[30] **viXra:1709.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 00:15:24*

**Authors:** Nikitin A. P.

**Comments:** Pages.

It is explained the deviation of the light beam in the gravitational field of the Sun from energy considerations, when all the changes and interactions, including gravitational ones, are considered not as force interactions or geometric manifestations of the curvature of space-time, but as manifestations and consequences of the motion of matter, described as the motion of energy in space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1709.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 09:35:00*

**Authors:** Gary Nash

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the Klein-Gordon equation in curved 4-dimensional spacetime, it can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors with the wave function $\Psi$ having spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$. Using a decomposition of symmetric tensors and two fundamental principles of general relativity, a new tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor. The tensors that constitute the modified Einstein equation add to zero. General relativity and dark energy are hidden in the symmetric part of the Klein-Gordon equation for each spin. As quantum field theory in curved spacetime is built from the free field solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation, general relativity and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory. The metric as a field variable describing gravitons vanishes from the massless spin-2 KG equation in the low-energy long-range to particle regimes of spacetime. Massless spin-2 gravitons in those regimes do not exist. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity in those regimes. It is shown that the cosmological constant must be zero. Dark energy effectively replaces the cosmological constant and describes a cyclic universe which developed after the Big Bang. Dark energy is interpreted to be the repulsive part of the trace of the tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy. The dark energy density provides a natural explanation of why the vacuum energy density is so small, and why it dominates the present epoch of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1709.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-17 12:42:04*

**Authors:** Ziaedin Shafiei

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory of length contraction was initially proposed to uphold the existence of aether after the surprise null result from Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment. The theory claimed that any physical object shrinks in the direction of its movement through aether. The theory is accepted by special relativity. It is, however, redefined as the shortening of any physical object in the direction of its movement relative to an observer.
This article shows that M&M experiment, in fact, does not support length contraction as the theory was not based on all-inclusive analysis of the experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1709.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 09:21:16*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, PhD, Pe

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Shaw has proposed an aether explanation for gravity, publishing several papers over the current decade (see http://www.duncanshaw.ca/). These have evolved into his “Aether Concept of Gravity,” by which inflowing aether into cosmic bodies produces an accelerating “ram force” that manifests as the “attractive” gravitational force without the need to postulate “action at a distance.” While examination of the full theory is beyond the scope of this paper, it is feasible to examine three of the key aspects which lend themselves to modeling in the form of mathematical constructs. While no attempt is made to explain the physics behind Shaw’s theory, an investigation into its plausibility, at least from a mathematical perspective, is undertaken and appears to support at least this level of plausibility.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1709.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 09:29:53*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, P.e.

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The 19th century novella “Flatland” has often inspired comparisons of inter-dimensional phenomena, particularly how phenomena in dimension n + 1 would be manifested to observers restricted to dimension n. With n = 2, a possible analogy for the phenomena of light and Coulombic repulsion and attraction is examined for its potential extension to n = 3, given the impossibility of our even physically imagining a fourth dimension, purely spatial (i.e., not-temporal, in contrast to Einstein’s time or space-time) like the three we know (length, width and height).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1709.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 10:00:47*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 1 Page. Reality with time.

Are we following the right path by applying relativity for the larger universe?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1709.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-16 11:38:01*

**Authors:** Steven Kauffmann

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Galilean space-time transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the Galilean space-time transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the Lorentz space-time transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1709.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 14:52:53*

**Authors:** Jose Gregorio Baquero

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In 1964, Irwin Shapiro pointed out that electromagnetic waves traveling near a gravitational well of a star were delayed due to relativistic Gravitational Time Dilation (GTD). This paper proposes that traveling energy quanta (mainly vacuum energy and gravitational waves, as well as neutrinos, electromagnetic waves, cosmic rays, stellar winds, and all other kinds of waves and relativistic particles yet to be discovered) accumulate in a Density Wave like mechanism around the galactic and cosmic scale structures because of Shapiro Delay. Ultimately, the accumulative effect is a substantial increase in energy density when seen from frames of reference far from the regions where it occurs. The higher energy density is imperceptible for an observer within its own frame of reference since the proposed mechanism nature is relativistic. The higher concentration of travelling energy quanta around galaxies and galaxy clusters is creating extra gravitational distortion in spacetime with its mass equivalent.
The Relativistically Accumulated Mass Equivalent Mechanism (RAMEN), using the proposed model, matches without free parameters the tested local group galaxy rotation curves for all orbits using the same traveling energy density value. The paper proposes how all observations of “Dark Matter” can be easily explained by RAMEN. It predicts the existence of a Universe Traveling Energy Density in disagreement by several orders of magnitude with currently accepted Universe Critical Energy Density. The paper discusses how the Casimir Effect experiments directly confirm with less than 5% disagreement with Quantum Field Theory the existence of higher energy densities in the vacuum. It also discusses how we may have misunderstood the nature of the predominant form of energy in the universe and that have prevented us from understanding the gravitational anomalies attributed to “Dark Matter”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1709.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 01:40:11*

**Authors:** G. Stranathan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper proposes an alternate way of thinking of 'empty' space and its interactions with matter, which may further explain certain mechanics of the universe, such as the behaviors of light, gravity and other forces. This paper will serve as a placeholder to communicate the general concepts until I am able to refine it further.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1709.0207 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-18 23:28:20*

**Authors:** Francois Leyvraz

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The author attempts to give a self-contained view of various paradoxes in the theory of relativity, and provides an extensive discussion of them in hopefully elementary terms.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1709.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 02:40:06*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Invited contribution accepted for publication in the 2018 Issue of New Advances in Physics.

We ultimately show the unscientific behavior of the so-called YARK theory of gravitation (which applications have been published in both of
non-mainstream and mainstream journals) by using Einstein's equivalence principle which has today a strong, unchallengeable empiric evidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1709.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 05:29:44*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Astronomical observations show generally a redshift of electromagnetic radiation emitted by stars and galaxies that proves they move away from the observer. There are nevertheless numerous exceptions that prove the existence of a blueshift of radiation and consequently an approach of stars and galaxies. This fact together with a few important anisotropies that are present in the spectrum of the Cosmic Microwaves Background Radiation (CMBR) pose important problems for theories of the Big Bang and of the isotropic expansion of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1709.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 16:47:35*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 17 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It is known to experts, that in the nonlinear regression analysis, numerous curve fitting methods exist, which allow the statistician to cook up the data according to what he/she wants to see. Such a deep problem in nonlinear regression methods will be discussed in particular in the context of analyzing Hubble diagram from various existing data. It is our aim to distinguish the raw data and foregone conclusions, in order to arrive at a model-independent conclusion. As a preliminary remark, we deem that it remains possible that the Hubble law exhibits nonlinearity, just like proposed by Segal & Nicoll long time ago. More researches are needed to verify our proposition.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1709.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 03:54:15*

**Authors:** Laszlo A. Marosi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The standard cosmological model rests on a never-ending array of hypotheses and assumptions (dark matter, dark energy and others) which either cannot be proved or, although theoretically possible, cannot yet be proved experimentally. This lack of secure knowledge raises legitimate doubts over the validity of the Big Bang model, which therefore cannot be seen as the ultimate answer to the question of the emergence and evolution of the universe. If the search for dark matter and dark energy turns out to be unsuccessful, the whole construction will break down and we will unavoidably face the question of which of the many different models based on Einstein’s field equations represents the real world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1709.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 07:20:36*

**Authors:** Yukihiko Hoshino

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.4. Original Japanese paper.

In previous paper "Consideration on universal gravitation premised on the existence of aether (in Japanese)", it considered the cosmic inflation,the Big Bang and the dark energy on the premise of the presence of aether to show the possibility of the neoaether theory.This time, the large-scale structure of the cosmos is structured like bubbles overlapping many layers. There is a Supermassive black hole in the center of almost all galaxies, and its mass has a certain proportional relationship with the mass of the galaxy. It focused on these two points and further deepened the consideration.As a result, the large-scale structure of the cosmos is formed by the cosmic inflation continuing to occur several times at the same time in multiple places. The dark matter is an attractive force phenomenon caused by the flow of aether in one direction. These two points were newly turned out.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1709.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 20:46:04*

**Authors:** Henry Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article describes the logical error that physicists made when proving ladder paradox for 100 years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1709.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 01:01:16*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Acceleration Coordinate Lorentz Transformation

Two inertial reference frames moving at identical velocity can be seperated if one of them
is put under acceleration for a duration. The coordinates of both inertial reference frames are
related by the acceleration and its duration. An immediate property of this coordinate transformation is the conservation of
distance and length across reference frames. Therefore, the concept of length contraction from Lorentz Transformation is impossible in reality and physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1709.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 11:53:34*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Some years ago, Matt Visser asked the following interesting questions: How much of modern cosmology is really cosmography? How much of modern cosmology is independent of the Einstein equations? (Independent of the Friedmann equations?) These questions are becoming increasingly germane — as the models cosmologists use for the stress-energy content of the universe become increasingly baroque. Therefore, in this paper we will discuss a novel Newtonian cosmology model with vortex, which offers wide implications from solar system, galaxy modeling up to large scale structures of the Universe. The basic starting point is very simple: It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models have singularity problem. Cosmological singularity has been a consequence of excessive symmetry of flow, such as “Hubble’s law.” More realistic one is suggested, based on Newtonian cosmology model but here we include the vortical-rotational effect of the whole Universe. We review an Ermakov-type equation obtained by Nurgaliev, and solve the equation numerically with Mathematica. A potential application is also considered, namely for understanding tornado dynamics using 3D Navier-Stokes equations. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observations, in order to open new possibilities of more realistic nonlinear cosmology models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1709.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 08:04:41*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper proposes a modification to Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation that would have negligible and undetectable effects at terrestrial scales, but at greater scales, it would have obvious effects that would create significant anomalies that we have already observed and that conventional theories have perhaps misinterpreted.
Newton devised his theories on the assumption that we inhabit a strictly Euclidian spacetime. Einstein showed that spacetime can have curvature. Conventional cosmology currently asserts that we inhabit an expanding universe with an overall curvature close to, or exactly equal to, zero. If however we entertain the possibility that the universe has a very small positive curvature then that small positive curvature could account for a number of apparent astronomical anomalies and remove the need to assume that it expands.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1709.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-09 10:15:41*

**Authors:** Ernst Schmutzer

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper the behaviour of a matter torus under the influence of the expanding
cosmos model (according to our theory PUFT) is investigated. This task can numerically be treated for the full life time of the cosmos model (from the Urstart to the Finish). As we know from our literature cited, the graphic course of the cosmological scalaric field after the Urstart exhibits an increase , followed by a return down to the Finish.
This curious behaviour of the cosmological scalaric field leads to the suspicion that
the shape of the torus during the life time of the cosmos may be: sphere at the Urstart, transformation of the sphere to a ring with decreasing thickness, return to a sphere at the Finish. It seems that such a theoretically predicted physical effect could perhaps exist in Nature.
The torus was chosen as a test object, since the numerical calculations can be done without approximation procedures. We took this rather simple example to show this cosmological effect for further applications in astrophysics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1709.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-08 19:17:43*

**Authors:** Yukihiko Hoshino

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.3. Original Japanese paper.

The law of universal gravitation in which all objects are attracting each other, has been clarified physical laws such as how to work and how to calculate the strength of force, and it is widely used along with the three laws of motion. However, the fundamental problem of why attraction exists between substances and what conveys the power has not yet been elucidated.This time, on the premise that aether exists and attracted by gravity, it considered the universal gravitation. As a result, if since each substance attracts aether by attraction, it thinks that aether acts as a so-called rope and substances attract each other, then the strength of attraction acting between substances is not inversely proportional to the square of distance and it turned out to be contrary to the inverse-square law which is the nature of universal gravitation. Therefore, in order to consider the properties of substances as a source of attraction in detail, the properties of elementary particles considered as the smallest unit of substances were examined on the premise of the existence of aether. In quantum theory it is thought that elementary particles have both properties of particles and waves and can not determine the position. This is because elementary particles have the three phases of "gas phase", "liquid phase", and "solid phase" (to be distinguished from the three states of macroscopic substances by surrounding them with ") similar to those of macroscopic substances, and they are constantly repeating phase change,but we can think that it is only in the case of "liquid phase", "solid phase" that we can identify its position. In the case of elementary particles, the substance corresponding to the molecule of the macroscopic substance is aether, and it is assumed that elementary particles always repeat phase change at very short intervals between "solid phase" or "liquid phase" where we can specify the position and "gas phase" where we can not locate did. And, in addition to that, we examined the mechanism of attractive force generation using the concept of "aether pressure" similar to the concept of atmospheric pressure.As a result, we could explain the mechanism of attractive force generation and its properties theoretically.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1709.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-11 18:58:03*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 35 Pages. REPLACEMENT DUE TO MINOR REVISION

It is proposed that traditional science and mathematics, on their own, cannot fully explain physical realities, and therefore the ultimate nature of quantum theory and of Einstein’s relativity laws, and their integration. A Theory of Everything of our universe, according to many physicists, might be the ultimate concept of physics, capable of elucidating all scientific and natural realities, but nature appears to be perpetually mysterious and elusive. This article indicates that we require a higher level multi-dimensional physics, can take us towards understanding Metaphysics, that would underpin quantum theory, relativity and spacetime. This is an area where String Theory’s mathematics could be applied in abstruse attempts to find new ways to unite space time and extra-dimensions. Why we have an existence, where we appear to be an impossibility in an impossible universe, seems to unconditionally require a higher-level quantum concept connected partially to metaphysics, the only option capable to unravel the Theory of Everything, from which the integration of quantum theory with Einstein’s relativity and consciousness, has a strong potential to surface.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1709.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 06:52:28*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

I spotted a fatal error in understanding of one of the basics of mathematics used in a PhD thesis titled: “A Generalized Variational Principle of Gravitation”,City University, London, 1982. There also are two types of errors, one is a typographic error and a second one is a major error. Scanned copy of part of the thesis page (131-140) where the errors occurred is attached to this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1709.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-05 23:54:48*

**Authors:** Yukihiko Hoshino

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.2. Original Japanese paper.

In the presence of aether as a medium of light, the speed of light in vacuum can be considered constant with aether. Then, the principle of constancy of light velocity does not hold, and the theory of relativity guided by this as one of the starting points also does not hold. However, delay of time and bending of light due to gravity derived from the theory of relativity are verified by various experiments and observations. Therefore, we reexamined the properties of light, time and space on the premise of the presence of aether as light medium. As a result, without using the principle of constancy of light velocity, we could explain many events that have been thought to be the result of the theory of relativity, such as delay of clock, bending and redshift of light due to gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1709.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-05 08:12:05*

**Authors:** Yukihiko Hoshino

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.1. Original Japanese paper.

The Michelson-Morley experiment denied the existence of the aether wind Therefore, various hypotheses were considered to explain the existence of the aether even if no aether wind was observed. In one of them, there was the aether drag hypothesis that the aether was dragged by the earth.But,the aether drag hypothesis was denied because it couldn't explain the aberration of light. However, this time, I paid attention to the approaching angle of the light which was seen from the moving aether and re-examined.As a result, it turned out that the aberration of light can be explained even if the aether and the earth are moving together.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1709.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-11 05:47:35*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this work, we discuss the possibility to investigate the cosmological evolution using a covariant Ricci flow, in particular spacetime manifolds with constant curvature. Even though we have focused on the evolution of large-scale structures, the results obtained can be applied equally to microscopic structures of quantum particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1709.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-04 12:25:38*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 32 pages. This is the French version of « THE EQUATION OF THE UNIVERSE » on viXra.org/abs/1709.0033v2.

Une nouvelle équation est trouvée dans laquelle le concept de matière-espace-temps est mathématiquement relié ; la gravitation et l’électromagnétisme sont également liés par l’espace-temps. Un mécanisme décrit comment sont corrélés la vitesse, le temps, la distance, la matière et l’énergie. Nous sommes amenés à constater que la gravité et l’électricité sont deux manifestations distinctes d’un même processus sous-jacent : l’électro-gravitation. La gravitation résulte de l’électromagnétisme – force intrinsèquement beaucoup plus forte – divisé par l’espace-temps cosmologique. Le rayon de l’espace-temps appartient à la famille des ondes électromagnétiques : la longueur d’onde est le rayon de l’univers et la période est son âge cosmologique. Pour la première fois, le temps cosmologique, considéré comme un objet physique réel, est intégré à « une équation cosmologique » qui rend cohérent ce que l’on sait du temps (son origine, son écoulement…), de la matière et de l’espace. Cette équation s’érige en modèle mathématique permettant de se représenter l’énergie noire (ou constante cosmologique) comme étant une énergie à la fois « négative » et « fatiguée ». En fait, c’est une équation de la cosmologie quantique qui opère la réconciliation entre le macrocosme et le microcosme, pour dresser une vision cohérente du comportement de la matière à travers l’espace et le temps.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1709.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-03 20:12:38*

**Authors:** Arutyunov Henry

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The article shows that the paradoxes of the ladder can not be solved with the help of the relativity of simultaneity. There are no paradoxes of SRT, there is only a contradiction between SRT and nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1709.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-06 06:56:10*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

A new equation is found in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter, and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electro-gravitation. The force of gravitation arises of electromagnetism – inherently much stronger – divided by the cosmological space-time. The radius of space-time belongs to the family of electromagnetic waves: the wavelength is the radius of the universe and the period is its cosmological age. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated into a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter, and space. It sets up a mathematical model allowing us to interpret dark energy (or cosmological constant) as being both "negative" and "tired" energy. In fact, it is an equation of quantum cosmology that operates the reconciliation between the macrocosm and the microcosm to draw up a coherent view of the behavior of matter through space and time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1709.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-04 05:17:53*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract
In this new approach the total number of the photons from the Big-Bang [1] and the volume of the entire Universe at the present epoch [2], have produced the energy density of the CMB photons.
This energy density shows that the photons of the CMB have a wavelength of:
. Approximate frequency of 30 GHz with a temperature of:
.This new approach indicates that the CMB photons are the force behind the expansion of the Universe [3] or the Dark energy.
The peak at 0.2 cm, 160 mega Hertz with a temperature of 2.7 K could either be due to all the galaxies in the Universe giving a peak intensity in the microwave at 2.7 K or according to:
P.J.E. PEEBLES
Principles of physical cosmology (pages144 and145).
“The CBR energy density can be compared to that of other local fields. The luminosity of the Milky Way is so at our position near the outskirts, at distance from the centre, the energy density is . This defines an effective temperature for the starlight; the result is .
The interstellar magnetic field is .
If we again define effective temperature by the energy density, , we get .”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology