[44] **viXra:1312.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-31 09:50:03*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Background: In several previous articles it was exposed the hypothesis that matter could be considered as consisting of gravitational pulses in a six-dimensional space with anisotropic curvature. These pulses interact between them through various mechanisms, one of which is based on time velocity gradient due to gravitational time dilation. As time dilation can also be achieved by speed, physical consequences of this effect are explored.
Results Universe expansion, which can be expressed as Hubble's law, causes an effective time velocity gradient , resulting in a repulsive force between any particle-pulsation. This force is mass-independent and causes an acceleration that can be expressed by the relationship a=Ho^2*r ( approximation valid for distances up to 1000 Mpc).Since our best estimate of Hubble's constant value is 71 km/s/Mpc we can estimate the present value of the cosmological constant Lambda at a value of 5.89 10^-53 m^-2. This number is consistent with current observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1312.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-31 02:28:38*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 13 pages, 34 equations, 6 references

We consider the extension of the Schwarzschild metric to a counterpart that can describe an extended spherically symmetric stellar body with acceptable density distribution, and with a thermal profile. With a length parameter, apart from the Schwarzschild radius, the proposed metric can fit the values of density, pressure,
and temperature, at the stellar surface, and give a complete profile down to the core. Such a metric extension seems to describe a central core with an "energy-producing, explosive core", as well as an inflationary "coronal windy layer", two regions where the mean pressure seems to acquire negative magnitudes. Our illustrative computations and graphical illustrations refer to the sun as a reference example. We discuss the Schwarzschild limit of such metrical model. We also discuss the interior gravitational potential and its repulsive central core.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1312.0216 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-31 03:02:38*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, the Rindler coordinate theory’s mathematics modernizes and the Rindler coordinate theory expands to be the Rindler coordinate theory of the accelerated observer that have the initial velocity. First, find the Rindler coordinate theory with initial velocity that used the tetrad on the new method and discover the new inverse-coordinate transformation of the Rindler coordinate theory with the initial velocity. Specially, if , this theory treats that the observer with the initial velocity does slowdown by the constant negative acceleration in the Rindler’s time-space.And according to the accelerated system or the decelerated system, consider the Doppler effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1312.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-26 05:33:47*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 11 pages, 15 equations, 20 references

The radiational contributions, electromagnetic and gravitational, to energy density in the cosmological equation must be negative. This creates natural turning points for a cyclic cosmological model. The negative pressure of the electromagnetic radiation would prevent the collapse of the universe in a prior contracting
phase, while the positive pressure of the gravitational radiation would prevent it from expanding forever. Such a cosmological model avoids the problems of a singular past, and evades an ever-accelerating future. The picture is that of an oscillating universe full of stars, that eternally build and destroy the various forms of matter and life, all in a framework of energy conservation. Assuming that the temperature of microwave radiation is a true measure of the electromagnetic energy density of the universe, and that the supernovae data and redshifts are reliable, we can determine (tentatively) the parameters of our model, with an appropriate Hubble fraction of 0.50, and a deceleration parameter of 0.55, and estimate the time that passed, about 12.8 Gyr, since the initiation of the expansion phase, and the time that remains, about 1066 Gyr, before the return to contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1312.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-30 12:35:15*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper gives the self-consistent set of Q-dependent, time varying values of the basic parameters of the World: Fermi Coupling parameter, Newtonian parameter of Gravitation, Hubble’s parameter, Age of the World, and Temperature of the Microwave Background Radiation. It describes in detail the adjustment of the values of the parameters based on the World – Universe Model. The obtained set of values is recommended for consideration in CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants 2014.
Keywords: World – Universe Model, Fundamental Parameter Q , Fermi Coupling Parameter, Gravitational Parameter, Hubble’s Parameter, Temperature of Microwave Background Radiation, Size of the World, Age of the World, CODATA.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1312.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-21 10:07:25*

**Authors:** Michael Muteru

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The universe is an expression of the deepest basic laws of nature. Natural philosophy
defines Physics as the ultimate unified framework from which its mechanical principles can
be scrutinized. These foundation laws and principles of nature, express the nature of the
universe and hence the universe itself. The universe “suffers” from ‘naturalness’- It can
only be itself. The fundamental study of the universe can easily pass casually as
complexity. I herein discuss how M-theory uses longstanding problems in classical physics
which when invoked serve as solutions to a singularity theorem. From these, the form and
function of the universe can be known, ultimately solving some stubborn, questions that
linger on in Western cosmology. I examine some of these laws and principles that in my
opinion... the universe is in no hurry to amend and how they shape the properties of the

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1312.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-21 10:09:18*

**Authors:** Michael muteru

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

M-Theory is the most sure outright TOE (Theory of Everything) conjuered by modern
physics to completely describe the universe. Cosmology is an ancient art that man used to
try to understand the universe and his place in it, reason then led to an anthropocentric
universe model. A TOE of the universe precludes and does not exclude man, in its foray. Mtheory
a typical TOE too when confronted must secrete a rat of such nature, the ancients
had conjured. For a truly fundamental theory of the universe to portray reality it must
display the anthropic principle as a thumb rule of relativity. For man is an observer and

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1312.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-27 00:04:35*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 9 figures, minor edits

Ambiguity in physics makes many useful calculations impossible. Here we reexamine physics' foundation in mathematics and discover a new mode of calculation. The double slit experiment is correctly described by the new mode. We show that spacetime emerges from a set of hidden boundary terms. We propose solutions to problems including the limited spectrum of CMB fluctuations and the anomalous flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. A fascinating connection between biology and the new structure should have far reaching implications for the understanding and meaning of life.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1312.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-21 05:42:37*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages. rus (русский)

The work was not completed, and one might even say by and large, and has not begun and is just initial thoughts about the essence of existence. Many statements, thoughts in this paper are contradictory and mutually exclusive. This means that the author until there is no unambiguous, specific position on these issues. There are considerations, thoughts, conjectures, once came to a head. Maybe someday they will be developed in a more consistent and definite views. May be.

Путенихин П.В. Работа не закончена, и даже, можно сказать по большому счету, и не начата, а является лишь начальными размышлениями о сущности бытия. Многие высказывания, мысли в данной работе противоречивы и взаимоисключающи. Это означает, что у автора пока нет однозначной, определенной позиции на эти вопросы. Здесь приведены соображения, мысли, догадки, однажды пришедшие в голову. Может быть, когда-нибудь они будут развиты в более последовательные и определенные взгляды. Может быть.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1312.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 09:55:02*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. rus (русский)

Matter is eternal and infinite substance, which cannot be created or destroyed. It is continuous, that is, not consist of discrete. «Matter» is translated as «substance», but in the proposed hypothesis is two different concepts. According to this hypothesis the emergence of the Genesis, the Universe, the reality, Space and Time is not associated with a Big Bang in the classical description, is not associated with a cosmological inflation. The universe has its origin from the process «transformation matter to the substance», a kind of «crystallization» of material substance. By this process, some regions of matter are transformed into one of their many forms of the existence - substance. It can be assumed, but not necessary that this process began at a single point, which can be called the epicenter of the «Big Bang» of the Universe, its geometrical center. From this center, the wave front «transformation matter to the substance» with infinitely high speed, run on the «body» of the matter, forming the substance Universe. This wave may look the same as the shock wave from a conventional explosive device. Dimensions the formed Universe is not limited to her age and may exceed the 13.7 billion light-years. Immediately trace behind the wave front «transformation matter to the substance», the fundament of the Genesis -- matter has continued this process in the form of education «atoms of space» which we can now observe how the expansion of the distances between groups of galaxies - the expansion of space.

Путенихин П.В. Материя - вечная, несотворимая и неуничтожимая бесконечная субстанция. Она сплошная, то есть не состоит из дискрет. Материя переводится как «вещество», но в предлагаемой гипотезе - это два различных понятия. По этой гипотезе возникновение бытия, Мироздания, реальности - Вселенной, Пространства и Времени не связано с Большим взрывом в классическом его описании, не связано с космологической инфляцией. Вселенная имеет своё начало от процесса веществолизации материи, своеобразной «кристаллизации» материальной субстанции. Вследствие этого процесса некоторая область материи перешла в одну из своих многочисленных форм существования - вещественную. Можно предположить, но не обязательно, что этот процесс начался в одной точке, которую можно назвать эпицентром «большого взрыва» Вселенной, её геометрическим центром. Из этого центра фронт волны веществолизации материи с бесконечно большой скоростью разошёлся по «телу» материи, образуя за собой вещественную Вселенную. Эта волна может выглядеть так же, как ударная волна от обычного взрывного устройства. Размеры образовавшейся Вселенной не ограничены её возрастом и могут многократно превышать 13,7 миллиарда световых лет. Сразу же вслед за фронтом волны веществолизации первооснова бытия - материя продолжила этот процесс в форме образования «атомов пространства», который мы можем сейчас наблюдать как расширение расстояний между группами галактик - расширение пространства.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1312.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 10:00:08*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 16 Pages. rus (русский)

Superluminal communication and move faster than light is incompatible with the special theory of relativity. Introduction to the theory of relativity superluminal particles - tachyons (or quantino) allows movement in the past, leads to disruption of causality denies Lorentz invariance and invariance of the speed of light - the second postulate of special relativity.
The article describes a few thought experiments. Moving of superluminal particles into the past and violation of causality - this phenomenon, inherent only the special relativity. In reality no the movement in the past, and there is no violation of causality. Reinterpretation principle does not solve the problem of violation of causality in the special relativity. Non-locality allows synchronizing the clock and it shows that in the presence of superluminal communication in all inertial frames the clock runs at the same rate. Predictions of special relativity in regards to tachyon are wrong, absurd and rejects the invariance of the speed of light. Invariant's should be the speed of tachyons. In this case, there is no movement in time and violation of causality.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Передача информации и движение быстрее скорости света несовместимы со специальной теорией относительности. Введение в теорию относительности сверхсветовых частиц – тахионов (квантино) разрешает движение в прошлое, приводит к нарушению причинности, опровергает преобразования Лоренца и инвариантность скорости света – второй постулат специальной теории относительности.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1312.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 10:07:33*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. rus (русский)

Superluminal communication, move and tachyon are incompatible with the special relativity. Introduction to the special relativity superluminal particles - tachyons (quantino) allows movement to the past, leads to disruption of causality denies Lorentz invariance and invariance of the speed of light - the second postulate of special relativity. Moving of superluminal particles into the past and violation of causality - this phenomenon, inherent only the special relativity. In reality no the movement to the past and there is no violation of causality. Predictions of special relativity in regarding to tachyon are wrong, absurd and rejects the invariance of the speed of light. Invariant`s should be the speed of tachyons. In this case, there is no movement in time and violation of causality. However, in the limits of its applicability, in part of their postulates the mathematic of the special relativity is irrefutable by any thought experiments.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Сверхсветовые связь, движение и тахион несовместимы со специальной теорией относительности. Введение в теорию относительности сверхсветовых частиц - тахионов (квантино) позволяет движение в прошлом, приводит к нарушению причинности, отрицает Лоренц-инвариантность и инвариантность скорости света - второй постулат специальной теории относительности.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1312.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 10:11:54*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. rus (русский)

As evidence, allegedly to refute the special theory of relativity often cited examples from сверхсветовым movement (faster than light) light, shadow, and the like. It is erroneous arguments, because such objects do not exist. The tachyon could be in conflict with a special relativity, but he has not yet discovered.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. В качестве довода, якобы опровергающего специальную теорию относительности часто приводятся примеры со сверхсветовым перемещением (faster than light) светового пятна, тени и тому подобного. Это ошибочные доводы, поскольку таких объектов не существует. Тахион (tachyon) мог бы противоречить СТО, но он пока не обнаружен.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1312.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 07:11:12*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rus (русский)

It is possible the transmission of signals faster than light. Such a conclusion necessarily follows from a logical analysis of certain well-known physical phenomenas that are undisputed, recognized repeatedly proven experimental confirmation. This means that modern physics does not reject the possibility of creating not only a superluminal "the telegraph" (radio, television, communication), but does not reject also the matter's teleportation, ie transfer (transport) of material bodies in space, bypassing the intermediate points.

It is believed, that the special relativity does not forbid motion faster than light. This is a misconception. Communication faster than light, the tachyon - are incompatible with special relativity and with Lorentz-invariance. After the collapse of the wave function of entangled particles is transmitted quantum information faster than light. Only material carriers can produce the transfer of information. Such carrier quantum information may be named quantino.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Передача сигнала со сверхсветовой скоростью возможна. Такой вывод неизбежно следует из логического анализа некоторых широко известных физических явлений, имеющих бесспорные, общепризнанные, многократно проверенные экспериментальные подтверждения. Это означает, что современная физика не отвергает возможности создания не только сверхсветового «телеграфа» (радио, телевидения, связи), но не отвергает и материальную телепортацию, то есть перенос (транспортировку) материальных тел в пространстве, минуя промежуточные точки.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1312.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-05 08:37:27*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

According to the paradigm that existed for centuries, all thoughts and arguments in favor of (and against) absolute motion have always been associated with absolute space (or the ether) and, in fact, these two concepts have always been inseparable in our thoughts, i.e. 'absolute motion is relative to an objective absolute space'. Reconciliation of the Sagnac effect with Michelson-Morley (MM) experiment null result has always been a daunting task. The Sagnac experiments remained 'impossible' to be reconciled with all theories of relativity. This paper discloses the reason why solving this paradox remained a daunting task for almost a century: it required a paradigm shift!!! In this paper a new paradigm about motion and space is proposed: Absolute motion/ absolute space is intrinsic. Absolute motion is intrinsic to a physical object, just as consciousness is intrinsic to a conscious being. This paradigm may take us a long way, but this paper gives only a hint and much remains to be explored.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1312.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 00:55:49*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 10 pages, 15 equations, 7 references

We present a continuous counterpart to Schwarzschild's metrical model of a constant-density sphere. The new model interpolates between a central higher-density spherical concentration of mass and lower-density layers at large distance. Whereas the radial part of pressure shows a positive distribution for all
values of radial distance, the angular part of pressure shows negative magnitudes in the upper layers of low density; both pressures vanishing for infinite distance. We speculate that the negative pressure effect might be connected with stellar winds. Studying the motions of photons and massive particles in the gravity field of the continuous model shows similar, however continuous, behaviors to those described before for Schwarzschild's constant-density model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1312.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-19 06:54:40*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. rus (русский)

Statements about «peaceful coexistence» quantum theory and special relativity are unfounded. The views of these two theories on the rate of transmission of interactions are implacable and mutually exclusive. One of these two theories (or both) requires revision on the issue of the speed of interactions.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Утверждения о «мирном сосуществовании» квантовой теории и специальной теории относительности необоснованны. Взгляды этих двух теорий на скорость передачи взаимодействия являются непримиримыми и взаимоисключающими. Одна из этих двух теорий (или обе) требует пересмотра по вопросу скорости передачи взаимодействий.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1312.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-19 01:27:20*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 10 pages, 28 equations, 7 references

We study Schwarzschild's metrical model of an incompressible (liquid) sphere of constant density and note the tremendous internal pressures described by the model when applied to a stellar body like the sun. We also study the relativistic radial motion of a photon and a massive particle in the associated gravitational field, with due regard to energy conservation. We note the similarities and the differences between this case and the case of a Schwarzschild singular source with special regard to repulsive effects and penetrability.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1312.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-18 08:02:12*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 3 Pages. rus (русский)

Reviewed the essence of local realism in the spirit of Einstein and its relationship with the quantum mechanical non-locality. «Illusionary long-range action» according to Einstein, is the same phenomenon, and that a quantum «non-locality», does not contradict the special theory of relativity and fully in conformity with the local realism.

Путенихин П.В. Рассмотрена сущность локального реализма в духе Эйнштейна и его связь с квантово-механической нелокальностью. «Призрачное дальнодействие» по Эйнштейну, являющееся тем же самым явлением, что и квантовая «нелокальность», не противоречит специальной теории относительности и полностью соответствует положениям локального реализма.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1312.0129 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-19 11:27:35*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages. wrong PDF uploaded: Title has Gedankenexperiment put in place in place of thought experiment, abstract has been modified, and several typos as to the bibliography corrected, with needed formatting. The article is the same as what was submitted to Hindawi

Although very unlikely to be observed, the phenomena of particle emission by super radiance of particles/energy by a black hole is examined as a thought experiment (gedankenexperiment). In doing so, the idea is to come up with bounds to the mass of a graviton. Values for the following perturbations of space-time represented as metric gij being perturbed from flat space values by h00 , h0i, and hij make the case, due to the mass dependence of the black hole, that super radiance would almost certainly not be observable, but the considerations so evidenced in giving mass bounds to emitted particles via Padmanabhan’s derivation of super-radiance allows massive gravity to be consistent with black hole physics and GR

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1312.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-17 11:16:14*

**Authors:** Martin Lopez-Corredoira

**Comments:** 57 Pages. Accepted for publication in "Astrophysical Journal"

In order to test the expansion of the universe and its geometry, we carry out an Alcock & Paczynski cosmological test, that is, an evaluation of the ratio of observed angular size to radial/redshift size. The main advantage of this test is that it does not depend on the evolution of the galaxies, but only on the geometry of the universe. However, the redshift distortions produced by the peculiar velocities of the gravitational infall do also have an influence, which should be separated from the cosmological effect. We derive the anisotropic correlation function of sources in three surveys within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): galaxies from SDSS-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopy Survey--Data Release 10 (BOSS-DR10), and QSOs from SDSS-II and SDSS-III/BOSS-DR10. From these, we are able to disentangle the dynamic and geometric distortions and thus derive the ratio of observed angular size to radial/redshift size at different redshifts. We also add some other values available in the literature. Then, we use the data to evaluate which cosmological model fits them. We used six different models: concordance Lambda-CDM, Einstein-de Sitter, open-Friedman Cosmology without dark energy, flat quasi-steady state cosmology, a static universe with a linear Hubble law, and a static universe with tired-light redshift. Only two of the six models above fit the data of the Alcock & Paczynski test: concordance Lambda-CDM and static universe with tired--light redshift; whereas the rest of them are excluded at a >95% confidence level. If we assume that Lambda-CDM is the correct one, the best fit with a free Omega _m is produced for Omega _m=0.24^{+0.10}_{-0.07}.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1312.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-17 11:22:25*

**Authors:** Martin Lopez-Corredoira

**Comments:** 41 Pages. Accepted for publication in "Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics", in the special issue of "Philosophy of Cosmology" (2014)

I review some theoretical ideas in cosmology different from the standard "Big Bang":
the quasi-steady state model, the plasma cosmology model, non-cosmological redshifts,
alternatives to non-baryonic dark matter and/or dark energy, and others. Cosmologists do not usually work within the framework of alternative cosmologies because they feel that these are not at present as competitive as the standard model. Certainly, they are not so developed, and they are not so developed because cosmologists do not work on them. It is a vicious circle. The fact that most cosmologists do not pay them any attention and only dedicate their research time to the standard model is to a great extent due to a sociological phenomenon (the "snowball effect" or "groupthink"). We might well wonder whether cosmology, our knowledge of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other fields of physics or a predominant ideology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1312.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-17 08:12:58*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. rus (русский)

Mathematics of special relativity is not refutable. Last chance for opponents of relativism - is to try to show the discrepancy of the mathematical theory special relativity for the real physical world. There is the quantum non-locality, which requires superluminal agent - tachyon, quantino. The superluminal information transfer rejects the invariance of speed of light, and allows you to show the real physical experiment that clocks in all inertial frames synchronous, thus rejecting the second postulate of special relativity. Therefore, you should expect other experiments that show not the invariance of speed of light. The article describes one of the possible experiments to disprove the second postulate.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Математика специальной теории относительности принципиально неопровержима. Последняя возможность противников релятивизма - это попытаться показать несоответствие математической теории СТО реальному физическому миру. Существует квантовая нелокальность, которая требует наличия сверхсветового агента – тахиона, квантино. Сверхсветовая информация отвергает инвариантность скорости света и позволяет показать в реальном физическом эксперименте, что часы во всех ИСО идут синхронно, отвергая тем самым второй постулат СТО. Следовательно, следует ожидать и других экспериментов, которые прямо покажут не инвариантность скорости света. В статье рассматривается один из возможных экспериментов, опровергающих второй постулат.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1312.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-17 08:34:33*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. rus (русский)

Is approved by the identity of matter and ether, and the difference between them and substance. «Big Bang», the speed of light and quantum nonlocality is a manifestation of the properties of matter (the aether).

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Утверждается тождество материи и эфира и различие между ними и веществом. Большой Взрыв, скорость света и квантовая нелокальность – проявление свойств материи (эфира).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1312.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-16 16:55:53*

**Authors:** Douglas L. Weller

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Schwarzschild metric is rearranged to manifest inherent limitations based on the conservation of energy. These limitations indicate that a collapsing surface will not compact below a critical radius to form a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1312.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-16 07:16:45*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 14 Pages. rus (русский)

Special relativity is based, in particular, on the postulate about the invariance of the speed of light, which defies logical description and is contrary to common sense. Common sense and logic are not even allowed to simply describe the mechanics of that Foundation of the theory, the chief cornerstone of the theory - of the second postulate. Implementation of the second postulate of special relativity does not have even a schematic description: how did all this happen.

Путенихин П.В. Специальная теория относительности основана, в частности, на постулате об инвариантности скорости света, который не поддаётся логическому описанию и противоречит здравому смыслу. Здравый смысл и логика не позволяют даже просто описать механику этого основания теории, главного, краеугольного камня теории - второго постулата. Реализация второго постулата специальной теории относительности не имеет даже схематического описания: как же всё это происходит.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1312.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-16 07:33:26*

**Authors:** Demjanov V.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 11 Engl, 12 Russ.

The hypothesis "of Field materiality" of infinite space continuum contradicts everything accumulated experience in the 20th century of the finite discretely-of quantum manifestations of matter. In this paper, we will see a completely different non-Field model of materiality is not only particles, but also of Space-Time (S-T). In this paper three first the essences of material reality are connected following by chains of cause-and-effect relationships. 1)The
apriori-hidden discrete-quantized substance of the aether – the root cause of all reality, and the next two, a posteriori:
2)substance-manifestations discrete particles from the aether (the first consequence:1 of real manifestations by the quantum aether) and 3)quantum-excited by a particles electromagnetic waves (EMW) in aether with particles
(second consequence:2 manifestations aether). It was only in the distant consequences:n>2 "activities" of these three types of substances manifestations as S-T in the unknown to us forms, as well as the apparent diversity of the known real macrosystems reality. I will show that this chain of cosmological evolution explains all the known phenomenology of the world, without involving of excess of entities type "field-forms" of matter and without dualisms
"particle-wave" of the particles, "wave-particle" y EMW and without other tales.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1312.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-16 04:34:30*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. rus (русский)

Dark energy is an imaginary, illusory, not existing substance, are emulated by the process of expansion of the Universe. Space is expanding and it looks like on the galaxy operates some pushing force (energy). Running away galaxies do not change their coordinates and distance change due to the fact that between them there is a new additional space. The change in distance and manifests, looks like movement, recession of galaxies in space. This movement of galaxies accelerated, therefore it is applied some power. However, actually the galaxy's no real physical «pushing» forces did not act, therefore, accelerated motion is credited with dark energy. In turn, the energy cannot exist by itself, it can only be an attribute of any material substance. This substance represents some pretty exotic body, has antigravitational properties and, apparently, has the same name «dark energy». Substance, apparently, is distributed across the Universe and inspires mutual repulsion of galaxies without the occurrence of the forces acting on them.

Путенихин П.В. Тёмная энергия – это мнимая, иллюзорная, не существующая субстанция, имитируемая процессом расширения пространства Вселенной. Пространство расширяется и это выглядит так, будто на галактики действует какая-то расталкивающая сила (энергия). Разбегающиеся галактики не изменяют своих координат, а изменение расстояния вызвано тем, что между ними появляется новое, дополнительное пространство. Изменение расстояния и проявляется, выглядит как движение, разбегание галактик в пространстве. Это движение галактик ускоренное, следовательно, к ним приложена некая сила. Однако, на самом деле на галактики никакие реальные физические «расталкивающие» силы не действуют, поэтому ускоренное движение приписывают темной энергии. В свою очередь энергия не может существовать сама по себе, она может быть только атрибутом какой-либо материальной субстанции. Эта субстанция представляет собой некое довольно экзотическое тело, обладает антигравитационными свойствами и, видимо, имеет одноименное название «темная энергия». Субстанция, судя по всему, распределена по Вселенной и вызывает взаимное отталкивание галактик без возникновения при этом сил, действующих на них.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1312.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-15 23:04:51*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Two fields of space are needed to characterize the inertial and gravitational interactions: 1) the temporal-inertial (TI) field that is subject to gravity and is involved in the inertial reaction of matter particles and 2) the static field that is not subject to gravity, but is coupled with the TI field and counteracts the acceleration of particles of the TI field in their response to gravity. When a matter particle or an object composed of matter particles is accelerated by an external force, its motion is resisted by its acceleration relative to the TI field. This reaction force of space is the familiar inertial force. The inertial mass of an object is a measure of the object’s resistance to acceleration. We can say that the inertial mass couples the acceleration of the object to its reaction force. The feedback model of the inertial interaction exposes the existence of not one but two coupling factors that affect this interaction. In the inertial interaction, an object responds to the net force on the object, a net force that is the difference between the applied force and the reaction force. The net force is very much smaller than either the applied force or the reaction force. The second coupling factor, that I’ll call the K factor, couples this net force to the acceleration of the object. Gravity works in an analogous manner. The flux of gravitons on particles of the TI field provides a force that accelerates these particles relative to the static field and the gravitational body. Coupling between the TI and static fields resists this acceleration. The acceleration of particles of the TI field in response to gravity is thus the acceleration of gravity. Matter particles within the TI field are accelerated at the same rate as those of the TI field toward the gravitational body. Thus the gravitational force is transmitted through the intermediary of the TI field to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1312.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-14 09:34:31*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. PACS 03.67.-a, 03.30.+p, 12.38.Qk, 12.90.+b, 14.70.Bh, 14.80.-j;

ГРНТИ 29.05.15, 29.05.19, 29.05.49, 90.27.37, 59.41.71;

УДК 53.072.11, 530.145.1, 535.14, 52.08;

rus (русский);

It is proposed a physical experiment to determine the speed of propagation of quantum information of the collapse of the wave function of entangled photons. To transfer the information need the carrier. Because the speed of the carrier faster than light, this role can perform the tachyon. The superluminal carrier of quantum information is not Lorentz invariant, it is incompatible with the mathematics of the theory of relativity. In connection with this I propose option experiment to determine the rate of transfer of information on the state of entangled particles in the fixed installation within a fixed reference system. In this case, the question of invariance does not rise at all, and no need to use mathematics of the special theory of relativity.

Путенихин П.В. Предложен физический эксперимент по определению скорости распространения квантовой информации при коллапсе волновой функции запутанных фотонов. Для переноса информации необходим носитель. Поскольку скорость носителя выше скорости света, в этой роли может выступить тахион.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1312.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-14 11:34:15*

**Authors:** Henry Gu Cao, Zhiliang Cao

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Please read http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/1/6/5/index.html for additional details

A recently published paper entitled "Unified Field Theory and the Hierarchical Universe" claims that the Big Bang did not create the universe and that the universe has a hierarchical structure. Also, The Black Holes are not "black". This paper gives two pages explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1312.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-13 11:03:49*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This conjecture supports the existence of a field of particles in space that I’ll call the temporal-inertial (TI) field. This field provides a frame of reference for motion such that the acceleration of an object with respect to the field causes the familiar inertial reaction force. The inertial mass of a massive particle or object comprising massive particles is a measure of the object’s resistance to acceleration relative to the TI field. We can say that the inertial mass couples the acceleration of the object to its reactive force. Particles of the TI field permeate space including the space within atoms. A massive particle or object moving through the TI field at constant velocity experiences a constant flux of particles of the TI field and is unrestrained in its motion. If the object is accelerated, the object experiences a change in the flux. The inertial reaction force is proportional to the rate of change of flux. The rate of change in flux for a given acceleration is, relativistic effects notwithstanding, independent of the velocity of the particle. The basic coupling of a matter particle with the TI field is fixed and does not change with the velocity of the particle relative to the TI field. This coupling is the particle’s rest mass. As the velocity of a massive particle increases, its resistance to
acceleration increases in proportion to the Lorentz factor γ. This apparent increase in mass reflects an increase in the interaction of the particle with the TI field. The relativistic effect causing the increase in resistance to acceleration is length contraction of the TI field and it produces an increase in the density of particles of the TI field encountered by the massive particle. A given acceleration of an object thus produces a change in particle flux of the TI field proportional to the product of the acceleration and the Lorentz factor γ. Relativistic mass is the measure of this total resistance to acceleration at relativistic velocity. Both mass and relativistic mass are emergent properties of matter arising from the interaction between matter particles or objects comprising matter particles and particles of the TI field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1312.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-13 00:03:42*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 10 pages, 33 equations, 4 references

We give an elementary analysis of the classical motion of a particle in the spherically symmetric gravitational field of a Schwarzschild source, with due regard to energy conservation. We observe that whereas a massive particle at large distances could be attracted towards the central source, it would however encounter repulsion as it comes close to the Schwarzschild surface. We also note that there is a limited energy range for which the radial motion is ruled by attraction. An attracted incoming particle reaches a maximum speed at a specific distance greater than the Schwarzschild radius, before decelerating to zero, then bouncing back. Like the radial motion, the orbital motion around a Schwarzschild source would stop at the Schwarzschild radius. A massless photon would always be repelled, with its speed decreasing as it approaches the source, ultimately getting reflected at the Schwarzschild surface. The timing
problem associated with surface singularity is resolved by regarding particles as Schwarzschild sources themselves. We depict a picture of ideal Schwarzschild sources as mutually repulsive bubbles endowed with reflecting surfaces.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1312.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-12 07:52:06*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. rus (русский)

The basis of the SR Einstein put two principles. However, to get the Lorentz transformations and all relativistic effects, needed only one principle (postulate) - invariance of the speed of light. This principle is the cause of the Lorentz transformations, the only necessary and sufficient condition for their output, and for the proclamation of the principle of relativity and the equality of all inertial reference systems. Receipt of the Lorentz transformation from the principle of relativity is possible, but mandatory accounting principle of the constancy of the speed of light.

Путенихин П.В. В основу СТО Эйнштейн положил два принципа. Однако, для того чтобы получить преобразования Лоренца и все релятивистские следствия из них, достаточно только одного принципа (постулата) - инвариантности скорости света. Этот принцип является первопричиной преобразований Лоренца, единственным, необходимым и достаточным условием для их вывода, а также для провозглашения принципа относительности и равноправия всех инерциальных систем отсчета. Получение преобразований Лоренца из принципа относительности возможно, но при обязательном учёте принципа постоянства скорости света.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1312.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-12 08:29:17*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 30 Pages. rus (русский)

Many researchers of those wishing to refute special relativity (SR), do not seek to explore it. Mathematics SR is fundamentally irrefutable. The last possibility to refute SR - it is to try to show the inconsistency of the mathematical theory of special relativity in real physical world. And in these attempts should be based on the results of experiments in the style Marinov.

Путенихин П.В. Многие из желающих опровергнуть СТО не стремятся изучить её. Математика СТО принципиально неопровержима. Последняя возможность - это попытаться показать несоответствие математической теории СТО реальному физическому миру. И в этих попытках необходимо опираться на результаты опытов в стиле Маринова.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1312.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-21 07:17:42*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 4 pages - [v2] general revision - [v3] added discussion to s. 2.2 & reformatted

The fact that the length of an object, relative to its rest frame, is independent of the object’s spatial orientation always holds and cannot be violated or demonstrated to be otherwise by any experimental or analytical means. Therefore, this fact becomes a principle that, by definition, can be brought to the level of a physics law. However, according to the Special Relativity (SR) this law is not applicable in an inertial reference frame in relative motion with respect to the object, thus violating the principle of relativity, the SR first postulate that states: “The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference”. This violation leads to many contradictions between the SR and its first postulate. Indeed, simple thought experiments in different areas of physics are examined showing how the SR predictions result in outcomes inconsistent with the principle of relativity. Relatively moving apparatuses physical measurements such as pressure vessel discharge time, optical lens focal length, and electrical resistance are shown―according to SR―to vary with the respective apparatus orientation in the space relative to the stationary reference frame. This is merely a violation of the relativity principle, since these measurements, in line with the applicable physics laws they’re subjected to, are independent of the apparatuses orientation with respect to the reference frames they travel with (i.e. with respect to their rest frames).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1312.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-09 13:36:01*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Through an analysis rigorously logical of physical quantities, in this case the length and time, I tried to show by making use of the positional representation of natural numbers in base b, that you can get the formulas of time dilation and length contraction of Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity, and we can prove that the speed of light is an insuperable limit.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1312.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-14 17:39:45*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the hyperverse model, particles of matter are collapsed and coalesced quanta of space, created by a condensation process to conserve angular momentum and centripetal force. We have proposed that the component quanta have spin, and hypothesize here that upon particle formation, the collapsed and coalesced component quanta are fixed in orientation so that either their north or south poles face the particle center. Six coalesced vortices produce structures that can account for all charge variations, including fractional charges and anti-particles. Fractional charges are net charges, where charge is a consequence of the spin orientations. The model suggests that protons carry a hidden negative one charge, speculated to be what stops the electron from falling into the proton. We hypothesize that "condensation neutrinos" exist, neutrinos made by the natural condensation route of particle creation, and these lack the high kinetic energy of "emission neutrinos", created as a result of atomic decay and collision. Condensation neutrinos would be the most numerous particle, but difficult to detect, and may be the dark matter particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1312.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-19 15:35:30*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

We show a group of equations that appear to represent target values for the mass, radius, and number of elementary particles in the universe: the values of an 'ideal particle'. Quanta and particles are not static; they change with time. The angular momentum of the universe is continually increasing, and this requires a dynamical response to conserve angular momentum. The creation, collapse, and coalescence of quanta conserves angular momentum, resulting in the creation of particles of matter. Matter is condensed space. The increase in the gravitational potential energy of particles matches the accretion rate of energy predicted by this model. This gives a simple, universe-wide mechanism for the creation of matter, and is the reason all elementary particles, of a kind, are identical. The centripetal force of a particle of matter matches the gravitational force; they are the same entity. Gravity is the ongoing accretion of the quanta of space by particles of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1312.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-14 21:11:18*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

We explore indications that the universe is undergoing a geometric mean expansion. Developing this concept requires the creation of two quantum levels, one being the quantum of our quantum mechanics, and another that is much smaller. The generation of quanta is what allows space to expand. We find that quanta are not static entities, but change with time; for example, the energy of quanta decreases, and the number of quanta increases, with time. The observable universe grows while the quantum levels shrink, giving a simple mechanism to explain the expansion of the universe. The universe does not come from nothing; it comes from itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1312.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-19 15:30:02*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

We present a model relating the expansion of space to time. We previously modeled the universe a hyperverse, expanding into the fourth dimension at twice the speed of light. We claim here that the 2c radial expansion gives us the one-way arrow of time. We further hypothesize that the surface of the hyperverse consists of a matrix of vortices, self-similar to the observable hyperverse, and that these vortices, which have the same energy, tangential velocity, and frequency, are the building blocks of both space and matter. Their 2c radial expansion allows a quantization of time. We show that there is an energy connected to time, derived from the centripetal velocity of the vortices. Relative motion decreases centripetal velocity, and consequently, perceived frequency. The time dilation function of special relativity is derived from the ratio of the centripetal velocities of the observer and the observed. Time is created by hyperverse radial expansion and the energy and spin characteristics of the quanta of space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1312.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-14 21:40:11*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We postulate the universe to be the three dimensional surface volume of an expanding, hollow, four dimensional hypersphere, called the hyperverse. Using current measurements, we find that a hyperverse, whose surface volume matches the volume of the observable universe, has a radius of 27.7 billion light years, giving a radial expansion rate of twice the speed of light, and a circumferential expansion rate that matches the Hubble constant. We show that the Hubble constant is a measure of the increase in the energy of the universe, implying the hyperverse surface, our universe, is composed of energy. The 2c radial expansion both sets the speed limit in the universe, and is the basis of time. The hypersphere model provides a positively curved, and closed universe, and its 2c radial expansion rate, and circumferential expansion rate matching the Hubble expansion, give strong support that the universe is the 3D surface volume of an expanding 4D hypersphere.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1312.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-05 11:03:27*

**Authors:** Iván Guzmán de Rojas

**Comments:** 5 Pages. English version

In a previous publication [5] it was shown the need and usefulness of the independent scalar variable t, as an absolute time though keeping the coordinate x4=ict, where t is the relative time, in order to handle accelerated movement in Mankowski space M4. Here I show how to formalize the concept of time-arrow using the independent scalar t and thus prove that Einstein's peculiar consequence of relativity due to time dilation[2] in end effect implies no contradiction, in this manner the so called symmetrical twin's paradox[3] definitively vanishes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1312.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-06 19:17:53*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We propose a modification of Einstein-Cartan gravity equations and study the related
applications to cosmology, in an attempt to account for cosmological mass discrepancies
without resorting to dark matter. The deviation from standard model of
cosmology is noticeable when the Hubble parameter becomes comparable to or less
than a characteristic scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology