies and light turns out utopian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1704.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-17 07:18:16*

**Authors:** Enrique Cantera del Río

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A SYMMETRY OF LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION IS PROPOSED FOR THE VISUALIZATION OF THE MOST BASIC PHYSICAL LANDSCAPE DERIVED FROM SPECIAL RELATIVITY. ALTHOUGH BASIC ARGUMENTS ,THE SYMMETRY SHOWS A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY AND THE EXISTENCE OF TWO POSSIBLE STATES FOR THIS PHYSICAL RELATION. THE SPIN AND THE ABRAHAM-MINKOWSKI CONTROVERSY ARE ANALYZED REGARDING THIS IDEAS AND A NEW HYPOTHESIS ON WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY IS PRESENTED.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1704.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-17 08:26:16*

**Authors:** Bandaru Ramu

**Comments:** PAGES:8

ABSTRACT:1. `REDSHIFT, DARK ENERGY, COSMIC RADIATION BACK GROUND, GRAVITATIONAL WAVES … NOT SUPPORT EXPANDING UNIVERSE.”
2. According to RELATIVE PRINCIPLE: MOVING is always RELATIVE. THUS REDSHIFT ALSO RELATIVE. This relative motion or relative red shift cannot say particularly only one both of two: Expanding or contracting universe.
3. To support Accelerating expansion, Dark energy introduced. But equal or unequal rate spread of Dark energy prevailed? If the quantity of Dark energy is not changed in this Universe at early time, whether the influence of Dark energy increased or decreased in course of time because this universe is expanding in this way by consuming the dark energy.
Instead of Total Dark energy at early times, GRADUALLY INCREASING DARK ENERGY SHOULD BE REQUIRED FOR ACCELERATING UNIVERSE. BUT MORE ENERGY IS NOT CREATED GRADUALLY IN THIS UNIVERSE with out any more consumption of source. THUS DARK ENERGY CAN NOT SUPPORT ACCELERATING UNIVERSE. WITH OUT DARK ENERGY, ACCELERATING - EXPANDING UNIVERSE NOT WORKS. IF THERE IS NO EXPENDING UNIVERSE, THEN THERE WILL BE NO COTRACTING UNIVERSE. BECAUSE CONTRACTING IS THE POST EVOLUTION OF EXPANDING. SO THERE IS NO CHANCE FOR THE EXISTANCE OF EXPANDING AND CONTRACTING UNIVERSE.
4. Now received the information concerning cosmic microwave radiation is belonging to present time or various times?
This cosmic radiation observed at anywhere in this universe. The information from various distant places stand for also various times. At various times the expansion of this universe is also various. The cosmic radiation should be variously cast from different space times. But actually different space times show same cosmic microwaves radiation. This means in different times, no different density of cosmic radiation. So this same radiation reveals not expanding universe.
5. Space time curvature influence the pass of information? WHEN SUN DISAPPEAR, what happened really in relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1704.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-17 04:57:47*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Because the Einstein equation can't uniquely determine the metric, it must be supplemented by additional metric constraints. Since the Einstein equation can be derived in a purely special-relativistic context, those constraints (which can't be generally covariant) should be Lorentz-covariant; moreover, for the effect of the constraints to be natural from the perspective of observational and empirical physical scientists, they should also constrain the general coordinate transformations (which are compatible with the unconstrained Einstein equation) so that the constrained transformations manifest a salient feature of the Lorentz transformations. The little-known
Einstein-Schwarzschild coordinate condition, which requires the metric's determinant to have its -1 Minkowski value, thereby constrains coordinate transformations to have unit Jacobian, and for that reason causes tensor densities to transform as true tensors, which is a salient feature of the Lorentz transformations. The Einstein-Schwarzschild coordinate condition also allows the static Schwarzschild solution's singular radius to be exactly zero; though another coordinate condition that allows zero Schwarzschild radius
exists, it isn't Lorentz-covariant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1704.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-16 23:53:15*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 52 pages, 16 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 64 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1704.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-15 12:43:01*

**Authors:** Mihai Grumazescu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As a departure from Einstein's GR, gravity is described as the cumulative effect of all protons and neutrons in the universe acting as self-propelled particles called nucleon kinetic dipoles. They signal to each other their relative positions through the propagation of gravitational information at a superluminal speed.
Mach's principle is interpreted as the reciprocal influence of all masses in the universe because of the propagation of directional information of kinetic dipoles at astronomical distances. Every time we measure big G we find a different value because the gravitational information received by a test mass is changing continuously.
Speed of gravity also shapes the universe, as a consequence of Mach's principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1704.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-15 01:13:43*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. reflection symmetry time relativity

Two identical stopwatches moving at the same speed will elapse the same time after moving the same distance. Start one stopwatch later than the other stopwatch. The time difference between these two stopwatches will remain constant after both stopwatches have elapsed the same time. Such time difference will remain constant while both stopwatches are under identical acceleration.
Therefore, the elapsed time in an accelerating reference frame is identical to the elapsed time in a stationary reference frame. Consequently, a physical system that exhibits Reflection Symmetry in its motion demonstrates that the time of a moving clock is independent of the relative motion between the clock and its observer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1704.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-14 02:20:41*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper has been submitted to CTPNP 2017

It has been known for long time that the cosmic sound wave was there since the early epoch of the Universe. Signatures of its existence are abound. However, such a sound wave model of cosmology is rarely developed fully into a complete framework. This paper can be considered as our second attempt towards such a complete description of the Universe based on soliton wave solution of cosmological KdV equation. Then we advance further this KdV equation by virtue of Cellular Automaton method to solve the PDEs. We submit wholeheartedly Robert Kurucz’s hypothesis that Big Bang should be replaced with a finite cellular automaton universe with no expansion. Nonetheless, we are fully aware that our model is far from being complete, but it appears the proposed cellular automaton model of the Universe is very close in spirit to what Konrad Zuse envisaged long time ago. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1704.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-12 15:44:48*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we take a closer look at the initial mass relative to the relativistic mass of the payload for an ideal photon rocket travelling at its maximum velocity. Haug has recently suggested that for all known subatomic particles, a minimum of two Planck masses of fuel are needed to accelerate the fundamental particle to its suggested maximum velocity (see [1]).
Here we will show how this view is consistent with insight given by Tipler at a NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop Proceedings in 1999 (see [2]). Tipler suggested that the mass ratio of the initial rest mass of an ultra-relativistic rocket relative to the relativistic mass of the payload is likely “just” two. An ultrarelativistic rocket is one travelling at a velocity very close to the speed of light. We will here show that the Tipler factor is consistent with results derived from Haug’s suggested maximum velocity for any known observed subatomic particle.
However, we will show that the Tipler factor of two is unlikely to hold for ultra-heavy subatomic particle payloads. With ultra-heavy particles, we think of subatomic particles with mass close to that of the Planck mass. Our analysis indicates that the initial mass relative to the relativistic mass of the payload for any type of subatomic particle rocket must be between one and two. Remarkably, the mass ratio is only one for a Planck mass particle. This at first sounds absurd until we understand that the Planck mass particle is probably the very collision point between two photons. Even if a photon’s speed “always is” considered to be the speed of light, we can think of it as standing still at the instant it collides with another photon (backscattering). The mass ratio to accelerate a particle that only exists at velocity zero is naturally one. This is true since no fuel is needed to go from zero to zero velocity. Remarkably this indicates that the Planck mass particle and the Planck length likely are invariant. This can only happen if the Planck mass particle only lasts for an instant before it bursts into energy, which is what we could expect for the collision between two photons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1704.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-21 09:23:53*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A simple observational test of a proposed cosmological model with radial time and spherical space is introduced. It is shown briefly how the proposed model which can solve many problems of cosmology is wrongly excluded.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1704.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-12 11:28:30*

**Authors:** Ahmida Bendjoudi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Submitted to IJMPD

It is commonly believed that the self-rotation angular momentum of planets is due to
an original angular momentum of dense interstellar clouds at the formation stage of
the stars. However, the study shows something completely dierent: a test planet in
free-fall, in fact, follows two geodesics; the rst is the usual Schwarzschild path, and
the second is a Schwarzschild-like path, dened (spatially) locally: an elliptical orbit
in the plane (U(1)-variable, azimuthal angle). The analysis leads to the fact that: the
motion along these geodesics (physically) is exactly the self-rotation of a charged test
planet in Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime. The results reveal a more general understanding
of Einstein equivalence principle: locally, gravitational eld can be (in the Reissner-
Nordstrom space) replaced with an accelerated and rotated local frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1704.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-11 23:59:12*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 30 pages, 16 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 62 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1704.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-12 01:35:41*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

According to Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), the position of a light source changes apparently relative to a co-moving observer, if the light source (and observer) is in absolute motion. Apparent Source Theory successfully explains almost all light speed experiments. However, there are some (apparent ) paradoxes in AST. In this paper, these paradoxes are described and solutions will be proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1704.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-24 13:56:33*

**Authors:** Henry-Couannier Frederic

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This article continues the exploration of the Dark Gravity Theory which foundationsand some consequences we have detailed in two previous article

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1704.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-11 12:54:04*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles
into the oscillating Axion /Axion Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively into chunky nuclei of primary dark matter black holes.
Now recent HST observations show us a possible retarded splitting process at 10.8 billion light years (called CDF-S-XT1) and even a dual energy source which seem to point to an early Herbig Haro system at even 13.1 billion light years ( MACS1423-z7p64)
The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time.
The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles.
Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster.
If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Axion Higgs field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1704.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-10 23:59:27*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 30 pages, 15 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 62 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1704.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-15 14:21:29*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale.
TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from TC (Time Convergence).
Note: Also included are sections showing how this same concept of time interval distortion is applicable to superpostion at nanoscales.
Time Divergence (TD) proposes that an observer will view a nanoscopic particle with an expanded range of time, from past to present, in his single moment, like a time-lapse. For example, an electron orbital, viewed in a single moment represents a time interval from −∆t (past) to +∆t future. Unlike superposition, modulus states do
progress in time between ground and excited.
In section 5, I provide a potential mesoscopic proof, with two observations, separated in time, representing the exact same event.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1704.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-09 12:36:56*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a mass to inductance transformation L0=2/(a*m0^2). L is the inductance (Henry) of a rest mass m0. And a is a constant. The main propose of this paper was to find an analog electrical circuit in order to simplify the solution of Relativistic Problems. Fortunately, the analog circuit that I had found, change our knowledge about waves and particles, help to explain why Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are both correct and why Space-Time is equivalent to another well known theory.
In this paper
1) I almost eliminate mass from Newtonian Mechanics and Relativistic Problems including interactions between photons and elementary particles.
The proof of the suggested transformation relies entirely on Einstein's Special theory of relativity.
The most important conclusion from this paper is that Special Relativity is a wave and not a mechanical theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1704.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-09 04:02:43*

**Authors:** Chuck Bennett

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Gravity is redefined as accelerating inertial space. An Inertial reference frame is that reference frame upon which there are no forces acting. Inertial space does not have an actual relative velocity. Michelson and Morley failed to detect such relative velocity of the light-carrying medium.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1704.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 17:53:01*

**Authors:** Y, K, K

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We begin with a diagram, which explores the various implementations and manifestations of Hodge theory in the study of reinforcement learning. We review the Pavolovian exercise of using the reinforced reward learning schema to induce entropy in an arbitrary economic system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1704.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-30 10:08:47*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 19 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction

In the article, the whole class of time and position transformations was derived. These transformations were derived based on the analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment and its improved version, that is the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment.
It is possible to derive a different kinematics of bodies based on each of these transformations. In this way, we demonstrated that the Special Theory of Relativity is not the only theory explaining the results of experiments with light.
There is the whole continuum of the theories of kinematics of bodies which correctly explain the Michelson-Morley experiment and other experiments in which the velocity of light is measured.
Based on the derived transformations, we derive the general formula for the velocity of light in vacuum measured in any inertial reference system. We explain why the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the ether.
We present and discuss three examples of specific transformations. Finally, we explain the phenomenon of anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation by means of the presented theory.
The theory derived in this work is called the Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1704.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-30 10:13:30*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 19 Pages. In Polish. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction

W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje te zostały wyprowadzone na podstawie analizy eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz jego udoskonalonej wersji czyli eksperymentu Kennedyego-Thorndikea.
Na podstawie każdej z tych transformacji można wyprowadzić inną kinematykę ciał. W ten sposób wykazaliśmy, że Szczególna Teoria Względności nie jest jedyną teorią wyjaśniającą wyniki eksperymentów ze światłem.
Istnieje całe kontinuum teorii kinematyki ciał, które prawidłowo wyjaśniają eksperyment Michelsona-Morleya oraz inne eksperymenty, w których mierzona jest prędkość światła.
Na podstawie wyprowadzonych transformacji wyprowadzamy ogólny wzór na prędkość światła w próżni mierzoną w dowolnym inercjalnym układzie odniesienia. Wyjaśniamy dlaczego eksperymenty Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea nie mogły wykryć eteru.
Przedstawiamy i dyskutujemy trzy przykłady konkretnych transformacji. Na koniec wyjaśniamy zjawisko anizotropii mikrofalowego promieniowania tła przy pomocy przedstawionej teorii.
Wyprowadzoną w tej pracy teorię nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru - z dowolnym skróceniem poprzecznym.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1704.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 05:29:16*

**Authors:** Yang-Ho Choi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Sagnac effect has been shown in inertial frames as well as rotating frames. We solve the problem of the generalized Sagnac effect in the standard synchronization of clocks. The speed of a light beam that traverses an optical fiber loop is measured with respect to the proper time of the light detector, and is shown to be other than the constant c, though it appears to be c if measured by the time standard-synchronized. The fiber loop, which can have an arbitrary shape, is described by an infinite number of straight lines such that it can be handled by the general framework of Mansouri and Sexl (MS). For a complete analysis of the Sagnac effect, the motion of the laboratory should be taken into account. The MS framework is introduced to deal with its motion relative to a preferred reference frame. Though the one-way speed of light is other than c, its two-way speed is shown to be c with respect to the proper time. The theoretical analysis of the generalized Sagnac effect corresponds to the experimental results, and shows the usefulness of the standard synchronization. The introduction of the standard synchrony can make mathematical manipulation easy and can allow us to deal with relative motions between inertial frames without information on their velocities relative to the preferred frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1704.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-07 06:31:03*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Abstract
Speed of light in the past was slower than present
The speed of light in vacuum is constant at all time and is equal to C=3x108ms-1 , but the yard stick that is measured in is shorter in the past than present due to the density or the temperature of the space or the CMB. In the past the space was hotter and the CMB photons were of shorter wavelength compare to the present epoch that space has stretched or expanded making the yard stick longer.
The consequences of the above interpretation of the vacuum of space will give rise to the illusion that the speed of light has been slower in the past and hence suggests that the speed of light depends on the quality of the vacuum that is travelling through or according to James Clark Maxwell [1] relative to the luminiferous aether background.
Furthermore the propagation of light in vacuum would be transfer of energy by completely elastic collisions through the medium of the CMB photons and hence the ghostly photons of the CMB are the medium in which the electromagnetic radiation propagate with the collision rate that is the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation which in turn the speed of light through the vacuum depends on the size of the wavelength of the CMB.
The above approach will replace the Dark Energy with the CMB photons that are the missing mass in the Universe as well as the force of the expansion in the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1704.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-06 08:37:52*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, PhD, Pe

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

I tackle the topic of quantization of intrinsic QSO redshifts, especially based on the lifetime work of Halton Arp, examining first the potential relationship between intrinsic QSO redshift and QSO mass, then the phenomenon of quantization for both QSO mass and redshift. My approach is primarily a mathematical one, as developing a theory for intrinsic QSO redshift, let alone its quantization, is beyond my expertise. I postulate a geometric explanation of intrinsic redshift given a possible dependence on mass to the 2/3 power, related to possible attenuation of light energy (and therefore frequency) within the “emitting nucleus” of a QSO, compounded by a further “dilution,” and therefore energy (and frequency) decrease due to spread over the surface area. To do the quantization aspect justice, I summarize three theories by other experts and examine the plausibility of the two within my realm of knowledge. Finally, I offer at least a mathematical representation of the quantization aspect as “food for thought.”

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1704.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-09 07:27:31*

**Authors:** Chuck Bennett

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An alternate explanation to Michelson and Morley’s null result is presented. The dilemma is resolved by the approach that the medium is not separate from matter, rather, it is comprised of a field of quantum particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1704.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-19 21:10:18*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper uncovers the reason why gravity obeys an inverse square law and not, for example, an inverse cubic law, or any other law with any other power. A relativistic approach, along with the scale law and the Plank force, are the tools I used to derive the Newton's law of universal gravitation. I also show that the approach presented here is, qualitatively, in agreement with Einstein's general relativity field equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1704.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-05 06:03:48*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Abstract
In this paper a new approach to the Hubble constant has produced two values
One for the expansion of galaxies in the universe at H0m=38.565KmS-1Mpc-1 giving the age of the universe T0m=25.3425x109 Years and the other the expansion of the space or the opening of the space (inflation, creation of more space or expansion of radiation) at H0R=77.13KmS-1Mpc-1 giving apparent age of the universe at about T0R=12.67125x109 Years exactly half the real age of the universe. Hence showing that the both teams of Gérard de Vaucouleurs, later by Sidney van den Bergh claiming a high value for the Hubble constant and the team of Allan Sandage, later by prof Gustav Tammann claiming a low value of the Hubble constant are both correct and there approach had been different, one team looking at the expansion (inflation) of space and the other team looking at the expansion of the galaxies.
Furthermore the value of Ω≈1 has been resulted from this new approach, which indicates the value of omega is universally equal to 1 and fluctuates locally in all parts of the universe to allow the formation of galaxies and cluster of galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1704.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-09 07:22:25*

**Authors:** Chuck Bennett

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An elemental particle is proposed to facilitate the increase in mass under relativistic conditions. The conservation of energy is invoked to justify the conservation of mass and thus the new particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1704.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 13:32:57*

**Authors:** Ahmida Bendjoudi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A new independent derivation of general theory of relativity using only special relativity principles
is shown. Some solutions are derived and discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1704.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 22:59:28*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 30 pages, 15 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 64 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work establishes three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy in frozen stars and frozen universes, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming not more then current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1704.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 07:26:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The most straight forward explanation of the Michelson-Morley experiment null result is the emission or ballistic theory of light, according to which the velocity of light is constant c relative to the source. In fact, the Michelson-Morley experiment may be seen as a compelling evidence for the emission hypothesis. The emission theory was abandoned mainly due to moving source experiments which proved the independence of the speed of light from the velocity of the source. It will be shown in this paper that physicists hastened to discard the emission theory which will be shown to be crucial to solve the light speed puzzle. The conventional emission theory is modified intuitively as follows. The speed of light emitted from a light source that is moving with absolute velocity Vabs is equal to c - Vabs relative to the source in the forward direction and c + Vabs relative to the source in the backward direction. Therefore, relative an observer at absolute rest in front of the moving source, the speed of light is equal to the sum of the speed of light relative to the source and the speed of the source: ( c - Vabs )+ Vabs = c . Relative to an observer at absolute rest behind the source, the speed of light is equal to the difference between the speed of light relative to the source and the speed of the source : ( c + Vabs ) - Vabs = c . We can see that this model predicts that the speed of light is independent of the velocity of the source. This model also predicts the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment because the speed of light is c ± Vabs relative to the source., in the forward and backward directions. Change of the speed of light relative to the source doesn’t result in any fringe shift because , intuitively, both the transverse and longitudinal light beams will be delayed or advanced by equal amounts of time. This theory is a modified emission theory, a fusion between ' ether ' theory and emission theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1704.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-02 05:52:41*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 48 pages,in Chinese

The only objectively existing in nature transformation of space and time for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity is first revealed in the article.The discovered transformation ,referred to as Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation), is logically derived, using in derivation the concepts of both the principle of relativity and the postulate of constant light velocity. The Z-Transformation takes the typical form of Galilean Transformation. Moreover, a theoretical interpretation for Hubble’s Law is given firstly by the author as well, utilizing the Z-Transformation revealed .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1704.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-01 13:51:03*

**Authors:** Artekha S., Chubykalo A., Espinoza A.

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Some difficult moments of the article Artekha S., Chubykalo A., Espinoza A. "Some of the complexities in the special relativity: new paradoxes", are additionally explained. Detailed critical analysis of "Critical Comment" is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1704.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-01 01:02:27*

**Authors:** Ahmida Bendjoudi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to IJMPD journal

Einstein Equivalence Principle is the cornerstone of general theory of relativity. Special relativity
is assumed to be veried at any point on the Riemann curved manifold. This leads to a mathematical
consistency between Einstein equations and special relativity principles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology