[35] **viXra:1401.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-30 19:09:29*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

ABSTRACT:
In this article I propose the following:
(1) Probability is an intrinsic property of the space-time continuum similar to the spatial dimensions and time.
(2) This probability space has certain specific characteristics.
(3) The probability space is affected by matter just as the other dimensions of space-time continuum.
(4) The effect of matter on the probability space is of a specific characteristic.
(5) This effect of matter on the probability space can be tested in a simple experiment using modern technology and thereby prove/disprove it's existence.
(6) If the existence of the probability space is proved, then certain profound consequences follow which have both theoretical and practical implications.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1401.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-30 19:31:01*

**Authors:** Rei Beaumanner, Carl-Gustav Hedenby

**Comments:** 1 Page. Signed and faxed on January 7th of 2003 to Albert Einstein Institute, Swedish National Space Board and Theoretical Physics, Lund, Sweden. Also published on the Internet that same day. Rei Beaumanner islter ego for Carl-Gustav Hedenby

Here will be presented a formula that explains the de Broglie wave length as being generated by the Compton wave length in relative motion.
Moreover, the Planck quantum energy emergent in this context fits right into Einstein's *E = mc²* when it is expressed like a function of
momentum *mv*. The equation is the *Beaumanner relative quantum formula* and the associated energy *vmc* I call the relativistic energy of mechanical momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1401.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-10 18:15:47*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Valery A. Kotov

**Comments:** 34 Pages. In spite of important endorsement, this article refuting the non-scientific Multiverse was rejected without explanation in November 2013 by the arXiv of Cornell University, containing several articles favoring the Multiverse.

A Coherent Quantum Cosmology resolves the main cosmical enigma: Large Number correlations, dark matter, baryon density, vacuum energy. This is obtained from a non-reductionism analysis of data, and taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental theory and the non-Doppler cosmic oscillations with period tcc = 9600.606(12) s. The absence of Doppler effect (apart dephasages) induces the Tachyonic Principle: the world is divided in the c-visible part and a weakly interacting tachyonic one. In a gravitational Hydrogen Molecule, the Coherence Principle (identifying the ratio energy/h to an unifying frequency) gives the redshift (or Hubble) radius compatible with cT, where T ≈ 13.80(4) Gyr is the standard so-called Universe age. This model introduces an external Grandcosmos, considered as the source of the microwave background, the lacking element of the steady-state cosmology, and is tied to the vacuum energy, explaining its relative density about 10^120. In the critical Universe, classical and quantum energies egalise, in a new application of the Coherence Principle, and the Eddington's Number 136 × 2^256 of hydrogen atoms gives a baryon energy density 0.045 = (3/10)^2/2 related to the black matter one 3/10. With t_eF ≡ ħƛ_e^3/G_F the electron Fermi time, a c-free analysis defines a time 2t_cc²/t_eF, again compatible with T, confirming this is not any age but a fundamental period (Cycling Principle). In a Galilean critical steady-state Universe, the Coherent Principle applies a third time with the kinetic and potential energies equalised with the Eddington's one. The corresponding density is 3/10, resolving an unsolvable mystery of mainstream cosmology: the black energy density, compatible with the density 7/10. This Eddington model is shown to corresponds to a gravitational deuterium atom. This triple concordance, confirmed by many (40 or so) other correlations giving our proposal for TU = R_U/c, calls for an unification of the two major cosmologies; the Primordial Big Bang is then toppled in favor of the Permanent (13.812 Gyr Cycling) Vibrating Universe (t_U ≈ 0.838 10^-103 s), with a predicted value 70.79 km s-1 Mpc^-1 for the invariant recession constant, connected plausibly with a matter-antimatter scanned oscillation, resolving the antimatter and parity violation dilemma.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1401.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-26 21:46:36*

**Authors:** Chi-Yi Chen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Based on the consideration of naturalness and physical facts in Einstein's theories of relativity, a nontrivial spacetime physical picture, which has a slight difference from the standard one, is introduced by making a further distinction on the absolute background of spacetime and the relative length or duration of base units of spacetime. In this picture, the coordinate base units in gravity-induced spacetime metric are defined by the standard clock and ruler equipped by the observer, and duplicated onto the every position of the whole universe. In contrast, the local intrinsic base units of spacetime in gravitational field are defined by the length and duration of physical events intervals in the same-type standard clock and ruler which are really located at every position of the universe. In principle, the reading number of the standard clock is counted by the undergone times of unit intervals defined depending on a certain kind of local intrinsic events. But the size of the base units of spacetime is essentially depicted by the length of the line segment, which is cut from the absolute background of spacetime by the local intrinsic events of unit interval. The effect of gravitation is just to change the length of this segment for base spacetime units. On the basis of such a physical picture of spacetime, in a fairly natural way we re-derive a new classical dynamical equation which satisfies a more realistic and moderately general principle of relativity. To further examine this physical picture including of gravitation and spacetime, we also reinterpret the gravitational redshifts for solar gravity tests.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1401.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-29 20:04:19*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Valery A. Kotov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. refused by arXiv in spite of endorsment

A Cosmological Coherence Principle (CCP) is proposed, meaning each well-defined phenomena is mono-frequency. When applied to the steady-state critical cosmology, with scale factor exp(t/T_U), the CCP leads to three independent formula for T_U compatible with the so-called Universe age 13.80(4) Gyr, estimated by the recent Planck's mission, so refuting the Primordial Big Bang model, in favor of the Vibrating Universe model with frequency 10^103 Hz and pseudo-period T_U. The matter density is simply shown to be 3/10 and the baryonic one (3/10)²/2 = 0.0450.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1401.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-11 13:42:44*

**Authors:** Patrick G. Tardif

**Comments:** 12 Pages. A new section on why the universe is expanding has been added. The abstract and the conclusion have been updated as well.

This paper will show through several experiments that time dilation, or modiﬁcation of space-time, occurs only when there is a consciousness ﬁeld or link (CFL) involved, along with velocity and/or acceleration. It also shows that consciousness can be applied remotely at great distance, can be connected directly or indirectly with an event, and that it is only when such a link exists that the relativity theories are applicable. It also reformulates one of the postulates of the special theory of relativity that the frame of reference is not regardless of position and velocity, but it is from the position where the consciousness link is made between all the elements regardless of the velocity. Furthermore, it explains why the universe is ﬁnite rather than inﬁnite and that the CFL is responsible for the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1401.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-29 10:14:03*

**Authors:** Theodore J. St. John

**Comments:** Pages. email: stjohntheodore@gmail.com

The purpose of this paper is to propose and support a simple theory: that space and time are complementary aspects of the exact same essence – a process that separates itself into both a physical and temporal aspect. This Unity Theory postulates that the spacetime continuum is primarily a unity that manifests as a duality with two seemingly independent base quantities and that treating one (space) as three-dimensional and the other (time) as one-dimensional unnecessarily complicates the math and distorts interpretation of the results. Because length and duration are different by definition, their independence cannot be disputed, but they are not different in essence, only in the way they are measured. It is also shown that measurement itself, being a snapshot of the aspect measured, locks the other aspect out of the equation forcing the conclusion comparable to concluding that one’s image in the mirror can only look at itself.
The Unity model of spacetime is developed mathematically and explained by analogy with the two ways to describe the level in a glass of water (fullness and emptiness). Allowing balanced representation by each provides a perspective that transcends the two-dimensional plane in which space and time appear to be fundamentally separate.
Application of this theory to the Special Theory of Relativity provides a simple and sensible explanation of why the speed of light is constant as well as why distortions appear in both length and time for a particle approaching this limit. Application to Quantum Theory provides a common sense explanation of the particle-wave duality. The space-time diagram is used to illustrate the multivector that unifies all aspects of electromagnetic theory; it demonstrates a logical explanation for the arrow of time and provides the template for a Unified Field Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1401.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-28 17:16:17*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. The major drawback concerning
warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain
the warp bubble.In order to perform an interstellar space travel
to a "nearby" star at $22$ light-years away with $3$ potential
habitable exo-planets(Gliese $667C$) at superluminal speeds in a
reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of about
$200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy density
at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor $10^{48}$
which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times bigger in
magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!! We introduce here a
shape function that defines the Natario warp drive as an excellent
candidate to low the negative energy density requirements from
$10^{48}$ to affordable levels.We also discuss other warp drive
drawbacks:collisions with hazardous interstellar matter(asteroids
or comets) that may happen in a real interstellar travel from
Earth to Gliese $667C$ and Horizons(causally disconnected portions
of spacetime).We terminate this work with a description of the
star system Gliese $667C$

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1401.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-28 17:38:13*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

A collection of articles written for and mostly published by the South Australian Astronomical Society from 2011 to 2013, along with two essays written for the Gravity Research Foundation annual essay competition, a chart of nearby stars and questions about both Van de Waals force and inertia.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1401.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-05 22:52:01*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This file is uploaded here in order to stimulate further investigation. It is not yet submitted to any journal.

Krogdahl in his critique to general relativity suggests that we should better consider Lorentz-invariant cosmology (see http://arxiv.org/pdf/0711.1145.pdf). Then this writer asks a question in researchgate.net about whether Lorentz-invariant gravitation theory is a valid alternative to general relativity. Some responses are recorded here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1401.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-28 05:53:30*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A Single-page note

1. If the galaxies are receding from each other, as per the general relativistic metric expansion of space, then the 'inverse-square-law of brightness of light' predicts that brightness of distant super novae should go on decreasing with time. And in the past six-seven decades after Hubble, astronomers should have noticed some reduction in the brightness of distant super novae. 2. In addition to that, the reduction in amplitude of the waves of light with time, should also cause some additional red-shift; depending upon the rate at which the brightness is reducing. 3. Has such reduction in brightness, and additional red-shift proportional to the rate of reduction of brightness, been noticed? If not, then it is quite possible that the universe may not be expanding!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1401.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-26 20:06:44*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Expecting your valuable comments...

In the previously published papers the authors made an attempt to develop a possible model of Black hole cosmology in a constructive way. In this model, forever rotating at light speed, high temperature and high angular velocity small sized primordial cosmic black hole of mass $\frac{e^2}{4 \pi \epsilon_0 G}$ gradually transforms into a low temperature and low angular velocity large sized massive primordial cosmic black hole. At any time $H_t$ represents the angular velocity. At its ending stage of expansion, for the whole cosmic black hole as practically remains constant, its corresponding thermal energy density will be ‘the same’ throughout its volume. This ‘sameness’ may be the reason for the observed ‘isotropic’ nature of the current CMB radiation. Observed cosmic red shift can be re-interpreted as an index of cosmological galactic atomic light emission phenomenon. Validity of this model can be well confirmed from the combined study of cosmological and microscopic physical phenomena. Finally it can be suggested that, the cosmological time is real and absolute. By interconnecting the present cosmic time with the present CMBR energy density the authors made an attempt to fit and estimate the current cosmic age and its obtained magnitude is close to 282 trillion years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1401.0189 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-25 08:14:18*

**Authors:** Srinivasulu Charupally

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Investigate possibility formulation of General theory of Light with the help of Universe expanding
concept which was practically well proven.It is often assumed that in the course of the evolution of the
universe, the dark energy either vanishes or becomes a positive constant. However, recently it was
shown that in many models based on supergravity, the dark energy eventually becomes negative and the
universe collapses within the time comparable to the present age of the universe. Describe how Hubble
constant was changing over the time and what was the impact of dark energy, also show that how mass
particles and Plank constant affected by the dark energy. Any theories of this type have certain
distinguishing features that can be tested by cosmological observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1401.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-27 02:14:18*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article results from a Ludwig Combrinck' s communication, in ResearchGate, on his experimental project of measuring the deflection of light, coming from the stellar field, in the sun gravitational field on the occasion of the solar eclipse in 2015 March. A brief exchange of ideas has convinced me on cogency of his project and I have decided to verify qualitative and quantitative deductions deriving from the application of the Theory of Reference Frames to the deflection of light in the sun gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1401.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-16 02:46:06*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

World – Universe Model is based on three primary assumptions:
1) The World is finite and is expanding inside the Universe with speed equal to the electrodynamic constant c. The Universe serves as an unlimited source of energy that continuously enters into the World from the boundary.
2) Medium of the World, consisting of protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter particles, is an active agent in all physical phenomena in the World.
3) Two fundamental parameters in various rational exponents define all macro and micro features of the World: Fine-Structure Constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World.
The World – Universe Model explains experimental data accumulated in the field of Cosmology over the last decades: the size and age of the World; critical energy density and the gravitational parameter; temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation and cosmological redshift. Additionally, the Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter particles and neutrinos; proposes new types of particle interactions (Super Weak and Extremely Weak) and recommends introducing a new fundamental parameter Q in the CODATA internationally recommended values for calculating time dependent parameters of the World.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1401.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-11 00:48:49*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Final revisions

In 1918 the German mathematician Hermann Weyl developed a non-Riemannian geometry in which electromagnetism appeared to emerge naturally as a consequence of the non-invariance of vector magnitude. Although an initial admirer of the theory, Einstein declared the theory unphysical on the basis of the non-invariance of the line element ds, which is arbitrarily rescaled from point to point in the geometry. We examine the Weyl theory and trace its failure to its inability to accommodate certain vectors that are
inherently scale invariant. A revision of the theory is suggested that appears to refute Einstein’s objection.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1401.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-24 22:19:28*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, defines the tetrad that moves in r-axis in the curved time-space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1401.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-22 03:08:51*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Spanish

There are various and widespread misconceptions about relativistic concepts. Erroneous designations as "Theory of Relativity", "Covariance Principle", "Special Theory of Relativity" or "General Theory of Relativity" have helped to spread misconceptions about relativity. In this paper we clarify some of these concepts and consider that the so-called special or restricted theory of relativity is a theory or general project of Physics and not understood as a particular case of the general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1401.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-21 11:51:41*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 10 Pages. publication pending in the Hadronic Journal

This paper examines Einstein’s 1905 derivation of the Lorentz transformations
using the average time of travel of a light pulse in opposite directions. It shows that the derivation has significant errors, produces a relationship between the coordinate values that does not exist, and that a more careful examination of his example implies very different characteristics of the velocity of light than those claimed. It also points out that more general derivations which do not address specific measurement conditions cannot be judged as to their applicability. The paper shows that Einstein’s assertion of the independence of the shape of a spherical light pulse from the choice of the inertial reference frame of measurement is inconsistent with the known behavior of the photon. It further notes the impossibility of proving a general set of coordinate transformations, which would require a knowledge of all possible present and future coordinate measurement methods. It gives an example of a photon-emitting clock moving
between two photon detectors, for which the transformations of the time of travel of the clock are consistent neither with the Lorentz nor the Galilean transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1401.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 12:54:16*

**Authors:** William M. Nelson

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Arxiv:1305.3022.

An approach to special relativity is outlined which emphasizes the wave and field mechanisms
which physically produce the relativistic effects, with the goal of making them seem more natural
to students by connecting more explicitly with prior studies of waves and oscillators.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1401.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-15 19:06:19*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung, Volodymyr Krasnoholovets

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Published: Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 7A1, 2013, pp. 77-84. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=34438

In the proposed light-dark dual universe, the light universe is the observable universe with light and kinetic energy that fueled the Big Bang, and the dark universe without light and kinetic energy has been observed as dark energy since about 9 billion years after the Big Bang. The light-dark dual universe started from the zero-energy universe through the four-stage cyclic transformation. Emerging from the zero-energy universe, the four-stage transformation consists of the 11D (dimensional) positive-negative energy dual membrane universe, the 10D positive-negative energy dual string universe, the 10D positive-negative energy dual particle universe, and the 4D (light)-variable D (dark) positive-negative energy dual particle asymmetrical universe. The transformation can then be reversed back to the zero-energy universe through the reverse four-stage transformation. The light universe is an observable four-dimensional universe started with the inflation and the Big Bang, and the dark universe is a variable dimensional universe from 10D to 4D. The dark universe could be observed as dark energy only when the dark universe turned into a four-dimensional universe. The four-stage transformation explains the four force fields in our universe. The theoretical calculated percentages of dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter are 72.8. 22.7, and 4.53, respectively, in nearly complete agreement with observed 72.8, 22.7, and 4.56, respectively. According to the calculation, dark energy started in 4.47 billion years ago in agreement with the observed 4.71 +/- 0.98 billion years ago. The zero-energy cyclic universe is based on the space-object structures.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1401.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-15 23:14:48*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper is uploaded here in order to stimulate further discussion; it is not conclusive. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

The universe may grow like a giant brain, according to a new computer simulation.
The results, published Nov.16, 2012, in the journal Nature's Scientific Reports, suggest that some undiscovered, fundamental laws may govern the growth of systems large and small, from the electrical firing between brain cells and growth of social networks to the expansion of galaxies.
"Natural growth dynamics are the same for different real networks, like the Internet or the brain or social networks," said study co-author Dmitri Krioukov, a physicist at the University of California San Diego. See the complete papers by Dmitri Krioukov in arxiv.org (http://arxiv.org/pdf/1203.2109.pdf and also http://arxiv.org/pdf/1310.6272.pdf).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1401.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-13 04:18:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper presents a review of papers and theories proposed by this author so far. Brief
reviews, clarifications and corrections on the papers has been presented. Some papers yet
require proof of validity. Some papers have been identified as wrong or inappropriate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1401.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-13 03:33:44*

**Authors:** Albert Zotkin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this short paper I present a simple but correct derivation of the complete Doppler shift effect. I will prove that Doppler effect of electromagnetic waves is a self-similar process, and therefore Special Relativity, that pretends to be complete for every inertial system, is excluded from that self-similarity of the Doppler effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1401.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-11 03:05:05*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Albert Einstein said gravitation plays a role in the constitution of elementary particles, such as the electrons which help compose cosmic rays and matter (in “Do gravitational ﬁelds play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?” - a 1919 submission to the Prussian Academy of Sciences). In the Epilogue to “How Einstein Discovered Dark Energy” (http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.6338) (Submitted on 22 Nov 2012), Alex Harvey gives this interpretation of “Do gravitational ﬁelds play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?” -
“Recall that in 1918 the only elementary particles known were the electron and the proton. Physicists were attempting to understand why these were stable despite their internal electromagnetic repulsion. Most attempts were based solely on electromagnetic theory. For a review of these eﬀorts see Pauli [12]. Einstein’s eﬀort was to construct a model in which stability was achieved through the use of gravitational forces. In particular, he used modiﬁed gravitational ﬁeld equations which included the cosmological constant [13]. The attempt was not successful and this was the last time he mentioned the cosmological constant other than to denounce it”
Let’s build on Einstein’s paper “Do gravitational ﬁelds play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?” and say gravity (and the warping of space-time, which Relativity informs us is gravity) actually forms mass. From there, this article’s main points address repelling and attracting gravity, dark matter’s relation to gravity and 5th-dimensional hyperspace, dark energy’s relation to gravity and 5th-dimensional hyperspace, imaginary numbers, electronics’ binary digits or base-2 mathematics, and the accelerating expansion within the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1401.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-11 17:32:47*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Esta versión reemplaza a la anterior

Existen partículas con velocidad > c, como el fotón y gravitón virtuales y el neutrino real, que debido a su energía cinética escapan de las barreras de potencial eléctrico o gravitatorio, en particular de un horizonte de eventos de un agujero negro, de acuerdo con la mecánica de Newton, es decir, porque su energía cinética es mayor que la del potencial de la barrera. En estas partículas, tal fenómeno no es un efecto cuántico de túnel que se suponía lo causaba. Y dentro de la Relatividad no cabe que la velocidad supere c, puesto en ese caso se viaja en el pasado, que viola el principio de Novikov y la ley de causalidad. Por tanto, la física valida para estas partículas es la física Newtoniana o la Relatividad Superluminal de Anastasovski y el horizonte de sucesos no existe para los neutrinos como tampoco para el fotón y gravitón virtuales, porque su velocidad es mayor que c, umbral de la velocidad de escape, en el cual la energía cinética es igual a la del potencial gravitatorio.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1401.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-09 12:50:58*

**Authors:** Joerg Schwander

**Comments:** Pages.

The Special Relativity Theory (SRT) by A. Einstein is mathematically correct and experimentally proven numerous times. The purpose of this article is not to refute the SRT, however, its core axiom (non-proven assumption) will be reviewed. The SRT is based on the fact that the velocity of light c is constant. In other words, it is independent of the velocity of its source. The value of c was primarily determined by experiments with light rays in the past. Our brain always registers rays in the direction of emission of particles, though these particles follow a different route if their source is in motion (except if the direction of emission and source are identical). Therefore, the length of the registered ray differs from the distance covered by the photons.
By one of the modern methods the velocity of light is determined by using individual photons. Due to the fact that the measuring system is in motion together with Earth, the distance covered by the photon differs from the measuring section; because its route deviates (as well as rays do, s. o.) from that of the photon. From the point of view of Earth, we are not able to recognize the route of a photon with regard to the universe. Therefore, neither the actual distance covered by the photon can be registered nor its velocity with regard to the space can be calculated. The length of the measuring section is constant and so is the velocity of rays (= c). In contrast, the distance covered by the photon and its velocity (CP) depend on the motion of the photons' source and therefore, it is variable.
This thesis is in accordance with the experimental results determining c with individual photons. This proof cannot be mathematically refuted and requires no further postulates such as the SRT's time dilatation and length contraction. The SRT cannot be used for counter evidence to the thesis 'CP is variable' since the postulates and proofs of the SRT are based on the axiom 'CP is constant'. This would be a circular argument. The SRT seems questionable as long as the experimentally proven thesis 'CP is variable' cannot be refuted. Consequently, one can assume that kinematics of I. Newton also applies to photons. As a result, not only the SRT should be questioned but also vast parts of modern physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1401.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-09 12:40:54*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In Universe (Part 1)[1] author has developed a theory which allows derivation of the unknown relations between the main parameters (energy, time, volume, matter) in the Universe. In given part 3 he added charge as main parameter in this theory. He finds also the quantum (minimal values) of energy, time, volume and matter and he applied these quantum for estimations of quantum volatility and the estimation of some values of our Universe and received both well-known and new unknown relations.
Author offers possibly valid relations between charge, time, matter, volume, distance, and energy. The net picture derived is that in the Universe exists ONLY one substance – ENERGY. Charge, time, matter, volume, fields are evidence of this energy and they can be transformed one to other. Author gives the equations which allow to calculate these transformation like the famous formula E = mc2. Some assumptions about the structure of the Universe follow from these relations.
Most offered equations give results close to approximately known data of Universe, the others allow checking up by experiment.
Key words: Universe, time, matter, volume, distance, energy; limits of specific density of energy, matter, pressure, temperature, intensity of fields; collapse of space and time into point.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1401.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-18 14:33:21*

**Authors:** Gocho V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this article "Thesis about the behavior of the electromagnetic radiation in gravitational field" and "Thesis about the global physical reality of the Universe" are formulated. They give a real explanation of all unexpected and "inexplicable results" of the notable experiments related to the measurement of the speed of light, such as the "Michelson-Morley experiment", the "Sagnac experiment", the "Michelson-Gale-Pearson experiment", the "Miller’s experiments", the "One way speed of light measurements", as well as the "Shapiro time delay effect" and the anomaly in the acceleration of the spaceprobes "Pioneer 10", "Pioneer 11", "Galileo", "Ulysses". Actually, this different vision is a new model of uncertainty of the Universe, which can give an answer of the question about "the origin of the energy" and can explain a lot of problems in the physics today (such as: "the accelerated expansion of the Universe"; "the dark matter and the dark energy in the Universe", etc.), which have been under research for a long time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1401.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-08 06:03:17*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 4 pages, 3 equations, 13 references

We present a version of "realistic non-singular cosmology" in which the upper turning point of expansion is provided by negative mass density of vacuum rather than by gravitational radiation. The lower turning point is still provided by the negative pressure of electromagnetic energy. Again, assuming that the temperature of microwave radiation is a true measure of the electromagnetic energy density of the universe, and that the supernovae data of magnitudes and redshifts are reliable, we can determine (tentatively) the parameters of this version of our model, with an appropriate Hubble fraction of 0.475, and a deceleration parameter of 0.65, and estimate the time that passed, about 13.3 Gyr, since the initiation of the expansion phase, and the time that remains, about 55 Gyr, before the return to contraction. The maximum radiational temperature was only about 27,344 K, and the maximum mass density was low enough to give each typical star an ample space of about 5% of a lightyear to proceed with its own activity without disruption.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1401.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-07 13:10:35*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Spanish

There are numerous studies on the effects of the gravitomagnetism, in particular has been investigated the perturbations orbitals of satellites for this cause. But gravitatory induction is not limited to the gravitomagnetic action, characterized by producing forces perpendicular to the direction of movement, but also there is gravitoelectric action, in that the forces produced depend on the speed of the source. We analyze in this study the perturbations of satellites orbiting the Earth as a result of forces of gravitolectric origin. We found that these effects are proportional to the rotational speed of the Earth to the square, therefore considerably lower than similars effects gravitomagnetics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1401.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-08 02:38:09*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages. In Physics the absolute is in relativity of things

Different physical definitions of mass are present in scientific literature. Mass has been always considered an important physical quantity for the study and for the description of dynamics of physical systems. Let us want now to underline also kinematic properties of mass, above all in regard to the physico-mathematical relationship between mass and time, and consequently the unlike physical behavior of systems due to different properties of mass, whether in the macroscopic domain or in the microscopic domain.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1401.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-05 08:26:12*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The constancy of the speed of light, which is one of the two postulates of Special Relativity (SR) theory, is known to have a firm experimental and intuitive basis. However, SR requires length contraction time dilation hypothesis. In this paper, a new theory of light has been proposed as an alternative to this hypothesis. This paper proposes that light wave contracts towards or expands away from the source depending on the relative velocity (V) of the observer and the source so that the velocity of light in vacuum relative to any observer is always equal to C(3 x 10 8). The apparent velocity (C') of light relative to the source depends on the relative velocity (V) of the source and the observer so that the speed of light relative to an observer is always equal to C, i.e. C' - V = C (vector difference), in the reference frame of the source, and C' + V = C (vector sum), in the reference frame of the observer. Expansion or contraction of the wave is not a mere speculation but is a direct consequence of the principle of relativity and the well known phenomena of Doppler effect of light, in which speed of light remains constant and wavelength changes. The center of the spherical wave fronts moves at the velocity that the source had at the instant of emission, and yet the speed of light is the same constant C for any observer! According to SR , the center of a light wave front from a moving source is at the 'point in space where the source was' at the instant of emission. This is why SR doesn't predict stellar aberration in the reference frame of the earth. This assumption has to be investigated carefully with respect to the principle of relativity itself. The new theory agrees with the experimentally established fact that the speed of light is independent of the speed of the source (and the observer). It explains stellar aberration in both the earth and stellar reference frames. It predicts the null result of Michelson-Morley experiment. It agrees with Einstein's notion of motion, his two postulates and is in accordance with Galilean invariance principle. The Relativity of Electromagnetic Waves theory has been shown to better conform to the principle of relativity than Special Relativity does.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1401.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-03 06:54:44*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 4 pages

First law of motion operative in a time periodic universe with $S^1$ time is formulated. The inertial paths of the particles are defined as circles, with radius $R= T \left|\textbf{v} \right| /(2 \pi)$, where $T$ is the time period of the universe, and $\textbf{v}$ is the velocity of the particle. This law reduces to the Newton's first law of motion in the limit $T \rightarrow \infty$, when the radii $R \rightarrow \infty$, and so the circles open out and become indisthinguighable from the straight line trajectories of the Newtonian universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1401.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-02 14:03:14*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A Major unexplained problem remaining with the Higgs boson is explaining where its own mass arises. The problem is solved if one assumes that the mass came from a previous universe of a cyclic-time type already ptoposed. In this design there is an epoch preceding each big bang in which time is inactive and the universe is physically prepared to transfer all its mass (both fermionic and bosonic) to the next universe(the universes remaian in the same location). The actual transfer starts to take place soon after time is turned on again (and when the big bang occurs). The details of this transfer and of the formation of the big bang are given in an earlier paper by the author (viXra 1310.0261)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology