[47] **viXra:1803.0748 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-31 05:21:56*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ON THE EVE OF LHC RESTART.

DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY AND THE FUNDAMENTAL FORCES IN STANDARD MODEL.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1803.0747 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-31 06:22:55*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is possible that the relativist effects in the motion of the galaxies is the cause of the apparent dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1803.0741 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-27 06:34:14*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Version 7 in English.

This article presents the generalized Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration which can be applied in any inertial or non-inertial (non-rotating) frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1803.0733 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-30 19:41:19*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

The violation of energy conservation law is a death sentence for the General Relativity Theory (GRT). This paper investigates the correctness of the General Relativity Theory by studying the energy conservation during the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares predictions of energy conservation obtained from the GRT and from the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in the GRT is not correct, because this dependency leads to a prediction of violation of energy conservation while the MTG having a different gravitational mass dependency on velocity predicts correctly the energy conservation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1803.0721 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-29 19:40:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 19 Pages. This paper has been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

Around 14 years ago, one of these authors’s early paper was published in Apeiron Journal. The complete paper appeared on January 2004 edition, while a condensed version of CSV has been published earlier at July 2003. Among key ideas in those two papers are: (a) a nonlinear cosmology model based on Navier-Stokes turbulence equations, which then they are connected to superfluid turbulence, and (b) the superfluid turbulence can lead to superfluid quantized vortices, which can be viewed as large scale version of Bohr’s quantization rule, and (c) this superfluid quantized vortice interpretation of Bohr’s rule allow us to predict quantization of planetary orbits in solar system including new possible orbits beyond Pluto. This paper is intended as a retrospect of what happened after the publication of those papers, and also some related ideas we have developed since that time. The first author (VC) would like to express sincere gratitude to the late Prof. Robert M. Kiehn for spending precious time to read and suggest corrections to our first paper on Cantorian Superfluid Vortex model, during 2002-2003. And also to Mr. Roy Keys from Apeiron for publishing our three papers describing CSV model. It is our hope that the new proposed view will inspire younger physicists and cosmologists to develop more realistic nonlinear cosmology models, and we also hope the ideas presented here can be verified with observation data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1803.0709 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-30 12:27:40*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: It is noticed that the charm quark/strange quark mc^2 ratio is not equal to 13.5 (age of the eighth cyclic universe in billion years but is close to it (13.42). The small difference is now seen to be very important.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1803.0708 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-30 04:58:00*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Corrected transcription error of the mass of the galaxy NGC1052-DF2 (2 x 10E8 solar masses) of the article reviewed.

Since the experimental event of abnormal speeds within galaxies was discovered; the so-called dark matter is incessantly sought. But all the experiments still do not find such a ghost. Its justification is supported, in the apparent, simplest explanation: the existence of a matter additional to the baryonic matter within the galaxies. But there is another possible explanation more natural and just as simple: A modification of the gravity due to the occurrence of effects of quantum gravity produced by the repulsive acceleration of the vacuum. A repulsion of the vacuum would produce, as we demonstrated with the experiments with magnets of equal polarity, a pressure towards the center of mass and, therefore, a fictitious increase in mass. In this short article; we calculate the average speed of rotation within the newly discovered ultradiffuse galaxy NGC1052-DF2. This calculation shows that the equation, type MOND, agrees perfectly with the estimated velocities. Therefore, some voices that too quickly have announced that this galaxy (almost without dark matter or anything of it) does not agree with the theories of modified gravitation (we refer to the quantum gravitation that would quantize the equations of Einstein's gravitation, or GR); they are simply avoiding the real explanation: effects of quantum gravity produced by the vacuum (very large masses of galaxies).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1803.0680 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-28 00:45:11*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 5 Pages. -

It is known that the global constant called the speed of light, which has the meaning of the limiting data transmission speed, is used in the theory of relativity. This rate is determined using the speed of light since no higher speed has been discovered.
The constant called Hubble’s constant is also used in research. It means the rate of Universe expansion due to variation in the metrics. This rate is calculated per 1 mega parsec, but it can be calculated for any small distance.
According to the axiomatic quantum field theory, there is a distance where axiomatic statements become ineffective when they are shorter. This variable is called distance quantum. Let us calculate Hubble’s constant according to this distance. In fact, the expansion rate is increased by this variable in transition from a distance quantum to the next one.
The expansion rate and speed of light yield true data transmission speed. We have calculated the difference in the expansion rates in the different local areas. This difference leads to the difference in the forces of interaction in the different local areas, which makes it possible to discover the force that always results in attraction in all electrical interactions. The proposed calculation gives the value the order of which is close to the force of gravitational interaction.
Other properties of this new force appear in explanations for the acceleration of Universe expansion and inertia.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1803.0663 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-28 00:30:04*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A geometric version of gravity is submitted that can unify the natural dynamics of large and small scale systems. The relationship between the Gaussian gravitational constant and Planck's constant is given as a testable unified field equation. A perplexing discovery is deduced from a gravitoelectromagnetic equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1803.0656 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-25 17:50:40*

**Authors:** Zefram

**Comments:** 25 Pages. FRANCAIS

Le présent article revient sur la description relativiste du mouvement circulaire uniforme telle que donnée au paragraphe 3 de l’article «The Foudation of Général Relativity>>. Dans cette description, il n’y est pas fait mention de l’influence que peuvent avoir les phénomènes d’aberration de la lumière et l’effet Doppler sur la perception par l’observateur d’un train en rotation sur un circuit circulaire à une vitesse V c'est le modèle du circuit-looping.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1803.0653 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-25 22:16:34*

**Authors:** Jody A Geiger

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Unifying quantum and classical physics has proved difficult as their postulates are conflicting. Using the notion of counts of the fundamental measures—length, mass, and time—a unifying description is resolved. A theoretical framework is presented by which a conversion between expressions from quantum and classical physics can be made. With this framework dilation expressions for both special and general relativity are now possible that are valid for the entire measurement domain. This is accomplished with a new approach to equivalence that does not require the equivalence principle. As such, we recognize gravity as a special case of the existing laws of motion. In addition to the self-referencing measure expressions of the inertial frame, we also introduce a mathematical framework of self-defining expressions, measure defined against the universe as a system. With this, we may now describe dark energy, dark matter and the expansion of the universe. We also present expressions for the initial quantum fluctuation, inflation, the trigger event that causes inflation to cease and the integral role of relativity in the birth of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1803.0632 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-24 01:36:58*

**Authors:** Alexey V. Melkikh

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A model of the expansion of the universe is proposed, based on the assumption that the universe in its early stages was not in a hot state but in a pure, metastable quantum state. This assumption makes it possible to solve the basic paradoxes of standard cosmology from the unified positions and within the framework of the standard model, namely, the horizon problem, the flatness problem of the universe, the problem of the absence of monopoles, and the problem of the predominance of matter over antimatter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1803.0630 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-24 04:07:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

A team led by researchers María José Caturla and Carlos Untiedt, from the University of Alicante Department of Applied Physics, have studied the importance of relativistic effects on long-range interactions between objects. [27] The theory of the Breit-Wheeler process says it should be possible to turn light into matter by smashing two particles of light (photons) together to create an electron and a positron. However, past attempts to do this have required the addition of other high-energy particles. [26] Dr. Pascal Del'Haye and his team at NPL have created an optical version of a diode that transmits light in one direction only, and can be integrated in microphotonic circuits. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1803.0624 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-24 13:41:51*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A geometric version of gravity is submitted that can unify the natural dynamics of large and small scale systems. The relationship between the Gaussian gravitational constant, Planck's constant, and the speed of light is given as a unified field equation that can be tested with numerous predictions. A solution for dark matter is deduced and empirical evidence is provided. Anti-gravity is shown to be possible and a perplexing discovery is made in the conclusion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1803.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-22 02:13:09*

**Authors:** Eran sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s field equations , mass curves space time and curvature of space-time dictates the gravitational field around the mass. This article tries to show a paradox that leads to the conclusion that if the gravitational field increases in a local region of the universe ,anti –gravity must increase throughout the universe to prevent a catastrophe that might lead to the end of space-time and information.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1803.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-21 15:28:01*

**Authors:** Roger J Anderton

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Einstein’s Relativity is not well-defined; especially special relativity is not well-defined. I will deal with some examples of where it is not well-defined, but there are many other places it is not well-defined. Unfortunately, people seem predisposed that when they encounter a place in Einstein’s writings that is vague they then make different guesses as to what they think must have been meant; and so, come up with different interpretations of what they think Einstein’s relativity “is” instead of recognizing that it is not well-defined. Thus, when dealing with Einstein’s relativity what people engage in is mathematical modelling i.e. Einstein’s relativity is more a mathematical model than it is a theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1803.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-20 07:50:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

The theory of the Breit-Wheeler process says it should be possible to turn light into matter by smashing two particles of light (photons) together to create an electron and a positron. However, past attempts to do this have required the addition of other high-energy particles. [26] Dr. Pascal Del'Haye and his team at NPL have created an optical version of a diode that transmits light in one direction only, and can be integrated in microphotonic circuits. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1803.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-21 03:42:58*

**Authors:** Mitali

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The difference between observed and expected values of velocity discrepancy in mid 1930s gave
rise to the problem of missing mass in galaxies. Further extra mass calculated from the
gravitational lensing effect also supported strongly in favor of missing mass, called dark matter.
However, this non-baryonic matter has not been detected directly. Meanwhile, effect of
gravitational waves energy from galaxy and result of its angular momentum on rotational curve
of spiral arms in outskirts of galaxy is not taken into consideration. Here, it is discussed how
gravity waves energy can eliminate the necessity of dark matter and can explain the
observational facts which are thought to be purely effect of dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1803.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-18 15:25:25*

**Authors:** Jerzy Hanckowiak

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The possible conclusions resulting from the huge speed of massless
objects and certain remarks related to continuity in physics accompanying
revolutionary changes are presented. We also show the relationship of the
constant velocity of waves propagating in a vacuum with the principle of
relativity. We also mention abduction reasoning (retroduction) in science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1803.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-18 16:03:04*

**Authors:** Mohammed Abdelwhab

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is known that space expands at an increasing rate. In this paper we find that phenomenon of space expansion with accelerated rate can be well explained and understood if we postulate that "empty space have a velocity and its velocity is decreased or slowdown with time, this deceleration makes the meter in past is contracted with respect to the meter in present and second in past is dilated with respect to the second in present. The slowdown of space itself means that length contraction and time dilation are decreased with time, the decreasing in length contraction is observed as space expansion because the light travels from the more contracted space to the less contracted space, while decreasing in time dilation of the universe is observed as time speedup because the light travels from a space with more dilated time to another space with less dilated time. Motion of space itself with different velocities opens the door in front of a new branch of relativity called "empty space relativity" that is refer to change of scales of length and time of the empty space along the timeline of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1803.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-18 01:45:55*

**Authors:** Ranganath G. Kulkarni

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is found that mass and time are absolute quantities. If the psuedo force is acting, then the mass of the body is constant at all instants of time. We can distinguish the type of force acting on the body. Therefore equivalence principle is not correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1803.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-16 10:32:34*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

No abstract needed for this elementary proof.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1803.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-15 13:42:56*

**Authors:** Sergio Garcia Chimeno

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Two previous "letters" in vixra joined in an article

Demonstration of how to do that the light velocity c be the same independently of the velocity of the observer and obtain the mass-energy equivalence E = mc^2 using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics.
Demonstration of how to interpret it the time dilation/length contraction typical of the special relativity using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics.
Demonstration of how to obtain the typical waves equation with transmission velocity c and how to obtain it through the medium for transmission of light given by the zoom-universe model.
Demonstration of how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations without using the Stress-Energy Tensor, without using the Bianchi Identities and without using the Energy Conservation to obtain it.
Demonstration of how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations only using the Gauss Curvature and the zoom universe model characteristics.
Gravity in zoom universe model.
Special relativity zoom.
General relativity zoom.
Sphere and Hypersphere example to understand it better.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1803.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-21 15:03:20*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Static gravity alone accounts for the observation of the double tides on opposite sides of the earth and the different range of the lunar and solar tides. When the centrifugal acceleration of the Earth’s orbital speed is added to the gravitational accelerations, the HelioC theory is exposed as fictitious. There is no evidence of a centrifugal acceleration ...or force... in the tidal behavior. This agrees with other GC tests, like Newton’s Bucket, Sagnac’s rotor and R. Wang’s linear Sagnac version. Conversely, there are no proofs by scientific method testing or realistic interpretation that the Earth orbits the Sun. The rise and fall of the tides around the world is a semi-diurnal repetitive demonstration of the Earth’s central position in the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1803.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-15 09:47:56*

**Authors:** Bruce Nappi

**Comments:** 244 pages, 30 figures

Space Lattice Theory is a study of the fundamental structure of the universe. The study asks what that structure might be like if, instead of being mostly an empty void, space is a densely packed, crystal-like Lattice, and the existence and interaction of what we call matter is due to movable defects or dislocations in the Lattice. This theoretical study found that a dislocation model could produce a comprehensive set of simple, visualizable explanations for most of the concepts of physics, including many that are currently unanswered. It explains matter, time, cause and effect, energy, and how energy converts to matter. It explains gravity and electric and magnetic fields; how they can be physical realities, and how they could work.

Space Lattice Theory supports a “big bang”-like beginning for a 3-D “visible” universe, explaining how it could easily emerge from what appears to be the nothingness of space, but without having to change any laws of physics. Puzzles like the particle-wave nature of photons are explained. Problems with current theories for subatomic particles, cosmology and Special Relativity are discussed. New models are suggested.

Most significantly, Space Lattice Theory presents a comprehensive model for the Grand Unification of all forces and matter in the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1803.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-15 12:26:45*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

Using four variables, we replicate the logic in and confirm the refutation of Stephen J. Crothers for the special theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1803.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-15 12:47:07*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: A more complete and improved forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle shown.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1803.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-14 13:08:33*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Pythagorean Theorem, combined with the analytic geometry of a right circular cone, has been used by H. Minkowski and subsequent investigators to establish the 4-dimensional spacetime continuum associated with A. Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. Although the mathematics appears sound, the incorporation of a hyper-cone into the analytic geometry of a right triangle in Euclidean 3-space is in conflict with
the rules of pure mathematics. A metric space of n dimensions is necessarily defined in terms of n independent coordinates, one for each dimension. Any coordinate that is a combination of the others for a given space is not independent so cannot be an independent dimension. Minkowski-Einstein spacetime contains a dimensional coordinate, via the speed of light, that is not independent. Consequently, Minkowski-Einstein spacetime does not exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1803.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-14 20:57:49*

**Authors:** douG Snell

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Keywords: Cosmological Redshift, Hubble Expansion, Relativity, Gravity, covariance.

Abstract- This paper is an analysis of three data sets modeled to represent the physical processes of single mass points in a well defined geometric space. The First data set represents gravitational contraction modeled as derivative of Einstein Field Equation(s), a well confirmed accepted equation with theory. The Second data set modeled is a reverse of the First data set. This is a model of the physical processes of expansion of single mass points in well defined space using the reverse of First data set’s modeled physical processes. The Third data set represents the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project cosmological redshift data set modeled as single mass points, representing the Hubble expansion. All three data sets are modeled with respective physical processes, represented by 3 dimensional cubes with vector arrows plotted, then analyzed by comparison of three individual single dimension slices of each of the three data set models. The three dimensional slices are analyzed, comparing one slice from each of the x, y z axis with each of the three data sets. The Second data set when compared to the Third data set provides significant findings. The Third data set indicates physical processes limited to a single dimension, the z axis, giving a appearance of a self-centered expansion. The First and Second data set Point of View analysis indicate no contradiction, the Third data set Point of View analysis indicates a contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1803.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-26 17:31:06*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover new vacuum solution by Einstein’s gravity field equation in general relativity theory. We investigate the new coordinate in general
relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1803.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-14 12:54:14*

**Authors:** William JE Brown

**Comments:** 117 Pages.

Although mathematically basic, the geometrical principles enshrined within Edwin Abbott Abbott’s 1884 work, Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions are unyieldingly consistent, and although Albert Einstein did not directly credit EA Abbott in Part III of his 1916 popular work Relativity, he deployed the little Flatlanders to great effect assuring us that ‘the three-dimensional spherical space is quite analogous to the two-dimensional spherical surface’. In this series of 15 concise scientific essays we will follow through on the simplicity and consistency of Abbott’s approach. Deriving from Flatland a set of named principles [Appendix 1] which are held to be true of the geometrical relationships between (n-1)D, nD, and (n+1)D, these are brought to bear on the contemporary scientific paradigm with the aim of exploring the potential for a consistent dimensional structure for the whole of nature. Flatland extrapolation through 1/2/3/4D reveals the action of the temporal dimension to be a product of the dimensional viewpoint of the observer; time is therefore not intrinsic to the 4th Dimension. The dimensional structure thus derived exists as a fundamental framework for all of nature, of which combinations of length, width, height, and time merely exhibit properties. Within this structure the universe emerges at the level of the 3rd Dimension (observable) and 4th Dimension (global), adhering strictly to Flatland principles applied spherically throughout. The model described is the finite 3-sphere of Einstein, with the crucial difference that observer and origin are located at antipodean centres (poles) of the 3-hemispheres, rendering the whole ‘observer-centric’. Without altering constants, GR, or QM, the model solves the horizon problem of CMB uniformity, explains the 1998 distant SNe Ia light anomaly, shows the universe to have net zero gravity (explaining so-called dark energy), reveals the correct mechanism behind expansion, shows in terms of information transfer why both gravity and light exist at c, describes the mechanism by which the universe diminishes to a Big Bang singularity, and provides a theoretical basis for the Equivalence principle. In the process it dispenses with infinity, superluminality, Cosmic Inflation, the G/DE knife-edge, recent acceleration, and the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1803.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-15 19:50:42*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The universe is enormous and it looks endless to us, but a clue tells us that it must also have a shell. That clue is the speed properties of light, they are similar to the properties of a transfer speed of a medium. A transfer speed of a medium is an internal speed that can only be found in a medium with a shell, and that tells us that the universe is a medium with some kind of a shell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1803.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-11 04:53:55*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Transformation of the new relativistic space-time theory based only on the single Galileo’s
relativity principle is derived using the method of academician Logunov A.A.
Keywords: New relativistic space-time theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1803.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-27 21:40:15*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Through a further analysis on the problem of charge radius of muonic hydrogen, the enormous complexity of the ether is highlighted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1803.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-10 03:12:47*

**Authors:** Franz Unterleitner

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The focus of this work is on an integration constant which appears when the geodesic equations for the Schwarzschild solution are solved directly.
The constant has a dimension of speed-squared and is interpreted as vacuum energy.
When it is set to zero, the solution is Newtonian in the far limit, otherwise it causes orbital velocities to be constant in the long range, explaining flat rotation curves.
The literature is rich of examples where the four geodesic equations are solved, but the constant was not produced.
This is because the direct solution one of the geodesic equations was avoided and an `equivalent` equation was solved instead.
In this work the direct solution is achieved by using an integrating factor which results in the hitherto unknown integration constant.
The existence of fossile disks in the velocity profiles of galaxies is interpreted as a consequence of the vacuum energy decreasing in time.
Again, in short: The geodesic equations in their geometric form are second order differential equations.
They deliver additional integration constants when they are integrated to first order.
Not all of the constants survive, but one of them does and when it is not deliberately set to zero it saturates velocities at far distances.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1803.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-07 00:31:21*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A stellar system of two identical stars in orbital motion
is chosen to manifest a physics law, conservation of momentum, in Special Relativity.
Both stars move around each other in a non-circular orbit.
The single gravitational force between two stars demands that total momentum of
this stellar system remains constant in any inertial reference frame in which
the center of mass moves at a constant velocity.
The calculation of total momentum in two different inertial reference frames shows that
the momentum expression from Special
Relativity violates conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1803.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-10 11:51:12*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon, S.A.Podosenov, A.A.Potapov, E.Menkova

**Comments:** 135 Pages.

In present article the original proposition is a generalization of the Einstein's world tensor g ij by the introduction of pure inertial field tensor g ac ij such that R α μνλ (g ac ij )≠0 .Bimetric theory of gravitational-inertial field is considered for the case when the gravitational-Inertial field is governed by either a perfect magnetic fluid.In a series of papers published during the past decade with respect to Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system [71]-[75],it has been experimentally shown that the relative energy shift ΔE/E between the source of resonant radiation (situated at the center of the rotating system) and the resonant absorber (located on the rotor rim) is described by the relationship ΔE/E=−ku 2 /c 2 , where u is the tangential velocity of the absorber, c the velocity of light in vacuum, and k some coefficient, which -- contrary to what had been classically predicted equal 1/2 (see for example [35]) -- turns out to be substantially larger than 1/2. It cannot be stressed enough that the equality k=1/2 had been predicted by general theory of relativity (GTR) on account of the special relativistic time dilation effect delineated by the tangential displacement of the rotating absorber, where the "clock hypothesis" by Einstein (i.e., the non-reliance of the time rate of any clock on its acceleration [35]) was straightly adopted. Hence, the revealed inequality k>1/2 indicates the presence of some additional energy shift (next to the usual time dilation effect arising from tangential displacement alone) between the emitted and absorbed resonant radiation. By using Bimetric Theory of Gravitational-Inertial Field [76] we obtain k=0.625 in a good agreement with experimental result k=0.69 [75].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1803.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-06 11:51:29*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. In German

A proposal of an experiment to check the validity of the Lorentz transformations. Lorentz's interpretation of the experiment by Michelson and Morley is logical in the sense of geometric optics. But the light consists of the electromagnetic waves. This leads to conflict, if we recall that the electromagnetic fields can interact with charged particles. A vivid experiment can leave the validity of the Lorentz transformations regardless of the existence of the ether wind. Fourth figure shows the experimental setup.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1803.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-05 21:17:37*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An aspect of the continuum paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1803.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-31 23:59:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 68 Pages. For book lovers, the printed version is available at https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/unification-of-science/isbn/978-613-9-57823-8

A MONOGRAPH DEALING WITH UNIFICATION IN RELATION TO DARK ENERGY, DARK MATTER, COSMIC EXPANSION, E= mc2, QUANTUM GRAVITY, "IMAGINARY" COMPUTERS, CREATION OF THE INFINITE AND ETERNAL UNIVERSE USING ELECTRONIC BITS + PI + "IMAGINARY" TIME, EARTHLY EDUCATION, SCIENCE-RELIGION UNION, THE HUMAN CONDITION, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, PLANETARY FIELDS, HOW GRAVITATION CAN BOOST HEALTH, SPACE-TIME PROPULSION FROM THE EMDRIVE TO THE BROUWER FIXED-POINT THEOREM, "LIGHT MATTER", ETC. THESE EFFECTS WERE ORIGINALLY DISCUSSED IN SEVERAL SHORT INTERNET ARTICLES.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1803.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-05 08:02:12*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

its about the dual properties of matter

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1803.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-05 00:51:20*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A physical system of a mechanical spring
is chosen to manifest a physics law, conservation of momentum, in Special Relativity.
Two identical objects are attached to the ends of this mechanical spring.
The single force between two identical objects demands that total momentum of
this physical system remains constant in any inertial reference frame in which
the center of mass moves at a constant velocity.
The calculation of total momentum in two different inertial reference frames shows that
the momentum expression from Special
Relativity violates conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1803.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-03 12:03:58*

**Authors:** R. G. Chester

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Tensegrity structures exhibit several counterintuitive behaviors. Among these is expansion resulting solely from internal tension. Replacing the physical tendons of a six-strut tensegrity icosahedron with classical gravitational attraction suggests that universal accelerated expansion may be due to ordinary gravity acting solely as an inverse second-power attractive force. Speculation is included on the ultimate fate of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1803.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-01 08:43:28*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Attempt to discredit the GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1803.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-02 01:45:47*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Is perfectly known, that the Einstein has disapproved the Black Hole solutions. It was horrible to have an divergence, the infinities (BH, BB) in the equations? The Einstein has assumed Matter conservation during the derivation of GR, but it is violated in the consequences: BH, BB. Thus, the GR is wrong. Recall, the Nikola Tesla (who was blessed by his father, Eastern Orthodox Christian) that Nikola was in disagreement with Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1803.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-02 14:53:45*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the history of physics, momentum has been represented by two expressions.
One from Issac Newton, the other from Special Relativity. Both expressions are expected
to describe a physical system that demands conservation of momentum. By examining
the gravitational force between two identical particles in two different inertial reference frames,
the momentum expression from Issac Newton
is found to obey conservation of momentum while the momentum expression from Special
Relativity is found to violate conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1803.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-26 12:18:00*

**Authors:** Ratikanta Das

**Comments:** 17 pages

Important features of our new four-dimensional model are -
1. Four-dimensional cosmology and physics go together. 2. Our universe is four dimensional filled with two kinds of four dimensional (4D) hyper spherical particles. 3. Fundamental particles are created from these 4D particles when four-dimensional space deforms locally. 4. Every object in universe moves as wave due to local transverse motion of these 4D particles. 5. Fundamental particles have special 4D structures with infinite extent which justifies electromagnetic and gravitational influence of one fundamental particle on another at very large distance from it (there is no such device in our 3D model to justify mechanism of action at a distance) . 6. Schrödinger equation is related to the 4D structure of fundamental particle which justifies its successful applications in physics. 7. The 4D wave pulse of a fundamental particle is more appropriate to resolve wave-particle duality of matter than that done by a wave packet of 3D model. 8. The equation of 4D wave pulse is used for a short derivation of de Broglie hypothesis (our traditional physics does not derive this). 9. The net energy of the 4D structure of a fundamental particle that is formed satisfying some equilibrium conditions determines its mass (explanation of origin of mass by Higgs mechanism is not free from criticism). 10. The model also describes a four-dimensional classical technique (named as spiral transformation) for conversion of radiation into matter and vice versa. Standard model does not give us a classical picture of this phenomenon. 11. Addition and removal of matter-energy along a 4D spiral path ensures reversibility of spiral transformation process which explains reversible nature of emission with absorption and pair production with annihilation. 12. The model also gives an expression for unified Coulomb and strong force. It explains why electron-positron pair annihilates but electron-proton pair forms a stable combination and why n-n or p-p combination is unstable in spite of strong attractive force but n-p combination (deuteron) is stable. 13. As per our new model charge is not a quantity that can be distributed over a fundamental particle. Concept of charge arises from the Coulomb force on the fundamental particle which is found to be independent of its size and dependent on its shape. This new concept is responsible for equal magnitude of charges (±e) of fundamental particles of different masses shape being similar for all. 14. New model resolves the puzzle behind dual nature of radiation by assuming photon as a 4D hyper surface wave of finite length(There is no single classical picture in traditional physics to describe nature of light, we have to accept both photon model and wave model ).15. Existence of spin quantum number is consistent with extra space dimension. 16 New model also hints how neutron is created from electron and proton.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology