[41] **viXra:1909.0637 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-30 12:14:45*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: It is noticed that the mass of the top quark in MHCE8S theory is 171.7 GeV. NATURE Apparently uses the top quark mass to advertise the doubly great contribution of the B17 bomber to the end of WW2

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1909.0631 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-30 14:55:39*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan

**Comments:** 144 Pages. In Armenian

(In Armenian)
------------------------------------
"Foundation Armenian Special Theory of Time-Spacein One Physical Dimension by Pictures (Kinematics)"
------------------------------------
Third volume of our research we Dedicated to the 12-th Anniversary of Declaration Armenian Revolution in Science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1909.0622 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-28 10:44:52*

**Authors:** Bruno R Galeffi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This study considers the asymmetric self-division of a preexisting substance at zero-energy as the seeding and nucleation for the cosmic inflation driven by Friedmann equations. This split creates two unsymmetrical constituents that provide the potential energy required for activating the universe expansion and the emergence of three other vacuum ingredients. This expansion model corresponds to a vacuum containing five components, two with positive and three with negative energy densities, including a negative cosmological variable Λ(t). In this model dark energy and dark matter, as identified by the ΛCDM framework, seem to accurately fit the sum of two components.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1909.0621 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-28 11:51:48*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

We study the application of the laws of mechanics in inertial and non-inertial reference frames. We verify that in the usual formulation of mechanics, there are no centrifugal forces. We understand the force of inertia as a force that acts on everybody that is accelerated with respect to an inertial reference frame. The so-called fictitious forces are not considered as forces since other bodies do not produce them. We indicate the superiority of the principle of dynamic equilibrium or D’Alembert's law over the usual way of expressing the second law of mechanics. In the second part of this research, Mach's principle develops and it is shown that inertia is produced by the action of the gravitational induction forces of the whole Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1909.0609 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-03 09:33:34*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** Revised Figure 3 on page 4 to include radar gun

Radar guns seem to be a simple way to illustrate some of the biggest misunderstandings in science. Radar guns clearly demonstrate that light (and all electromagnetic energy) travels in the form of photons, not as waves. Radar guns also show that Wave Theory is both misleading and totally wrong.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1909.0581 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-26 08:08:14*

**Authors:** Z. Shafiei

**Comments:** 13 presentation pages

Einstein claimed that “If a unit electric point charge is in motion in an electromagnetic field, the force acting upon it is equal to the electric force which is present at the locality of the charge, and which we ascertain by transformation of the field to a system of co-ordinates at rest relatively to the electrical charge.”1
A few thought experiments have been suggested to corroborate this claim.One of these thought experiments is produced by Feynman.Feynman’s case and analysis is also adopted by Purcell and Morin. The example is generally being reproduced and taught in various universities.
However, the results do not agree with Einstein’s claim that the two methods produce the same answer for electromagnetic force acting on the charge.
This article presents and reviews Feynman’s analysis and calculation of electromagnetic forces in the two inertial reference frames as described by Einstein. It shows that Feynman’s analysis is just a deliberate attempt to produce similar, though eventually not equal, results. Correct analysis also does not support Einstein’s claim.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1909.0552 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-25 12:07:55*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Peluso

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

A new cosmological model is presented, which derives from a new physics within a theory of everything. It introduces, beyond radiation and baryonic matter, a unique and new ingredient, which is the substance of the universe, and which can be assimilated to the cold dark matter of the standard cosmology. The new model, although profoundly different from the ΛCDM model, exhibits the same metric and an almost identical distance scale. So it shares the same chronology and the same theory of nucleosynthesis, but solves the problem of the horizon, the fatness of space and the homogeneity of the distribution of matter in a natural way, without having to resort to an additional theory like that of inflation and without dark energy. Eventually it resolves the tension between the direct and the inverse cosmic distance ladder.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1909.0542 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 06:42:43*

**Authors:** Ralph B. Hill

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

NEG demonstrates proof that energy in gravitational action is generated at the expense of a buildup of negative energy. Gravitational potential energy does not represent a form of energy, failing tests under mass-energy equivalence and GR. Negative energy builds up in space, curves spacetime negatively, leading to antigravitational effects including observed ‘dark energy’. Discovery of energy generation by gravity in 0=-1+1 type fashion and realization of negative energy affecting space lead to sweeping consequences for cosmology. The emerging Dual Energy Cosmological model (DEC) naturally addresses current problems including initial singularity, dark energy, dark matter, Lambda, vacuum energy from quantum fluctuations, an ultimate source for energy in the universe. Negative energy changes underlying assumptions of large-scale cosmic dynamics and renders Lambda-CDM model obsolete. New insights on energy in gravitational waves are detailed. Call for new astronomical surveys to assess historic gravitational energy delivery, where Anti-de Sitter space and signatures of a holographic structure naturally emerge as partial components of physical reality. The new theory of energy opens door to dual energy physics beyond gravity and cosmology. It is further proposed that interactions with negative energy rather than a positive Higgs field give rise to the masses of elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1909.0541 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 06:50:16*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We derived the field equations of f (R) gravity using Euler-Poisson equation, which allows the boundary term to vanish in a natural way from the principle of Calculus of variation in contrary to the original theory of H. A. Buchdahl 1970, in which the boundary term was not treated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1909.0529 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 08:24:06*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We consider a static charged sphere in general relativity. We make a coordinate transformation of a specific form. The electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor in the transformed coordinates is shown to be zero contrary to what is expected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1909.0524 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-25 04:23:01*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Thank you for reading

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Hence, solutions of the unified theory is Reissner- Nodstrom solution in vacuum. We found in revised Einstein gravity tensor equation , the condition is
satisf ied by 2 order contravariant metric tensor two times product,the constant matrix.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1909.0519 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 14:17:37*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The interference pattern of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is conserved in all inertial reference frames. Its constructive pattern
requires the wavelength to be proportional to the gap width of the interferometer. The length
contraction from Lorentz transformation assumes the gap of the interferometer to be contracted in the direction of the
relative motion.
The wavelength is also contracted as it is proportional to the gap width. For two observers moving at the same speed,
the contracted wavelength appears to be identical. If one of them moves in the opposite direction, they will observe an
identical wavelength
but two different frequencies due to the Doppler effect. Consequently, they observe two different speeds from the same light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1909.0516 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 16:58:04*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: It is noted that my ViXra publisher's father's name was "Ted". Therefore this connection between "ted" and "briggs" indicates that MHCE8S theory of the universe is as surprising (and important) as was the sinking of the battleship Hood.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1909.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-23 02:52:05*

**Authors:** Lluis Bel

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A fully relativistic descriptiony of the encounter of 35 solar masses point-like objects, somehow mimicking the binary merger GW1508144 described by LIGO Scientific and VIRGO collaboration (Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 529, No 1-2)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1909.0478 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-22 14:30:26*

**Authors:** Royan Rosche

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I show you the fallacy of external logic based on accidental motion and guide you through various situations that show that there exists a power or force that resides inside all Matter as to cause its alterations, modifications, and movements within a defined sphere of activity and that this force within Matter does not impart its force or powers unto other bodies beyond itself or its sphere. I show by sound logical arguments that material motions caused by an external force is impossible insomuch as it pertains to the natural workings of Nature. I show you that all Winds, Waves, Orbits, Clouds and other natural motions and natural phenomena stem from a inward activity as opposed to a external activity that causes their alterations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1909.0472 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-24 03:12:11*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

I will try to invalidate the theory of relativity by presenting a compelling alternative theory. I hope that criticism of Einstein's theories will not be seen as offense.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1909.0437 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-20 13:45:29*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page. JW Gibbs was a very important man to my father especially.

Abstract: If you were, the answer to this question determines why I was able to publish my 105 short notes in ViXra without being ridiculed. Thank you very much.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1909.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-20 17:57:36*

**Authors:** Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is shown that the CMB actually refutes the Big Bang theory, since it is an absolute coordinate system, and this is impossible according to A. Einstein's STR. Moreover, a prediction is made about the change in the CMB map over time, since the CMB depends on the gravitational potential at a given point, and taking into account the movement of our galaxy in the Universe, it (potential) will change. Similarly, the concept of “nothing” is analyzed, which is used to explain the expansion of the Universe. The existence of “nothing” is also in insurmountable contradiction with Einstein's STR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1909.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-19 22:37:10*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 32 Pages. 4 Figure; 1 Table; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

According to the universe model based on virtual space-time physics, the universe has two states, liquid and gaseous. The current universe is in a state of liquid universe. This can be supported by some important observational evidence. The liquid universe theory predicts that microwave background radiation and cosmic rays are gases that the liquid universe naturally evaporates, the temperatures of the two should be equal. At present, there are many research results of hydroacoustic theories in related disciplines, so we can use some hydroacoustic theories to deal with the propagation of gravitational waves in the liquid universe, and we can get some inspiring conclusions. This provides a broader theoretical support for us to study and discuss some important laws of gravitational waves in more detail. This paper gives a rough estimate of the gravitational wave data generated by the huge mass of the center of the Milky Way. It is found that the radiation of the gravitational wave in the center of the Milky Way can be used to explain the periodic variation of sunspots.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1909.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-20 03:08:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 74 Pages.

Quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity form the bedrock of the current understanding of physics-yet the two theories don't seem to work together. [48] Physicists from Professor Johannes Fink's research group at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have found a way to use a mechanical oscillator to produce entangled radiation. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1909.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-17 11:07:43*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The cosmic time dependencies of $G$, $\alpha$, $h$ and of SM parameters like the Higgs vev and elementary particle masses are studied in the framework of a new dark energy interpretation. Due to the associated time variation of rulers, many effects turn out to be invisible. However, a rather large time dependence is claimed to arise in association with dark energy measurements, and smaller ones in connection with the SM.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1909.0338 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-21 21:39:21*

**Authors:** F.M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Wolf and Milankovich cycles, as well as a 725 years one, are shown to be tightly connected to the invariant Hubble-Sanchez horizon radius, via the Bohr radius, the background temperature and the Kotov length, implying a liaison between the Mattieu group, the superstring dimension 496 and the Higgs boson mass. The Mattieu group order factorisation 66 × 5! is implied, and leads to a relation implying the Monster Couple, characterising the Tau, Mu Leptons and Proton masses and confirming the Eddington's Proton-Tau symmetry. A cosmic connection with the weak bosons implies explicit ppb formula for the Millenarium Lepton masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1909.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-15 12:00:10*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The 44.6 mile distance between Middlebush NJ and the 2 sunken early type locomotives found 5 miles off the coast of NJ near Long Branch NJ indicate an important connection between Middlebush and the MHCE8S theory of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1909.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-12 09:25:47*

**Authors:** Ahmet Yalcin

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This is the first article of the "Field relative model of the Universe". This article will be followed by other articles including the mathematics and applications of theory.

Gravity is everywhere in our life but still the oldest unsolved phenomena scientists faced so far. This article gives an extremely simple explanation about it with an example from our daily life. The solution also defines what the tiniest element of entity in the universe should be. The work investigates, if this tiniest element contributes to the solutions of many of the other mysteries in Nature both in micro and macrocosms or creates additional new problems. The article almost uses no mathematics and the mathematics of the theory and many of the fundamental applications are subjects of other articles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1909.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-12 14:06:07*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

Hypersphere World-Universe Model (WUM) envisions Matter carried from Universe into World from fourth spatial dimension by Dark Matter Particles (DMPs). Luminous Matter is byproduct of Dark Matter (DM) annihilation. WUM introduces Dark Epoch (spanning from Beginning of World for 0.4 billion years) when only DMPs existed, and Luminous Epoch (ever since for 13.8 billion years). Big Bang discussed in standard cosmological model is, in our view, transition from Dark Epoch to Luminous Epoch due to Rotational Fission of Overspinning DM Supercluster’s Cores and annihilation of DMPs. WUM solves a number of physical problems in contemporary Cosmology and Astrophysics through DMPs and their interactions: Angular Momentum problem in birth and subsequent evolution of Galaxies and Extrasolar systems – how do they obtain it; Fermi Bubbles – two large structures in gamma-rays and X-rays above and below Galactic center; Mysterious Star KIC 8462852 with irregular dimmings; Coronal Heating problem in solar physics – temperature of Sun's corona exceeding that of photosphere by millions of degrees; Cores of Sun and Earth rotating faster than their surfaces; Diversity of Gravitationally-Rounded Objects in Solar system and their Internal Heat; Lightning Initiation problem – electric fields observed inside thunderstorms are not sufficient to initiate sparks; Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes – bursts of high energy X-rays and gamma rays emanating from Earth. Model makes predictions pertaining to Masses of DMPs, proposes New Types of their Interactions. WUM reveals Inter-Connectivity of Primary Cosmological Parameters and calculates their values, which are in good agreement with the latest results of their measurements.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1909.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-10 14:30:56*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Russian

The properties of the pre-relativistic space-time are completely determined by the properties of the propagation of the information signal, in particular-the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves. The speed of propagation of the information signal is constant and does not depend on the state of motion of the observer and the direction of propagation. The scale of the coordinate axes in pre-relativistic coordinate transformations does not change.The Galilean space is not a model of the physical space of classical mechanics, despite the fact that the space of classical mechanics is defined in it, but Newton's laws and conservation laws are formulated through ordinary tensors in pre-relativistic space. The domain of pre-relativistic mechanics is limited by very small (precisely - infi-nitely small) velocities with respect to the velocity of the information signal propagation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1909.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-10 14:40:29*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In developing the general theory of relativity, Albert Einstein assert:
My main purpose, is to develop this theory, so that the reader is aware that the way we set out, is psychologically the only natural one ( book title: La teoria della relatività, by Albert Einstein, Cap. 1 paragraph 4 ).
Then we can deduced, that any solution of a physical problem attributable to the general theory of relativity, is psychologically the only natural one.
After a brief introduction we solves the following problem:
What will be the effect of muon, when it is inside the proton of density Jp = Vp/Mp for an infinitely small time?
After to solve the problem we conclude that, experiments conducted with electrons and muon to measure the proton radius that will give the same result, come into contradiction with the general theory of relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1909.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-10 17:04:39*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Russian

Pre-relativistic vector transformations are transformations of 4-dimensional material vectors of classical mechanics
Formulas of transformations of contravariant and covariant vectors of pre – relativistic space-intermediate space between Galilean and relativistic (Minkowski) spaces are given. The domain of definition is the transformation of coordinates and vectors at infinitesimal velocities of material objects. Such vectors are spatial coordinates, velocities, accelerations and many other material 4-vector parameters – for example, 4-dimensional energy-momentum. The form of metric tensor of pre-relativistic space, scalar product, formula for conjugation of vectors is also given.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1909.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-10 17:07:58*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Russian

Pre-relativistic tensor transformations are transformations of 4-dimensional material tensors of classical mechanics
Formulas for transformations of contravariant, covariant, and mixed rank 2 tensors of a pre – relativistic space-the intermediate space between Galilean and relativistic (Minkowski) spaces-are given. The domain of definition is the transformation of coordinates and vectors at infinitesimal velocities of material objects. Such tensors are metric tensors of 4-dimensional space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1909.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-08 14:12:19*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

A standing wave can be formed in a microwave resonator if the length of the resonator is equal to one half of the wavelength
multiplied by an integer. Two observers moving at the same speed will observe the resonator of the same length.
They will also observe the same wavelength as the wavelength is proportional to the length of the
resonator. If one observer moves in the opposite direction, they will observe an identical wavelength but two different
frequencies due to the Doppler effect.
Therefore, the apparent speed of the microwave appears to be different for these two observers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1909.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-09 06:17:13*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 1 Page. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to present gravity expansions concept.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1909.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-01 14:16:49*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

After the presentation of the Special Relativity Theory by Einstein, the concept of Mass was discovered to be a special form of Energy. Thus, the concept of Electric Charge remained the only distinct entity in Physics that is not equated with Energy.
Actually, the fact that charge exists in two types, positive and negative, might be one of the crucial reasons why it was difficult to analyze the concept of charge and consider it as another form of energy.
In an article named "Electric Charges as Energy Pairs" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1909.0098 the assumption that Charge might also be considered as a form of Energy was presented and discussed, from several points of view. This article argues that the claim that Electric Charge might be a form of Energy, might be valid.
However, if electric charges are a form of energy, they must belong to a set of "Energy Pairs". As charge might be positive or negative, the energy embedded in charge should also be of two energy types, which are assigned to one set of "Energy Pairs".
The article presents the "Energy Pairs" Theory that states that electric fields energies or magnetic fields energies, which are dependent on the existence of a force field (electric or magnetic) in order to exist, can annihilate each other, in certain situations, an annihilation that seems to violate the Energy Conservation Principle.
The theory of "Energy Pairs" is actually proved by the following scenario:
A scenario of very focused two source electromagnetic traveling waves, focused such that they can be considered as traveling only in one dimension, which are colliding, and following this collision, the waves consolidate, and continue to travel in the same direction.
Analysis of this scenario reveals that there might be a loss of the energy that these waves carried before that consolidation, which might be a clear violation of the Energy Conservation Principle, which is also what the "energy Pairs" theory states.
And if, following this consolidation, the waves have same energy and opposite amplitudes in their electric fields and also in their magnetic fields the waves actually seem to disappear.
The theory of "Energy Pairs" might be very helpful in explaining and understanding some crucial unresolved problems in the science of Physics today, like dark energy, the charge disappearance in collisions between electron and positron and others.
The article examines the energy embedded in electric and magnetic fields, and then, the "Energy Pairs" theory is used to explain and better understand the observations and results.
This analysis provides a deep and surprising view, not only on the specific process examined, but also in better understanding of the biggest unresolved problems of the science of Physics today, like the expansion of the universe and the dark energy issue

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1909.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-06 10:01:09*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 4 pages

Now the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is the cornerstone of contemporary physics. The proof of SRT is based on three basic experiments. The analysis of them shows that ordinary physics is sufficient for the interpretation of experimental results and there is no need for SRT. Therefore the above-mentioned experiments are not proof of SRT.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1909.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-06 19:29:06*

**Authors:** Tristan Anthony Dobrian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A modied version of the near horizon metric is introduced, that puts the near horizon metric in
the same form as one of the most commonly-used metric variants of Rindler space. The metric is
then used to calculate the Hawking temperature, using the WKB tunneling approximation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1909.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-01 14:26:25*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

After the presentation of the Special Relativity Theory, Mass was discovered to be a
special form of Energy. Thus, after the presentation of the Special Relativity Theory, the Electric Charge remained the only distinct entity that is not Energy.
This article claims that electric charges might be considered also as a form of energy.
This argument is based on another claim, that if electric charges are a form of energy
they must belong to a set of Energy Pairs, and the reason for that is as follows:
Because charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then,
the energy embedded in charge must also come in two energy types, which are assigned to one set of Energy Pairs.
Actually, the fact that charge comes in two types might be one of the crucial reasons why it was difficult to recognize charge as another form of energy.
This article starts by analyzing the energy embedded in electric and magnetic fields, and shows that such energies, which are dependent on the existence of a force field (electric or magnetic) in order to exist, can annihilate each other, in certain situations, an annihilation that seems to violate the Energy Conservation Principle.
Actually, this article describes a specific physical scenario which shows a situation in which during a collision of two electromagnetic traveling waves transmissions that occur in a specific constellation, the two waves, which each contain energy, disappear, which is a clear violation of the Energy Conservation Principle.
In light of the above described scenario, this article assigns the energy embedded in electric fields generated by positive charges, and energy embedded in electric fields generated by negative charges to one set of energy pairs. And, this article also assigns the energy embedded in magnetic fields generated by moving positive charges, and energy embedded in magnetic fields generated by moving negative charges to another set of energy pairs.
Then, this article presents the Energy Pairs Theory, that states that energies belonging to
energy pairs of equal intensities residing in the same space volume, might annihilate each
other, in certain conditions. And, this article uses the Energy Pairs Theory, to explain
Energy Conservation issues in electric or magnetic fields by the above mentioned
statement that energies belonging to energy pairs of equal intensities residing in the same
space volume, might annihilate each other, in certain conditions.
Then, since the above mentioned physical scenario does show that electric or magnetic energy can be annihilated, or disappear in certain conditions, this provides a proof to the validity of the Energy Pairs Theory.
Then, because energies in electric and magnetic fields are generated initially from electric charges, the Energy Pairs Theory is also used to explain the issue of charge disappearance in electron positron collisions.
When an electron and a positron collide they annihilate each other and gamma ray
photons are emitted, with energy equal to the sum of the energies embedded in the masses of the electron and the positron. However, the charges of the electron and the positron are not converted to any new substance (such as energy) and they simply disappear without leaving any trace of their previous existence. This charge disappearance seem to be an unusual, strange and unexpected mystery, although this charge disappearance obey the charge conservation principle. This charge disappearance is strange, because charge seem to be a basic element in physics, and such basic elements should not disappear.
The Energy Pairs mentioned above provides a reasonable and logic explanation also
to this charge disappearance mystery. This is done by assuming that charge is energy and energy embedded in positive charge and energy embedded in negative charge belong to one set of Energy Pairs that might annihilate each other.
This also provides extra support to the assumption that charge is energy. Because, as electric or magnetic energies are shown to annihilate each other and disappear, in certain situations, positive and negative charge might also annihilate each other in certain situations, such as, in electron positron collisions, which strengthen the claim that electric charges are also a form of energy.
The above described scenario can be converted, at least in principle, to a physical experiment which might provide an additional validity to the Energy Pairs Theory. This article also describes how such an experiment can be arranged.
Also, the above mentioned scenario might also show that Energy Pairs might turn into some sort of Dark Energy, which is a mystery that the science of Physics seeks a solution to it. This is also presented in a separate article titled: "Energy Pairs might turn to some sort of Dark Energy" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1909.0149.
Also, the mutual annihilation of energies belonging to energy pairs can be viewed not
only as mutual annihilation but also as mutual disabling. This idea equates the complete
emptiness with substance, assuming that complete emptiness is a state in which energies
of energy pairs exist and their mutual disabling is actually seen as complete emptiness.
This idea also can be extended to assume that this state of complete emptiness, which
actually contains energy pairs, is the eternal state of existence. And since complete emptiness is a state that do contain energies which disable each other, this concept can be further extrapolated to assume that energy pairs can evolve together from this complete emptiness, which discards the need for the concept of creation.
Then, by combining the last two assumptions, the assumption that energies belonging
to energy pairs residing in the same space volume might disable each other in certain
conditions, and the assumption that energy pairs might evolve together from nothing
in certain conditions, the energy pairs can be seen as being able to turn into some sort
of the Dark Energy which might be also seen as the complete emptiness.
Because, the assumption that the complete emptiness actually contains energy pairs
that disable each other makes it containing energies that are untraceable, as the Dark
Energy is. And, the assumption that energy pairs can emerge together from nothing (or
complete emptiness) might explain how this Dark Energy is able to enter into activity, at
certain conditions.
In addition to using the above described coliding wave scenario, that proves the Energy Pairs Theory, which is used to support the claim that electric charges might be energy, the claim that electric charge might be energy is discussed in this article from additional angles.
As will be shown in this article, there are similarities between mass and charge which might lead us to conclude that charge should also be considered as a special form of energy.
Thus, this article does claim that Charge might also be recognized as another form of Energy, as mass turned to be. This claim, if found viable, and supported by additional findings, will make Energy as the only distinct entity (in addition to time and space), a simpler and cleaner view of nature.
Also, analogous to the equation: E = (m * C) ^ 2 where E is energy, m is mass
c is the speed of light, and ^ stands for power of
Derived by the special theory of relativity, which describes the relation between the energy embedded in mass and mass magnitude, this article suggests several options of equations that might describe the relation between the energy embedded in charge and charge magnitude. These suggestions are based only on assumptions and must be supported by additional findings.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1909.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-04 15:50:48*

**Authors:** Tom Fuchs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I show that gravitational time dilation is a twin paradox scenario that can be calculated using length contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1909.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-16 07:07:08*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Typos corrected

The length and mass scales of cosmology and astrophysics are shown to derive from quantum scales. The Quantum/Classical connection maps the Bohr radius, the reduced Compton wavelength and the classical electron radius – three ‘quantum’ length scales that lie in geometric progression with common ratio α, the fine structure constant – onto three ‘classical’ length scales: the radius of the observable universe; the radius of the stellar halo of the geometric-mean-sized galaxy that is typified by the Milky Way; and the radius of the planetary system of the geometric-mean-sized star that is typified by the sun. By way of the Quantum/Classical connection, the three classical length scales lie in geometric progression with common ratio equal to alpha^5/2 (=4.55E-6). This observation has opened up a framework of multiplicative relationships between cosmological and astrophysical scales based on powers of alpha^5/2. The astrophysical scales of the model refer to the geometric mean values of distributions of scales. ‘Local’ scales take very nearly ideal (geometric mean) values. The baryonic mass of the Milky Way and the mass of the sun approximate very closely to the baryonic mass of the Hubble sphere multiplied by alpha^5 and alpha^10, respectively. The total mass of the Milky Way, the mass of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the centre of the Milky Way and the geometric mean mass of black hole-black hole gravitational wave event progenitors approximate very closely to the total mass/energy of the Hubble sphere multiplied by alpha^5, alpha^15/2 and alpha^10, respectively. The results indicate that the total mass/energy of the Hubble sphere increases with time and that black holes grow at Hubble rate. The Schwarzschild radius of the ‘ideal’ star equals the radius of the star multiplied by alpha^5/2. By way of the Quantum/Classical connection, the radius and mass of the ‘ideal’ star map onto the mass and atomic radius, respectively, of the stable nuclide iron-56. The nearly-ideal sun is the counterpart of the stable nuclide chromium-53.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1909.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-12 01:03:06*

**Authors:** Nick Markov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. New validation approaches, formulas and appendices added in this revision.

This letter hypothesizes that matter expands proportionally with space. The expansion of the universe could be causing
gravity instead of opposing it. The new perspective works without dark matter, extra dimensions, big bang, great
attractor, and does not require changes to the established laws of physics. Five different approaches are proposed to
validate the hypothesis at the macro- and micro level.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1909.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-02 08:10:56*

**Authors:** Nick Markov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Correlation between relativistic time dilation and space-time curvature is presented aiming to explain the observed galactic rotational curves without introducing hidden parameters, such as dark matter. The relation is supported with measured data from five spiral galaxies of various sizes and rotational velocities. Correlations are also provided for a galaxy cluster and for the Solar System.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1909.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-21 12:23:45*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Hence, solutions of the unified theory is Reissner- Nordstrom solution in vacuum. We found the revised Einstein gravity tensor equation , the condition
is satisfied by 2 order contravariant metric tensor two times product , the constant matrix.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1909.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-01 14:18:42*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The interference pattern from a Fizeau interferometer is conserved in all inertial reference frames. Its constructive pattern
requires the wavelength to be proportional to the width of the interferometer at the point of interference. The length
contraction from Lorentz transformation assumes the interferometer to be contracted in the direction of the relative motion.
The wavelength is contracted as well. For two observers moving at the same speed, the contracted wavelength appears to
be identical for both of them. If one of them moves in the opposite direction, they will observe an identical wavelength
but two different frequencies due to the Doppler effect. Consequently, they observe two different speeds from the same light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology