[18] **viXra:1207.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-03 04:05:22*

**Authors:** Senin Duranspahic

**Comments:** 43 Pages. 43, English

He says that it is impossible for a human mind to comprehend 4 dimensional space. He is completely wrong. I will put it to you bluntly, we live in a 4 dimensional universe. The fourth dimension is not the dimension of time, like Einstein said, it is simple special dimension.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1207.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-28 14:48:39*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

The unified theory of physics is by the means of the zero-energy universe in the multiverse and the space-object structures. For our universe, the zero-energy universe produced symmetrical positive-energy and negative-energy universes, which then underwent a symmetry breaking through the Higgs mechanism to generate eventually our baryonic-dark matter and dark energy, respectively. Different universes in different developmental stages are the different expressions of the space-object structures. The unified theory of physics is divided into five parts: (1) the two physical structures, (2) cosmology, (3) the periodic table of elementary particles, (4) the galaxy formation, and (5) the extreme force field.
(1) The unified theory is based on the two physical structures: the space structure and the object structure. The space structure includes attachment space and detachment space. Relating to rest mass, attachment space attaches to object permanently with zero speed. Relating to kinetic energy, detachment space detaches from the object at the speed of light. The Higgs boson mediates the transformation between these two space structures. The combination of attachment space and detachment space brings about three different space structures: miscible space, binary lattice space, and binary partition space for special relativity, quantum mechanics, and the extreme force fields, respectively. The object structure consists of 11D membrane, 10D string, variable D particle, and empty object. The transformation among the objects is through the dimensional oscillation that involves the oscillation between high dimensional space-time with high vacuum energy and low dimensional space-time with low vacuum energy. Our observable universe with 4D space-time has zero vacuum energy. Different universes in different developmental stages are the different expressions of the two physical structures. (2) From the zero-energy universe, our universe starts with the 11-dimensional membrane universe followed by the 10-dimensional string universe and then by the 10-dimensional particle universe, and ends with the asymmetrical dual universe with variable dimensional particle and 4-dimensional particles. This 4-stage process goes on in repetitive cycles. Such 4-stage cosmology accounts for the origins of the four force fields, baryonic-dark matter, and dark energy. (3) The unified theory places all elementary particles in the periodic table of elementary particles with the calculated masses in good agreement with the observed values by using only four known constants: the number of the extra spatial dimensions in the eleven-dimensional membrane, the mass of electron, the mass of Z boson, and the fine structure constant. The LHC Higgs boson is the SM Higgs boson with the hidden lepton condensate. (4) The inhomogeneous structures, such as galaxy, are derived from the incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter, like the inhomogeneous structure formed by the incompatibility between oil and water. Cosmic radiation allows dark matter and baryonic matter to be compatible. As the universe expanded, the decreasing density of cosmic radiation increased the incompatibility, resulting in increasing inhomogeneous structures. The five stages of the formation of inhomogeneous structures are baryonic matter, baryonic droplets, the different types of galaxies by the Big Eruption, cluster, and supercluster. (5) Under extreme conditions, such as the zero temperature and extremely high pressure-temperature, gauge boson force field undergoes the phase transition to form extreme force field. Extreme force field explains unusual phenomena such as superconductor, fractional quantum Hall effect, supernova, and gravastar.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1207.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-28 15:40:18*

**Authors:** M. Salti, M. Korunur, N. Pirinccioglu, F. Binbay

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the present study, we mainly focus on the idea of possibility that the whole dark part of the universe (dark energy, dark matter, dark radiation) could be interpreted by considering
both curvature and torsion. We introduce a new modified theory of gravity. In this theory, the gravitational Lagrangian density is given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar R and the
torsion scalar T. After deriving the corresponding field equations, we will analyze f(T, R)-gravity in the strong field regime and test whether it could be a viable theory of reality. We
check the existence of the relativistic neutron stars in f(T,R)-gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1207.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-30 15:47:53*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We propose an alternative understanding of gravity resulting from the extension of N.Wu’s gauge theory of gravity with massive gravitons, which are minimally coupled to general relativity. Based on this, we derive the equations of state for massive gravitons. We study the dynamics of these massive gravitons in a flat, homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. We calculate the critical points of the massive graviton dark energy and background perfect fluid. These calculations may have crucial implications for the massive gravitons and dark energy theories. They could, therefore, have important repercussions for current cosmological problems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1207.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-24 11:37:58*

**Authors:** Hosein Nasrolahpour

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Fractional calculus represents a natural tool for describing relativistic phenomena in pseudo-Euclidean space-time. In this study, fractional modified special relativity is presented. We obtain fractional generalized relation for the time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1207.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-18 19:49:09*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Hubble volume and Hubble mass play a key role in understanding the fundamental interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1207.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-17 11:28:15*

**Authors:** Lawrence B. Crowell

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Paper also appears in http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.1046v1

In this short paper the noncommutative geometry and quantization of branes and the AdS is discussed. The question in part addresses an open problem left by this author in [1] on how branes are generated by stringy physics. The breaking of an open type I string into two strings generates a nascent brane at the new endpoints with inflationary cosmologies. This was left as a conjecture at the end of this paper on the role of quantum critical points in the onset of inflationary cosmology. The noncommutative geometry of the clock and lapse functions for the AdS-brane are derived as is the number of degrees of freedom which appear. The role of the AdS spacetime, or in particular its boundary, in cosmology is discussed in an elementary regularization scheme of the cosmological constant on the boundary. This is compared to schemes of conformal compactification of the AdS spacetime and the Heisenberg group.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1207.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-15 19:59:25*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s gravity field equation, find new solution of the self-accelerated matter(ex.rocket) in the general relativity theory. The new solution has the acceleration’s term. Therefore according to the new solution, treat that the matter self-accelerates continuously in the gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1207.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-14 13:32:16*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The special relativity theory (SRT) can only be accepted as a curios mathematical game having nothing in common with the physical reality as well as correct logic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1207.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-12 05:21:14*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** Accepted for online publication in GJSFR(A). Please sponsor the page charges (78 USD)

It is noticed that, in the accelerating universe, proton mass, proton size and the strong coupling constant are cosmic variable constants. Independent of the cosmic red shift and CMBR observations, cosmic acceleration can be verifified by measuring the `rate of decrease' in the
proton mass. Cosmic initial conditions can be addressed with the Planck mass(Mp) and the coulomb
mass(MC). Based on the Mach's principle and the characteristic Hubble mass (M0) of the present
universe, it is noticed that, in the Hubble
volume, critical density, observed matter density and the thermal energy density are in geometric series and the geometric ratio is 1 + ln (M0/MC) : In this connection, it can be suggested that - in understanding the basics of grand unification and cosmology, cosmic Hubble volume can be given a chance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1207.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-12 04:59:26*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** Accepted for online publication in IOSR journals. Please sponsor the page charges ( 3200 INR ).

In modern cosmology, the shape of the universe is
flat. In between the closed space and at space, there is one compromise. That is `Hubble volume'. Note that Hubble volume is only a theoretical and spherical expanding volume and is virtual. From Hubble volume one can estimate the Hubble mass. By coupling the Hubble mass with the Mach's principle, one can understand the origin of cosmic and atomic physical parameters. Considering the Mach's principle and the Hubble mass, in this paper an attempt is made to understand the origin of the strong and electromagnetic interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1207.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-11 07:21:03*

**Authors:** Akindele O. Adekugbe Joseph

**Comments:** 64 Pages. Article from volume one of The Fundamental Theory ... monograph series on an evolving fundamental theory of physics by the author.

An analytical approach to the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR) and combined theory of gravitational relativity and special theory of relativity (TGR+SR) on the flat spacetime of TGR in a gravitational field of arbitrary strength is developed to complement the graphical approach developed in the first part of this paper. The analytical approach to TGR bears an interesting analogy to the analytical approach to SR developed by Albert Einstein. Relations for (or transformations of) mass, force, energy, gravitational potential, gravitational field (or acceleration), gravitational velocity, frequency and other parameters, are derived on flat spacetime in the context of TGR. These are relations that incorporate the effect of gravitational relativity into the classical and special-relativistic values of parameters at every point on flat spacetime in a gravitational field of arbitrary strength. Local Lorentz invariance (LLI) is validated on the flat spacetime of TGR. The weak equivalence principle (WEP) is shown to be valid in the context of TGR as long as it is valid in classical gravitation. The modified (or gravitational-relativistic) form of the Newtonian gravitational force law on flat spacetime in the context of TGR is derived. The non-trivial relationships among the various mass concepts in physics namely, the inertial mass, the passive gravitational mass, the active gravitational mass and the rest mass, which the derived mass relation in the context of TGR implies, are highlighted and the elusive rest mass and classical radius of a gravitational field source are calculated from the observed (or inertial) mass and the observed radius of the field source. The exterior Schwarzschild line element in the general theory of relativity is shown to pertain to the measurable sub-space of TGR (which is a fictitious curved spacetime with sub-Riemannian metric tensor), whereas the total space of TGR is the observed flat spacetime with constant Lorentzian metric tensor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1207.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-11 07:27:27*

**Authors:** Alindele O. Adekugbe Joseph

**Comments:** 37 Pages. Article from volume one of The Fundamental Theory ... monograph series on an evolving fundamental theory of physics by the author.

Having validated local Lorentz invariance (LLI) on flat spacetime in a gravitational field of arbitrary strength in the context of the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR), and having shown that the weak equivalence principle (WEP) is valid in the context of TGR, in so far as it is valid at the classical (or Newtonian) gravitation limit in previous articles, the invariance with position on flat spacetime in every gravitational field of the non-gravitational and gravitational laws (in their usual instantaneous differential forms), are demonstrated in every gravitational field and consequently in the entire universe. This thereby validates the strong equivalence principle (SEP) in the context of TGR. Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) that embodies LLI, WEP and SEP has thus been validated theoretically in the context of TGR in this and previous articles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1207.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-11 05:23:44*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is the intention here to examine in detail the way in which purely physical ideas are introduced into General Relativity to enable the initially pure mathematical theory to be applied to physical problems. The intention is to examine the approach used frequently in undergraduate presentations since this is the point in life when so many are crucially influenced by thoughts and ideas put before them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1207.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-11 07:09:58*

**Authors:** Akindele O Adekugbe Joseph

**Comments:** 79 Pages. Article from volume one of The Fundamental Theory ... monograph series on an evolving fundamental theory of physics by the author.

The theory of gravitational relativity and intrinsic theory of gravitational relativity (TGR/øTGR), the special theory of relativity and intrinsic special theory of relativity (SR/øSR), and their union, on flat four-dimensional spacetime (Σ , ct) and its underlying flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime (øρ , øcøt), at the second stage of evolutions of spacetime/intrinisic spacetime and parameters/intrinsic parameters in a gravitational field of arbitrary strength, isolated in the previous papers, are developed fully in the first two parts of this paper. Mass and other parameter relations in the context of TGR and the implied modification of Newton's law of universal gravity in the context of TGR are derived. Local Lorentz invariance is validated on flat spacetime in the context of TGR. This first part is devoted to the graphical approaches in the four-world picture to these flat spacetime/intrinsic spacetime theories, while analytical approaches shall be developed in the second part to complement the graphical approaches.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1207.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-07 00:05:32*

**Authors:** Stephan J.G. Gift

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The one-way speed of light is determined using the range equations employed in the tracking of planets and spacecrafts moving within our solar system. These equations are based on the observation that light travels in the sun-centered inertial frame at a constant speed c and have been extensively tested and rigorously verified. For light reflected from an object moving in space the light speed detected on the surface of the moving Earth is found to be c+v and c-v relative to the receiving antenna for the Earth moving at orbital speed v in directions toward and away from the reflector. This finding is consistent with results first presented by Wallace and later by Tolchel'nikova but is at variance with the postulate of light speed constancy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1207.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-29 01:46:15*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Published: Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Physics and Space Science Volume 12 Issue 4 Version 1.0 June 2012

The black hole, gravitational waves, and the Big Bang cosmology have no valid basis in science. It is demonstrated herein that Einstein’s field equations violate the usual conservation of energy and momentum and are therefore in conflict with experiment on a deep level, so that General Relativity is invalid. This fact alone proves the invalidity of the black hole, gravitational
waves, the Big Bang cosmology and Einstein’s conception of the gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1207.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-12 19:48:09*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

This conjecture supports the notion of a temporal-inertial (TI) field, a field that is subject to gravity and, in response to the acceleration of gravity, transmits its own acceleration to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles. The relation between the Higgs field or the Higgs mechanism and what I designate as the TI field is undefined. I may attribute properties to the TI field (such as the particles of the field being subject to gravity) that do not obtain for the Higgs field. The flux model posits that in a gravitational field, the velocity of the TI field combines with that of the gravitons emitted by the gravitational body to increase the flux of gravitons relative to the TI field. Thus the response of the TI field to gravity adds to the force of gravity. Equations defining the acceleration and velocity profiles about a gravitational body are developed for the flux model. The flux model describes a system in which particles of the TI field fall radially toward the central gravitational mass. The flux model may offer an explanation for the anomalous accelerations experienced by the Pioneer and Cassini spacecraft as well as the unexpected changes in velocity seen by the so-called flyby spacecraft in their gravity assist maneuvers past Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology