Relativity and Cosmology

1010 Submissions

[17] viXra:1010.0062 [pdf] replaced on 17 Jan 2011

A New Theoretical Technique for the Measurement of Highfrequency Relic Gravitational Waves

Authors: R. Clive Woods, Robert M L Baker Jr., Fangyu Li, Gary V. Stephenson, Eric W. Davis, Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 27 pages, considerably refined document over the last version.

It is generally accepted that under most models of the early universe evolution, highfrequency gravitational waves (HFGWs) were produced. They are referred to as "relic" highfrequency gravitational waves or HFRGWs and their detection and measurement could provide important information on the origin and development of our Universe - information that could not otherwise be obtained. So far three instruments have been built to detect and measure HFRGWs, but so far none of them has achieved the required sensitivity. This paper concerns another detector, originally proposed by Baker in 2000 and patented, which is based upon a recently discovered physical effect (the Li effect); this detector has accordingly been named the "Li-Baker detector." The detector has been a joint development effort by the P. R. China and the United States HFGW research teams. A rigorous examination of the detector's performance is important in the ongoing debate over the value of attempting to construct a Li-Baker detector and, in particular, an accurate prediction of its sensitivity will decide whether the Li-Baker detector will be capable of detecting and measuring HFRGWs. Its sensitivity and noise sources as well as other operational concerns are discussed here. The potential for useful HFRGW measurement is theoretically confirmed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1010.0061 [pdf] submitted on 29 Oct 2010

On Gravitational Collapse

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 7 pages, Research artical submitted to PMC Physics A

Gravitational collapse of diffuse material has been investigated using a new solution of Einstein's equations of general relativity. This replaces the theory of black-hole formation developed for the standard vacuum solution of Schwarzschild. The bodies which now form have reasonable physical properties, such as nuclear hard core density in collapsed stars, or 104kg/l in galactic centres, and only 1kg/l in quasars. Accreting material converts to kinetic energy and radiation, so that a singularity cannot be produced.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15] viXra:1010.0053 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Relativity in Combinatorial Gravitational Fields

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 12 pages

A combinatorial spacetime (CGj t) is a smoothly combinatorial manifold C underlying a graph G evolving on a time vector t. As we known, Einstein's general relativity is suitable for use only in one spacetime. What is its disguise in a combinatorial spacetime? Applying combinatorial Riemannian geometry enables us to present a combinatorial spacetime model for the Universe and suggest a generalized Einstein's gravitational equation in such model. For finding its solutions, a generalized relativity principle, called projective principle is proposed, i.e., a physics law in a combinatorial spacetime is invariant under a projection on its a subspace and then a spherically symmetric multisolutions of generalized Einstein's gravitational equations in vacuum or charged body are found. We also consider the geometrical structure in such solutions with physical formations, and conclude that an ultimate theory for the Universe maybe established if all such spacetimes in R3. Otherwise, our theory is only an approximate theory and endless forever.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:1010.0045 [pdf] submitted on 26 Oct 2010

Is Octonionic Quantum Gravity in the Pre-Planckian Regime of Space Time Violated? Input from a Worm Hole Bridge from Another Universe Considered as a Model for Examining This Issue.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith, L Glinka
Comments: 12 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt equation may permit the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field. We claim that the addition of the wormhole could be equated to an initial configuration of the Einstein field equations, allowing for high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGW) at the onset of inflation. The virtual worm hole with a large fluctuation permits the interior region to tunnel into a nascent cosmology with a large vacuum energy defined by that fluctuation in energy. The universe or cosmology it tunnels from is unaffected from this, other than having a tiny bit of vacuum energy "robbed." The worm hole is a high energy, but zero temperature, virtual fluctuation. Use of this construction may permit us to ask if Octonionic quantum gravity[1] constructions are relevant in the pre Planckian regime of space time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[13] viXra:1010.0042 [pdf] replaced on 23 Aug 2011

Motions of Observable Structures Ruled by Hierarchical Two-Body Gravitation in the Universe

Authors: Yongfeng Yang
Comments: 11 pages, 7 figures and 2 tables. Cites as: Yang, Y. Y., Proceeding of the 18th annual conference of the NPA, College Park, Maryland University, USA, Vol.8: 712-721 (2011).

In the past, various scenarios have been presented to account for the formation of the solar system and our galaxy, but ever-increasing observations prove these conceptions to be incomplete. Here we propose, all objects in the universe are organized in an orderly series of hierarchical two-body systems with gravitation. Within these systems, the two components of each two-body system are orbiting around the barycenter of this system, and at the same time each two-body system is orbiting around the barycenter of a superior two-body system. Based on this hierarchical two-body association, an approximate uniform velocity feature for all stars in a galaxy, and galaxies in a cluster, is determined. Under the effect of gravitation, a successive hierarchical orbital shrinkage results in high redshifts of distant galaxies and planar (disc) rotational profile of large-scale structures like the solar system and galaxy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:1010.0033 [pdf] submitted on 22 Oct 2010

Does Causal Discontinuity as Postulated in the Pre Planckian State Affect / Create Conditions for the Break Down of Non Commutative Geometry Necessary for Quantum Effects?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith, L Glinka
Comments: 6 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt equation[1] permits the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field [2]. As both Beckwith and Glinka[3] postulated the existence of at least a brief period of causal discontinuity in the vicinity of Pre Planckian physics space time, the question is does the construction as given by Crowell[1] for an Octonionic non associator which leads to the commutation relations between position x and momentum p of quantum mechanics still hold up? Crowell's derivation heavily depends upon a value of the path integral of the [xi,pj] over spatial variation equal to - constant times T(ijk). Here, T(ijk) is a structure constant, which we claim would go to zero if a discontinuity exists, leading to x.p = p.x in the neighborhood of pre Planckian space time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:1010.0032 [pdf] submitted on 18 Oct 2010

Is a Vev Due to the Bunch-Davies Vacuum Fluctuation a Way to Obtain Octonionic Quantum Gravity in the Planckian Regime of Space Time? Yes, But Only After Planck Time Tplanck

Authors: Andrew Beckwith, L Glinka
Comments: 15 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt equation permits the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field. We claim that our model and the addition of the wormhole is tied to an initial configuration of the Einstein field equations, allowing for high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGW) at the onset of inflation. We examine Bunch-Davies vacuum fluctuations[1] of a scalar field, (see paper for equation), if we use the wave function for an average value of the Hubble parameter (see paper for equation) , with VeV resulting from Ψ of a pseudo time dependent WdW wave function [2],[3], and H from initial values of the Friedman equation. The benefit from defining the Bunch-Davies vacuum fluctuation this way is that there would be a way to obtain partial time evolution of the VeV and also to ask if Octonionic quantum gravity[2] constructions are relevant in the Planckian regime of space time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1010.0031 [pdf] submitted on 18 Oct 2010

How to Use the Cosmological Schwinger Principle for Energy Flux, Entropy, and "Atoms of Space Time", for Creating a Thermodynamics Treatment of Space-Time

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 10 pages

We make explicit an idea by, T. Padmanabhan in DICE 2010 [1], as to finding "atoms of space time" permitting a thermodynamic treatment of emergent structure similar to Gibbs treatment of statistical physics. I.e. an ensemble of gravitons, is used to give an 'atom' of space time congruent with relic GW . The idea is to reduce the number of independent variables to get a simple emergent space time structure of entropy. An electric field, based upon the Cosmological Schwinger principle is linked to relic heat flux, with entropy production tied in with candidates as to inflaton potentials. The effective electric field links with the Schwinger result, 1951, of an E field leading to pairs of e+ e- charges nucleated in space-time volume V.t . Note that in most inflationary models, the assumption is for a magnetic field, not electric field. An electric field permits a kink anti kink construction of an emergent structure. Also an E filed allows for an emergent relic particle frequency range between one to 100 Giga Hertz. The novel contribution is a relic E field, instead of a B field, in relic space time "atom$quot; formation and vacuum nucleation of the same.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9] viXra:1010.0030 [pdf] replaced on 3 Nov 2010

About Speed of Light and Time Dilation

Authors: Alvydas Jakeliunas
Comments: 3 pages

Here are discussed two hypotheses how gravitation may effect speed of light. Both of them well explain known behavior of quantum in gravitation, therefore they can be useful to generate new ideas for new experiments to test current theories and to find new phenomenas. Here is also proposed a new view to well known time dilation phenomena.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1010.0028 [pdf] submitted on 16 Oct 2010

Ever-Present Lambda and the Quantum Potential of Spacetime

Authors: Willard Mittelman
Comments: 18 pages

An approach to dark energy is presented that combines ideas of causal set theory with a Machian perspective and a treatment of spacetime as a condensate, yielding a "quantum potential of spacetime" Q whose density ρQ acts as an effective Λ that satisfies the uncertainty relation ΔVΔΛ ~ 1 of unimodular relativity. In contrast to the ever-present Λ of causal set theory, ρQ's value is always non-negative, and the nonlocality of Q ensures that ρQ is spatially homogeneous, in accordance with observation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1010.0023 [pdf] submitted on 11 Oct 2010

Symmetries in Evolving Space-time and Their Connection to High-Frequency Gravity Wave Production

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 10 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt equation permits the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field. We claim that our model and the addition of the wormhole is tied to an initial configuration of the Einstein field equations, allowing for high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGW) at the onset of inflation. This is due to symmetries in space-time, which enable the creation of highfrequency gravitational waves. The duration of a wormhole thermal bridge between prior and present universes is less than Planck's time duration, but has consequences up to our present cosmological era. This also leads to phase transition changes that form a template for graviton production. The initial conditions so created also suggest optimal environmental conditions for advanced spacecraft propulsion systems.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1010.0020 [pdf] replaced on 25 Jan 2011

Energy Content of Gravitation as a Way to Quantify Both Entropy and Information Generation in the Early Universe

Authors: Andrew Walcott Beckwith
Comments: 8 pages, 1 figure. Accepted for publication in February 2011, by the Journal of Modern Physics: Material used in recent work as of this month for companion piece to the Octonian gravity work submitted to Nova Book publishers

Based upon Alcubierre's formalism about energy flux of gravitational waves, as well as Saunder's treatment of temperature dependence of the Hubble parameter in the early universe , we initiate a particle count treatment of gravitons, and subsequent entropy generation which gives , via the standard model treatment of the FRW metric a way to explain/ justify a value of entropy of the order of S ~ 106 - 107 at the very onset of inflation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:1010.0015 [pdf] submitted on 7 Oct 2010

The Arrow of Time Problem: Answering if Time Flow Initially Favouritizes One Direction Blatantly

Authors: Andrew Beckwith, Lukasz Glinka
Comments: 18 pages, Published in Prespacetime Journal 1(9), pp. 1358-1375 (November 2010)

The following article begins an analysis of if by first principles there is a way to show time unidrectionality at the start of creation. Recently J. Vaccarro appealed to Kaon physics to show how time asymmetry could be violated after the big bang, as well as how and why time asymmetry vanishes later. We examine the nature of the evolution Hamiltonian after stepping through Vacarro's analysis and go to where we think it needs to be improved. This answers questions to if both the CPT theorem and related physics are manifestly violated, or not violated at the beginning of emergent space time, via judicious use of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, a base of quantum cosmology and quantum gravity. We initially detail the limits of a derivation given the authors by Vaccaro which claims using of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, and suggest ways to suppress the CPT violation, as suggested by Kaon physics after inflation at the onset of inflation, using refinements suggested by the authors. We propose to support the Kauffmann treatment of CPT violation as the useful one, as well, and will be part of long term solutions to this problem. Note that though, Vaccaro incorrectly identifies a Euclidian representation of the Hamiltonian (energy) function as equal to the Hamiltonian constraint, which leads to identifying the Schrodinger equation used for Kaon physics with the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, as H|ψ> = 0 as written by Vaccaro is still usual non-relativistic time-dependent quantum mechanics and not necessarily linkable to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, which in the result of primary quantization of the Hamiltonian constraint and has manifestly absent time, in the vicinity of a 'quantum bounce', or singularity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[4] viXra:1010.0011 [pdf] replaced on 2012-02-18 01:49:51

The Inner Connection Between Gravity, Electromagnetism and Light

Authors: Faycal Ben Adda
Comments: 14 Pages. This is the last version accepted for publication in Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics

In this paper, we prove the existence of an inner connection between gravity and electromagnetism using a different procedure than the standard approaches. Under the assumption of the invariance of the ratio of the Gravitational force to the Electric force in an expanding space-time, we prove that gravity is naturally traceable to the surrounding expanding medium.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3] viXra:1010.0009 [pdf] submitted on 4 Oct 2010

The Contraction of Radiation and Matter in a Gravitational Field: a Comment on Vixra:1009.0067

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 4 pages

The author of viXra:1009.0067 claims that radiation experiences a contraction in energy in a gravitational field, such as that of the Earth. Why, then, did Pound-Rebka measure an increase in energy of radiation?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1010.0007 [pdf] submitted on 3 Oct 2010

Behavior of Quantum in Gravitation

Authors: Alvydas Jakeliunas
Comments: 1 page

Here is proposed a new equation for speed of light in gravitation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:1010.0003 [pdf] submitted on 1 Oct 2010

On the Experimental Failure to Detect Dark Matter

Authors: Joseph F. Messina
Comments: 2 pages

It is argued that the failure of dark matter experiments to verify its existence may be attributable to a non-Planckian 'action,' which renders dark matter's behavior contradictory to the consequences of quantum mechanics as it applies to luminous matter. It is pointed out that such a possibility cannot be convincingly dismissed in the absence of a physical law that prohibits an elementary 'action' smaller than Planck's. It is further noted that no purely dark matter measurement of Planck's constant exists.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology