[26] **viXra:1002.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 feb 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** Eight pages, two figures. Template for submission to Beyond the Standard Model
2010 conference proceedings. May be cut to five papes, pending decision as to length of
submission decision by Professor Hans Klaptor Kleingross, overall chair of Beyond the Standard
Model, as given in http://www.phy.uct.ac.za/beyond2010/

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe
in both four and five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis upon if four and five dimensional
geometries as given below give us new physical insight as to cosmological evolution. The author
finds that both cases give equivalent reacceleration one billion years ago which leads to an inquiry if
other criteria as to cosmology can determine the benefits of adding additional dimensions to
cosmology models

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1002.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 7 pages.

The bias against Wheeler-Feynman retro-causal advanced waves from a future absorber, a general
lack of understanding of when the asymptotically constant de Sitter horizon is in our subjective
observable causal diamond piece of the multiverse, Hawkings chronology protection conjecture, and
the lack of comprehension of the strange implications of the tHooft-Susskind hologram principle [i]
have not allowed us to see what is in front of our eyes since the discovery of dark energy energy
accelerating the expansion rate of 3D space ten years or so ago. Bernard Carr [ii] has already
published a brief account of my idea that retrocausality is the key to understanding the biggest
problem in physics today why the dark energy density is so small. My paper with Creon Levit
(NASA AMES) [iii] based on my brief talk at DICE 2008 further developed that idea. This paper,
is still a simpler explanation of why the virtual boson dark energy density is so small and how
it is intimately connected to the Arrow of Time of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. [iv] The
basic idea is so simple that any bright curious schoolboy or girl can grasp it without too much
difficulty. Our universe grows from one qubit at the moment of inflation to an asymptotically
constant de Sitter horizon hologram screen ~ 10^{123} qubits that is also the upper limit to the
total thermodynamic entropy of our observable universe in the precise sense of Tamara Daviss
2004 Ph.D. dissertation at the University of New South Wales. The early universe is obviously
not de Sitter, therefore, we have already there an obvious temporal asymmetry explaining the
Arrow of Time. The dark energy density we see in our past light cone is proportional to the
inverse area of our future de Sitter horizon at its intersection with our future light cone in
accord with the Wheeler-Feynman retrocausal absorber principle. [v] Our future de Sitter null
horizon is the Wheeler-Feynman total future absorber of last resort giving us retrocausality
without retrocausality similar to the nonlocality without nonlocality of the no cloning a quantum
or passion at a distance of orthodox quantum theorys signal locality. The link between our future
and our past is a globally self-consistent time loop in the sense of Igor Novikov. Indeed, this
is a bootstrap of self-creation from future to past. The past dark energy density is indeed the
Planck density at the moment of inflation, but Tamara Daviss Fig 5.1 shows that this density
quickly drops to the small constant value that has been dominant in the past few billion years
bearing in mind that what matters, is not the spacelike intersection at a constant conformal
time, but, rather, the intersection of the observers future light cone with his future dark
energy horizon. However, although I have not yet proved that the dark energy seen in our past
light cone is really advanced Hawking radiation from our future observer-dependent de Sitter
cosmic horizon that is, in addition, likely to be a holographic (post) quantum computer not in
sub-quantal equilibrium. I have given a plausible argument that this may turn out to be true.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1002.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 26 Pages. An equation of a 5D General Relativity ansatz included in the beginning of section 2 and minor changes in the text

We demonstrate how Rest Masses and Electric Charges are generated by the 5D Extra Dimension
of a Universe possessing a Higher Dimensional Nature using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in agreement
with the point of view of Ponce De Leon explaining in the generation process how and why antiparticles
have the same rest mass m_{0} but charges of equal modulus and opposite signs when compared to particles
and we also explains why both annihilates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1002.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Larissa Borissova

**Comments:** 37 pages, Published in "The Abraham Zelmanov Journal", vol.2, pp. 224-260 (2009).

This seminal study deals with the exact solution of Einstein's field equations for a sphere of incompressible
liquid without the additional limitation initially introduced in 1916 by Karl Schwarzschild, according to
which the space-time metric must have no singularities. The obtained exact solution is then applied to the
Universe, the Sun, and the planets, by the assumption that these objects can be approximated as spheres of
incompressible liquid. It is shown that gravitational collapse of such a sphere is permitted for an object
whose characteristics (mass, density, and size) are close to the Universe. Meanwhile, there is a spatial
break associated with any of the mentioned stellar objects: the break is determined as the approaching to
infinity of one of the spatial components of the metric tensor. In particular, the break of the Sun's space
meets the Asteroid strip, while Jupiter's space break meets the Asteroid strip from the outer side.
Also, the space breaks of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are located inside the Asteroid strip (inside the Sun's
space break).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1002.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:** 16 pages, Published in "The Abraham Zelmanov Journal", vol.2, pp. 208-223 (2009).

This study applies the mathematical method of chronometric invariants, which are physically observable
quantities in the four-dimensional space-time (Zelmanov A.L., Soviet Physics Doklady, 1956, vol.1, 227-230).
The isotropic region of the space-time is considered (it is known as the isotropic space). This is
the home of massless light-like particles (e.g. photons). It is shown that the isotropic space rotates
with a linear velocity equal to the velocity of light. The rotation slows in the presence of gravitation.
Even under the simplified conditions of Special Relativity, the isotropic space still rotates with the
velocity of light. A manifestation of this effect is the observed Hubble redshift explained as energy
loss of photons with distance, for work against the non-holonomity (rotation) field of the isotropic
space wherein they travel (Rabounski D. The Abraham Zelmanov Journal, 2009, vol.2, 11-28). It is shown
that the light-speed rotation of the isotropic space has a purely geometrical origin due to the space-time
metric, where time is presented as the fourth coordinate, expressed through the velocity of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1002.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:** 18 pages, Published in "The Abraham Zelmanov Journal", vol.2, pp. 11-28 (2009).

In General Relativity, the change in energy of a freely
moving photon is given by the scalar equation of the isotropic geodesic
equations, which manifests the work produced on a photon being
moved along a path. I solved the equation in terms of physical observables
(Zelmanov A. L., Soviet Physics Doklady, 1956, vol. 1, 227-230)
and in the large scale approximation, i.e. with gravitation and deformation
neglected, while supposing the isotropic space to be globally
non-holonomic (the time lines are non-orthogonal to the spatial section,
a condition manifested by the rotation of the space). The solution
is E = E_{0} exp(-Ωat/c), where Ω is the angular velocity of the
space (it meets the Hubble constant H_{0} = c/a = 2.3x10^{-18} sec^{-1}),
a is the radius of the Universe, t = r/c is the time of the photon's
travel. Thus, a photon loses energy with distance due to the work
against the field of the space non-holonomity. According to the solution,
the redshift should be z = exp(H_{0} r/c)-1 ≈ H_{0} r/c. This solution
explains both the redshift z = H_{0} r/c observed at small distances
and the non-linearity of the empirical Hubble law due to the exponent
(at large r). The ultimate redshift in a non-expanding universe,
according to the theory, should be z = exp(π)-1 = 22.14.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1002.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Robert Gallinat

**Comments:** 5 pages, v1 is in German, v2 is in English

Conceptual approach and heuristic method for an investigation of
the possible algebraic structure of the interdependence between
mathematical and physical reality and about the connection between
local, non-local and global properties in physics and mathematics,
expressed by a general n-fold algebra

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1002.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Martín López-Corredoira, F. Sylos Labini, J. Betancort-Rijo

**Comments:** 5 pages, accepted to be published in A&A

Aims. Several authors have claimed to detect a significant cross-correlation between microwave WMAP anisotropies and the SDSS
galaxy distribution. We repeat these analyses to determine the different cross-correlation uncertainties caused by re-sampling errors
and field-to-field fluctuations. The first type of error concerns overlapping sky regions, while the second type concerns nonoverlapping
sky regions.
Methods. To measure the re-sampling errors, we use bootstrap and jack-knife techniques. For the field-to-field fluctuations, we use
three methods: 1) evaluation of the dispersion in the cross-correlation when correlating separated regions of WMAP with the original
region of SDSS; 2) use of mock Monte Carlo WMAP maps; 3) a new method (developed in this article), which measures the error as
a function of the integral of the product of the self-correlations for each map.
Results. The average cross-correlation for b > 30 deg. is significantly stronger than the re-sampling errors - both the jack-knife and
bootstrap techniques provide similar results - but it is of the order of the field-to-field fluctuations. This is confirmed by the crosscorrelation
between anisotropies and galaxies in more than the half of the sample being null within re-sampling errors.
Conclusions. Re-sampling methods underestimate the errors. Field-to-field fluctuations dominate the detected signals. The ratio of
signal to re-sampling errors is larger than unity in a way that strongly depends on the selected sky region. We therefore conclude that
there is no evidence yet of a significant detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. Hence, the value of
Ω_{Λ} ≈ 0.8 obtained
by the authors who assumed they were observing the ISWeffect would appear to have originated from noise analysis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1002.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 8 pages. Published Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 3-9, 2004 and SAO and NASA Astrophysics Data System

In a new theory gravity called the dynamic theory, which is derived from
thermodymical principles in a five dimensional space, the deflection of a light signal is
calculated and compared to that of general relativity. This is achieved by using the dynamic
gravity line element which is the usual four dimesional space-time element of Newtonian
gravity modified by a negative inverse radial exponetial term. The dynamic theory of gravity
predicts this modification of the original Newtonian potential by this exponential term.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1002.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 5 pages. Published Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vo. 12 No. 2, 2002

A relation for the black-hole temperature in a De-Sitter type universe is determined in the
first step of this paper. As a result of that, the upper and the lower temperature limits of the black
hole are calculated, and then the limits of the radius of the universe containing the black hole. All
these calculations are based upon the present values of the cosmological constant Λ. Further
relations for the dependance of this temperature on Hubble's constant and the gravitationsal
energy of the hardons was also derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1002.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 9 pages. Published Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1, 2002 and SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System.

In this paper we are going to examine the effect, if any exists, that a
modification of the Schwarzchild metric by a lamda term could have on the so called
Sakharov's upper temperature limit. It's known that Zakharov's limit is the maximum
possible black body temperature that can occur in our universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1002.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Akindele O. J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 19 pages, 13 pages, published in Progress in Physics, 2010, vol.1, 49-61

The two-world background of the Special Theory of Relativity started in part one of
this article is continued in this second part. Four-dimensional inversion is shown to be
a special Lorentz transformation that transforms the positive spacetime coordinates of a
frame of reference in the positive universe into the negative spacetime coordinates of the
symmetry-partner frame of reference in the negative universe in the two-world picture,
contrary to the conclusion that four-dimensional inversion is impossible as actual transformation
of the coordinates of a frame of reference in the existing one-world picture.
By starting with the negative spacetime dimensions in the negative universe derived in
part one, the signs of mass and other physical parameters and physical constants in the
negative universe are derived by application of the symmetry of laws between the positive
and negative universes. The invariance of natural laws in the negative universe is
demonstrated. The derived negative sign of mass in the negative universe is a conclusion
of over a century-old effort towards the development of the concept of negative
mass in physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1002.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Akindele O. J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 19 pages, published in Progress in Physics, 2010, vol.1 30-48

A new sheet of spacetime is isolated and added to the existing sheet, thereby yielding a
pair of co-existing sheets of spacetimes, which are four-dimensional inversions of each
other. The separation of the spacetimes by the special-relativistic event horizon compels
an interpretation of the existence of a pair of symmetrical worlds (or universes)
in nature. Further more, a flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime that underlies the
flat four-dimensional spacetime in each universe is introduced. The four-dimensional
spacetime is outward manifestation of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime, just as
the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) on four-dimensional spacetime is mere outward
manifestation of the intrinsic Special Theory of Relativity (φSR) on two-dimensional
intrinsic spacetime. A new set of diagrams in the two-world picture that involves relative
rotation of the coordinates of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime is drawn and
intrinsic Lorentz transformation derived from it. The Lorentz transformation in SR is
then written directly from intrinsic Lorentz transformation in φSR without any need to
draw diagrams involving relative rotation of the coordinates of four-dimensional spacetime,
as usually done until now. Indeed every result of SR can be written directly from
the corresponding result of φSR. The non-existence of the light cone concept in the
two-world picture is shown and good prospect for making the Lorentz group SO(3,1)
compact in the two-world picture is highlighted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1002.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** Published, Galilean Electrodynamics, vol. 18, SPI/3,pp. 49-53, 2007

The most important tool for the study of the gravitational field in Einstein's theory of gravity is his
field equations. In this short paper, we demonstrate the derivation of Einstein field equations for
the Freedman cosmological model using the Robertson-Walker metric, and furthermore Harrison's formula
for the Ricci tensor. The difference is that Harrison's formula is an actually shorter way of obtaining
the field equations. The advantage is that the Cristoffel symbols do not have to be directly calculated
one by one. This can actually be a very useful demonstration for somebody who would like to understand
a slightly different but faster way of deriving the field equations, something that is actually rarely
seen in many of undergraduate and even graduate textbooks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1002.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Constantinos Ragazas

**Comments:** 4 pages

Planck's constant h is considered to be a fundamental Universal constant of Physics.
And although we can experimentally determine its value to great precision, the reason
for its existence and what it really means is still a mystery. Quantum Mechanics has
adapted it in its mathematical formalism, as it also has the Quantum Hypothesis. But
QM does not explain its meaning or prove its existence. Why does the Universe need h
and energy quanta? Why does the mathematical formalism of QM so accurately reflect
physical phenomena and predict these with great precision? Ask any physicists and
uniformly the answer is "that's how the Universe works". The units of h are in
energy-time and the conventional interpretation of h is as a quantum of action. But
in this brief note we take a different view. We interpret h as the minimal accumulation
of energy that can be manifested in our measurements. Certainly the units of h agree
with such interpretation. Based on this we provide a plausible explanation for the
existence of Planck's constant, what it means and how it comes about. We show that
the existence of Planck's constant is not so much dictated by the Universe but rather
by Mathematics and the inner consistence and calibrations of Physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1002.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 6 pages, Published: Serbian Astronomical Journal, no. 168, 2004, 49-54.

There is a new theory gravity called the dynamic theory, which is
derived from thermodynamic principles in a five dimensional space, radar signals
travelling times and delays are calculated for the major planets in the solar system,
and compared to those of general relativity. This is done by using the usual four
dimensional spherically symmetric space-time element of classical general relativistic
gravity which has now been slightly modified by a negative inverse radial exponential
term due to the dynamic theory of gravity potential.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1002.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Michael Harney, Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 3 pages, Published: Progress in Physics, vol. 4, pp. 16-18, 2008 .

The proposal for dark energy based on Type Ia Supernovae redshift is examined. It is
found that the linear and non-Linear portions in the Hubble Redshift are easily explained
by the use of the Hubble Sphere model, where two interacting Hubble spheres sharing
a common mass-energy density result in a decrease in energy as a function of distance
from the object being viewed. Interpreting the non-linear portion of the redshift curve
as a decrease in interacting volume between neighboring Hubble Spheres removes the
need for a dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1002.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Michael Harney

**Comments:** 8 pages, Romanian Astronomical Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, 2009 and and SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System.

We derive quantization relations in the case when torsion effects are added in a De-Sitter
spacetime metric with or without a black hole at the Planck mass and Planck length limit.
To this end we use Zeldovich's definition of the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1002.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Spiros Pagiatakis

**Comments:** 7 pages, Published: Astrophys Space Sci., Jan 22, 2010, DOI 10.1007/s10509-010-0274-5.

We study the effects of a non-singular gravitational potential on satellite orbits by
deriving the corresponding time rates of change of its orbital elements. This is achieved
by expanding the non-singular potential into power series up to second order. This series
contains three terms, the first been the Newtonian potential and the other two, here R1
(first order term) and
R2 (second order term), express deviations of the singular potential from the Newtonian.
These deviations from the Newtonian potential are taken as disturbing potential terms in
the Lagrange planetary equations that provide the time rates of change of the orbital
elements of a satellite in a non-singular gravitational field. We split these effects
into secular, low and high frequency components and we evaluate them numerically using
the low Earth orbiting mission Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). We show
that the secular effect of the second-order disturbing term R2 on the perigee and the
mean anomaly are 4".307*10^{-9}/a, and -2".533*10^{-15}/a, respectively. These effects are
far too small and most likely cannot easily be observed with today's technology. Numerical
evaluation of the low and high frequency effects of the disturbing term R2 on low Earth
orbiters like GRACE are very small and undetectable by current observational means.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1002.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 11 Aug 2011*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 7 pages

The Sun’s orbital motion around the Solar System barycentre contributes a small quadrupole
moment to the gravitational energy of Mercury. The effect of this moment has until now
gone unnoticed, but it actually generates some precession of Mercury’s orbit. Therefore the
residual 43arcsec/cy, currently allocated to general relativity, has to account for this new
component as well as a reduced relativity component.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1002.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Michael Harney

**Comments:** 6 pages, Published: Progress in Physics, vol. 3, pp. 3-8 , 2008.

General Relativity predicts the existence of relativistic corrections to the static Newtonian
potential which can be calculated and verified experimentally. The idea leading
to quantum corrections at large distances is that of the interactions of massless particles
which only involve their coupling energies at low energies. In this short paper we
attempt to propose the Sagnac intrerferometric technique as a way of detecting the relativistic
correction suggested for the Newtonian potential, and thus obtaining an estimate
for phase difference using a satellite orbiting at an altitude of 250 km above the surface
of the Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1002.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Michael Harney

**Comments:** 6 pages, Published, Progress in Physics, vol. pp. 1-5, 2008

Using a non-singular gravitational potential which appears in the literature we analytically derived
and investigated the equations describing the precession of a body's spin orbiting around a main
spherical body of mass M. The calculation has been performed using a non-exact Schwarzschild solution,
and further assuming that the gravitational field of the Earth is more than that of a rotating mass.
General theory of relativity predicts that the direction of the gyroscope will change at a rate of 6.6
arcsec/year for a gyroscope in a 650 km high polar orbit. In our case a precession rate of the spin of
a very similar magnitude to that predicted by general relativity was calculated resulting to
a ΔS_{geo}/S_{geo} =-5.570*10^{-2}

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1002.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Borissova L., Rabounski D.

**Comments:** 118 pages, 2nd edition, published by Svenska fysikarkivet, 2008

This is a research on all kinds of particles, which could be conceivable in the space-time of
General Relativity. In addition to mass-bearing particles and light-like particles, zero-particles
are predicted: such particles can exist in a fully degenerate space-time region (zero-space).
Zero-particles seems as standing light waves, which travel in instant (non-quantum teleportation
of photons); they might be observed in a further development of the "stopped light experiment" which was
first conducted in 2001, at Harvard, USA. The theoretical existence of two separate regions in the
space-time is also shown, where the observable time flows into the future and into the past (our
world and the mirror world). These regions are separated by a space-time membrane wherein the
observable time stops. A few other certain problems are considered. It is shown, through Killing's
equations, that geodesic motion of particles is a result of stationary geodesic rotation of the
space which hosts them. Concerning the theory of gravitational wave detectors, it is shown that
both free-mass detector and solid-body detector may register a gravitational wave only if such a
detector bears an oscillation of the butt-ends.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1002.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Borissova L., Rabounski D.

**Comments:** 260 pages, 2nd edition, published by Svenska fysikarkivet, 2009

In this book, we build the theory of non-geodesic motion of particles in the space-time of
General Relativity. Motion of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field is constructed
in curved space-time (in contrast to the regular considerations held in Minkowski's space of
Special Relativity). Spin particles are explained in the framework of the variational
principle: this approach distinctly shows that elementary particles should have masses
governed by a special quantum relation. Physical vacuum and forces of non-Newtonian
gravitation acting in it are determined through the lambda-term in Einstein's equations.
A cosmological concept of the inversion explosion of the Universe from a compact object
with the radius of an electron is suggested. Physical conditions inside a membrane that
separates space-time regions where the observable time flows into the future and into the
past (our world and the mirror world) are examined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1002.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Martín López-Corredoira

**Comments:** 44 pages, accepted to be published in Int. J. Mod. Phys. D

Assuming the standard cosmological model as correct, the average linear size of galaxies
with the same luminosity is six times smaller at z = 3.2 than at z = 0, and their average
angular size for a given luminosity is approximately proportional to z^{-1}. Neither the
hypothesis that galaxies which formed earlier have much higher densities nor their luminosity
evolution, mergers ratio, or massive outflows due to a quasar feedback mechanism
are enough to justify such a strong size evolution. Also, at high redshift, the intrinsic
ultraviolet surface brightness would be prohibitively high with this evolution, and the
velocity dispersion much higher than observed. We explore here another possibility to
overcome this problem by considering different cosmological scenarios that might make
the observed angular sizes compatible with a weaker evolution.
One of the models explored, a very simple phenomenological extrapolation of the
linear Hubble law in a Euclidean static universe, fits the angular size vs. redshift dependence
quite well, which is also approximately proportional to z^{-1} with this cosmological
model. There are no free parameters derived ad hoc, although the error bars allow a
slight size/luminosity evolution. The type Ia supernovae Hubble diagram can also be
explained in terms of this model with no ad hoc fitted parameter.
WARNING: I do not argue here that the true Universe is static. My intention is
just to discuss which theoretical models provide a better fit to the data of observational
cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1002.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 38 pages, Spanish language

The connected theory solves the problem to the dark substance of
the theory of general relativity of Einstein.
What is the substance? Do we see the world and create theories, or we create
theories and observe the world? The real solution to the crisis of contemporary physics
will be a physico-philosophical question or...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology