[26] **viXra:1712.0456 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-14 16:26:27*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Evolution of our universe with continuous production of matter by the vacuum, is described. The analysis is based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), supported by the cosmic data without fitting. Various types of matter are selected by the vacuum in accordance with stability of the developing universe. All laws of nature seems to be emergent and approximate, including the conservation of energy. The (3+1)-dimensional space-time and gravity were selected first. Than came quantum condensate of entangled gravitons (dark matter). Photons and other ordinary matter were selected much later during formation of galaxies, when the background condensate becomes gravitationally unstable. The effect of radiation on the global dynamics is described in terms of conservation of the enthalpy density. Mass of neutrino, as the first massive fermionic particle created from the background condensate, is estimated, in accord with experimental bound. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is also estimated. The oscillations of neutrinos are explained in terms of interaction with background condensate. The phenomena of quantum entanglement of ordinary matter was, apparently, inherited from the background condensate. The phenomena of subjective experiences are also explained in terms of interaction of the action potentials of neurons with the background dipolar condensate, which opens a new window into the dark sector of matter. The Qmoger theory goes beyond the Standard Model and the Quantum Field Theory and can be combined with their achievements.
Key words: quantum modification of general relativity, emergence of the laws of nature, isenthalpic universe, quantum condensate of gravitons, oscillating neutrinos, subjective experiences and dark sector of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1712.0455 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-14 16:56:51*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: It is noticed that the sum of the s and c quarks mc^2 = 1370 MeV. 1000X this energy is close to the energy needed per second per active galaxy to energize the universe according to HCE8S theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1712.0447 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-15 07:35:21*

**Authors:** Mohammed Abdelwhab Husseiny

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, we explain why speed of light is constant for all observers by postulating that the moving frames travel to forward and backward with the same velocity with respect to observers at rest. The regress of moving frames to backward during its motion to forward refers to reversal of space and time of moving frames with respect to observers at rest. The conclusions drawn in this study refer to “Retrocausality" or "backward causation" of moving frames along reversed space and during reversed time with respect to a stationary frame of reference.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1712.0436 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-13 16:11:57*

**Authors:** Tom Hollings

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

ABSTRACT
The Equivalence principle.
"Bodies which are moving under the sole influence of a gravitational field receive an acceleration, which does not in the least depend on the material or the physical state of the body. For instance, a piece of lead and a piece of wood fall in exactly the same manner in a gravitational field (in vacuo) when they start off from rest or with the same initial velocity."
There appears to be an error in the formation of the equivalence principle (and here the author gives the evidence of that error), which when corrected would lead to a new understanding of stellar formation and planetary orbits, including an explanation of why trinary star systems are not observed - as opposed to a binary pair with another star orbiting that pair (or vice versa).
Einstein used a Gedankenexperiment with a man in a chest, to prove that falling objects of differing masses all fall at the same rate for the man in the chest who is being accelerated at a steady 9.8 m/s^2, and the man on Earth who is experiencing 9.8 m/s^2 of gravity. It can be proved that the equivalence principle does not hold when the falling object used as an example is an extremely large mass. The logical conclusion therefore is that by reducing the extremely large mass down to more normal mass values, although the objects appear to fall at the same rate, they do not, but as the difference is minute, it can be, and is, customarily ignored. This does not matter on Earth, but it does matter a great deal for planetary formation and orbits, and for stellar and galactic formation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1712.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 08:27:04*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 144 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1712.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:37:36*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

No one has ever provided mathematical evidence that unifies gravity and electromagnetism. This is an important mathematical discovery. Note that the 2 classical equations of Newton's Gravity and Coulomb's Law have a similar form. Also note that when
Limit (r) ---> 0, these 2 equations approach a singularity
This implies that our universe collapses to a single point for unification. Each reader must
comprehend that our universe literally blinks, off and on, 1.1 trillion cycles each second (1.1
THz). See my related articles, including the blinking universe calculation and 1024-QAM for
elementary particles. There are 3 mathematical approaches and 3 empirical sources that all
conclude the same idea - our universe is blinking.
As Einstein once said, "Reality is merely an illusion..." - A blinking universe would certainly
make his statement correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1712.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:43:39*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This short technical note describes an approximate mathematical solution for Time Travel involving relativity and very brief time intervals. Limitations of the solution are discussed including possible error sources. Assumptions are made for small changes in the speed of light and for the Lighthouse Frequency, which has been described in previous papers. This paper will only be meaningful to those with a background in calculus. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks off and on, approximately 1.1 trillion times every second. The solution is derived by taking the partial derivative with respect to time, of E=mc^2. Readers will note that the speed of light is not constant per NASA scientist, Dr Daniel Gezari's important 2009 paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1712.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:49:56*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short paper presents information into technology that has been used to move between two parallel universes. Described here are the technology characteristics of glowing orbs or balls of light, which have been photographed and filmed, all over the world. By utilizing the blinking frequency of our universe, it is possible to move between parallel universes. These orbs have been reported as glowing and/or pulsing and some appear to be 12 to 14 inches in diameter. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is blinking off and on, approximately 1.1 trillion cycles every second. The energy required to transit between two parallel universes is
E = Volts * Amp * sec
Where volts is proportional to the mass, and Amp*sec is the "electrical distance" or "range" between the two universes. Pictures and videos are referenced for discussion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1712.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:54:56*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short technical paper presents the first practical technology solution for traveling faster than the speed of light. Light-years of distance can be traversed by performing millions of “hops;” yet the entire distance traveled requires only a fraction of a second. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is literally blinking off and on, more than 1.1 trillion times every second.
For those unconvinced that our universe is blinking, please read “The First Periodic Table for Elementary Particles,” which provides compelling mathematical evidence.
Also see youtube: Colonel Philip Corso, THE DAY AFTER ROSWELL; author comments on the Army's investigation of the 1947 Roswell vehicle; "We were never able to figure out how the propulsion system works... We only know it has something to do with blinking." Recorded 1997.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1712.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 15:08:22*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short technical ebook describes a simple mathematical solution for unifying the four fundamental forces in nature. The fundamental forces of gravitation, electromagnetism, strong force, and the weak force are actually different aspects of the same force. In general, the relationship between the four forces can be described using a form of the equation for Analog Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (Analog-QAM). This equation form is developed utilizing the concept of a “blinking” physical universe. The approach to
develop the solution is described by minimizing the number of available dimensions (zero), which is in contrast to numerous efforts (String theory, M-theory, Quantum gravity) that attempt to maximize the number of dimensions under consideration. An Electrical Universe (EU) model is presented that provides sufficient conditions for a solution. This mathematical solution should
be tested against experimental data to confirm its validity, however it is noted that, “discrete-time” forces will be measured differently than “time-averaged” forces in a laboratory environment. Confirmation of the theory is suggested through small, discrete-time interval measurements of gravitational acceleration and the Electromagnetic Force, where they will be seen to
vary continuously, and yet also retain a “time-averaged” value. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks, off and on, more than 1 trillion cycles each second.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1712.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 15:15:48*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This short technical paper discuss a method and technology that can be utilized to minimize energy requirements for all kinds of travel. Specifically, there are three types of travel under discussion: (1) Time Travel, (2) Distance Travel, and (3) Travel between parallel universes. The method requires precise control, synchronization, and amplification of very high frequencies, which is difficult for current technology computer processors. To reduce the effective mass value or weight of a vehicle, requires extremely fast clocks, called gamma-ray clocks. These clocks operate at about 10^21 cycles per second. Each reader must comprehend that our physical universe literally blinks, off and on, more than 1.1 trillion times every second. By synchronizing an electrical signal on a vehicle with the neutral point in the blinking cycle - the effective mass of the vehicle will approach zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1712.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 16:06:01*

**Authors:** Ozan Varli

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A Hardy Consistent Representing Of Strong Hypothesis Of Theory Of Everything

Figuring out the mystery of expanding universe seems a mandatory question for today’s physicists. The space, time and dark energy are also all the same thing as we found out that the space and time are the same. Looking at observations and findings take us to one result which is consisted with specifications and behaviors of space that; anti-gravitation field named as anti-neutral field is space-time itself. This anti-neutral field expands in 3 dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1712.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 01:10:14*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Method of deriving numerous dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish)

W artykule przedstawiliśmy naszą nowatorską metodę wyprowadzania dynamik w Szczególnej Torii Względności. Metoda ta pozwala na wyprowadzenie w mechanice relatywistycznej nieskończenie wielu dynamik. Pokazaliśmy pięć przykładów takich wyprowadzeń. Wykazaliśmy w ten sposób, że dynamika znana dzisiaj jako dynamika Szczególnej Teorii Względności jest tylko jedną z nieskończenie wielu możliwych. Nie ma także żadnej podstawy, aby tą obowiązującą dynamikę relatywistyczną traktować jako wyjątkową, ani z powodów eksperymentalnych, ani z powodów teoretycznych. W związku z tym rozstrzygnięcie, która z możliwych dynamik mechaniki relatywistycznej jest prawidłowym modelem rzeczywistości pozostaje otwartym problemem fizyki.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1712.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 05:43:47*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Although Fresnel's ether drag coefficient was ad hoc, its curious confirmation by the Fizeau experiment forced physicists to accept and adopt it as the main guide in the development of theories of the speed of light. Lorentz's 'local-time' , which evolved into the Lorentz transformations, was developed to explain the Fizeau experiment and stellar aberration. Given the logical, theoretical and experimental counter-evidences against the theory of relativity today, it turns out that the Fresnel's drag coefficient may not exist at all. The Fizeau experiment and the phenomenon of stellar aberration have no common physical basis. The result of the Fizeau experiment can be explained in a simple, classical way. It is as if nature conspired to lead physicists astray for more than one century. Alternative theories and interpretations for the ether drift experiments and invariance of Maxwell's equations will be proposed. Physicists rightly assumed the invariance of Maxwell's equations, but their deeply flawed conception of light as ordinary local phenomenon led them unnecessarily to seek an 'explanation' for this invariance, which was the Lorentz transformation. Einstein went down the wrong path when he sought an 'explanation' for the light postulate, when none was needed. The invariance of Maxwell's equationsfor light is a direct consequence of non-existence of the ether and there is no explanation for it for the same reason that there is no explanation for light being a wave when there is no medium for its propagation. Constancy of phase velocity of light and rotation of the wave fronts for a moving observer, which are direct consequences of non-existence of light carrying medium, can explain the phenomenon of stellar aberration .The group velocity of light behaves in a conventional way: independent of source absolute velocity, but varying with observer absolute velocity. Light is a dual phenomenon: local and non-local. Light is a dual and quantum mechanical phenomenon. The paradoxes in classical electromagnetism, such as the moving magnet and conductor problem, arose due to incompleteness of classical electromagnetism and its wrong interpretation. The solutions to these paradoxes lay in unconventional and subtle, yet logical and natural, fundamental nature of light and electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-10 00:42:00*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weugel, Renée Veysseyre

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Two mandatory combinations from different constants gives the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, which is, apart a √2 factor, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the order of the Monster group. The square and the cube of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1712.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 08:00:34*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 46 Pages. develops a Natario warp drive which encompasses accelerations

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter that will unavoidably occurs when a ship
travels at superluminal speeds and the problem of the
Horizons(causally disconnected portions of spacetime).The
geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are the required
ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in theory.However
both the Alcubierre or Natario warp drive spacetimes always have a
constant speed in the internal structure of their equations which
means to say that these warp drives always travel with a constant
speed.But a real warp drive must accelerate from zero to a
superluminal speed of about $200$ times faster than light in the
beginning of an interstellar journey and de-accelerate again to
zero in the end of the journey.In this work we expand the Natario
vector introducing the coordinate time as a new Canonical Basis
for the Hodge star and we introduce an extended Natario warp drive
equation which encompasses accelerations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1712.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 02:32:29*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Existence of Dark Matter is proved by the flat rotation curves which show the distribution of luminous matter and dark matter when we move from the De Vaucuoleur spheroid of galaxy to the farthest points from center of galaxy. The dark matter increases as we get far from it, on the contrary, the luminous matter decreases.
There are two types of Dark Matter: 1- Baryonic Dark Matter, 2- Non-baryonic Dark Matter;
The volunteers for elements of dark matter are as follows:
1. MACHO (known as Baryonic Dark Matter)
2. Neutrinos (based on OPERA experiment, it is more probable that Tau neutrinos would be the fundamentals of dark matter), these are candidates for Non-baryonic Dark Matter, Hot Dark Matter.
3. Neutralinos (Candidate for Cold Dark Matter)
4. WIMP (Candidate for Cold Dark Matter)
Dark energy and Dark Matter are making the universe accelerating in a way that the voids get totally empty and superclusters get heavier in the universe by pushing the galaxies located at the void to the superclusters.
The primordial universe was continuous and there was no void, but as time goes and the superclusters appeared, voids appeared as well and the universe turn out to be discrete.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1712.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-07 23:35:22*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

General Relativity is solely dependent on the apparent difference in the rate of time between frames. This theory therefore attempts to explain what we are seeing in the galactic rotational velocities through relativistic effects in time rather than through Dark Matter. Properly understood, Einstein’s field equations can explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. To that end, this paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of events and spaces within the continuum, rather than the movement of particles through pre-existing, static, spaces. Gravitational fields, (dilation gradients), have different shapes around different shaped masses. Stellar systems are spherical and events appear to evolve forward at an increasingly accelerated rate as the dilation gradient deepens approaching the center of the system. In flattened spiral galaxies, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk from above and below, evolving objects forward at ~ the same rate of time and hence the same velocity. Because the mass is concentrated in the spiral arms, there is also a whipping action that also accelerates velocity. The whipping action is frame dragging. Systems between the arms are less affected by the frame dragging and have slower velocities. IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the evolution and nature of the continuum explained here-in, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1712.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 03:12:10*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A standing wave consists of two identical waves moving in opposite
direction. In a moving reference frame, this standing wave becomes a traveling wave.
Based on the principle of superposition, the wavelengths of these two opposing waves are shown to be identical in any inertial reference frame.
According to Doppler Effect, a moving wave detector will detect two different frequencies on these two waves.
Consequently, the wave
detector will detect different speeds from both waves due to the same
wavelength but different frequencies. The calculation of the speed of
the microwave in the standing wave is
demonstrated with the typical household microwave oven which emits
microwave of frequency range around 2.45 GHz and wavelength range
around 12.2 cm.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1712.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 11:40:08*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

At least three authors have proposed the concept of light as a traveling series of ‘matter waves.’ Such a concept does not require an ‘aether’ medium as does the more prevalent concept of light, if behaving as a wave, doing so analogous to other types of ‘disturbance waves,” such as sound or water. One author’s concept is examined mathematically for plausibility and, when found to be so, extended qualitatively to incorporate that of the other authors’ to at least what is hoped may be viewed as a reasonable extent.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1712.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 19:33:31*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We present an example of a gravitational plane wave pulse incident on a finite mass where conservation of energy and momentum does not hold.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1712.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-15 06:37:15*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Comments welcome.

After a brief recall of the widely known, and still unsolved problems of the coupling of gravity to matter and the transport of energy by gravitational waves (GWs), it is suggested (p. 19) that the alleged detection of GWs and black holes on 14 September 2015 (GW150914) is scientifically impossible, and can only be FRAUD. At the last section of the paper (pp. 20-23), I provide the conditions under which my conclusion can be refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1712.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 17:57:25*

**Authors:** A. Hughmann

**Comments:** Pages.

Based on a quantitative assessment of the fundamental forces and constants, we demonstrate a solution to the Constant Speed of Light V's Variable Speed of Light question. The solution provides that all physical constants begin at a point of fundamental perfection, where their values can be described in the absolute simplest terms, requiring only the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 5 to do so. We subsequently demonstrate that by inserting a Mass Variable into the model, to account for the quantity of mass interacting with our locale of space, we can transform these perfect prime based constants, to attain predictive results that are on average 99.94% in agreement with CODATA values. We conclude that the speed of light is indeed variable, as is every other physical constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1712.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-06 05:56:21*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, a general spacetime transformation from biquaternion left and right multiplications is introduced. First, it is shown that the transformation leaves the spacetime length invariant. Furthermore, the Lorentz transformation is derived as a special case of the general biquaternion transformation. Surprisingly, some commutation and anticommutation properties generally found in quantum mechanics are manifested by the biquaternion transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1712.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 01:47:24*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 2 figures

A restriction of the Boyer-Linquist model of the Kerr metric is considered that is globally hyperbolic on the space manifold R3 with the origin excluded, the quotient m/r being unrestricted. The model becomes in this process a generalization of Brillouin’s model, describing the gravitational ﬁeld of a rotating massive point particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1712.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 03:27:16*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Evolution of our universe with continuous production of matter by the vacuum, is described. The analysis is based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), supported by the cosmic data without fitting. Various types of matter are selected by the vacuum in accordance with stability of the developing universe. All laws of nature are emergent and approximate, including the conservation of energy. The (3+1)-dimensional space-time and gravity were selected first. Than came quantum condensate of gravitons (dark matter). Photons and other ordinary matter were selected much later during formation of galaxies, when the background condensate becomes gravitationally unstable. The effect of radiation on the global dynamics is described in terms of conservation of the enthalpy density. Mass and electric dipole moment of neutrino (as the first massive fermionic particle) are estimated. The oscillations of neutrinos are explained in terms of interaction with background condensate. The phenomena of subjective experiences are also explained in terms of interaction of the action potentials of neurons with the background dipolar condensate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology