Relativity and Cosmology

1302 Submissions

[22] viXra:1302.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-28 09:58:34

Special Relativity and Newtons Axioms

Authors: Hartmut Schwab
Comments: 11 Pages.

It is demonstrated in three independent ways that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) describes an effect derived from a misinterpreted thought experiment, i.e. an effect not existing and therefore is disproved. Time remains absolute and there is no necessity of a space-time continuum. The best known effects modelled by the SRT until now are described by classical Newtonian physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21] viXra:1302.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-28 12:06:04

Special Relativity and Newtons Axioms (German)

Authors: Hartmut Schwab
Comments: 11 Pages. original German paper

@@It is demonstrated in three independent ways that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) describes an effect derived from a misinterpreted thought experiment, i.e. an effect not existing and therefore is disproved. Time remains absolute and there is no necessity of a space-time continuum. The best known effects modelled by the SRT until now are described by classical Newtonian physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20] viXra:1302.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-24 11:09:29

How Much Degrees Of Temperature A Warp Drive Achieves When At Superluminal Speeds?? The Analysis Of Gonzalez-Diaz Applied To The Natario Warp Drive Spacetime

Authors: Fernando Loup
Comments: 11 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity.There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$.The warp drive seems to be very attractive because allows interstellar space travel at arbitrarily large speeds avoiding the time dilatation and mass increase paradoxes of Special Relativity. However it suffers from a very serious drawback: \newline In order to travel significant interstellar distances in reasonable amounts of time a ship would need to attain at least $200$ times the speed of light in order to visit a star like Gliese 581 at $20$ light-years with potential habitable exoplanets. \newline Some years ago Gonzalez-Diaz discovered that a warp drive at luminal speed develops an Horizon similar to the Schwarzschild Event Horizon that appears in the $\infty$ and at superluminal speeds this Horizon approaches the position of the spaceship.This means to say that as fast the ship goes by then as near to the ship the Horizon is formed.Plus as fast the ship goes by as hotter the Horizon becomes placing any ship and its astronauts in a dangerous thermal bath. \newline Gonzalez-Diaz applied its conclusions to the Alcubierre warp drive. \newline In this work we apply the analysis of Gonzalez-Diaz to the Natario warp drive and we arrive at an interesting result:When at luminal speed the Horizon is formed not in the $\infty$ but in the end of the Natario warped region and as fast the ship goes by superluminally this Horizon do not approaches the ship remaining inside the Natario warped region and keeping a constant temperature.This makes the Natario warp drive a better candidate for interstellar space travel when compared to its Alcubierre counterpart.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19] viXra:1302.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-21 22:17:49

"EXPANSION" of the Universe

Authors: R.V. Klinkerman
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we show that the Fridman model of Universe expansion do not lead to physical consequences for inner objects of Universe. We offer another ways for explanation of Universe evolution, red shift and asymmetry of elementary particles composition. Key words: evolution, scale factor, red shift, neutrino, condensation, chaos, conservation laws, charges.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18] viXra:1302.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-19 18:53:47

Rotating the Einstein’s Light Clock, to Explain the Witte Effect. a Basis to Make the Ligo Experiment Work.

Authors: Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Witte Effect, that was first observed by R. D. Witte in 1991, and consist of a phase error between two synchronized atomic clocks, due to rotation of the earth, that can be connected to the earth “absolute” movement in the space. The Witte Effect was explained in context of General Relativity, by R. T. Chaill, based on the Michelson-Morley Interferometer. Dr. Chaill demonstrates that, if the light speed in the medium (that forms the interferometer arms) is smaller than in vacuum (for example, using optical fibers) “absolute” velocities can be obtained. On this way, Chaill proposed that Witte experiments, in fact were measured “absolute” velocities of earth displacement in space, which maybe associated to the large gravitational fields references frames. In this paper the author explains the Witte Effect, using only the Especial Relativity models, more specifically, rotating the Einstein’s light clock and demonstrate that this Effect not is really connect to the Michelson-Morley Interferometer experiment. If this is true the Witte Effect can be used to update the gravitational wave detector, like the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory), and make it work.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:1302.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-24 11:09:02

A Common Underlying Cause for Quantum Phenomena and Cosmological Data

Authors: Emmanuil Manousos
Comments: 150 Pages.

The science of physics possesses today an adequate amount of knowledge that allows us to search for the first principles that govern physical reality. It is in the spirit of this search that we performed the study presented in this edition. The physical theories of the last century did not have the necessary completeness in order to justify the quantum phenomena and the cosmological data. There is a fundamental physical law that prevails from the microcosm to the observations we perform billions of light years away.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1302.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-13 14:43:13

Concordance de L Effet Allais et du Residu D Arc de la Relativite Generale Durant L Eclipse Solaire ( Link Between Allais Effect and General Relativity’s Residual Arc During Solar Eclipse)

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 17 Pages. French language. This is the French version of « Link between Allais effect and General Relativity’s residual Arc during solar Eclipse » on viXra.

Le but de cet article est d’établir une relation entre deux anomalies de gravitation : l’une a attiré une partie de la communauté scientifique, l’effet Allais qui arrive pendant l’éclipse solaire ; l’autre, remarquée mais oubliée, le résidu d’arc de la courbure des rayons lumineux dans le champ gravitationnel solaire durant la même éclipse. Il y a une déviation observée systématiquement d’environ 10 % de plus que la valeur théorique de la Relativité Générale, attribuée à des difficultés expérimentales plutôt qu’à un défaut de la théorie, et qui coïncide avec « l’effet d’éclipse » trouvé par Maurice Allais. Ces anomalies concordantes n’ont jamais été expliquées par quelque théorie et semblent préfigurer une nouvelle physique de la gravité. (The purpose of this article is to establish a relation between two gravitational anomalies: one that has attracted part of the scientific community, the Allais effect that occurs during solar eclipse; the other, noticed but forgotten by the whole scientific community, the General Relativity’s residual arc of the curvature of rays of light in the solar gravitational field during the same eclipse. There is a systematically observed deflection about 10 percent larger than the theoretical value of General Relativity, which coincides with the «eclipse effect» found by Maurice Allais, thrown aside because it upsets the established truths. These corresponding anomalies were never explained by any theories and turn out to be new gravitational physics.)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15] viXra:1302.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-13 14:02:30

Link Between Allais Effect and General Relativity’s Residual Arc During Solar Eclipse

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 16 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to establish a relation between two gravitational anomalies: one that has attracted part of the scientific community, the Allais effect that occurs during solar eclipse; the other, noticed but forgotten by the whole scientific community, the General Relativity’s residual arc of the curvature of rays of light in the solar gravitational field during the same eclipse. There is a systematically observed deflection about 10 percent larger than the theoretical value of General Relativity, which coincides with the «eclipse effect» found by Maurice Allais, thrown aside because it upsets the established truths. These corresponding anomalies were never explained by any theories and turn out to be new gravitational physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:1302.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-13 07:44:20

Um Novo Modelo de Tempo Complexo Digital

Authors: Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov
Comments: 10 Pages. This is a Portuguese version of the article "The New Digital Complex Model of Time" (http://vixra.org/abs/1201.0102)

This paper describes some advantages arising from the manipulation of time by means of a complex variable and discusses the possibility of calculating the extent of the imaginary dimension of time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[13] viXra:1302.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-13 09:20:04

Ulianov Sphere Network - Um Modelo Digital para Representação de Espaços Não Euclidianos

Authors: Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov
Comments: 15 Pages. This is a Portuguese version of the article http://vixra.org/abs/1201.0100

@@This article introduces a new model for the non-Euclidean spaces’ representation, in which the coordinates and distances are considered as digital nature. This model, called Ulianov Sphere Network (USN), presents a new way for visualizing the curved spaces, such as those defined in the context of the General Relativity Theory (GRT). USN model has the potential to facilitate the calculation procedures concerning the problems handled by GRT, since it relies on a very simple mathematical formulation, which can be easily implemented in numerical computing systems. The proposed model is a mathematical tool that facilitates the manipulation of non-Euclidean spaces, for the simple expedient of constructing over a continuous plain space, a network of hyperspheres that behaves as a non-Euclidean digital space. Initially, the USN model has no real connection with the observed physics in our universe, being basically a theoretical abstraction. However, as will be shown in this article, the application of the UNS model allows inferring some formulas related to GRT and also with the Newton’s Law of Gravitation. Thus, the hypothesis that the USN model is actually somehow related to the physical basis of operation of our universe is not discarded.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:1302.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-18 02:18:54

Christoffel Symbols for Asymmetric Metric Tensors.

Authors: Vyacheslav Telnin
Comments: 5 Pages.

At first we take two definitions: for the asymmetric metric tensor and for the Christoffel symbols. In order to find the connection of Christoffel symbols with the asymmetric metric tensor we take the derivative from metric tensor with respect to coordinate. In the resulting equation we make the cyclic rearrangement of indexes two times and get two more equations. Then we rearrange the indexes of metric tensor in these three equations and get three more equations. After this we represent the metric tensor as the sum of symmetric and antisymmetric tensors. Also we represent the Christoffel symbols as the sum of symmetric and antisymmetric symbols. Resolving our 6 equations we get the formula for Christoffel symbols expressed through the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of metric tensor. In the item 4) there is the description of Parts : Part VI, Part VII, Part VIII, Part IX on the site www.telnin.narod.ru .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:1302.0065 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-06 04:04:15

A Novel Solution to the Century Old Light Speed Paradox; Divorce of the Light Postulate from Special Relativity; Relativity of Electromagnetic Fields.

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 23 Pages.

From elementary algebra and common sense, we know that , given that V is different from zero. Yet we have lived with one of the daunting paradoxes in the history of science “ , for more than one hundred years, where C is the speed of light and V is the velocity of an observer. All known experiments, including those performed to disprove it, confirmed it. Over a period of one hundred years, the scientific community has exhausted on three theories to define and resolve this paradox: the ether theory, the emission theory and special relativity. The former two have long been rejected decisively. The majority of the scientific community assumes that this paradox has already been resolved by special relativity. Yet scientists outside the mainstream thought have always realized that relativity is not a true theory of nature, and thus looking back to the long rejected ether and emission theories. Special relativity has remained counterintuitive since its inception and has resulted in many unsolved paradoxes, creating many more paradoxes than it solved. The scientific community has been stuck in relativity for over a century because of three factors: 1. The lack of any alternative theory that could explain the long standing problems of reference frames and solve the light speed paradox and the apparent success of special relativity in resolving these paradoxes 2. The subtly unquestioned (yet false) bond between special relativity and the light postulate, which made relativity undefeatable 3. And the firm experimental foundation of the light (the second) postulate. Because of the perceived (and stated) link between the light postulate and special relativity, most attempts to disprove relativity focused on disproving the light postulate, and hence failed. No one ever thought of the possibility that the light postulate could be correct and relativity wrong. Therefore, a scientist who disliked Einstein’s relativity theory automatically rejected the light postulate. This paper introduces a new way to resolve the light speed paradox and hence divorcing Einstein’s light postulate from his theory of special relativity. The light wave contracts towards (or expands away from) the source depending on the relative velocity V of the source and the observer so that the speed of light is always equal to C relative to the observer. The apparent velocity (C’ ) of light relative to the source changes so that the speed of light relative to the observer is always equal to C , i.e. C = C’ ± V (vector sum/difference). This theory is self evident as it is an immediate consequence of the well established facts: constancy of the speed of light and Doppler effect of light, in which wavelength changes and speed of light remains constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1302.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-11 05:00:33

About the Nature of "Dark Energy"

Authors: Helmut Söllinger
Comments: 7 Pages. e-mail: helmut.soellinger@aon.at

The concept of dark energy has been integrated in the cosmology in order to explain some phenomena of the universe, such as the flatness of its geometry or its (accelerated) expansion. If dark energy contains information as some physicists are claiming, it has to consist of quantums, being the smallest units of dark energy. Because the universe expands the ultra-long wavelengths of the supposed dark quantums also expand and the dark quantums therefore release energy. The released energy of the dark quantums is sufficient for expanding the universe against gravity. The fascinating idea is, that the universe saves the energy needed for its continuous expansion in it. In this paper the author shows by an appropriate calculation using General Relativity, that an universe only consisting of dark quantums would expand at constant speed. There is no necessity for a cosmologic constant in order to explain the observed (accelerated) expansion of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9] viXra:1302.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-10 11:02:29

Expansions in Physics Part II

Authors: Andrew Nassif, Nasir Germain
Comments: 2 Pages.

The reason Einstein was wrong was because he didn't include the variable of force. Think of a ballerina dancing. Her mass is causing a force that is accelerating causing burning energy. This idea is so revolutionary that my term paper was copyrighted, patented, trademarked, and has been authenticated. These theories will be presented to Ameberton University today.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1302.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-10 10:04:21

The Natario Warp Drive Using Lorentz Boosts According to the Harold White Spacetime Metric Potential $\theta$.

Authors: Fernando Loup
Comments: 18 Pages. it explains the Harold White ideas(NASA) applied to the Natario warp drive spacetime

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity.There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$.The warp drive seems to be very attractive because allows interstellar space travel at arbitrarily large speeds avoiding the time dilatation and mass increase paradoxes of Special Relativity. However it suffers from a very serious drawback:Interstellar space is not empty:It is fulfilled with photons and particle dusts and a ship at superluminal speeds would impact these obstacles in highly energetic collisions disrupting the warp field and placing the astronauts in danger.This was pointed out by a great number of authors like Clark,Hiscock,Larson,McMonigal,Lewis,O'Byrne,Barcelo,Finazzi and Liberati. \newline In order to travel significant interstellar distances in reasonable amounts of time a ship would need to attain $200$ times the speed of light but according to Clark,Hiscock and Larson the impact between the ship and a single photon of Cosmic Background Radiation(COBE)would release an amount of energy equal to the photosphere of a star like the Sun.And how many photons of COBE we have per cubic centimeter of space between Earth and Gliese 581 a star at $20$ light-years with potential habitable exoplanets?This serious problem seems to have no solution at first sight. \newline However some years ago Harold White from NASA appeared with an idea that may well solve this problem:According to him the ship never surpass the speed of light but the warp field generates a Lorentz Boost resulting in an apparent superluminal speed as seen by the astronauts on-board the ship and by observers on the Earth while the warp bubble is always below the light speed with the ability to manoeuvre against these obstacles avoiding the lethal collisions. \newline Harold White applied its conclusions for the Alcubierre warp drive. \newline In this work we examine the feasibility of the White idea for the Natario warp drive using clear mathematical arguments and we arrived at the conclusion that the line of reason of Harold White is correct and can be applied to the Natario geometry.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1302.0049 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-09 08:12:29

A Better Approach to an Old Concept

Authors: Roald C. Maximo
Comments: 03 Pages.

All experiments carried out during the last century, by various methods, trying to detect an ether wind resulted null or inconsistent. The best explanation found at the time to cope with the null results was given by physicists George Fitzgerald and Hendrik Lorentz who have attributed the result to a hypothetical contraction of all material bodies in the direction of their movement. And that has been the view point up to now. People need to understand that not always the word of authority is the best counselor. If the opinion issued seem weird, we should accept it with reserve but continue looking for a better explanation more appropriate for the context. Richard Feynman once said "Science is the organized skepticism in the reliability of expert's opinion". Often, when an opinion is issued, there still does not exist an ample knowledge about the subject in question and the opinion emitted is just the best possible given the knowledge base at the time. Academics often feel inhibited and discouraged to challenge the opinions of respected authorities and miss-interpretations keep propagating from generations to generations and end up being accepted as the final truth. Nobody argues about it anymore and any further knowledge that in some way derives from the flawed one will, necessarily, be flawed too.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1302.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-04 14:17:03

Modified Spacetime Geometry Addresses Dark Energy, Penrose's Entropy Dilemma, Baryon Asymmetry, Inflation and Matter Anisotropy

Authors: Jonathan Tooker
Comments: 3 Pages.

A model of modified spacetime is discussed. Implications for causality regarding modern anomalies and paradoxes are made. Topics include a dark energy candidate without induced gravitational screening. The dynamics of the repulsive force of quantum geometry allow the validity of the second law continuously through a universe's death and rebirth. The baryon asymmetry is explained without addressing the Sakharov conditions. Inflation and anisotropies in an FLRW universe are also attributed to quantum bounce phenomena. No attempt at quantification is made.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:1302.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-03 10:31:10

Year 1785-Relativity Slips in

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 6 Pages.

Ask yourself what’s the symbol equation of the “Theory” of Relativity. For sure, if you ask a hundred people, eighty of them will answer E=mc2. But this equation looks like that of the kinetic energy of Newton ((1/2)mv2); too much similar, and it’s not so new. On the contrary, in my opinion, the most representative expression, which says you are really dealing with relativity, is the following: (1-v2/c2). And here you can see what happens after that we use very old equations of electromagnetism.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[4] viXra:1302.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-02 07:30:25

Scientific Journal for 1 Feb 2013

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: 17 Pages

Dr. Ian J. Cowan joins us in this issue of the Scientific Journal with his landmark paper UPDATE ON ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES www.k1man.com/Cowan130128B.pdf He presented this fine paper at the 26 January 2013 NPA world wide video conference. See this at www.k1man.com/videoconf130126 Dr. Cowan says therein that he has had doubts about Special Relativity for the last 40 years. Dr. Cowan’s presentation was also discussed during our weekly physics conference call (one hour 24 minutes). Listen to this at www.k1man.com/Conf130128.mp3 Participants were Harry H. Ricker, BSEE, Virginia Tech, MSEE, UNH; Glenn A. Baxter, P.E., BSIE URI; Nick Percival, BS Physics, Harvard; Al McDowell, BSEE, Syracuse, PhD. Cornell, Dr. Satya Pal Asija, P.E., BS, MBA, Grad IERE (Lond.), JD, etc. Dr. D. Sasso of Italy writes (in part): “I looked at (Dr.) Cowan's paper, and I think it has a good scientific value.” Also joining us this issue is Dr. Herbert Dingle, Dr. Peter Kohut, Harry H. Ricker III, Tom Bethel, and Poicarpo Yoshin Ulianov writing about the Witte effect.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3] viXra:1302.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-01 17:07:54

The Argument for an Ether Revisited

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 26 Pages.

The phenomenon of time dilation demands the existence of a field that supports the propagation of photons. Historical references identify this field as the luminiferous ether. I will call it the temporal-inertial field (TI field), because I may attribute properties to this field not obtained by classical versions of the luminiferous ether. Time dilation occurs when an ongoing process moves relative to space, relative to this ether, relative to this TI field. The greater the velocity of the process relative to space the greater is the time dilation experienced by that process. The rate at which a process is slowed or accelerated is intrinsic, absolute and depends solely on the velocity of the process relative to space. If space has no properties other than dimensionality, motion relative to that space is undefined and meaningless and can have no influence on any ongoing process moving through that space. Accordingly I assert the existence of the so-called TI field that supports the propagation of photons and occupies and permeates all of space, including the space of atoms. The entire thrust of this paper is that geometry does not govern the physics of time dilation; motion relative to the TI field of space does.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1302.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-01 07:30:54

Arcade 2 Extragalactic Emission and Dark Matter as Seen by the Theory of Relation

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 13 Pages.

In 2006, Alan Kogut and his colleagues from the Goddard Space Flight Center, searching for signs of heat from the first generation of stars with the balloon-borne Arcade 2 equipped with sophisticated radiometers, discovered instead an intense radio emission that nobody had still detected, that no physical model had foreseen the existence, and which results from none of the known sources in the Universe. This cosmic background noise has an intensity of synchrotron emission estimated six times higher than the combined radio of all radio sources in the known universe. Our hypothesis is that this radio emission of extragalactic source is the residue of a huge energy burst soon after the recombination, triggering simultaneously the formation of first stars and the reionization. Under the theory of Relation, it is the vestige of a sudden release of energy from a relativistic bang, via a Lorentz energetic transformation, which fills an energy-matter deficit, and generates both the birth of primordial stars and the reionization of neutral gas. This extra ordinary matter would replace the hypothetical cold dark matter theorized to be the missing primitive matter initiating large structures.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:1302.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-01 19:55:55

Emission Extragalactique D Arcade 2 et Matiere Noire Vues Par la Theorie DE la Relation (Arcade 2 Extragalactic Emission and Dark Matter as Seen by the Theory of Relation)

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 14 Pages. French language

En 2006, Alan Kogut et ses collègues du centre Goddard de la NASA, ayant mission de rechercher à l’aide d’Arcade 2, un ballon stratosphérique équipé d’un radiomètre sophistiqué, des signes de chaleur de la première génération d’étoiles, découvrirent plutôt le signal d'un rayonnement radio aussi intense que mystérieux dont aucun modèle physique ne prévoyait l’existence, et qui ne provient d'aucune des sources radio connues dans l'Univers. Ce bruit de fond cosmologique serait d’une intensité d’émissions synchrotron à un niveau estimé six fois plus élevé que les émissions de radio combinées de toutes les sources radio connues dans l'univers. Notre hypothèse est que ce rayonnement radio de source extragalactique est le résidu d’une énorme énergie qui jaillit peu après la recombinaison, amorçant la formation des premières étoiles et, simultanément, la réionisation. Dans le cadre de la théorie de la Relation, c’est le vestige d’une brutale libération d’énergie provenant d’un bang relativiste, via une transformation énergétique de Lorentz, qui comble un déficit énergie-matière et génère à la fois la naissance des étoiles primordiales et la réionisation des gaz neutres. Ce surplus de matière ordinaire remplacerait l’hypothétique matière noire froide théorisée comme étant la matière manquante primitive amorçant les grandes structures. In 2006, Alan Kogut and his colleagues from the Goddard Space Flight Center, searching for signs of heat from the first generation of stars with the balloon-borne Arcade 2 equipped with sophisticated radiometers, discovered instead an intense radio emission that nobody had still detected, that no physical model had foreseen the existence, and which results from none of the known sources in the Universe. This cosmic background noise has an intensity of synchrotron emission estimated six times higher than the combined radio of all radio sources in the known universe. Our hypothesis is that this radio emission of extragalactic source is the residue of a huge energy burst soon after the recombination, triggering simultaneously the formation of first stars and the reionization. Under the theory of Relation, it is the vestige of a sudden release of energy from a relativistic bang, via a Lorentz energetic transformation, which fills an energy-matter deficit, and generates both the birth of primordial stars and the reionization of neutral gas. This extra ordinary matter would replace the hypothetical cold dark matter theorized to be the missing primitive matter initiating large structures.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology