[45] **viXra:1712.0673 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-07 08:29:27*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** A little upgraded version V1 and now contains two versions: Engl., pages 1-13; and Rus. Pages 14-28

In this paper the “conventions problem” in physics is considered, first of all in application to mechanics .
Key words: Space, Time, mechanics, Lorentz transformations, relativity theories, conventions

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1712.0665 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-29 14:17:56*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1712.0651 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-28 20:50:03*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The well-known Lorentz transformations are controversial and misunderstood.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1712.0646 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-28 23:39:00*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

ALFA theory has been tested successfully against many classic motion problems in physics—from Newton’s Bucket to Ruyong Wang’s FOC. Here we pick up the story by applying ALFA to the train gedanken experiment and then the light clock device of rel-ativity, with the same results as before. A practical implementation of the light clock is suggested to validate claims made herein. The analysis again supports a mobile aether that can be dragged along by ambient matter motion and a laboratory frame anywhere on the ground that can—and must—serve as an absolute frame, if the physics laws of motion are to be covariant. It’s strange that the effect of a wind vector on sound speed is well known to be ; yet the same effects—like Doppler shifts and time de-lays—are seen when …and ignored or rejected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1712.0638 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-27 15:12:41*

**Authors:** Sergio Garcia Chimeno

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Comments welcome

Demonstration how to do the light velocity c it to be the same independently of the velocity of observer and obtain the mass-energy equivalence E=mc^2 using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics.
Demonstration how to interpret it the time dilation/length contraction typical of the special relativity using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics.
Demonstration how to obtain the typical waves equation with transmission velocity c and how to obtain it through the medium for transmission of light given by the zoom-universe model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1712.0635 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-23 09:31:12*

**Authors:** Fredrick W. Cotton

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The proposed modifications of the Einstein-Maxwell equations include: (1) the addition of a scalar term to the electromagnetic side of the equation rather than to the gravitational side, (2) the introduction of a 4-dimensional, nonlinear electromagnetic constitutive tensor and (3) the addition of curvature terms arising from the non-metric components of a general symmetric connection. The scalar term is defined by the condition that a spherically symmetric particle be force-free and mathematically well-behaved everywhere. The constitutive tensor introduces two auxiliary fields which describe the particle structure. The additional curvature terms couple both to particle solutions and to electromagnetic and gravitational wave solutions. This paper corrects and expands earlier work.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1712.0602 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-26 07:01:10*

**Authors:** Arijit Bag

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, applying only Newtonian mechanics, I have made an analysis of the nature of an accelerating universe. In this
model loss of gravitational force replaces any need for dark energy to explain an accelerating universe. This model is consistent
with the Big Bang model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1712.0598 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-21 04:34:22*

**Authors:** Jonathan W. Tooker

**Comments:** 284 Pages. 96 figures, solid

The modified cosmological model (MCM) has been an active research program since 2009 and here we summarize the highlights while providing background and insights as they demonstrate mathematical merit. The main ``modification'' that underpins this work is to consider the principle of greatest action, not least, but cosmological energy functions do not appear. To accommodate infinite action, we develop a transfinite analytical framework $^\star\mathbb{C}$. In the first chapter, we define the MCM system as the union of two Kaluza--Klein theories disconnected by a topological obstruction. We identify a detail overlooked by Feynman in his ``many double slits'' thought experiment with which we directly motivate the principle of maximum action. Chapter two is mostly a review of fundamental concepts including twistors and quaternions. Much attention in chapter three is given to what are perceived as criticisms of the MCM mechanism for the unification of the theories of gravitation and quanta, and we closely examine the derivation of Einstein's equation from unrelated MCM concepts. The main technical result in chapter three is to demonstrate that dark energy and expanding space are inherent to the MCM metric and we examine the role of the advanced electromagnetic potential in ``hyperspacetime.'' Chapter four is a tour de force starting with a review of the foundations of the MCM. We extend Dirac's bra-ket to an MCM inner product for $^\star\mathbb{C}$. We continue with a study of conformal infinity and the transfinite extension into the region ``beyond conformal infinity.'' The double slit experiment gives an example of the empirical/philosophical utilities of the MCM principles and we examine their extension into the realm of numerical analysis before deriving the main result: a new formulation for the mass-energy budget of the universe that agrees perfectly with $\Lambda$CDM.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1712.0577 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-24 00:12:19*

**Authors:** Cres Huang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Space is in our hands and all around us. We have learned to manipulate matter and energy since our first existence on Earth, but never space. It is the absolute complement of the physical universe.

It is impossible to bend space since it has no boundary and surface. Space can not have boundary. Otherwise, it would separate space from something else outside of the space. Neither the boundary or surface of the space nor the outside of the space can be defined as anything other than space. On the contrarily, we can bend time by varying clock ticks. It is true for all artificial measurements.

Space has natural existence, time is artificial measurement. Space is absolutely recyclable, NEVER TIME BE RECYCLED. And, space is fundamental, it is independent of mass, energy, and everything else. Space and time can not go together.

[36] **viXra:1712.0567 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 18:41:13*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Comments welcome

Some science fiction that really about the science of theoretical physics, or the lack thereof.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1712.0553 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 13:57:54*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

If our universe is blinking, off and on, a trillion times each second, then how does time actually work? And why do we perceive sequential time, where one event follows a seeming cause and effect? This short ebook describes how time actually works, and what makes it a coherent illusion.
First, all of time is simultaneous. There is no backwards or forwards with time. When the universe blinks on, each cycle - all of time and space is newly constructed, with particles that did not exist one second ago. Sequential time is an illusion that has to do with the nature of perception and the ego.
The massive present moment contains all of time, every second of every year, past, present,
and future. When you travel thru time, you do not travel backwards or forwards. Rather, you are moving "sideways" across parallel timelines, that exist within the present moment. For those that want to solve the paradox, killing your grandfather in the past will not change your
current reality, because for each person, there are a near-infinite number of probable timelines that exist simultaneously. Graphs and references are provided. #blinkinguniverse RLighthouse.com

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1712.0552 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 14:33:50*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This short technical paper presents an alternate mathematical approach for determining the blinking frequency of our universe. The source for this
alternate idea comes from an email sent to this author in May 2015. The source author prefers to remain anonymous.
Basically, Let's think about the fundamental unit of the universe as a classical entity. The energy of such a classical entity, using the equipartition theorem, translates the number of
degrees of freedom into "units" of k_B*T (where T is the temperature and k_B is the well-known Boltzmann constant). In this way, we find that the fundamental energy is 3*k_B*T (6 d.o.f.).
We use a foundational temperature, consistent with the anthropic principle, of the freezing point (and melting point) of the essential object for existence - water. Using this temperature, we obtain a fundamental energy of ~70.6 meV.
Calculation is as follows: 70.6 meV / (\hbar \pi^4) = 1.1 THz. Note that the \pi^4
in general is \pi^D, where D is the number of spacetime dimensions in existence. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is literally blinking off and on, at 1.1 trillion times every second (THz).
For those unconvinced that our universe is blinking, please read “The First Periodic Table for Elementary Particles,” or “1024 Elementary Particles” which provides compelling mathematical evidence. Also see youtube: Colonel Philip Corso, THE DAY AFTER ROSWELL; author comments on the
Army's investigation of the 1947 Roswell vehicle; "We were never able to figure out how the propulsion system works... We only know it has something to do with blinking."

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1712.0544 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 05:36:34*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), photons and rotating neutrinos produce around them discs in the Einstein spacetime - there is obligatory the Einstein formula E = Mcc, where E is the photon/neutrino energy (the rotational energy) and M is the mass of photon/neutrino disc. In the discs, when they interact with fermions, there are created virtual pairs. Due to the quantum phenomena, the Principle of Equivalence (PE) is locally “broken” for photons with energy higher than 10 GeV - it leads to the incorrect conclusion that the deflection of high-energy photons contradicts general relativity. Here we show that general relativity describes correctly the bending of high-energy photons by masses when the weak interactions of the photon discs with matter are eliminated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1712.0535 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-26 09:31:15*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Added appendix to address conjecture of possible applicability of Halton Arp intrinsic redshift theory.

In an earlier paper, “Who Needs Dark Matter? An Alternative Explanation for the Galactic Rotation Anomaly,” this author examined a possible electromagnetic phenomenon as an explanation for the ‘galactic rotation anomaly,’ whereby the rotational speeds of stars in a spiral galaxy exhibit a relatively constant value despite increasing radius. There, this author assumed that angular rotation speed remained relatively constant, so as to preserve the stability of the spiral arms as they rotate. Several other authors’ theories were presented along with one by this author himself, which cited the magnetic field within the plane of a galaxy resulting from rotation by both the spherical galactic core and flattened ‘disk’ containing the spiral arms as possibly yielding the constant angular speed. However, many galactic rotation curves exhibit constant tangential rather than angular rotation speed, inconsistent with a ‘pinwheel-like’ galactic rotation which would preserve spiral arm stability. The possibility that this is really an ‘optical illusion’ masking the actual pinwheel-like rotation, and corresponding constancy of angular, not tangential, speed is considered here. Finally, speculation as to the phenomenon responsible for this ‘illusion’ is offered.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1712.0533 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 13:43:48*

**Authors:** Thomas Günther

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

McVittie's model, which interpolates between a Schwarzschild Black Hole and an expanding global (FLRW) spacetime, can be constructed by a simple coordinate replacement in Schwarzschild's isotropic intervall. Analogously, one gets a similarly generated exact solution of Einstein's equations based on a static transformation of de Sitter's metric. The present article is concerned with the application of this method on the AdS (Anti de Sitter) spacetime. Multiplying the radial coordinate and it's differential by a function a(t) gives the basic line element. Einstein's equations for the modified interval reduce to a system of two differential equations, which are solved in the article. The resulting solution is classified depending on the value of the cosmological constant. Several promising theories like String theorie and AdS/CFT correspondence include spacetimes with higher dimensions. Thereby motivated, the previous results of this article are generalized to D dimensions in the last section.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1712.0530 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 23:12:04*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The special theory of relativity is classically interpreted in terms of space-time symmetry, with the Lorentz transformation modifying the Galilean transformation as required to translate between 4-dimensional inertial frames as defined by Einstein and developed in relativistic texts (1..6). We begin here an energy-time asymmetrical interpretation based on multiplying the Galilean transformation by an energy factor representing the difference in energy between a system at rest and a system moving with velocity , both systems existing in one universal inertial frame. Detailed consequences of this energy-time interpretation of Lorentz-based physics will be treated in following papers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1712.0527 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-22 03:17:59*

**Authors:** Wan-Chung Hu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Angle change is not fully explained in special relativity. This article is focusing on angle change in special relativity and to derive spinity by the concept of additive angular velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1712.0505 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-18 14:55:36*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In this paper I’ll show how the relativistic effect in SRT must be observer dependent which is leading to field and retardation, and that is leading to the wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle by the vacuum fluctuation. In this I propose a new transformation by translating the retardation according to the invariance by the entanglement which is leading to the relativistic ether from the point of view of the quantum vacuum which is leading to the wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle by the vacuum fluctuation. According to my transformation, there two pictures for the moving train, and these two pictures are separate in space and time as a result of the retardation but they are entangled by the invariance of the energy momentum. That will lead also to explain the double slit experiment from the point of view of quantum theory. In my new transformation, I propose there is no space-time continuum, as in special relativity; it is only time, and space is invariant. That leads to the new transformation being vacuum energy dependent instead of relative velocity dependent as in Einstein’s interpretation of the Lorentz transformation equations of the theory of special relativity. Furthermore, the Lorentz factor in my transformation is equivalent to the refractive index in optics. That leads to the disappearance of all the paradoxes of the theory of special relativity: The Twin paradox, Ehrenfest paradox, the Ladder paradox, and Bell’s spaceship paradox. Furthermore, according to my interpretation, one could explain the experimental results of quantum tunneling and entanglement (spooky action), Casimir effect, and Hartman effect. Also according to that by my equivalence principle, dark matter and dark energy are explained, and no need to propose dark matter and dark energy, and as a consequence of that, the cosmological constant problem will be solved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1712.0491 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-18 01:03:16*

**Authors:** Andrew Thomas Holster

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In the first part we analyze a novel metric for a spherically symmetric mass distribution, here called the K-gravity metric. This has a close formal similarity to the Schwarzschild metric, but has quite distinct properties, including infinitely dispersed mass, and lack of an event horizon. In the second part we propose that this may be taken as a general alternative solution for physical gravity within GTR, resulting from an alternative interpretation of the stress-energy tensor, which is no longer 0 for empty space, and we consider the empirical differences with standard Schwarzschild gravity. We propose a novel test of GTR is in order, to test this against the usual Schwarzschild solution in the solar system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1712.0489 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-28 02:49:35*

**Authors:** John Lawrence Duval

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The only way to comprehensively refute Einstein's SRT Time Dilation idea, is to reveal the errors - both logical and trigonometric - in the thought experiment upon which it is based. This work does just that.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1712.0480 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-04 18:14:19*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed.

The article presents my innovative method of deriving dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity. This method enables to derive infinitely many dynamics in relativistic mechanics. I have shown five examples of these derivations. In this way, I have shown that the dynamics known today as the dynamics of Special Theory of Relativity is only one of infinitely possible. There is also no reason to treat this relativistic dynamics as exceptional, either for experimental or theoretical reasons. Therefore, determination of which possible dynamics of relativistic mechanics is a correct model of reality remains an open problem of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1712.0470 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-16 14:59:22*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Fixed several typos

We show that the Kerr metric for de Sitter spacetime is consistent with the demand that the associated Einstein field equations be derived from a simple conformally invariant Lagrangian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1712.0462 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-16 07:18:33*

**Authors:** Furkan Akal

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Antihesis against Dark Matter and Dark Energy Theories..

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1712.0456 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-14 16:26:27*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Evolution of our universe with continuous production of matter by the vacuum, is described. The analysis is based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), supported by the cosmic data without fitting. Various types of matter are selected by the vacuum in accordance with stability of the developing universe. All laws of nature seems to be emergent and approximate, including the conservation of energy. The (3+1)-dimensional space-time and gravity were selected first. Than came quantum condensate of entangled gravitons (dark matter). Photons and other ordinary matter were selected much later during formation of galaxies, when the background condensate becomes gravitationally unstable. The effect of radiation on the global dynamics is described in terms of conservation of the enthalpy density. Mass of neutrino, as the first massive fermionic particle created from the background condensate, is estimated, in accord with experimental bound. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is also estimated. The oscillations of neutrinos are explained in terms of interaction with background condensate. The phenomena of quantum entanglement of ordinary matter was, apparently, inherited from the background condensate. The phenomena of subjective experiences are also explained in terms of interaction of the action potentials of neurons with the background dipolar condensate, which opens a new window into the dark sector of matter. The Qmoger theory goes beyond the Standard Model and the Quantum Field Theory and can be combined with their achievements.
Key words: quantum modification of general relativity, emergence of the laws of nature, isenthalpic universe, quantum condensate of gravitons, oscillating neutrinos, subjective experiences and dark sector of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1712.0455 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-14 16:56:51*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: It is noticed that the sum of the s and c quarks mc^2 = 1370 MeV. 1000X this energy is close to the energy needed per second per active galaxy to energize the universe according to HCE8S theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1712.0436 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-13 16:11:57*

**Authors:** Tom Hollings

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

ABSTRACT
The Equivalence principle.
"Bodies which are moving under the sole influence of a gravitational field receive an acceleration, which does not in the least depend on the material or the physical state of the body. For instance, a piece of lead and a piece of wood fall in exactly the same manner in a gravitational field (in vacuo) when they start off from rest or with the same initial velocity."
There appears to be an error in the formation of the equivalence principle (and here the author gives the evidence of that error), which when corrected would lead to a new understanding of stellar formation and planetary orbits, including an explanation of why trinary star systems are not observed - as opposed to a binary pair with another star orbiting that pair (or vice versa).
Einstein used a Gedankenexperiment with a man in a chest, to prove that falling objects of differing masses all fall at the same rate for the man in the chest who is being accelerated at a steady 9.8 m/s^2, and the man on Earth who is experiencing 9.8 m/s^2 of gravity. It can be proved that the equivalence principle does not hold when the falling object used as an example is an extremely large mass. The logical conclusion therefore is that by reducing the extremely large mass down to more normal mass values, although the objects appear to fall at the same rate, they do not, but as the difference is minute, it can be, and is, customarily ignored. This does not matter on Earth, but it does matter a great deal for planetary formation and orbits, and for stellar and galactic formation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1712.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 08:27:04*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 144 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1712.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:37:36*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

No one has ever provided mathematical evidence that unifies gravity and electromagnetism. This is an important mathematical discovery. Note that the 2 classical equations of Newton's Gravity and Coulomb's Law have a similar form. Also note that when
Limit (r) ---> 0, these 2 equations approach a singularity
This implies that our universe collapses to a single point for unification. Each reader must
comprehend that our universe literally blinks, off and on, 1.1 trillion cycles each second (1.1
THz). See my related articles, including the blinking universe calculation and 1024-QAM for
elementary particles. There are 3 mathematical approaches and 3 empirical sources that all
conclude the same idea - our universe is blinking.
As Einstein once said, "Reality is merely an illusion..." - A blinking universe would certainly
make his statement correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1712.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:43:39*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This short technical note describes an approximate mathematical solution for Time Travel involving relativity and very brief time intervals. Limitations of the solution are discussed including possible error sources. Assumptions are made for small changes in the speed of light and for the Lighthouse Frequency, which has been described in previous papers. This paper will only be meaningful to those with a background in calculus. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks off and on, approximately 1.1 trillion times every second. The solution is derived by taking the partial derivative with respect to time, of E=mc^2. Readers will note that the speed of light is not constant per NASA scientist, Dr Daniel Gezari's important 2009 paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1712.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:49:56*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short paper presents information into technology that has been used to move between two parallel universes. Described here are the technology characteristics of glowing orbs or balls of light, which have been photographed and filmed, all over the world. By utilizing the blinking frequency of our universe, it is possible to move between parallel universes. These orbs have been reported as glowing and/or pulsing and some appear to be 12 to 14 inches in diameter. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is blinking off and on, approximately 1.1 trillion cycles every second. The energy required to transit between two parallel universes is
E = Volts * Amp * sec
Where volts is proportional to the mass, and Amp*sec is the "electrical distance" or "range" between the two universes. Pictures and videos are referenced for discussion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1712.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:54:56*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short technical paper presents the first practical technology solution for traveling faster than the speed of light. Light-years of distance can be traversed by performing millions of “hops;” yet the entire distance traveled requires only a fraction of a second. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is literally blinking off and on, more than 1.1 trillion times every second.
For those unconvinced that our universe is blinking, please read “The First Periodic Table for Elementary Particles,” which provides compelling mathematical evidence.
Also see youtube: Colonel Philip Corso, THE DAY AFTER ROSWELL; author comments on the Army's investigation of the 1947 Roswell vehicle; "We were never able to figure out how the propulsion system works... We only know it has something to do with blinking." Recorded 1997.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1712.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 15:08:22*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short technical ebook describes a simple mathematical solution for unifying the four fundamental forces in nature. The fundamental forces of gravitation, electromagnetism, strong force, and the weak force are actually different aspects of the same force. In general, the relationship between the four forces can be described using a form of the equation for Analog Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (Analog-QAM). This equation form is developed utilizing the concept of a “blinking” physical universe. The approach to
develop the solution is described by minimizing the number of available dimensions (zero), which is in contrast to numerous efforts (String theory, M-theory, Quantum gravity) that attempt to maximize the number of dimensions under consideration. An Electrical Universe (EU) model is presented that provides sufficient conditions for a solution. This mathematical solution should
be tested against experimental data to confirm its validity, however it is noted that, “discrete-time” forces will be measured differently than “time-averaged” forces in a laboratory environment. Confirmation of the theory is suggested through small, discrete-time interval measurements of gravitational acceleration and the Electromagnetic Force, where they will be seen to
vary continuously, and yet also retain a “time-averaged” value. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks, off and on, more than 1 trillion cycles each second.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1712.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 15:15:48*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This short technical paper discuss a method and technology that can be utilized to minimize energy requirements for all kinds of travel. Specifically, there are three types of travel under discussion: (1) Time Travel, (2) Distance Travel, and (3) Travel between parallel universes. The method requires precise control, synchronization, and amplification of very high frequencies, which is difficult for current technology computer processors. To reduce the effective mass value or weight of a vehicle, requires extremely fast clocks, called gamma-ray clocks. These clocks operate at about 10^21 cycles per second. Each reader must comprehend that our physical universe literally blinks, off and on, more than 1.1 trillion times every second. By synchronizing an electrical signal on a vehicle with the neutral point in the blinking cycle - the effective mass of the vehicle will approach zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1712.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 16:06:01*

**Authors:** Ozan Varli

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A Hardy Consistent Representing Of Strong Hypothesis Of Theory Of Everything

Figuring out the mystery of expanding universe seems a mandatory question for today’s physicists. The space, time and dark energy are also all the same thing as we found out that the space and time are the same. Looking at observations and findings take us to one result which is consisted with specifications and behaviors of space that; anti-gravitation field named as anti-neutral field is space-time itself. This anti-neutral field expands in 3 dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1712.0387 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-19 18:07:36*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed (in Polish).

W artykule pokazałem swoją nowatorską metodę wyprowadzania dynamik w Szczególnej Torii Względności. Metoda ta pozwala na wyprowadzenie w mechanice relatywistycznej nieskończenie wielu dynamik. Pokazałem pięć przykładów takich wyprowadzeń. Wykazałem w ten sposób, że dynamika znana dzisiaj jako dynamika Szczególnej Teorii Względności jest tylko jedną z nieskończenie wielu możliwych. Nie ma także żadnej podstawy, aby tą obowiązującą dynamikę relatywistyczną traktować jako wyjątkową, ani z powodów eksperymentalnych, ani z powodów teoretycznych. W związku z tym rozstrzygnięcie, która z możliwych dynamik mechaniki relatywistycznej jest prawidłowym modelem rzeczywistości pozostaje otwartym problemem fizyki.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1712.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 05:43:47*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Although Fresnel's ether drag coefficient was ad hoc, its curious confirmation by the Fizeau experiment forced physicists to accept and adopt it as the main guide in the development of theories of the speed of light. Lorentz's 'local-time' , which evolved into the Lorentz transformations, was developed to explain the Fizeau experiment and stellar aberration. Given the logical, theoretical and experimental counter-evidences against the theory of relativity today, it turns out that the Fresnel's drag coefficient may not exist at all. The Fizeau experiment and the phenomenon of stellar aberration have no common physical basis. The result of the Fizeau experiment can be explained in a simple, classical way. It is as if nature conspired to lead physicists astray for more than one century. Alternative theories and interpretations for the ether drift experiments and invariance of Maxwell's equations will be proposed. Physicists rightly assumed the invariance of Maxwell's equations, but their deeply flawed conception of light as ordinary local phenomenon led them unnecessarily to seek an 'explanation' for this invariance, which was the Lorentz transformation. Einstein went down the wrong path when he sought an 'explanation' for the light postulate, when none was needed. The invariance of Maxwell's equationsfor light is a direct consequence of non-existence of the ether and there is no explanation for it for the same reason that there is no explanation for light being a wave when there is no medium for its propagation. Constancy of phase velocity of light and rotation of the wave fronts for a moving observer, which are direct consequences of non-existence of light carrying medium, can explain the phenomenon of stellar aberration .The group velocity of light behaves in a conventional way: independent of source absolute velocity, but varying with observer absolute velocity. Light is a dual phenomenon: local and non-local. Light is a dual and quantum mechanical phenomenon. The paradoxes in classical electromagnetism, such as the moving magnet and conductor problem, arose due to incompleteness of classical electromagnetism and its wrong interpretation. The solutions to these paradoxes lay in unconventional and subtle, yet logical and natural, fundamental nature of light and electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1712.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 08:00:34*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 46 Pages. develops a Natario warp drive which encompasses accelerations

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter that will unavoidably occurs when a ship
travels at superluminal speeds and the problem of the
Horizons(causally disconnected portions of spacetime).The
geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are the required
ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in theory.However
both the Alcubierre or Natario warp drive spacetimes always have a
constant speed in the internal structure of their equations which
means to say that these warp drives always travel with a constant
speed.But a real warp drive must accelerate from zero to a
superluminal speed of about $200$ times faster than light in the
beginning of an interstellar journey and de-accelerate again to
zero in the end of the journey.In this work we expand the Natario
vector introducing the coordinate time as a new Canonical Basis
for the Hodge star and we introduce an extended Natario warp drive
equation which encompasses accelerations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1712.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 02:32:29*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Existence of Dark Matter is proved by the flat rotation curves which show the distribution of luminous matter and dark matter when we move from the De Vaucuoleur spheroid of galaxy to the farthest points from center of galaxy. The dark matter increases as we get far from it, on the contrary, the luminous matter decreases.
There are two types of Dark Matter: 1- Baryonic Dark Matter, 2- Non-baryonic Dark Matter;
The volunteers for elements of dark matter are as follows:
1. MACHO (known as Baryonic Dark Matter)
2. Neutrinos (based on OPERA experiment, it is more probable that Tau neutrinos would be the fundamentals of dark matter), these are candidates for Non-baryonic Dark Matter, Hot Dark Matter.
3. Neutralinos (Candidate for Cold Dark Matter)
4. WIMP (Candidate for Cold Dark Matter)
Dark energy and Dark Matter are making the universe accelerating in a way that the voids get totally empty and superclusters get heavier in the universe by pushing the galaxies located at the void to the superclusters.
The primordial universe was continuous and there was no void, but as time goes and the superclusters appeared, voids appeared as well and the universe turn out to be discrete.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1712.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 03:12:10*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A standing wave consists of two identical waves moving in opposite
direction. In a moving reference frame, this standing wave becomes a traveling wave.
Based on the principle of superposition, the wavelengths of these two opposing waves are shown to be identical in any inertial reference frame.
According to Doppler Effect, a moving wave detector will detect two different frequencies on these two waves.
Consequently, the wave
detector will detect different speeds from both waves due to the same
wavelength but different frequencies. The calculation of the speed of
the microwave in the standing wave is
demonstrated with the typical household microwave oven which emits
microwave of frequency range around 2.45 GHz and wavelength range
around 12.2 cm.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1712.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 11:40:08*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

At least three authors have proposed the concept of light as a traveling series of ‘matter waves.’ Such a concept does not require an ‘aether’ medium as does the more prevalent concept of light, if behaving as a wave, doing so analogous to other types of ‘disturbance waves,” such as sound or water. One author’s concept is examined mathematically for plausibility and, when found to be so, extended qualitatively to incorporate that of the other authors’ to at least what is hoped may be viewed as a reasonable extent.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1712.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 19:33:31*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We present an example of a gravitational plane wave pulse incident on a finite mass where conservation of energy and momentum does not hold.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1712.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-30 06:45:17*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Typos corrected. Comments welcome.

After a brief recall of the widely known, and still unsolved problems of the coupling of gravity to matter and the non-linear transport of mass-energy (equivalent to “200 solar masses per second”) by gravitational waves (GWs), it is concluded (p. 19) that the alleged “detection” of GWs and black holes on 14 September 2015, dubbed GW150914, is impossible, and therefore is FRAUD. I also provide various conditions under which the conclusion can be proven false and refuted. For example, regarding the origin of GW energy, if the so-called “mixed procedure” (Jose Pereira) can be derived from non-linear GW effects (MTW p. 968) due to arbitrary GW amplitude (Michele Maggiore) inducing stresses in matter (Robert Wald), say, in a plastic bottle (p. 21) at distance 1 AU from GW150914, the conclusion by Hermann Weyl on the linearized approximation of GR (p. 19) will be refuted. Then all projects in GW astronomy, including Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), will be duly vindicated, and I’ll eat my hat.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1712.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-06 05:56:21*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, a general spacetime transformation from biquaternion left and right multiplications is introduced. First, it is shown that the transformation leaves the spacetime length invariant. Furthermore, the Lorentz transformation is derived as a special case of the general biquaternion transformation. Surprisingly, some commutation and anticommutation properties generally found in quantum mechanics are manifested by the biquaternion transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1712.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-21 05:27:42*

**Authors:** Ll. Bel

**Comments:** 9 Pages. A section has been added

A restriction of the Boyer-Lindquist model of the Kerr metric is considered that is globally hyperbolic on the space manifold ${\bf R}^3$ with the origin excluded, the quotient $m/r$ being unrestricted. The model becomes in this process a generalization of Brillouin's model, describing the gravitational field of a rotating massive point particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1712.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 03:27:16*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Evolution of our universe with continuous production of matter by the vacuum, is described. The analysis is based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), supported by the cosmic data without fitting. Various types of matter are selected by the vacuum in accordance with stability of the developing universe. All laws of nature are emergent and approximate, including the conservation of energy. The (3+1)-dimensional space-time and gravity were selected first. Than came quantum condensate of gravitons (dark matter). Photons and other ordinary matter were selected much later during formation of galaxies, when the background condensate becomes gravitationally unstable. The effect of radiation on the global dynamics is described in terms of conservation of the enthalpy density. Mass and electric dipole moment of neutrino (as the first massive fermionic particle) are estimated. The oscillations of neutrinos are explained in terms of interaction with background condensate. The phenomena of subjective experiences are also explained in terms of interaction of the action potentials of neurons with the background dipolar condensate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology