[28] **viXra:1310.0262 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-11 19:51:37*

**Authors:** Arindam Sinha

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Does velocity time dilation (clock drift) depend on a body's velocity in the Center of Gravity Frame of the local gravitational system, rather than on relative velocities between bodies? Experiments that have measured differential clock rates have conclusively proven this to be true, and hinted at a gravitational origin of velocity time dilation. Extending this understanding, a generalized form of the velocity time dilation metric (Lorentz factor) including masses is derived. This allows prediction of velocity time dilation between bodies of any mass ratio, including comparable masses such as the Earth-Moon system. This is not possible using the Lorentz factor in its current form. The generalized form of the Lorentz factor remains consistent with results of all experiments conducted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1310.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-30 13:44:56*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I am 89 years old. and earned the PhD in 1954

The Standard model has SU(3)symmetry appearing only once, in the QCD theory of the strong force. A simple argument shows SU(3) symmetry is also the symmetry of life, with its 8=fold representation, and is also the symmetry of 8 stable matter particles. It is only logical to also expect 8 forces of nature but there are only five forces at present: it is proposed that 3 new forces were active only in an epoch prior to the big bang when time was not active. One force enabled the big bang itself and two forces enabled matter to pass from the previous universe into the present cosmos without violating flatness. The new theory accounts for 248 particles of revised Standard Model, in accordance with E8 symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1310.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-28 15:39:10*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Newton accidentally discovered gravity after observing an apple falling from a tree. What exactly is gravity? This article suggests a solution for the mystery of gravity. Any theory about gravity would have to be confirmed by physical experiments of course.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1310.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-26 18:49:55*

**Authors:** Michael Scott Peck

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Submitted to JCAP

Several non-fiducial cosmological tests are discussed allowing various models to be conclusively differentiated from one another. The four models tested include ΛCDM, the Friedmann-Lemaitre metric and a recently proposed steady state with and without local expansion. The cosmological tests range from redshift versus distance modulus to the angular size and time dependence of distant objects. Recent observations allow strict constraints on both the size and evolution of faint blue galaxies up to 23B. The solution to the faint blue galaxy problem is further discussed relative to size versus absolute magnitude, number densities and observations of minimal evolution. Models with expanding metrics are ruled out due to incorrect predictions of angular diameter distance and time-dependence. Observations instead depict a steady state universe with asymptotically flat gravitational potential and embedded bulk flows.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1310.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-23 13:28:13*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Application of Special Relativity’s time dilation to a perfectly symmetrical twin paradox leads to a logical inconsistency that unequivocally repudiates the theory. Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity is basically the Lorentz Transfor-
mation. The reason why the theory is invalid is simply that the Lorentz Transformation is not one that is consistent with our real physical world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1310.0202 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-25 06:39:35*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 19 Pages. The false arguments for the black hole adduced by Fromholz, Poisson, and Will are exposed in this paper. Mathematics is employed. Version [2] corrects some typographical anomalies.

In their paper titled The Schwarzschild metric: It’s the coordinates, stupid! the Authors (Fromholz, Poisson, Will, 2013) consider the so-called ‘Schwarzschild solution’ for “a vacuum, static spherical spacetime” and attempt to determine a general means by which equivalent solutions can be generated. They have however, failed to obtain this means, deriving instead by their methods only one already known equivalent form, which has no physical significance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1310.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-22 15:59:46*

**Authors:** Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

By examining the theory of relativity, we postulate that every massive particle specifies a space-time body frame in a universal entity, which may be referred to as ether. As a result, the four-dimensional theory of general accelerating motion is developed. It is seen that the relative motion of particles is actually the result of relative four-dimensional rotation of their corresponding space-time body frames. Consequently, the governing geometry of relative motion is non-Euclidean.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1310.0197 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-09 12:36:18*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 7 Pages. In the version v3 I made some improvements.

In the papers [1, 2] we presented the concept of the effective mass tensor (EMT) in General Relativity (GR). According to this concept under the influence of the gravitational field the bare mass tensor becomes the EMT. The concept of the EMT is a new physical interpretation of GR, where the curvature of space-time has been replaced by the EMT. In this paper we consider again the concept of the EMT in the GR but in the aspect of the equation of motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1310.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 02:56:02*

**Authors:** Sandro Antonelli

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Because undervalued in classical Relativity, following Ferrarese's approach, I simply expose the necessity of dealing with this topic of surface geometry as basis for extension of Einstein's theory into Tailherer's Vortex theory of gravity by the introduction of the metric deformation speed tensor.
Keywords: 2nd fundamental tensor; Tailherer's equation; Codazzi-Mainardi relations; deformation tensor; gravitational losses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1310.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-22 07:48:34*

**Authors:** Gerd Pommerenke

**Comments:** 321 Pages. German version available (please send an email)

In reference to a recently formulated idea of Lanczos a special solution of the MAXWELL equations is presented, describing a metric wave field which is the reason for all relativistic effects and gravity. Gravity can be lead back to this special electromagnetic field. Interestingly enough, the properties of this field are similar to those, the recently postulated HIGGS-field should have, to avoid violations of already secured perceptions and observations. Based on this solution, an alternative vacuum propagation function for EM-waves is developed, which describes all effects like cosmologic red-shift and the unexpected results of the SN-cosmology-experiment, completely without dark matter etc. A complete section is dedicated to the results and interpretation of the SN-cosmology-experiment. The dependencies between the fundamental physical constants, which not all are real constants are enlightened. Thus, an expression for the calculation of the Hubble-parameter only from locally accessible physical constants can be worked out. Due to the alternative propagation function, there is a special investigation of the question "Is the course of the Planck's radiation-function the result of the existence of an upper cut-off frequency of the vacuum?" in the annex. No standard model, no inflation, no dark matter, exact cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1310.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-21 14:52:42*

**Authors:** Krivosheyev O. V., Timkov V. F., Timkov S.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Hierarchic fractal structure of the Universe enabling to redefine its observed characteristics is considered. According to the hypothesis the Universe consists of an infinite number of spatial and hierarchic fractal levels of matter that are nested within each other (fractals mean self-similar events, processes and spatial forms) and represented as moving spaces, presumably of a spherical shape. Distinguished in ascending order are the following basic fractals of the Universe that are conventionally connected with the kinds of matter interaction: nuclear, atomic, electromagnetic and gravitational. It can also be assumed that there exist fractals which are older than the gravitational ones. Each fractal is characterized by finite geometrical dimensions and finite value of its own energy, consequently, by the finite value of the spatial density of energy. Whenever the lower hierarchic level fractals (nuclear) transit to the higher levels (gravitational), the space and spatial density of energy inflate, and their information variety increases (as a sum of informational variety of spatial and energy forms and their levels). At transit from the lower level fractals to the higher level fractals the energy density inflates which leads to that (i) each fractal type is characterized by the finite maximum transfer velocity of internal physical interaction, and (ii) this velocity increases. It means that the maximum transit physical interaction velocity within the gravitational fractal exceeds the velocity of light which is the maximum for the electromagnetic fractal while the maximum transit physical interaction velocity of the atomic fractal is lower than the velocity of light (it is reduced by the fine structure constant). The fractal structure of the Universe hypothesis makes it possible for the authors to put forward several other assumptions: dark energy does not exist and the apparent effect of its presence in the electromagnetic fractal as well as appearance of asymmetry between the matter and antimatter are explained by its finite geometrical dimensions, spherical shape and rotational motion of this sphere around at least one of the axes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1310.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-20 07:32:12*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskiy

**Comments:** Pages.

the results of high-precision theoretical calculations performed within the framework of the PI-Theory of the fundamental physical constants) cosmological parameters - current values of the scalar spectral index and the age of the Universe, the absolute values of the minimum and the current values of the acceleration of the Universe expansion. On the basis of the presented results of comparison of theoretical calculations with the data of the projects “WMAP” and “Planck” the assumption that the data “WMAP-only (Seven year)” (in the part of determining the current values of the scalar spectral index and the age of the Universe) rather than the results of the “Planck+lensing (Best fit)”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1310.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-14 13:45:11*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 34 pages. Canadian Journal of Physics, 2014, 92(10): 1082-1093

The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) experiment measured the geodetic precession due to parallel transport in a curved space-time metric, as predicted by de Sitter, Fokker and Schiff. Schiff included the Thomas precession in his treatment and argued that it should be zero in a free fall orbit. We review the existing interpretations regarding the relation between the Thomas precession and the geodetic precession for a gyroscope in a free fall orbit. Schiff and Parker had contradictory views on the status of the Thomas precession in a free fall orbit, a contradiction that continues to exist in the literature. In the second part of this paper we derive the geodetic precession as a global Thomas Precession by use of the Equivalent Principle and some elements of hyperbolic geometry, a derivation that allows the treatment of GP--B physics in between SR and GR courses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1310.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-14 14:56:34*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The conventional theory of everything concerns the unification of the four forces of nature: gravity, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force and electromagnetism. But some of the most fundamental aspects of nature are left out. This article raises some important points which ought to be covered by a new theory of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1310.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-13 12:55:47*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The Youtube of Bland-Hawthorn’s interview is no longer active. His interview is available here: www.abc.net.au/news2013-09-24/new-research-sheds-more-light-on-black-holes/4979088

This paper constitutes, in the form of a letter, a refutation of the allegation, reported to free public access, on the University of Sydney News Online website, that some two million years ago a black hole at Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) exploded, leaving a trail of debris in its wake. Professor Joss Bland-Hawthorn of the University of Sydney is cited in the news report, as are Astronomer Royal Professor Martin Rees, Dr. Ralph Sutherland, and Dr. Phil Maloney. In addition Professor Bland-Hawthorn was interviewed by a journalist about these claims made by he and his colleagues and this interview was posted to the World Wide Web as a Youtube presentation. Professor Bland-Hawthorn and his colleagues made numerous demonstrably false assertions to which I called their attention and sought their comments in light of the facts. Not one of them offered any defence of their false claims. Infact, only Professor Bland-Hawthorn of the four protagonists even replied to my refutation of their claims and all he offered was "please stop sending emails". Distinguished Professor Emeritus John L. Friedman, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, sent two short unscientific letters in defence of Bland-Hawthorn et al. but his replies were devoid of scientific content. Bland-Hawthorn and his colleagues made false public statements and must therefore be held accountable for their statements, but they chose instead to ignore the simple facts that completely invalidate their claims and seek refuge in silence. This article exposes the unscientific and misleading claims made by these scientists, in terms that any interested educated person can easily follow, and the methods they have adopted to evade having to account for themselves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1310.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-05 02:37:31*

**Authors:** Arindam Sinha

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

This paper reconciles General Relativity (GR) and Mach's Principle into a consistent, simple and intuitive alternative theory of gravitation. The Universe's ubiquitous background gravitational potential plays an important role in relativity concepts. This gravitational potential (energy per unit mass) far from all massive bodies is c^{2}, which determines *unit* rest mass/energy, and is the essence behind E = mc^{2}. The Universal matter distribution creates a local inertial rest frame at every location, in which the Universe gravitational potential is a minimum. A velocity in this frame increases this gravitational potential through net blue shift of Universal gravity, causing velocity time dilation, which is a gravitational effect identical to gravitational time dilation. Velocity time dilation from this increase of gravitational potential is found to be same as computed from the low velocity approximation of Lorentz factor. The current Lorentz Factor is applicable only in situations where a local potential is dominant compared to the Universe potential. Time dilation increases with velocity, but does not become boundless for general rectilinear motion in the Universe. Speed of light is not the maximum possible speed in such situations, but only in circumstances where the Lorentz Factor is the appropriate metric. Gravitational time dilation is derived first, and velocity time dilation is derived from it. The mathematics becomes much simpler and more intuitive than GR, while remaining consistent with existing experiments. Some experiments are suggested that will show this theory to be more accurate than GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1310.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-12 02:40:54*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Inspired by “Starting Point” by Steve Nadis – Discover Magazine, September 2013; and being considered by the journal “Nature”

“François Englert and Peter W. Higgs are jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 for the theory of how particles acquire mass. In 1964, they proposed the theory independently of each other (Englert together with his now deceased colleague Robert Brout). In 2012, their ideas were confirmed by the discovery of a so called Higgs particle at the CERN laboratory outside Geneva in Switzerland.” – email from “Elsevier Physics received on October 11, 2013”
François Englert and Peter W. Higgs deserve recognition for their work on the Higgs field and Higgs particle. In my opinion however, CERN has only confirmed the particle’s existence, not that it plays a role in the acquiring of mass. Albert Einstein deserves the Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 for the theory of how particles acquire mass. Of course, this is impossible for two reasons - 1) the Prize is only awarded to living people, and 2) just as scientists regarded him as "out of touch with science" in the last 30 years of his life, modern scientists still regard him as out of touch when they (unknowingly) fail to understand him. The following article of mine being considered by the journal “Nature” gives the reasons I believe he deserves the Nobel.
The inspiration for this article was an article called “Starting Point” by Steve Nadis – Discover Magazine, September 2013. “Starting Point” is about the life and theories of Ukrainian cosmologist Alexander Vilenkin. He’s responsible for introducing the ideas of eternal inflation and quantum creation of the universe from a quantum vacuum, and is currently Professor of Physics and Director of the Institute of Cosmology at Tufts University near Boston in the U.S. My article concedes that the idea of quantum fluctuation in a vacuum is valid because those fluctuations can be defined as “the temporary change in the amount of energy at a point in space”. This temporary change can be enabled by the binary digits of 1 and 0 fluctuating between states and thus serving as Virtual Particles. This causes the universe to have its creation not in a quantum vacuum as an exclusively linear concept of time would require, but in a nonlinear aspect of time with the binary digits originating in human computer technology. Ensuing solutions of cosmological puzzles from this proposal refer to the subheadings
“Digital” String Theory;
Poincare + Cosmic Strings, Wormholes And Hologram;
Steady State Universe, Big Bang Subuniverses And DNA’s Double Helix;
Newtonian / Einsteinian Space-Time Warping;
Cosmic Rays, Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays & Today’s Speed Of Light;
Electronic Infinity;
Interstellar And Intergalactic Travel;
c2 And The Atomic Nucleus;
Dark Energy And Fractal Geometry;
Dark Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1310.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-10 23:34:32*

**Authors:** Leonard William Nelson

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The mass of a photon is derived. Frequencies of light are shown to represent infinitesimal differences in speed just below c. Formulas of Newton, Einstein, Planck, Lorentz, Doppler and de Broglie for relativity, frequency, energy, velocity-addition and waveforms of matter are all linked using simple mathematical terms into a single set of formulas that all describe the same phenomena: matter, movement and energy. The physical laws governing the astronomically large are the same laws governing the microscopically small.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1310.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-08 23:18:21*

**Authors:** Justin Lee

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper presents an innovating way of deriving the special theory of relativity (SR). This paper proposes that, contrary to the popular belief, the SR is derived from the absolute inertial reference frame (AIRF). In other words, the AIRF exists and can be found. To validate the derivation, this paper uses the AIRF to explain Michelson-Morley experiment, Lorentz contraction, transverse Doppler red-shift, and time dilation. Then most importantly, a method of finding the AIRF will be revealed by examining the effect of simultaneity on the wave phases observed by a moving inertial frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1310.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-07 19:12:11*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Scientists have misinterpreted Red Shift since its inception. This paper provides the proper interpretation for Red Shift in explaining phenomena. Since Red Shift provides one of the legs of the Big Bang hypothesis, this paper and its predecessors on Vixra make the BB story untenable. The time has come for paradigm shift that properly explains Red Shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1310.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-07 08:54:06*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Big Bang is a logical impossibility in a combinatorial and holographic universe, and this paper explains this logic. In two earlier papers published on Vixra, the author discussed deficiencies of the Big Bang story. This paper gives a logical argument about the implausibility of the Big Bang in a combinatorial and holographic universe. As a scientific paradigm, little evidence has been discovered to support this hypothesis, despite eight decades of hard work by armies of physicists and astronomers. The Cosmic Microwave Background fails to support the BB story, since the author has shown that the so - called CMB is nothing more than random detections of the Thaamic Substratum at the Natural Logarithm e, or 2.718…When a paradigm fails to satisfactorily explain the phenomena it should explain, it becomes time to abandon that paradigm. Pop goes the Big Bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1310.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-16 05:36:09*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Space (or motion) has dual properties: absolute and relative. The change from absolute nature to relative nature (or vice versa) is governed by dynamic nature of space. Absolute motion is absolute and has no connection with relative motion. Absolute motion is evident only from the changes in the laws and phenomena of nature (physics). Absolute motion is relative to a dynamic absolute reference frame, but this reference frame itself depends on absolute motion!
The laws and phenomena of nature (physics) exist in their simplest forms in physical systems that are at absolute rest and become distorted / transformed in physical systems that are in absolute motion. The behavior of physical systems (such as Michelson - Morley's apparatus) can be predicted correctly only in their associated dynamic absolute reference frames. The laws and phenomena of nature (physics) depend on the absolute motion of physical systems.
The relative speed of the observer or (inertial) reference frame is irrelevant in determining the laws and phenomena of physics, and this is in accordance with Galilean invariance principle (and Einstein's two postulates).Only (absolute) motion of a physical system itself has significance. A physical system is affected by its own absolute motion and not by its motion relative motion or by the motion of an observer. In steady state, the speed of light is always equal to C, independent of the speed of the source and of the speed of the observer, in accordance with Einstein's light postulate. However, the speed of light is equal to C± Vabs in non-inertial conditions, in the imaginary dynamic absolute reference frame [1], where Vabs is the absolute velocity of the physical system (such as MM device).
The speed of the light beam in the MM device is the same C for all other inertial detectors (observers) but the speed of the same light beam is C± Vabs for the detector in the MM device. This can be explained by the dual property hypothesis: space is both absolute and relative. The behavior (fringe shift) of the MM device depends only on its own (absolute) velocity and any relative velocity of the device is irrelevant in determining the fringe shift. The behavior of physical systems (such as MM device) can be predicted correctly in the associated dynamic absolute reference frame (in all conditions, steady state or non-steady state). At steady state, the absolute velocity of the MM device is zero.
Galileo's invariance principle holds only in steady state condition. But then how else can the speed of light be the same for two observers that are in relative motion, other than the length contraction time dilation hypothesis? The theory 'Relativity of Electromagnetic Fields' [2] proposed by the present author explains this. The absolute motion of Michelson-Morley device (and hence its behavior, i.e. fringe shift) has no connection with any relative motion of the device (relative to the sun or relative to an observer's reference frame). Absolute motion of the Michelson-Morley (MM) device is evident only from a fringe shift and can be predicted only in the imaginary dynamic absolute reference frame, but this reference frame itself depends on absolute motion of the device! The unexpected null fringe shift only shows that the absolute velocity of the MM device is zero and not invalidity of absolute motion. This theory has the potential to explain and reconcile the results of many of the experiments and phenomena associated with the nature of the speed of light including the Michelson Morley experiment, Sagnac effect, Stellar aberration, ‘GPS corrections’: slow down or speed up of clocks may be connected with absolute motion and experiments confirming the source speed independence of the speed of light. This theory might also be applied to better understand planetary systems, such phenomena as 'elliptic' orbits and Mercury perihelion advance. Mercury perihelion advance and elliptic orbits may be affected by absolute motion of the solar system. This theory reconciles the ever existing notion of absolute motion with Galilean invariance principle and Einstein's two postulates.
This theory gives a hint on consciousness! A paradox in this theory can be resolved if parts of a physical system ‘know’ that they are parts of the system! Physical systems may have ‘consciousness’! The notion of absolute motion gives hint on the mystery of consciousness!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1310.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-05 18:48:35*

**Authors:** Jon Daniel Woodward

**Comments:** 90 Pages. One inspirational monologue on the importance of collectivism in the modern era of high energy.

This book came about as@@ a collection of works produced since 2000, when the website was first put online and ideas produced. The website ran for 3 years until going inactive, then it was later repurchased in 2005, and the book published the next year in the summer of 2006. The website is currently inactive but plans to go back online. Some of the author's work is inspired by David Bohm's "Quantum Theory."

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1310.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-04 19:04:36*

**Authors:** Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Addtional changes per Sergey Fedosin's feed back

Relativity’s Special and General Theory are not valid theories as constant one-way speed of light postulate is contradictory. This paper gives one page explanation that even a high school student can understand.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1310.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-03 02:19:18*

**Authors:** Antonio Leon

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This work is part of a broader discussion on digital relativity (avalaible at interciencia.es)

In spite of the fact that the reflection of light by a mirror is involved in many relativistic arguments, the relativity of the reflection itself has not been adequately addressed. In a previous work on the relativistic refraction of light we found an inconvenient involving Snell law: by assuming the refractive index does not change with relative motion, the refraction of a visible laser beam does not follow Snell law when observed in relative motion. Now it is the second law of the reflection of light which seems not to be satisfied when the reflection is observed in certain relativistic conditions. The argument is developed in basic geometry terms, without making additional physical assumption as in the case of Snell law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1310.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-02 11:22:59*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The Big Bang “Theory” evolved out of a process designed to cover up and
obscure the mistakes and fallacies of one scientific concept after another,
especially General Relativity and Special Relativity. Just like a gambler deep
in debt at the casino table, 20th
Century scientists fell deeper into error, the
more they tried to cover up their earlier mistakes. The process resulted in the
Big Bang, which unfortunately remains as the dominant paradigm of the early 21st
Century. The time has come to pop the Big Bang and end the catastrophic
efforts to revive the Frankenstein of Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1310.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-03 07:31:00*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages. Published in Physics Essays, Vol. 27 (2): 198-203, June 2014. Post-print available at http://physicsessays.org/browse-journal-2/product/622-3-radwan-m-kassir-on-special-relativity-root-cause-of-the-problems-with-lorentz-transformation.html

In a previous study,[1] the Lorentz transformation was shown to be merely a set of restricted particular equations, the application of which to events having restricted coordinates―essential for the interpretation of time dilation and length contraction―resulted in mathematical contradictions. In this paper, the particular terms, erroneously generalized in the Lorentz transformation, are replaced with their correct expressions, resulting in a transformation conforming to the speed of light postulate, but having detrimental consequences on the Special Relativity predictions. The essential anomaly in the Lorentz time transformation equations leading to their fatal contradictions is identified, and the Special Relativity “established” predictions turn out to be overwhelmingly refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1310.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-01 11:07:00*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Płotnicki

**Comments:** 11 Pages. All paragraphs in english. Some paragraphs in two languages: English//Polish

Article contains:
- very simple proof that special relativity is false,
- new postulates about every movement,
- optical relativity formulas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology