[17] **viXra:1010.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** R. Clive Woods, Robert M L Baker Jr., Fangyu Li, Gary V. Stephenson, Eric W. Davis, Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 27 pages, considerably refined document over the last version.

It is generally accepted that under most models of the early universe evolution, highfrequency
gravitational waves (HFGWs) were produced. They are referred to as "relic" highfrequency
gravitational waves or HFRGWs and their detection and measurement could provide
important information on the origin and development of our Universe - information that could not
otherwise be obtained. So far three instruments have been built to detect and measure HFRGWs,
but so far none of them has achieved the required sensitivity. This paper concerns another
detector, originally proposed by Baker in 2000 and patented, which is based upon a recently
discovered physical effect (the Li effect); this detector has accordingly been named the "Li-Baker
detector." The detector has been a joint development effort by the P. R. China and the United
States HFGW research teams. A rigorous examination of the detector's performance is important
in the ongoing debate over the value of attempting to construct a Li-Baker detector and, in
particular, an accurate prediction of its sensitivity will decide whether the Li-Baker detector will
be capable of detecting and measuring HFRGWs. Its sensitivity and noise sources as well as other
operational concerns are discussed here. The potential for useful HFRGW measurement is
theoretically confirmed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1010.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 7 pages, Research artical submitted to PMC Physics A

Gravitational collapse of diffuse material has been investigated using
a new solution of Einstein's equations of general relativity. This replaces the
theory of black-hole formation developed for the standard vacuum solution of
Schwarzschild. The bodies which now form have reasonable physical properties,
such as nuclear hard core density in collapsed stars, or 10^{4}kg/l in galactic centres,
and only 1kg/l in quasars. Accreting material converts to kinetic energy and
radiation, so that a singularity cannot be produced.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1010.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 12 pages

A combinatorial spacetime (CGj t) is a smoothly combinatorial manifold C underlying a
graph G evolving on a time vector t. As we known, Einstein's general relativity is suitable
for use only in one spacetime. What is its disguise in a combinatorial spacetime?
Applying combinatorial Riemannian geometry enables us to present a combinatorial
spacetime model for the Universe and suggest a generalized Einstein's gravitational
equation in such model. For finding its solutions, a generalized relativity principle,
called projective principle is proposed, i.e., a physics law in a combinatorial spacetime
is invariant under a projection on its a subspace and then a spherically symmetric multisolutions
of generalized Einstein's gravitational equations in vacuum or charged body
are found. We also consider the geometrical structure in such solutions with physical
formations, and conclude that an ultimate theory for the Universe maybe established
if all such spacetimes in R3. Otherwise, our theory is only an approximate theory and
endless forever.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1010.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith, L Glinka

**Comments:** 12 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt
equation may permit the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field. We claim that the addition of the
wormhole could be equated to an initial configuration of the Einstein field equations, allowing for high-frequency
gravitational waves (HFGW) at the onset of inflation. The virtual worm hole with a large fluctuation permits the
interior region to tunnel into a nascent cosmology with a large vacuum energy defined by that fluctuation in energy.
The universe or cosmology it tunnels from is unaffected from this, other than having a tiny bit of vacuum energy
"robbed." The worm hole is a high energy, but zero temperature, virtual fluctuation. Use of this construction may
permit us to ask if Octonionic quantum gravity[1] constructions are relevant in the pre Planckian regime of
space time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1010.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 Aug 2011*

**Authors:** Yongfeng Yang

**Comments:** 11 pages, 7 figures and 2 tables. Cites as: Yang, Y. Y., Proceeding of the 18th annual conference of the NPA,
College Park, Maryland University, USA, Vol.8: 712-721 (2011).

In the past, various scenarios have been presented to account for the formation of the solar system and
our galaxy, but ever-increasing observations prove these conceptions to be incomplete. Here we propose, all objects
in the universe are organized in an orderly series of hierarchical two-body systems with gravitation.
Within these systems, the two components of each two-body system are orbiting around the barycenter of this
system, and at the same time each two-body system is orbiting around the barycenter of a superior two-body
system. Based on this hierarchical two-body association, an approximate uniform velocity feature for all stars in
a galaxy, and galaxies in a cluster, is determined. Under the effect of gravitation, a successive hierarchical orbital
shrinkage results in high redshifts of distant galaxies and planar (disc) rotational profile of large-scale
structures like the solar system and galaxy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1010.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith, L Glinka

**Comments:** 6 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent
Wheeler-De Witt equation[1] permits the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar
field [2]. As both Beckwith and Glinka[3] postulated the existence of at least a brief
period of causal discontinuity in the vicinity of Pre Planckian physics space time, the
question is does the construction as given by Crowell[1] for an Octonionic non associator
which leads to the commutation relations between position x and momentum p of quantum
mechanics still hold up? Crowell's derivation heavily depends upon a value of the path
integral of the [xi,pj] over spatial variation equal to - constant times T(ijk). Here,
T(ijk) is a structure constant, which we claim would go to zero if a discontinuity exists,
leading to x.p = p.x in the neighborhood of pre Planckian space time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1010.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith, L Glinka

**Comments:** 15 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt
equation permits the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field. We claim that our model and the addition of
the wormhole is tied to an initial configuration of the Einstein field equations, allowing for high-frequency gravitational
waves (HFGW) at the onset of inflation. We examine Bunch-Davies vacuum fluctuations[1] of a scalar field,
(see paper for equation), if we use the wave function for an average value of the Hubble parameter
(see paper for equation) , with VeV resulting from Ψ of a pseudo time dependent WdW wave
function [2],[3], and H from initial values of the Friedman equation. The benefit from defining the
Bunch-Davies vacuum fluctuation this way is that there would be a way to obtain partial time evolution of the VeV
and also to ask if Octonionic quantum gravity[2] constructions are relevant in the Planckian regime of
space time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1010.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 pages

We make explicit an idea by, T. Padmanabhan in DICE 2010 [1], as to finding "atoms of
space time" permitting a thermodynamic treatment of emergent structure similar to Gibbs treatment of
statistical physics. I.e. an ensemble of gravitons, is used to give an 'atom' of space time congruent with
relic GW . The idea is to reduce the number of independent variables to get a simple emergent space
time structure of entropy. An electric field, based upon the Cosmological Schwinger principle is linked
to relic heat flux, with entropy production tied in with candidates as to inflaton potentials. The effective
electric field links with the Schwinger result, 1951, of an E field leading to pairs of e+ e- charges
nucleated in space-time volume V.t . Note that in most inflationary models, the assumption is for a
magnetic field, not electric field. An electric field permits a kink anti kink construction of an emergent
structure. Also an E filed allows for an emergent relic particle frequency range between one to 100 Giga
Hertz. The novel contribution is a relic E field, instead of a B field, in relic space time "atom$quot; formation
and vacuum nucleation of the same.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1010.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 3 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Alvydas Jakeliunas

**Comments:** 3 pages

Here are discussed two hypotheses how gravitation may effect speed of light.
Both of them well explain known behavior of quantum in gravitation,
therefore they can be useful to generate new ideas for new experiments
to test current theories and to find new phenomenas.
Here is also proposed a new view to well known time dilation phenomena.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1010.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Willard Mittelman

**Comments:** 18 pages

An approach to dark energy is presented that combines ideas of causal set theory with a
Machian perspective and a treatment of spacetime as a condensate, yielding a "quantum
potential of spacetime" Q whose density ρ

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1010.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt
equation permits the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field. We claim that our model and the addition of
the wormhole is tied to an initial configuration of the Einstein field equations, allowing for high-frequency gravitational
waves (HFGW) at the onset of inflation. This is due to symmetries in space-time, which enable the creation of highfrequency
gravitational waves. The duration of a wormhole thermal bridge between prior and present universes is less
than Planck's time duration, but has consequences up to our present cosmological era. This also leads to phase
transition changes that form a template for graviton production. The initial conditions so created also suggest optimal
environmental conditions for advanced spacecraft propulsion systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1010.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Andrew Walcott Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 pages, 1 figure. Accepted for publication in February 2011, by the Journal of Modern
Physics: Material used in recent work as of this
month for companion piece to the Octonian gravity work submitted to Nova Book publishers

Based upon Alcubierre’s formalism about energy flux of gravitational waves, as well as Saunder’s
treatment of temperature dependence of the Hubble parameter in the early universe , we initiate a
particle count treatment of gravitons, and subsequent entropy generation which gives , via the
standard model treatment of the FRW metric a way to explain/ justify a value of entropy of the order
of S ~ 10^{6} - 10^{7} at the very onset of inflation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1010.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith, Lukasz Glinka

**Comments:** 18 pages, Published in Prespacetime Journal 1(9), pp. 1358-1375 (November 2010)

The following article begins an analysis of if by first principles there is a way to show time
unidrectionality at the start of creation. Recently J. Vaccarro appealed to Kaon physics to show how
time asymmetry could be violated after the big bang, as well as how and why time asymmetry
vanishes later. We examine the nature of the evolution Hamiltonian after stepping through Vacarro's
analysis and go to where we think it needs to be improved. This answers questions to if both the CPT
theorem and related physics are manifestly violated, or not violated at the beginning of emergent space
time, via judicious use of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, a base of quantum cosmology and quantum
gravity. We initially detail the limits of a derivation given the authors by Vaccaro which claims using
of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, and suggest ways to suppress the CPT violation, as suggested by
Kaon physics after inflation at the onset of inflation, using refinements suggested by the authors. We
propose to support the Kauffmann treatment of CPT violation as the useful one, as well, and will be
part of long term solutions to this problem. Note that though, Vaccaro incorrectly identifies a
Euclidian representation of the Hamiltonian (energy) function as equal to the Hamiltonian constraint,
which leads to identifying the Schrodinger equation used for Kaon physics with the Wheeler-DeWitt
equation, as H|ψ> = 0 as written by Vaccaro is still usual non-relativistic time-dependent quantum
mechanics and not necessarily linkable to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, which in the result of primary
quantization of the Hamiltonian constraint and has manifestly absent time, in the vicinity of a
'quantum bounce', or singularity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1010.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-18 01:49:51*

**Authors:** Faycal Ben Adda

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This is the last version accepted for publication in Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics

In this paper, we prove the existence of an inner connection between gravity and electromagnetism using a different procedure than the standard approaches. Under the assumption of the invariance of the ratio of the Gravitational force to the Electric force in an expanding space-time, we prove that gravity is naturally traceable to the surrounding expanding medium.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1010.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 4 pages

The author of viXra:1009.0067 claims that radiation
experiences a contraction in energy in a gravitational field,
such as that of the Earth. Why, then, did Pound-Rebka measure
an increase in energy of radiation?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1010.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Alvydas Jakeliunas

**Comments:** 1 page

Here is proposed a new equation for speed of light in gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1010.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 2 pages

It is argued that the failure of dark matter experiments to verify its existence may be attributable to a
non-Planckian 'action,' which renders dark matter's behavior contradictory to the consequences of quantum
mechanics as it applies to luminous matter. It is pointed out that such a possibility cannot be convincingly
dismissed in the absence of a physical law that prohibits an elementary 'action' smaller than Planck's. It
is further noted that no purely dark matter measurement of Planck's constant exists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology