[18] **viXra:1810.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-14 11:09:36*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages. The key number 155 appears on ViXra 1810.0155, Alexey V. Melkikh, Ural Fed. Univ.,Yekaterinburg, Russia

Abstract: 3 new finishing touches to Majoranic Holographic Cyclic E8 Symmetric universe theory are described which essentially complete the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1810.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-12 09:46:45*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper uses the law, heat=constant vibration*time
And so the new law is time=universal heat/constant vibration
Time passing is decreased by vibrating more and increased by vibrating less by the universal heat and is increased by increasing heat while the vibration is constant and decreased by decreasing the heat while the vibration is constant

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1810.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 21:19:29*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 3 Pages. English; with Chinese translation.

Einstein made use of the concept of speed, a concept that is defined to be non-invariant under Galilean transformation, in a postulate to postulate a speed - the speed of light - to be invariant for all inertial reference frames. This is a direct trivial logical inconsistency within Newtonian mechanics which needs no further discussion and deliberation. As such, special relativity is a theory that is mutually independent from Newtonian mechanics. The physical reality as found in the Newtonian world has no connection whatsoever with the physical reality as found in special relativity. Any experiment done and interpreted through special relativity has no relevance in the physical world as observed and
represented by Newtonian mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1810.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 21:25:48*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 2 Pages. English; with Chinese translation.

The author has discovered very recently (April 2016) that the formula E = mc^2 is invalid; energy is fictitious in the formula. The proof is simple and involves no high mathematics.Any good high school students taking physics as a subject could easily come to a definite understanding of
the analysis and decides for himself whether the author’s claim is correct; there is no need to rely on the words of any physics professor to
know whether the formula E = mc^2 is valid or invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1810.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 21:29:13*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Contemporary mainstream physics has accepted special relativity to be a fully tested and verified theory. The internet has been full
of references for experiments that purportedly verified special relativity. This article argues that many of these experiments purportedly verifying special relativity are irrelevant as evidence; a commonly quoted example being the Kaufmann, Bucherer and Neumann experiments. On the
contrary, there is only one lone uncorroborated experiment that shows some evidence of the validity of special relativity - the 1964 experiment of William Bertozzi of the MIT; for the matter, the experiment provides only a weak evidence with 10% accuracy. If a lone experiment were sufficient as evidence in science, then the 1989 Pons & Fleischmann experiment could have won the experimenters a Nobel Prize in physics - they did not. The author proposes a simple experiment that could decide incontrovertibly between the two competing mechanics, the old Newtonian mechanics or the “newer” special relativity - by just directly measuring the velocity of electrons ejected in natural beta decay. To date, despite the simplicity of the experiment, no one has performed the experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1810.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 21:34:37*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 4 Pages. English; with Chinese translation.

A central feature of special relativity is the increase of mass with velocity - mass going to infinity when a body approaches the speed limit of light. This feature is of the utmost importance
as special relativity has been accepted by modern physics to have clearly proven Newtonian mechanics to be wrong fundamentally; Newton’s mechanics has mass to be an invariant property of matter. As it is expected that students would not easily accept a dismissal of Newton’s monumental work, the Principia, the physics academia tries to have a way to convince students that indeed this central feature of mass increasing with velocity could even be verified through experiments done in the usual laboratory of a university. The fact of the matter is otherwise - that even the original ex-
periments by Kaufmann (1901), Bucherer (1908) that attempted to show mass increasing with velocity are flawed as the author has shown. The proposed simplified experiments are tantamount to fraud propagated on unsuspecting students who may not have the time to delve into the issues more thoroughly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1810.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 22:53:55*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, time is formulated through the entropy of space entanglement at the boundary. From this definition, gravitational time dilation is immediately obtained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1810.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 09:40:31*

**Authors:** Alexey V. Melkikh

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The assumption that the early universe was not hot but in a pure quantum state allowed the main problems of cosmology to be solved from a single point: the flatness and homogeneity of the universe, in addition to the predominance of matter over antimatter and the absence of monopoles. A model according to which this quantum state itself was formed under large compression as a result of a quantum phase transition is proposed. In this case, a Big Bounce can be treated as quantum scattering, as a result of which more than one universe can form. The properties of the universe, on the basis of which life arose within it, were encoded in topological states before the Big Bounce (scattering). At later stages, life evolved directly. Dark matter and dark energy can be used to control the lifetime of the universe. The universe itself can be considered to be a superorganism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1810.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-06 09:41:00*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Stable particles of the Universe - protons and electrons - are in constant motion (there is a
background component of their velocity), which is the source of the vacuum energy, explains the
non-Newtonian vacuum potential and the curvature of space and determines the values of the
gravitational and cosmological constants. This follows from the balance of interactions between
a free electron and a proton, provided that there are no electrical forces and external influences.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1810.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-06 14:52:16*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

What happens if two equal masses hit each other at the same velocity and as they try to rebound the two masses are not let to do so and are pushed again to each other from behind
And then the whole energy of momentum is turned into either sound or light
It’s a momentum collision that is totally depleted and the time of energy depletion is very small and the balls are not let to rebound at all you could make this doable by making several bigger masses hit push each other whenever the balls colliding try to rebound

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1810.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-08 07:29:06*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We define a unique geometrical Poisson bracket for classical physics of point particles and generalize this to the commutator algebra of quantum theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1810.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-05 14:57:31*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article describes the behavior of the Sagnac interferometer, based on irrefutable physics. It also shows that the fiber optic gyroscope does not operate like this interferometer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1810.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-03 10:29:12*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The need for a paradigm shift is growing. Many ad hoc models and outlandish speculations abound to model many unexplained observations. The Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) audacious claim of a new paradigm is supported by corresponding to relativity and quantum mechanics; by explaining many problematical observations; and by making and fulfilling several predictions. It posits 2 components of the universe emerge to form everything. It models the universe as composed of cells with Sources (spiral galaxies) and Sinks (elliptical galaxies and matter). It forms the Universal Equations, one equation to define the potential at all points and one equation that uses the potential to exert forces on matter. These equations are applied the microwave background temperature, rotation curves, asymmetric rotation curves, galaxy redshift and discrete redshift, the pioneer anomaly, light interference, etc. The wave model of light is rejected by 2 experiments predicted by the STOE. Maxwell's Equations are modified. Life and society application of the STOE principles is suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1810.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-02 12:42:47*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

E=mc^2
we could take this relation to celestial systems to know the energy of a system.
to do this we can make the difference between mass of the star and mass of planet's difference as in this relation (m1-m2)c^2
where m1 is the mass of a the star and m2 is the mass of the planet and one of the c is equal to orbit speed + gravitational pull at one sec and the other c or the other speed of light is multiplied by the difference between the masses and that is equal to the quantity of time in seconds that the system is at existence

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1810.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-02 21:38:36*

**Authors:** Doug Marett

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Einstein in 1905 introduced the constancy of the speed of light as a postulate, but in so doing removed the 19th century idea that the speed of light can be explained physically. So one might ask the question, why is the speed of light the speed that it is, and not something else? Einstein’s theory provides no answer for this question. As a philosophical exercise, we consider if relativity genuinely disproved the alternative hypothesis, that light can be modeled as a wave propagating through a medium that is static with respect to the universe. We further consider if this alternative model can remain consistent with the experimentally observed speed of light. We examine herein the mathematical arguments of Herbert Ives regarding slow clock transport with respect to such a hypothetical “preferred frame” for the velocity of light, and find that this leads to a prediction of clock biases which obfuscate any one-way speed of light differences expected from a Galilean addition of velocities. As such the Lorentzian model followed by Ives can be seen as equivalent to relativity, but differing in the conventions regarding the synchronization of clocks. Finally, we explore how clocks positioned in a static frame of reference might be used to make the anticipated one-way speed of light visible experimentally.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1810.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-02 02:34:49*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The relativistic mechanics of contemporary physics does not have a defined unit of force. Its definition of force as F=d/dt(mv/√(1-v²/c²))
does not define a real standard unit of force. A
Newtonian unit of force, e.g. the SI newton, may not be used in any of the relativistic formulas; it is a real unit of force only with Newtonian mechanics which observes Newton’s second law of motion as an axiom defining a unit of force as mass × acceleration. Without a unit of force, the application of the work-energy theorem produces only a formula that evaluates only to a pure number which has no association with any real unit of energy. All values of energy from relativistic mechanics are, therefore, fictitious. The implication is grave. The well known equation:
E = mc² and the central identity of relativistic mechanics: E² = (pc)² + m²c⁴ are now invalidated. The quantum electrodynamics, the Standard
Model of particle physics are now highly questionable. At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN where protons are propelled to near the speed of light, the purported energy of the relativistic protons is 6.5TeV, but the real value is only 470MeV - the reported energy being inflated by a factor of 15,000. The Kaufmann-Bucherer-Neumann experiments were not evidence for a mass varying with speed; they showed only a contradiction between the Lorentz force law with Newton’s force law. The correct conclusion is not a failure of invariant mass of Newtonian mechanics, but evidence of failure of the Lorentz force law at relativistic speed conditions. Nature
does not seem to favor any relativistic mechanics. We may have to fall back on our old Newtonian mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1810.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-08 13:34:11*

**Authors:** chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English; with Chinese translation

The Bucherer experiment of 1908 was not experimental proof of a relativistic mass varying with speed, but proof that electromagnetism and the Lorentz force law fail under relativistic speed conditions. Our conclusions come from a novel re-examination of the experiment based on three different interpretations of New ton’s second law as applied to the experiment and to analyze the
implications for each of:
(1) force∝dp/dt
(2) force=relativistic_mass×acceleration
(3) the classical f = ma
The new interpretation now shows a constant charge-mass ratio for all relativistic speed; both charge and mass would be speed invariant. New relativistic force laws had to be proposed to be
consistent with the experimental findings; the Lorentz force law is now:
F = q((1+v²/c²)√(1-v²/c²) E + √(1-v⁴/c⁴) (v x B) );
the Coulomb’s law is: F = (1+v²/c²)√(1-v²/c²) (1/4πε₀)q₁q₂R/r²;
The Coulomb’s law has an additional scalar factor dependent on the relative velocity between the charges; for small speed, the form is:
F = (1+½v²/c²)(1/4πε₀)q₁q₂R/r²;
This enables the formula for the force between parallel current-carrying conductors:
F_dl = μ₀/(2πR)i₁i₂dl, be derived free of the concept of the magnetic field. A real possibility exists for a formulation of a revolutionary Newtonian electric theory free of magnetism and the Biot-Savart law.Also,the Bucherer experiment could have been an experimental verification of the relativistic Lorentz force law if the predicted speeds of the electrons had been verified through direct time-of-flight measurements.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1810.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-02 02:56:40*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The notion of mass-energy equivalence and its mathematical expression through the famous equation E = mc² predates Einstein when he introduced special relativity in 1905. It has to be noted that E = mc² has no rigorous theoretical basis; it is only a pure hypothesis not related to any physical theory. The thesis of this paper is that there is no incontrovertible experimental verification of mass-energy equivalence. The Year_Of_Physics_2005 ‘Direct Test Of E = mc²’ published in Nature 2005 claims a verification of the equation to an accuracy of 0.00004%. The experimenters misunderstood the very nature of the experiment that they carried out. It was not a verification of E = mc², but just another experiment to deduce the mass of the neutron. To date,we have not measured the true mass of the neutron to any degree of accuracy; we only have a deduced estimate of the neutron mass based on the mass-energy equivalence of E = mc² .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology