[28] **viXra:1304.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-30 09:33:10*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In 1998, two groups of astronomers, set out to determine the deceleration of the universe by measuring the recession speeds of type la supernovæ (SN1a), came to an unexpected conclusion: its expansion rate has been speeding up. To justify this acceleration, they suggested that the universe does have a mysterious dark energy and they have proposed a positive cosmological constant consistent with the image of an inflationary universe. They have bet on their distance revised upwards to explain the observed dimming of high-redshift SN1a. We consider that an accelerated expansion leads right to a «dark energy catastrophe» and we suppose rather that the universe knows a slowdown expansion under the positive pressure of a dark energy, otherwise called a variable cosmological constant. The dark luminosity of the latter would be that of a «tired light» which has lost energy with distance. We propose that the SN1a luminosity continually fades by interactions with cosmic magnetic fields, like the earthly PVLAS experiment which loses much more laser photons than expected by crossing a magnetic field. It goes in the sense of a «tired light» which has lost energy with distance and, therefore, a decelerated expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1304.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-30 11:03:13*

**Authors:** Ioannis Hadjidakis

**Comments:** 2 pages

We disclose some thoughts about the role of information and how information is transmitted within Universe. This letter could be the backbone for a more extended work on this issue.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1304.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-27 05:11:26*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages. May be after extensive revisions, submitted to Prespacetime

We examine the break down of Theorem 6.1.2 of Ellis, Maartens, and Mac Callum ( Cosmology) in lieu of Dr.
Kauffman's results which imply a non zero initial radius of the universe. The theoretical construction which comes closest to this classical singularity theorem, is the Bianchi I universe model when we have a w = -1 equation of state. This though is not a precise fit, and if we apply an effective cosmological parameter as defined by Ellis, et.al,and put that into a Friedman equation, we have a complete break down of our analysis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1304.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-26 04:21:44*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages. sent for review as part of a small Prespacetime publication

The author presents the consequences of what if Gravitinos in the Electroweak era, all 10^8 to 10^12 of them have an (almost) invariant energy from the beginning of cosmology. This in turn may lead to massive Gravitons. This invariant energy constitutes an initial energy value at the start of the universe which can be used to obtain, at the onset of inflation Kauffman’s lower bound to a non zero initial radius of the universe. We reference Theorem 6.1.2 of the book by Ellis, Maartens, and MacCallum in order to argue that if there is a non zero initial scale factor, that there is a partial breakdown of the Fundamental Singularity theorem which is due to the Raychaudhuri equation. The arguments for why the scale factor may not go to zero are reviewed, with suggestions as to linkage as to how to avoid the Anthropic principle in having continuity of from a prior to the present universe. We also look at how different models of contributing vacuum energy, initially may affect divergence from the first singularity theorem and its results. This document implicitly uses Salvoy’s (1983) results

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1304.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-24 20:39:15*

**Authors:** Iourii Gribov

**Comments:** 91 Pages.

The quasi-classical concept of Periodic Waveguided Multiverse (PWM) is proposed. This periodic 4D-hyperstructure has substantial theoretical and observational-cosmological confirmations because it unites and refines the basic physical laws (SR&GR&QM, etc), inseparably emergent in the waveguided dynamics and gives the multiversal explanation of dominating observational DE&DM-mysteries (including predicted and observed two-component DM) – interconnected cosmological evidences for the PWM-existence. The PWM concept can be soon tested in a laboratory: (a) it predicts antigravity in the anti-hydrogen gravity test at CERN; (b) predicts direct-atypical DM&ANTIMATTER annihilation with radiation of one – visible-detectable and one – dark-undetectable gamma quantum - as basis for the proposed selective direct DM-detection. The PWM-foundation is surprisingly compact – it is based on two penetrating Planckian & Einsteinian ideas: I - photon-quanta and II - principle of equality of our 3D-spatial dimensions (x,y,z) with an additional extra-dimension L, realizing so expanded - automatically Euclidean 4D-space (x,y,z,L). We have applied these basic physical insights in frames of classical-Maxwellian-like 3D-waveguides Wn [x,y,z,nL0<L<(n+1)L0], realizing an endless periodic chain of physically identical parallel W2n/W2n+1 Universes/Antiuniverses (n = ±1, ±2, ±3,…, ±¥), filling this global space (x,y,z,L), where Lo=lel.Compton » 1 picometer, determined by the lightest (electron) rest mass particle. This structure discloses the waveguided co-emergence of the (1) pure C4-dynamical quantized-gapped - “elementary” rest mass; (2) the SR & QM & Newtonian-like, periodic matter/antimatter antigravity; (3) the CPTPWM symmetry between particles/antiparticles, with the gravity “charge” symmetry (4) the modified Equivalence Principle EPPWM; (5) singularity-less Diracian-like fermions/antifermions and GR-like black/white holes free of singularity; (6) opens physical possibility of the nongravitating – chargeless, very robust scalar (Cooper-like) composites - electron-positron-cells, hidden in their globally coherent superfluid vacuum condensate at low T – as Diracian-like, equilibrium superfluid sea/anti-sea. Common electron/positron pairs arise as elementary defects – Diracian holes/antiholes in this vacuum, disclosing the composite-SUSY nature and explaining why cosmological constant is zero; (7) the global C3-dynamical pseudo-Euclidean 4D-spacetime concept by Minkowski is rethought and reformulated on the 3D-waveguided, 4D-Euclidean physical basis, where global linear intervals (→→→→→C3tMink.) → (↗↘↗↘↗↘↗↘↗↘C4tPWM) -waveguided-polygonal intervals - C4t-parameterizations of the polygonal rest mass particle dynamics, disclosing the waveguided/wave-optical (Huygens-Fermat’s) sense of the mechanical Lagrangian and Hamilton's principle of the least action.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1304.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-19 23:42:03*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper is the simple example of the using the First Noether theorem generalized on asymmetric metric tensors in curved spaces and taking into account the second derivatives. It defines the ordinary energy-momentum vector for matter and the energy-momentum vector for gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1304.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-24 05:59:23*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 17 pages. « L'augmentation de l’unité astronomique est-elle causée par l’effet d’éclipse Allais ? » is the French version of «Is the Growth of the Astronomical Unit Caused by the Allais Eclipse Effect?» on viXra: 1304.0124.

En plus des anomalies Pioneer et Flyby, d’autres anomalies inexpliquées, telle la croissance de l’unité astronomique, perturbent la dynamique du système solaire. Nous montrons dans cet article que la majeure partie de l’augmentation inattendue de l’échelle de longueur du système solaire est provoquée par l’effet d’éclipse Allais. La Terre et la Lune tournent autour de leur centre commun de gravité et celui-ci orbite autour du Soleil ; la perturbation de l’éclipse atteint simultanément ces deux mouvements képlériens. Ce serait cette brutale perturbation sur le barycentre Terre-Lune, impliquant le Soleil, qu’aurait enregistrée le pendule paraconique sous forme d’un mouvement abrupt. La thèse de la friction des marées soutient que le frottement des marées océaniques transfère le moment cinétique de la Terre à la Lune, ralentit la rotation de la Terre tout en éloignant la Lune. Toutefois, nous pensons qu’il n’y a pas assez de mers peu profondes pour sanctionner cette interprétation. Le système des marées Terre-Lune pourrait être inexact ou peu fiable dans la détermination du taux réel de ralentissement de la rotation de la Terre. Notre hypothèse est que le changement de la rotation terrestre serait provoqué par une interaction gravitationnelle répulsive pendant l’éclipse solaire. La perturbation soumettrait à des variations et à des distorsions non seulement la région du barycentre du système Terre-Lune, mais aussi celle du barycentre Soleil-Terre, avec le double effet séculaire que la Lune spirale vers l’extérieur et que le système Terre-Lune s’éloigne du Soleil.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1304.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-23 11:16:15*

**Authors:** Kamal Barghout

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Gravitational relationship between two types of mass is investigated. It is proposed that the source of a dynamic scalar field that permeates all of space and defines the dynamics of the cosmos is the repelling self-gravitational nature of dark matter (DM) particles and the attractive gravitational nature between DM and baryons respectively. The model defines DM as a new form of matter and attributes self-antigravity to both baryons and DM and defines DM-Baryon gravitational interaction as like particles repel while unlike particles attract; a coulomb interaction. DM particles are proposed to permeate all of space, and arguably define space-time itself when describing Relativity Theory, and interact with baryons only gravitationally. To resolve the controversy of the apparent self-attraction of baryonic matter, metal-like force is proposed to produce Newtonian dynamics within cores of galaxies. In this metal-like attraction, same type mass (baryons) are gravitationally attracted to each other when a sea of other type DM “particles” are attracted to them and glue them together analogous to a metal bond. When baryonic objects defy their own repulsive nature and come close enough to each other, other dominant forces take place such as electromagnetic force. Normal matter is then created and further coalesces to form galactic structures. In light of this attraction-repulsion gravitational force, intergalactic self-repulsive DM particles are proposed to result in accelerating expansion of the universe. The model introduces new physics and explains the large scale structure of the universe. It also explains many cosmological anomalies and mysteries and removes gravitational singularity of black holes. An attempt to explain the model under the umbrella of Relativity Theory is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1304.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-22 18:35:43*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In addition to the Pioneer anomaly and the Earth flyby anomaly for spacecraft, other unexplained anomalies disrupt the solar system dynamics, like the astronomical unit. We show in this paper that the Allais eclipse effect causes the major part of the growth of the length scale for the entire solar system. It is the rough disturbance on the barycenter Earth-Moon implying the Sun that was recorded in the movement of the paraconical pendulum. Earth and Moon revolve around their common center of gravity, which in turn orbits the Sun, and the perturbation of the eclipse hits this double, coupled Kepler’s movements. The thesis of the tidal friction supports that oceanic tidal friction transfers the angular momentum of the Earth to the Moon, slows down the rotation of the Earth while taking away the Moon. However, we think that there are not enough shallow seas to sanction this interpretation. The Earth-Moon tidal system might be inaccurate or unreliable in determining the Earth’s actual rotational spin-down rate. Our assertion is that the change in the Earth’s rotation is caused by a repulsive gravitational interaction during solar eclipse. The perturbation would submit to variations and distortions the region of the barycenter of the Earth-Moon system which revolves around the Sun, with the dual secular effects that the Moon spirals outwards and that the Earth-Moon system goes away from the Sun.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1304.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-22 05:01:56*

**Authors:** Ioannis Hadjidakis

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The logic stretch that Relativity has imposed was caused by the alteration of length perception that Einstein forced to introduce in order to accommodate time in a four dimensional orthogonal manifold. Because no space and time can be both at once “absolute”, Einstein changed the definitions of both in order to keep light’s velocity - that was derived by space and time - invariant. This was a mistake in logic. In this work a different approach is proposed that uses a space-time manifold with three degrees of freedom in a four dimensional manifold. This simple model seems to explain a lot of extremely complex phenomena with an extremely primitive way although it demands an alternative intuitive view of Nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1304.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-22 07:36:44*

**Authors:** Michael Muteru

**Comments:** 02 Pages.

M-theory reveals the magnificent physics in the 11 Dimension Hyperspace, that highly inspired the
ekpyrotic 3 Dimensional physics, and most possibly all possibilities

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1304.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-06 06:05:29*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 31 Pages. THIS THEORY SUPERCEDES THE BIG BANG THEORY

This is a theory that makes macroscopic predictions based on the principle of duality as universal constant in space-time continuum, which is finite in its infinity due to integrated horizon and inherent reverse polarity. It implies that there is an absolute frame of reference in our uniform double cone space-time model (as observed in cosmos) which shows that the state of our universe is a deterministic function of its previous state of a primordial universe where the rotating mass of first order extended in our universe to second order in the angular momentum.
Locality assumes that the current state of space-time is determined by the states of a fixed number of previous time steps. Discretized difference equations use at least the current and previous time steps if they are second order systems like the wave equation. Physical quantities come in pairs which are called conjugate quantities. According to quantum mechanics, under some conditions, a pair of quantum systems may be described by a single wave function, which encodes the probabilities of the outcomes of experiments that may be performed on the two systems, whether jointly or individually.
It means that the actual space-time is not flat per Einstein-Minkowski space-time formed on 2D Lorentzian geometry, and that there couldn’t be a singular event of a Big Bang due to a single, primitive force (“primeval atom”), which allegedly caused a sudden “birth’ of space-time without a preceding event -- past “conception” of our universe in a primordial universe, constituting thereby a double cone universal structure. Accordingly, our 4D time-space model comprises a cross-like structure with an integrated spiral timeframe that enables no analogy spacecrafts to traverse space unimpeded, as described in this article.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1304.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-20 03:12:31*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, A.A.Potapov, S.A. Podosenov, E.R.Men’kova.

**Comments:** 74 Pages.

Lower fractal dimensionality of the early Universe at higher energies is an
theoretical possibility as recently pointed out in [1].Gravitational-wave experiments
with interferometers and with resonant masses can search for stochastic
backgrounds of gravitational waves of cosmological origin.In this paper using
cosmological models with fractional action and Calcagni approach to cosmology in
fractal spacetime [18], we will examine a number of theoretical aspects of the
searches fractal dimensionality from a stochastic fractal background of GWs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1304.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-18 14:22:34*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The theory of electrodynamic space-time relativity (TESTR) is the study of the transformation of time and space between two electrodynamic inertial frames of reference, which have both inertial velocity difference and electric potential difference. It is a fundamental space-time theory of theoretic physics based on the Einstein’s special theory of relativity, the electric potential limit postulate and the high-precision experimental facts of the inversion proportional square law of Coulomb’s force. It founded new physical space-time concepts, for example, the electrodynamic space-time is five-dimensional which is composed of quaternion space, and time. It also proposed some new basic concepts of physics, such as electric potential limit, quaternion electric potential and etc., revealing the inherent relationships between electric potential-velocity and time-space. This paper discusses in detail the process of establishing the theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity and theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity as well as their various conversions and transformations. At the same time, the basic effects of TESTR were discussed, obtaining the equations for superposition of quaternion velocity and potential of TESTR. It predicts some important new space-time change effects, which provides theoretical basis for the experimental validation of TESTR. This is the fundamental theory of the author’s series.
Keyword: theory of electrodynamic space-time relativity, theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity, theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity, theory of electric potential relativity, special theory of relativity, electric potential limit, complex speed, complex electric potential, quaternion velocity, quaternion electric potential, quaternion, electrodynamic space-time, five-dimensional space-time, the time expansion effect of electric potential, electrodynamic space-time effects

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1304.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-18 07:55:27*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 12 pages. « Les courbes de rotation des galaxies tracées par la théorie de la Relation » is the French version of «GALAXY ROTATION CURVES TRACED OUT BY THE THEORY OF RELATION » on viXra: 1304.0079

Les astronomes savent depuis les années 1930 qu’il y a des galaxies qui se déplacent plus rapidement que ce qu’implique la gravité de la matière visible, ce qui indique l’attraction d’une énorme quantité de matière invisible. La théorie de la Relation prétend que la perte d’énergie négative de l’onde électromagnétique d’espace-temps plat de l’expansion se transforme en matière positive et en espace-temps gravifique. L’expansion universelle, contrairement à la pensée unique actuelle, décélère et est contrebalancée par une masse globale continuellement croissante ; une création perpétuelle de matière ordinaire et noire au sein d’un incessant processus de big bang. La décélération globale prend l’allure d’une accélération locale de chaque galaxie vers le centre intérieur. On a remarqué que l’ordre de grandeur des courbes de rotation anormales observées sur les galaxies éloignées était très semblable à celui de la décélération universelle Hc et avait les mêmes variations de gravité anormales mesurées sur la sonde Pioneer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1304.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-26 11:07:51*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Trying to solve Einstein Equation with new integral of motion (conserved quantity) for system. The integrals of motion are important. Let us say, that discovery of new one means the Nobel Prize. Using them the "unsolvable" problems solve. Several dust collapse solutions satisfy the new formulas. I solved also collapse of perfect liquid ball with unexpected result. After the perfect liquid I have got result(s) for the real liquid. Critically discussed known conserved quantities. Revealed the nature of Dark Energy. Cancelled the cyclic Universe hypothesis (World will never be shrinking).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1304.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-26 08:12:52*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Gracia

**Comments:** 117 Pages. §23 Space and Time Bend

ABSTRACT
The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement
avaliac@sjc.sp.gov.br

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1304.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-17 16:59:37*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Astronomers know since the 1930s that galaxies are moving around faster than the gravity of the visible matter would imply, indicating that a huge amount of invisible matter is pulling on them. The theory of Relation asserts that the loss of negative energy of the expanding electromagnetic wavelength of flat spacetime is transformed into positive matter and gravific spacetime. The universal expansion decelerates, unlike the current single thought, and is counterbalanced by a continual growing global mass; a perpetual creation of ordinary and dark matter within an incessant big bang process. The global deceleration takes the form of a local acceleration of every galaxy towards the internal center. It was noted that the order of magnitude of the abnormal rotation curves observed on the remote galaxies was very similar to that of the universal deceleration Hc and had the same anomalous gravitational variations measured on Pioneer probes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1304.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-17 05:18:49*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The idea of the existence of ether has been abandoned after the theory of relativity was accepted. It appears that the existence of an ether, compatible with the main points of the classical standard Cosmological model, permits to solve some enigmas of the present Cosmological model that are very important, for instance the enigma connected to dark matter or to fossil radiation. In this article we show how the existence of ether, being compatible with the classical standard Cosmological model, permits to solve those enigmas. In particular we show how it can give the nature of dark matter, the origin of its invisibility, the curve of velocities of stars in galaxies (constant) and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. We will also justify a very simple topological form of the Universe and the position of our galaxy inside this Universe. We will also give the possible nature of the enigmatic dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1304.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-03 00:48:10*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 10 pages. Advances in Physics Theories and Applications, 2013, Vol. 23, P. 19 – 25. / The Eq. 12 is corrected.

The gravitational field potentials outside and inside a uniform massive ball were determined using the superposition principle, the method of retarded potentials and Lorentz transformations. The gravitational field strength, the torsion field, the energy and the momentum of the field, as well as the effective masses associated with the field energy and its momentum were calculated. It was shown that 4/3 problem existed for the gravitational field as well as in the case of the electromagnetic field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1304.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-06 05:37:11*

**Authors:** Mohammad Bahrami, Mahdi Zareie, Davood Hashemian

**Comments:** 43 Pages. 6 Figures, 3 Tables, submitted to Foundations of Physics

We derived new relativity equations that not only described the related phenomena but also the origin of universe and its general evolution both at the cosmological and quantum scales. We found that there is a new relativity based on angular momentum in addition to special and general relativity. These equations also propose a cosmological model that explains the accelerating expansion of the universe and the nature of the dark energy. In this model, the creation of the universe consists of two stages of contraction and expansion, and the quantum world is present only at the stage of the universe expansion. At the stage of contraction, we encounter a shrinking universe, which ultimately generates a very great black hole. Due to its severe rotational motion, this black hole emits light and quantum black holes. The quantum black holes with the Planck mass immediately create fundamental particles. In contrast, the larger quantum black holes can be stable, acting as seeds for the formation of the galaxies. By the brightening of the universe, the light emitted from the very great black hole can travel longer distances and create the cosmic microwave background radiation. This model also shows that at the stage of the expansion of the universe, the receding velocity of the galaxies was first decelerating from the velocity approximating that of light reaching 0.7c and then increases at an acceleration rate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1304.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-16 01:22:36*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This Part VII deals with the first Noether theorem. It takes into account not
only the first derivatives of the fields by the coordinates in Lagrangian, but
also the second (this permits to apply this theorem to gravity, since the second
derivatives from the metric tensor enter in the Lagrangian of the gravitational
field).
Also this theorem is generalized on the curved spaces.
And at last it's generalized on asymmetric metric tensors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1304.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-18 11:44:32*

**Authors:** Andrew Walcott Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 Pages. re do of appendix C, due to the complaints of a reviewer. Penrose CCC removed due to it being deemed confusing. Valev formulas 12 and 13 removed, to be reincerted in a later document. Much material that was deemed confusing by reviewer removed

The author presents a post-Newtonian approximation based upon an earlier argument in a paper by Clifford Will as to Yukawa revisions of gravitational potentials, in part initiated by gravitons having explicit mass dependence in their Compton wave length. Prior work with Clifford Will’s idea was stymied by the application to binary stars and other such astrophysical objects, with non-useful frequencies topping off near 100 Hertz, thereby rendering Yukawa modifications of Gravity due to gravitons effectively an experimental curiosity which was not testable with any known physics equipment. This work improves on those results. Futhermore we argue in favor of both a non zero initial radius of the universe, using Kenneth Kauthman’s work and also try to make the case for a non zero graviton mass. We use Salvoy’s document of 1983 to argue in favor of both a non zero initial radius of the universe, and non zero graviton mass ( heavy gravitons). We claim that a non-zero initial radius (of the universe) supports the massive graviton hypothesis. Which is the main point of our document. Also Gravitinos in the Electroweak era, all 10^8 10 to 10^ 12 of them have an (almost) invariant energy from the beginning of cosmology. This invariant energy constitutes an initial energy value at the start of the universe which can be used to obtain, at the onset of inflation Kauffman’s lower bound to a non zero initial radius of the universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1304.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-12 06:22:44*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This work derives the relation between the Planck constant and Einstein’s gravitational constant. The relation between the Planck constant and Newton’s gravitational constant is deduced. The relation between the Planck constant and the electric force of 1 Coulomb and the magnetic force of 1 Henry is deduced. It establishes that the Planck constant represents the density of momentum of the void space in the Universe. This work proves that gravitational force has its opposite force in the internal momentum of atomic particles of matter. It establishes that two terms mass and electric charge introduced by mankind are not known in nature. It is proven that, in nature, there is only one type of force and that is the force-balance of inertial forces, between the internal momentum of particles and the reversely oriented force of its own force-field in the surroundings of mass particles. This work further maintains that the essence of the composition of the mass of all atomic particles, as well as all force fields in the universe, is the same and is created by the compression of density of the momentum of the void space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1304.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-08 13:02:24*

**Authors:** Oliver R Jovanovic

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Correct interpretation for Harvard Tower Experiment,
utilizing law of energy conservation...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1304.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-02 10:34:44*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Versions 1 and 2 of this paper contain a misalignment of references. This has been corrected in version 3. This paper published June 2013, Global Journal of Science Physics and Space Research.

Hawking and Penrose proposed “A new theorem on spacetime singularities … which largely incorporates and generalizes the previously known results” which they claimed “implies that space-time singularities are to be expected if either the universe is spatially closed or there is an ‘object’ undergoing relativistic gravitational collapse (existence of a trapped surface)” and that their ‘Theorem’ applies if four certain physical conditions are satisfied. Hartle, Hawking and Hertog have proposed a quantum state with wave function for the Universe which they assert “raises the possibility that even fundamental theories with a negative cosmological constant can be consistent with our low-energy observations of a classical, accelerating universe.” They also relate this concept to string cosmology. It is however proven in this paper that the Hawking-Penrose Singularity ‘Theorem’ and accelerated expansion of the Universe with negative Λ are invalid because they are based upon demonstrably false foundations relating to Einstein’s field equations, trapped surfaces, and the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1304.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-05 20:50:35*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We propose a modification of proper time, which is dependent on vierbein and
spin connection. It explicitly breaks local Lorentz gauge symmetry, while preserving
diffeomorphism invariance. In the non-relativistic limit, the geodesics are consistent
with galactic rotation curves without invoking dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1304.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-14 19:27:18*

**Authors:** Michael Devine

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We consider a model of special relativity in which standard simultaneity is replaced by an alternative defined per observer by the direct appearance of simultaneity. The postulates of special relativity are interpreted to permit it, using a corresponding measure of distance chosen so that the measurement of light’s speed remains invariant with a value of c. The relativistic Doppler effect and Lorentz transformation of time are derived from direct observations without consideration of a delay of light. Correspondence of the model with SR is further shown by finding a displaced observer whose measure of apparent simultaneity is identical to a given observer’s measure of standard simultaneity. The advantages of apparent simultaneity include unifying apparent delay of light with relative simultaneity, and unifying changes to relative simultaneity with change in observer position. With speculative interpretation the model implies an equivalence of time and distance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology