[24] **viXra:1909.0437 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-20 13:45:29*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page. JW Gibbs was a very important man to my father especially.

Abstract: If you were, the answer to this question determines why I was able to publish my 105 short notes in ViXra without being ridiculed. Thank you very much.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1909.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-20 17:57:36*

**Authors:** Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is shown that the CMB actually refutes the Big Bang theory, since it is an absolute coordinate system, and this is impossible according to A. Einstein's STR. Moreover, a prediction is made about the change in the CMB map over time, since the CMB depends on the gravitational potential at a given point, and taking into account the movement of our galaxy in the Universe, it (potential) will change. Similarly, the concept of “nothing” is analyzed, which is used to explain the expansion of the Universe. The existence of “nothing” is also in insurmountable contradiction with Einstein's STR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1909.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-19 22:37:10*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 32 Pages. 4 Figure; 1 Table; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

According to the universe model based on virtual space-time physics, the universe has two states, liquid and gaseous. The current universe is in a state of liquid universe. This can be supported by some important observational evidence. The liquid universe theory predicts that microwave background radiation and cosmic rays are gases that the liquid universe naturally evaporates, the temperatures of the two should be equal. At present, there are many research results of hydroacoustic theories in related disciplines, so we can use some hydroacoustic theories to deal with the propagation of gravitational waves in the liquid universe, and we can get some inspiring conclusions. This provides a broader theoretical support for us to study and discuss some important laws of gravitational waves in more detail. This paper gives a rough estimate of the gravitational wave data generated by the huge mass of the center of the Milky Way. It is found that the radiation of the gravitational wave in the center of the Milky Way can be used to explain the periodic variation of sunspots.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1909.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-20 03:08:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 74 Pages.

Quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity form the bedrock of the current understanding of physics-yet the two theories don't seem to work together. [48] Physicists from Professor Johannes Fink's research group at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have found a way to use a mechanical oscillator to produce entangled radiation. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1909.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-17 11:07:43*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The cosmic time dependencies of $G$, $\alpha$, $h$ and of SM parameters like the Higgs vev and elementary particle masses are studied in the framework of a new dark energy interpretation. Due to the associated time variation of rulers, many effects turn out to be invisible. However, a rather large time dependence is claimed to arise in association with dark energy measurements, and smaller ones in connection with the SM.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1909.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-15 12:00:10*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The 44.6 mile distance between Middlebush NJ and the 2 sunken early type locomotives found 5 miles off the coast of NJ near Long Branch NJ indicate an important connection between Middlebush and the MHCE8S theory of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1909.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-12 09:25:47*

**Authors:** Ahmet Yalcin

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This is the first article of the "Field relative model of the Universe". This article will be followed by other articles including the mathematics and applications of theory.

Gravity is everywhere in our life but still the oldest unsolved phenomena scientists faced so far. This article gives an extremely simple explanation about it with an example from our daily life. The solution also defines what the tiniest element of entity in the universe should be. The work investigates, if this tiniest element contributes to the solutions of many of the other mysteries in Nature both in micro and macrocosms or creates additional new problems. The article almost uses no mathematics and the mathematics of the theory and many of the fundamental applications are subjects of other articles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1909.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-12 14:06:07*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

Hypersphere World-Universe Model (WUM) envisions Matter carried from Universe into World from fourth spatial dimension by Dark Matter Particles (DMPs). Luminous Matter is byproduct of Dark Matter (DM) annihilation. WUM introduces Dark Epoch (spanning from Beginning of World for 0.4 billion years) when only DMPs existed, and Luminous Epoch (ever since for 13.8 billion years). Big Bang discussed in standard cosmological model is, in our view, transition from Dark Epoch to Luminous Epoch due to Rotational Fission of Overspinning DM Supercluster’s Cores and annihilation of DMPs. WUM solves a number of physical problems in contemporary Cosmology and Astrophysics through DMPs and their interactions: Angular Momentum problem in birth and subsequent evolution of Galaxies and Extrasolar systems – how do they obtain it; Fermi Bubbles – two large structures in gamma-rays and X-rays above and below Galactic center; Mysterious Star KIC 8462852 with irregular dimmings; Coronal Heating problem in solar physics – temperature of Sun's corona exceeding that of photosphere by millions of degrees; Cores of Sun and Earth rotating faster than their surfaces; Diversity of Gravitationally-Rounded Objects in Solar system and their Internal Heat; Lightning Initiation problem – electric fields observed inside thunderstorms are not sufficient to initiate sparks; Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes – bursts of high energy X-rays and gamma rays emanating from Earth. Model makes predictions pertaining to Masses of DMPs, proposes New Types of their Interactions. WUM reveals Inter-Connectivity of Primary Cosmological Parameters and calculates their values, which are in good agreement with the latest results of their measurements.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1909.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-10 14:30:56*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Russian

The properties of the pre-relativistic space-time are completely determined by the properties of the propagation of the information signal, in particular-the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves. The speed of propagation of the information signal is constant and does not depend on the state of motion of the observer and the direction of propagation. The scale of the coordinate axes in pre-relativistic coordinate transformations does not change.The Galilean space is not a model of the physical space of classical mechanics, despite the fact that the space of classical mechanics is defined in it, but Newton's laws and conservation laws are formulated through ordinary tensors in pre-relativistic space. The domain of pre-relativistic mechanics is limited by very small (precisely - infi-nitely small) velocities with respect to the velocity of the information signal propagation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1909.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-10 14:40:29*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In developing the general theory of relativity, Albert Einstein assert:
My main purpose, is to develop this theory, so that the reader is aware that the way we set out, is psychologically the only natural one ( book title: La teoria della relatività, by Albert Einstein, Cap. 1 paragraph 4 ).
Then we can deduced, that any solution of a physical problem attributable to the general theory of relativity, is psychologically the only natural one.
After a brief introduction we solves the following problem:
What will be the effect of muon, when it is inside the proton of density Jp = Vp/Mp for an infinitely small time?
After to solve the problem we conclude that, experiments conducted with electrons and muon to measure the proton radius that will give the same result, come into contradiction with the general theory of relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1909.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-10 17:04:39*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Russian

Pre-relativistic vector transformations are transformations of 4-dimensional material vectors of classical mechanics
Formulas of transformations of contravariant and covariant vectors of pre – relativistic space-intermediate space between Galilean and relativistic (Minkowski) spaces are given. The domain of definition is the transformation of coordinates and vectors at infinitesimal velocities of material objects. Such vectors are spatial coordinates, velocities, accelerations and many other material 4-vector parameters – for example, 4-dimensional energy-momentum. The form of metric tensor of pre-relativistic space, scalar product, formula for conjugation of vectors is also given.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1909.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-10 17:07:58*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Russian

Pre-relativistic tensor transformations are transformations of 4-dimensional material tensors of classical mechanics
Formulas for transformations of contravariant, covariant, and mixed rank 2 tensors of a pre – relativistic space-the intermediate space between Galilean and relativistic (Minkowski) spaces-are given. The domain of definition is the transformation of coordinates and vectors at infinitesimal velocities of material objects. Such tensors are metric tensors of 4-dimensional space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1909.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-08 14:12:19*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

A standing wave can be formed in a microwave resonator if the length of the resonator is equal to one half of the wavelength
multiplied by an integer. Two observers moving at the same speed will observe the resonator of the same length.
They will also observe the same wavelength as the wavelength is proportional to the length of the
resonator. If one observer moves in the opposite direction, they will observe an identical wavelength but two different
frequencies due to the Doppler effect.
Therefore, the apparent speed of the microwave appears to be different for these two observers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1909.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-09 06:17:13*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 1 Page. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to present gravity expansions concept.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1909.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-08 01:21:21*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Energy Pairs Theory is related to the assumption presented in previous
articles, that charge might also be considered as a form of energy, as mass turned
to be. This assumption was based on important similarities between mass and
charge, and on analyzing the energy density equations of electric and magnetic
fields
And, since charge comes in two forms, a positive charge and a negative charge, the
energies embedded in charges, if this concept is found viable, and supported by
additional findings, also must have two forms which the article grouped as one
set of Energy Pair.
This Energy Pairs Theory was used to supply an explanation to the issue of charge
disappearance in electron positron collisions.
In this article the Energy Pairs Theory is used to explain Energy Conservation
Issues
related to Electric and Magnetic Fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1909.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-06 10:01:09*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 4 pages

Now the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is the cornerstone of contemporary physics. The proof of SRT is based on three basic experiments. The analysis of them shows that ordinary physics is sufficient for the interpretation of experimental results and there is no need for SRT. Therefore the above-mentioned experiments are not proof of SRT.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1909.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-06 19:29:06*

**Authors:** Tristan Anthony Dobrian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A modied version of the near horizon metric is introduced, that puts the near horizon metric in
the same form as one of the most commonly-used metric variants of Rindler space. The metric is
then used to calculate the Hawking temperature, using the WKB tunneling approximation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1909.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-15 12:46:22*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The kinetic energy of a moving mass is attributed to the mass increase
because of its velocity. Thus, mass is recognized as a special form of energy.
As will be shown in this article, there are similarities between mass and
charge which might lead us to conclude that charge should also be considered
as a special form of energy.
Thus, this article does claim that Charge might also be recognized as
another form of Energy, as mass turned to be. This claim, if found viable,
and supported by additional findings, will make Energy as the only distinct
entity (in addition to time and space), a simpler and cleaner view of nature.
Also, this article suggests the following:
1. Analogeous to the equation:
E = m c ^ 2 where E is energy, m is mass c is the speed of light
and ^ stands for power of.
derived by the special theory of relativity, which describes the relation
between the
energy embedded in mass and mass magnitude, this article suggests several
options of equations that might describe the relation between the energy and
charge magnitude. These suggestions are based only on assumptions and
must be supported by additional findings.
2. Since charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then
the energy embedded in charge also comes in two energy types.
This might be one of the crucial reasons why it was difficult to recognize
charge as another form of energy.
However, the article provides a logical explanation to this issue. The article
also assigns these energy types to one set of Energy Pairs.
This Energy Pairs Theory is also used to explain why in the electron and
positron collisions the charges completely disappear.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1909.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-04 15:50:48*

**Authors:** Tom Fuchs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I show that gravitational time dilation is a twin paradox scenario that can be calculated using length contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1909.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-16 07:07:08*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Typos corrected

The length and mass scales of cosmology and astrophysics are shown to derive from quantum scales. The Quantum/Classical connection maps the Bohr radius, the reduced Compton wavelength and the classical electron radius – three ‘quantum’ length scales that lie in geometric progression with common ratio α, the fine structure constant – onto three ‘classical’ length scales: the radius of the observable universe; the radius of the stellar halo of the geometric-mean-sized galaxy that is typified by the Milky Way; and the radius of the planetary system of the geometric-mean-sized star that is typified by the sun. By way of the Quantum/Classical connection, the three classical length scales lie in geometric progression with common ratio equal to alpha^5/2 (=4.55E-6). This observation has opened up a framework of multiplicative relationships between cosmological and astrophysical scales based on powers of alpha^5/2. The astrophysical scales of the model refer to the geometric mean values of distributions of scales. ‘Local’ scales take very nearly ideal (geometric mean) values. The baryonic mass of the Milky Way and the mass of the sun approximate very closely to the baryonic mass of the Hubble sphere multiplied by alpha^5 and alpha^10, respectively. The total mass of the Milky Way, the mass of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the centre of the Milky Way and the geometric mean mass of black hole-black hole gravitational wave event progenitors approximate very closely to the total mass/energy of the Hubble sphere multiplied by alpha^5, alpha^15/2 and alpha^10, respectively. The results indicate that the total mass/energy of the Hubble sphere increases with time and that black holes grow at Hubble rate. The Schwarzschild radius of the ‘ideal’ star equals the radius of the star multiplied by alpha^5/2. By way of the Quantum/Classical connection, the radius and mass of the ‘ideal’ star map onto the mass and atomic radius, respectively, of the stable nuclide iron-56. The nearly-ideal sun is the counterpart of the stable nuclide chromium-53.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1909.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-02 07:58:03*

**Authors:** Nick Markov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This research note hypothesizes new physics without dark energy, dark matter, extra dimensions, and deviation from proven mathematical models. The main idea is that matter expands proportionally with space, and that the proposed discrete step-expansion of elementary particles may provide a platform for unification of the four fundamental interactions. This note also proposes several ways to validate the hypothesis at the macro- and micro-scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1909.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-02 08:10:56*

**Authors:** Nick Markov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Correlation between relativistic time dilation and space-time curvature is presented aiming to explain the observed galactic rotational curves without introducing hidden parameters, such as dark matter. The relation is supported with measured data from five spiral galaxies of various sizes and rotational velocities. Correlations are also provided for a galaxy cluster and for the Solar System.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1909.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-03 01:23:22*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Hence, solutions of the unified theory is Reissner-Nodstrom solution in vacuum. We found revised Einstein gravity tensor equation is satisfied the condition by 2-order contra-invariant metric tensor two times product.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1909.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-01 14:18:42*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The interference pattern from a Fizeau interferometer is conserved in all inertial reference frames. Its constructive pattern
requires the wavelength to be proportional to the width of the interferometer at the point of interference. The length
contraction from Lorentz transformation assumes the interferometer to be contracted in the direction of the relative motion.
The wavelength is contracted as well. For two observers moving at the same speed, the contracted wavelength appears to
be identical for both of them. If one of them moves in the opposite direction, they will observe an identical wavelength
but two different frequencies due to the Doppler effect. Consequently, they observe two different speeds from the same light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology