Quantum Gravity and String Theory


Einstein's Missing Steps in E=mc2 and His Missing Link to Quantum Gravity

Authors: Rodney Bartlett

E=mc2, General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are the major themes of this article. Throughout the article, a few equations show the missing steps in E=mc2. These steps could not be included in the original equation because that was developed before things like superconductivity and wave-particle duality were discovered. Of course, things would be different if Einstein knew how to access Quantum Gravity or the Unified Field Theory he spent his last 30 years working on. A complete unified theory that includes everything in space-time (time is emphasized here) has practical applications. It gives us some understanding of the laws that govern the universe* - including the unknown (when E=mc2 was published in 1905) laws of superconductivity and wave-particle duality. The article starts with John Bardeen's comment that "The idea of paired electrons, though not fully accurate, captures the sense of it." He's referring to the mechanism by which superconductivity works (he shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physics for this). That topic goes beyond paired electrons with wave-particle duality (which includes electromagnetic waves but also the paired electrons). The subsection on superconductivity ends with explanation of planetary magnetism and accounting for the electric fields of the planets. *Mathematical and non-mathematical expression of that understanding can both contribute to knowledge. The progress of science does not depend on writing in a certain fashion, but on presenting insights clearly and in an extremely thorough and careful way. We might allow ourselves to think knowledge can only advance through the jargon and maths this tiny bit of history we live in calls scholarly writing. But then we merely validate what German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) said: “A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.” ― Max Planck, "Scientific Autobiography and Other Papers" From there, it goes on to quantum-macroscopic union and speaks of gravitational / electromagnetic waves sharing properties with water waves. This leads to new interpretation of the motions of photons and gravitons (this is a new interpretation of John Wheeler's geon or "gravitational electromagnetic entity", an electromagnetic or gravitational wave which is held together in a confined region by its own nature). Such new motion deletes the concepts of universal expansion, dark energy and dark matter. Then a paper published by Albert Einstein in 1919 is mentioned which is titled "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" (Prof. Wheeler's speculation that there's a relationship between geons and elementary particles supports this). Soon after the final formulation of general relativity, Einstein pointed out the need for a quantum modification of the theory. In later years, Einstein hoped a unified theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields would explain the quantization of matter and energy. Both approaches appear valid. This article proposes that (1) the Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory and the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (TIQM) modify electromagnetic and gravitational waves to produce quantum modification, and (2) that electromagnetic and gravitational fields would be unified in the sense that the waves composing each field would possess both "retarded" and "advanced" components. The forwards and backwards movement can cancel to produce a quantum entanglement, and thus quantization. The result of this modification might well be modification of understanding of the strong and weak nuclear forces, as well as of the Higgs field. And if the ideas of TIQM-advanced/retarded waves should lead to someone developing a viable, formal theory of quantum gravity; that theory could test the idea of a relationship between geons and elementary particles. Headings have been added which outline the basics of (a) the Higgs-gravity relation (even though such an idea is supposed to be completely wrong) and (b) how, using quantum spin of the photon and graviton, both the Higgs boson and matter particles can be produced (the basic ideas behind production of the photons and gravitons themselves in a lab is explained, too). I've read that it is very hard to write down logically sound theories. My literal mind interprets this to mean mathematics is almost always essential. My mind also interprets it as a challenge – write down the science of spin interaction using plain English, with maths no more complex than 1 divided by a half.

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[v1] 2018-03-06 00:50:19

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