[34] **viXra:1406.0188 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-03 17:24:37*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Final edits added

The Weyl conformal tensor describes the distorting but volume-preserving tidal effects of gravitation on a material body. A rather complicated combination of the Riemann-Christoffel tensor, the Ricci tensor and the Ricci scalar, the Weyl tensor is used in the construction of a unique conformally-invariant Lagrangian. In 1938 Cornelius Lanczos discovered a clever simplification of the mathematics that eliminated the RC term, thus considerably reducing the complexity of the overall Lagrangian. Here we present an equivalent but simpler approach to the one Lanczos used.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1406.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-02 10:00:12*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The aim of the paper is to develop a gauge theory, which shall be on the one hand as similar as possible to the original ansatz of Einstein’s theory of general relativity, and on the other hand in agreement with other gauge theories as, for instance, those of the electroweak or of the strong interaction. The result is a nonabelian gauge theory with the general linear group GL(4,R) as its gauge group.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1406.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-29 12:02:50*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 12 pages, 32 references

World – Universe Model (WUM) is based on two fundamental parameters in various rational
exponents: Fine-structure constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q
increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World.
WUM predicts that there exist two additional fundamental interactions – Super-Weak and
Extremely-Weak – in addition to four commonly described. The cross-section of Super-Weak
interaction is about 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the Weak; Extremely-Weak interaction is
10 orders of magnitude smaller still. These ratios are in good agreement with the published
theoretical models concerning the origin of Strangeness and CP violation.
In this paper, we examine the role of super-weakly interacting sterile neutrinos in the structure of
galaxies and galaxy clusters.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1406.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-28 09:35:05*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Fixed typos in Eqs. 6.2 and 6.3

A very elementary overview of the original Kaluza-Klein theory is presented, suitable for undergraduates who want to learn the basic mathematical formalism behind a revolutionary idea that was proposed one hundred years ago, yet today serves as the template for modern higher-dimensional particle and gravity theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1406.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-27 10:37:09*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Spanish

We define the Weyl geometry and we establish two types: integrable and nonintegrable. We obtain the equation of motion for a free particle in Weyl integrable geometry. We analyze the ways to obtain the field equations: take the components of the metric tensor as the only potentials or take the components of the metric tensor and the components of the metric connexion as the potentials of the field. We analyze how the calibration is imposed on each of these two options. We finished applying the results to the equations derived from some Lagrangian densities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1406.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-27 05:41:55*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Portuguese language.

We develop a solution in an infinite degree polynomial for the Schwarzschild equation and obtained some numerical results. Conclude that their solution seems to converge to a spiraling motion that converges to the center point, and not an ellipse that has precession.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1406.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-24 14:35:36*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

At least a couple of vixra postings aim at debunking Einstein’s seminal paper on Special Relativity. We point out that, some time ago, Prof. Jeremy Dunning-Davies has refuted these claims with clear-cut explanations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1406.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-24 03:43:52*

**Authors:** B. Ravi Sankar

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Special Relativity can not be derived as shown by Einstein's 1905 paper “ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES”.

The purpose of this paper is to point out a major derivational error in Albert Einstein’s 1905 paper
titled “ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES”. An alternate expression for coordinate transformation is derived which shows that the time co-ordinate of the moving clock cannot be expressed in terms of the temporal and spatial co-ordinate of the stationary system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1406.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-23 17:29:27*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I propose that, (1) dark matter is nothing more and nothing less than dark energy itself, (2) an object that is far away from the boundary of the universe makes the dark energy to "appear" to behave like dark matter towards it, (3) an object near the boundary of the universe makes the dark energy to behave like dark energy towards it, (4) the appearance of quantum entanglement to be instantaneous is only an illusion due to the speed of the particle involved in transferring the information between them to be much greater than that of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1406.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-26 16:42:48*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote an article entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle(The Scale Law). In that article I formulated a new law which all laws of physics obey. The purpose of this article is to show that the Einstein’s relativistic energy
formula is a special case of the present formulation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1406.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-25 04:44:21*

**Authors:** Frank Martin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A model of time is described which is based on presentist ideas. The main issue facing presentism is the apparent contradiction it brings when one is faced with considering the future and the past as being existent exclusively in the present. The model presented herein relates time to the constant change of energy in the universe. In particular, parallels are drawn between future, present and past, representing time, and potential energy, kinetic energy and entropy representing change. This model includes the future and the past as integral parts of the present.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1406.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-22 09:41:45*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 2 Pages. no

As my hobby and having a long time dormant interest in Special and General Relativities I have decided in 2004 to start looking into these topics in more detail and most of all to satisfy my curiosity. The main problem and irritation were the claims of existence of Black Holes with Event Horizons and generally the claims that the Big Bang formed the universe we are living in. These claims seemed to me totally absurd and preposterous. The described study addresses these points, it does not follow the main stream theory, rather it is based on the engineering approach and a philosophy that the results must be reasonable and most of all supported by experimental test results, observations, or at least by thought experiments without contradictions. I have thus started to look closely into the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) and gradually progressed towards the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and finally to the alternate model of the universe as is outlined in the step by step fashion below. Each point and the accompanied statements are therefore documented in detail by referenced publications, which in most cases were refereed, and can be easily accessed by the included internet links.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1406.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-25 08:11:39*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 9 pages. Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics, Vol. 8, 2014, no. 18, 771 - 779. http://dx.doi.org/10.12988/astp.2014.47101.

A method allowing us to introduce into the Lagrangian the terms, which characterize an arbitrary vector field of a system, is described. As a result of applying the principle of least action it becomes possible to find all the main characteristics of this field, including its energy and momentum, field equations, force of interaction with the matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1406.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-21 05:58:02*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly P.

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This article discusses@@ the relationship between the principle of relativity and the holographic principle. Such synthesis gives a chance to understanding quantum gravity theory, which is based on the concepts of information, entropy, and the geometry of space-time. In this work these concepts are combined into a single law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1406.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-11 09:48:15*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 6 pages

The validity of Planck's constant in gravitational wave detection experiments is brought into question in the context of the framework of quantum mechanics. It is shown that in the absence of a purely gravitational measurement of Planck's constant one cannot at present rule out the possibility that gravitational quanta may be scaled by a more diminutive "action." An experiment that could unequivocally test this possibility is suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1406.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-17 16:35:35*

**Authors:** BASSERA Hamid

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

No doubt, there is a continuity of physical laws. Here I show a link between general and special relativity and especially a kind of gravitational trace or signature in a moving frame, means a memorising of initial process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1406.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-16 21:09:22*

**Authors:** Gary D. Simpson

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

A novel hypothesis concerning motion through the vacuum is presented. The hypothesis relates the complex time exponential of Quantum Mechanics (QM) to absolute motion through a wave medium. The hypothesis is combined with Special Relativity (SR). The two most significant results from this are that this combination produces a term that is consistent with angular momentum and that the direction associated with time is the direction of motion through the vacuum. These relations are presented in Equations 12.0/12.1 and Equation 4 respectively. Equation 12.4 then describes the electron-positron. These are a direct explanation for wave-particle duality and an explanation for the "arrow of time", thereby eliminating time as a fourth dimension. The hypothesis predicts a distinction between the emission and the absorption of energy. The hypothesis requires a tangible wave medium. A variation of the Stern-Gerlach experiment is proposed as empirical verification.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1406.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 16:31:31*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the epoch prior to the big bang E8 was an unbroken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) and both positive and negative intrinsic energy (mc^2) boson particles could be formed and also combined with positive intrinsic energy hadrons and leptons to form zero intrinsic energy fermibosonic entities which could carry matter from the previous universe without violating flatness requirements. Two such negative intrinsic energy bosons are a spin 0 particle and a spin 1 particle, known to us as dark energy and dark matter respectively. The positive intrinsic energy forms of these particles also exist as the the Higgs and the Zo particles. The negative intrinsic energy entities cannot form in our epoch with E8 symmetry broken to E8 x U(1).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1406.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 11:47:29*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

From Mach's principle, the speed of light is shown to be decreasing as the universe expands. The rate of decrease in the speed of light is equivalent to Hubble's constant within accuracy of the cosmological parameters. Modelling the universe as two dimensional quantum well for the plane of traveling quantum waves and their associated energy being equivalent to the rest energy of all particles results in a wavelength-mass relationship for quantizing the gravitational field. This formula predicts the most fundamental wavelenth as corresponding to the mass of the photon which is 1E-68 Kg

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1406.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-14 16:53:14*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper is a correction to my previous paper relating the probabilities for gravitational attraction and repulsion to mass. Here I resolve the contradiction that exists between the probability for gravitational attraction when M approaches infinity and r approaches infinity. The result is that, (1) there is maximum mass at which the probability for attraction reaches maximum value after which it starts to decrease with any further increase in the mass, (2) there is a non-zero mass which has zero net gravitational field around it, in contradiction to Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, (3) one can do astronomical observations to find objects with zero gravitational fields, (4) unlike Einstein's GTR it is not necessary that a non-zero mass must produce a gravitational field around itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1406.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-19 01:08:46*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 125 Pages.

General Relativity’s Schwarzschild solution describes a spherically symmetric gravitational field as an utterly static thing. The Space Generation Model (SGM) describes it as an absolutely moving thing. The SGM nevertheless agrees equally well with observations made in the fields of the Earth and Sun, because it predicts almost exactly the same spacetime curvature. This success of the SGM motivates deepening the context—especially with regard to the fundamental concepts of motion. The roots of Einstein’s relativity theories thus receive critical examination. A particularly illuminating and widely applicable example is that of uniform rotation, which was used to build General Relativity (GR). Comparing Einstein’s logic to that of the SGM, the most significant difference concerns the interpretation of the readings of accelerometers and the rates of clocks. Where Einstein infers relativity of motion and spacetime symmetry, it is argued to be more logical to infer absoluteness of motion and spacetime asymmetry. This approach leads to reassessments of the essential nature of matter, time, and the dimensionality of space, which lead in turn to some novel cosmological consequences. Special emphasis is given to the model’s deviations from standard predictions inside matter, which have never been tested, but could be tested by conducting a simple experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1406.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-14 04:09:22*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Theory of relativity is a joke.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1406.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 16:45:10*

**Authors:** David Radice

**Comments:** PhD Thesis, 269 Pages

Strong gravity and relativistic plasma flows are among the fundamental ingredients powering high-energy astrophysical phenomena such as short and long gamma ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae and relativistic outflows from black-hole accreting systems. General-relativistic hydrodynamics is also essential in modelling the merger of neutron stars binaries and black-hole neutron- star binaries that are among the best sources for future gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo or KAGRA.
Over the past decade, the understanding of these phenomena has benefited significantly from the results obtained through non-linear numerical calculations. Key factors in this progress have been the switch to more advanced numerical schemes that are able to properly treat relativistic shock waves, and the progressive inclusion of more “physics”, such as magnetic fields or realistic equations of state. Following this trend, even better numerical tools and more accurate physical description will be be essential to understand these phenomena. This thesis aims at contributing to both of these aspects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1406.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 15:14:44*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The paper describes a simple solution based on a relativistic extension of Newton-Galileo physics to the purely gravitational, spherical supermassive black hole. The solution yields a black hole size that equals the Schwarzschild radius, but without an interior singularity. For a supermassive black hole residing at the center of a galaxy, the theory yields a simple expression for the dynamics of the host galaxy, according to which the black hole is part of a binary system, together with a naked spatial singularity at redshift z = 2^(-1/2) ≈ 0.707, suspected to be a quasar with extreme velocity offsets or an active galactic nucleus. Another redshift, z ≈ 2.078, is also predicted to be associated with quasars and AGNs. The derived results are contrasted with observational data and with a recent ΛCDM model.
Taken together, the derived galaxy dynamics, and the aforementioned results, could shed some light on the role played by supermassive black holes in the evolution of the galaxies in which they reside.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1406.0070 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-12 10:44:51*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages. English version

We analyze the solution of 2nd order of the Schwarzschild equation and made the observation that the motion of bodies can be a spiral modulated by trigonometric functions, which may be more important than simply means a shift of perihelion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1406.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-30 22:00:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome

According to the Standard Model cosmology, the universe experiences accelerating expansion, which creates the need for Dark Energy models. But I read other possible theories, for example Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) model which suggests that there are large structures (void) which introduce inherent inhomogeneity in the Universe. See for instance: http://arxiv.org/abs/0709.2044. Therefore it seems that the homogeneous-isotropic assumption of the Standard Model is questionable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1406.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 20:57:31*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I use the fictional Absolute inertial reference frame and Absolute Newtonian Time together with the Newton's second law for motion and the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum to find a relationship between the Newtonian Time and Einstein Time. Using this relationship as the stepping stone I then construct a set of relativistic transformation equations between two realistic non-newtonian inertial reference frames associated with Einstein Time. These transformation equations lead to some very interesting consequences such as: (1) There is no upper limit on the relative speed of a moving inertial reference frame with respect to a "stationary" inertial reference frame, (2) There is no length contraction in the moving frame, (3) There is time dilation in the moving frame that is qualitatively similar to Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity, (4) Supra-luminal relative speeds are allowed for the moving reference frame, (5) With supra-luminal relative speed of moving frame the Einstein Time in it moves backwards, (6) The mass/energy relation of Einstein is preserved, (7) Current and as yet unexplainable cosmic and quantum mechanical events can be used to see if the theory is able to explain them. After this the theory can be used to prediction as yet unknown phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1406.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 20:31:04*

**Authors:** John Frederic Sweeney

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Relativity, supposedly one of the great achievements of Albert Einstein, was in fact a minor corollary of natural processes, from the perspective of Vedic Particle Physics. This paper discusses the relative unimportance of the so – called Theory of Relativity, which probably was not even a true theory, since it failed to make correct predictions. Yet one further indication of the need for paradigm change in Physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1406.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-10 05:58:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 17 Pages. See also viXra:1410.0133, "The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace", by Valdir M.S. Godoi

A first reading of the way it calculates the precession of the perihelion of Mercury on General Relativity is taken. It is shown that the equation of motion obtained for this precession does not solve the differential equation that originated, as it is only approximate, and so we can not be sure about the fact of General Relativity to explain this precession through its solution. We also show that even in classical mechanics can obtain a False precession orbit for the planets, through the use of small quantities considered. We solve exactly the differential equation Binet to General Relativity (Schwarzschild equation) for some cases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1406.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-06 00:19:49*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** Apparent contradiction resolved, pages 17, 18

A new interpretation and theory of absolute motion/ absolute space and the speed of light is proposed. Ether theory and emission theory are not completely wrong, but only incomplete separately. The ether doesn’t exist. This paper proposes a new theory, Apparent Source Theory (AST), that is a fusion of ether theory and emission theory. 1. Space can exist independently of matter. In such an ideal empty universe/space, Galileo’s principle of relativity and (modified) emission theory (in which group velocity of light is constant relative to source, and phase velocity constant independent of source or observer velocity) hold. Sagnac, Michelson-Gale, Silvertooth effects do not exist in such space. 2. In our real universe, all matter in the universe create absolute space. Every cosmic massive object defines, or 'fixes' the space in its vicinity, the effect diminishing with distance. The absolute velocity of a body is the (mass and inverse squared distance ) weighed vector sum of the velocity of the body relative to all cosmic massive objects in the universe. Imagine a universe in which only the sun and a small comet exist and assume that they are in relative motion near to each other. Which one is moving? The sun is at rest (mass= 1.988x1030 Kg !) and the comet is moving! The sun defines, ‘fixes’ the space in its vicinity. 3. The effect of absolute motion is to create a change in path length, and not the speed, of light. There will be aberration for absolutely co-moving source and observer. The past position of a light source apparently changes relative to an observer due to absolute motion. The velocity of light is constant c relative to the apparent source, and not relative to the source. The center of the wave fronts neither stays at the point in space where the source was at the instant of emission (as in SRT and ether theories), nor move with the source as in emission theories. The center of the wave fronts moves with the apparent source. Relative to a detector on a rotating Sagnac device, the source appears farther away when 'looking' in the backward direction than when 'looking' in the forward direction. In free/empty space (or region of space far from cosmic massive objects) there will be no absolute motion and hence no ‘aberration’ for co-moving source and observer. 4. The speed of light is not affected by (distance from) cosmic massive objects. An experiment is proposed to repeat the Rosa and Dorsey experiment (1907) at different distances from the Earth to see any effect on vacuum permittivity and permeability. 5. In Galilean space and in absolute space with source at absolute rest, the phase velocity of light is always constant c independent of source or observer velocity, whereas the group velocity is variable. The apparent phase velocity c' of light relative to the source increases or decreases by the same amount of the velocity (V) of the observer, so that the phase velocity of light relative to the observer is always equal to c: c' + V = c (algebraic sum). Einstein’s thought experiment is interpreted or modified as follows: for an observer moving at the speed of light away from a light source that is at (absolute) rest, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light whereas the group will be frozen. This paper discloses the mystery behind the failure of many experiments to detect any dependence of the velocity of light on the velocity of the source. A fundamental flaw in conventional and modern Michelson-Morley experiments is disclosed. 6. The 'group' velocity of electrostatic fields is infinite, as confirmed by experiment done by A. Calcaterra, et al. But Coulomb’s law has to be modified for charge and observer in relative motion. The constancy of phase velocity of light is interpreted and extended to explain the ‘relativistic mass increase’ of the electron. The field gets apparently expanded or compressed for a moving observer or, equivalently for a moving charge. This is summarized as infinite 'group' velocity and constant (c) 'phase' velocity for electrostatic fields. The speed of gravity is shown to be equal to the speed of light, based on observed direction of Sun’s gravity on Earth, such as during eclipses. But it is not clear what is propagating in the case of gravity. The usual analogy between the electrostatic field and gravity may not be correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1406.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-19 12:23:12*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Version 2 corrects some misalignment in equation numbering and some typographical anomalies.

Although no theory is complete in that it is perfect and never needing update or modification with the discovery of new experimental facts, that is very different to a theory being logically inconsistent and also different to a theory being in conflict with a fundamental principle in physics that has been established by a vast array of experiments. Relying upon the incompleteness of a theory as an argument to keep it despite inconsistencies in logic and experiment is therefore unjustifiable, and this is particularly so in the case of General Relativity for which proponents thereof plead incompleteness to ignore inconsistencies. Logical inconsistency alone invalidates a theory. General Relativity is logically inconsistent and so that alone invalidates it. It is also in conflict with a fundamental principle of physics, determined by many experiments, to wit, in General Relativity the usual conservation of energy and momentum for a closed system is violated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1406.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-04 19:31:41*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I start by proposing that the theory of gravity based on quantum interactions and the definition of an object in it can be looked in terms of fluid mechanics and fluid dynamics. From this I show, qualitatively, that practical results can be obtained. I also go into a brief discussion on the abstract entity of "time". I end the article with a statement that one should be able to make predictions based on this theory of gravity which will be both testable and cannot be explained by any other theory on gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1406.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-02 19:52:35*

**Authors:** Valery Zhukov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

If space is curved, then the nature of the cosmological redshift and time dilation is the same effect as the gravitational redshift and time dilation in a gravitational field. This is confirmed by the fact that the ratio between redshift and time dilation is the same for both gravitational and cosmological redshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1406.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-20 02:06:53*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 25 pages, 10 figures, 82 references

World – Universe Model is based on two fundamental parameters in various rational exponents: Fine-structure constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World.
The Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter (DM) particles and explains the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray background radiation as the sum of contributions of multicomponent self-interacting dark matter annihilation.
The signatures of DM particles annihilation with predicted masses of 1.3 TeV, 9.6 GeV, 70 MeV, 340 keV, and 3.7 keV, which are calculated independently of astrophysical uncertainties, are found in spectra of the diffuse gamma-ray background and the emission of various macroobjects in the World. The correlation between different emission lines in spectra of macroobjects is connected to their structure, which depends on the composition of the core and surrounding shells made up of DM particles. Thus the diversity of Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources in the World has a clear explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology