[24] **viXra:1912.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-13 07:36:57*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Email:yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

An object at motion decreases in its mass and converts it into energy and vanishes when reaching the speed of light c, the kinetic energy in this case is the mass energy adding to it energy due to motion , the kinetic energy will travel with the speed of light as photon , the total energy of the rest mass is conserved , part of it change to energy and part of it still solid until it vanishes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1912.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-12 07:41:46*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** Pages.

‘Fractals are everywhere’; but for the large-scale galaxy distribution in the observable universe, by the 2012 WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, they were ruled out. They were, however, granted on small cosmic scales, as claimed by proponents, and notwithstanding the ensuing enigma of explaining the standard model of cosmology ‘very large’ cosmic structures (LQGs) have indeed – as predicted – have been observed in the large-scale universe since the WiggleZ survey. Can a (different) fractal model explain all these cosmological observations and conjectures, and if so, are we are modelling the fractal the universe incorrectly? An experiment was conducted on a ‘simple’ (Koch snowflake) fractal from the perspective of an observer within a growing/emergent fractal – ‘looking’ in iteration-time. The fractal was inverted – to show what the fractal looks like back to its origin; new triangle sizes were held constant allowing earlier triangles in the set to expand as the set iterated. Classical kinematic equations of velocities and accelerations were calculated for total area total and the distance between points. Hubble-Lemaitre's Law and other cosmological observations and conjectures were tested for. Results showed area(s) expanded exponentially from an arbitrary starting position; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. It was concluded that the fractal is a geometrical match to the cosmological problems. It explains Hubble-Lemaitre and accelerated expansion; inhomogeneous (and said fractal) galaxy distribution on small scale and large scales; and other problems – including the cosmological catastrophe and the early inflationary expansion epoch of the universe. Also, the fractal offers a direct mechanism to the cosmological problem and can further explain the quantum problem – unifying the two realities as being two aspects of the same geometry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1912.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-11 19:18:17*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We investigate the flat space time Friedmann Lemaitre Robertson Walker model of cosmology in the light of two metric signatures:(−,+,+,+) and (+,−,−,−). We arrive at the interesting fact that with the (+,−,−,−)signature both the Ricci scalar and the energy component of the stress energy tensor are negative for all points no cosmological time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1912.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-11 15:15:56*

**Authors:** Milan D. Nešić

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Aristotle, Ptolemy, and geocentrism. Copernicus, Kepler and heliocentrism. Newton, the real estate stars and the universe ether. Einstein, Lemaitre and the “big bang”—homocentrism, hidden geocentrism. One has to decide: either at once all the mass of the world was created and so large one, or the mass is variable and the measure of inertia is c2=const, whatever being energy from all over the universe. The article shows that today, when we know that there are quasars moving away from us at a speed and 95% of the speed of light, Einstein's energy E=mc2 should be considered as differential dE=c2dm. So since the corresponding binomial series for v→c is divergent, along with the solution of this differential equation goes an indefinite integration constant of infinite energy wherever we take the mass of rest m0 as coordinate origin. This is where the dark energy lies. And when Perlmutter writes that “it has long been assumed that there must be some underlying symmetry that precisely cancels the vacuum energy” at least 1055 times greater than required by astrophysical data, Maxwell Newton's postulate imposes by itself, while the unity of mass and vacuum could be shown by mathematical passage through the singularity of Planck's black body radiation, that is, of particles without mass, into Maxwell Boltzmann's distribution of velocities now of particles with mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1912.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-09 03:06:41*

**Authors:** Mahesh Khati

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

This paper proves that Newton’s inertial frame concept & Special theory of relativity of Einstein are both wrong & requires some improvement.
1)This theory solves the problem of dark energy & dark matter.
2)This can solve the problem of dual nature of particle.
3)This gives answer for mass less photon.
4)This gives answer to difference between space & vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1912.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-08 14:15:12*

**Authors:** Rayd majeed Al-Shammari

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

To explor the effect of the gravitational red shift of a gravity well on the electric permittivity of the free space then to expand this towards the collaboration between schwarzschild metric and lorentz transformation on electric permittivity of the free space under the unflonce of a moving gravity well .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1912.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-08 18:27:47*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The article considers a simple algebraic result to bring out an interesting mathematical property of the general relativity metric . This property creates limitation on its application in that it may not apply to all space time points.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1912.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-07 20:59:36*

**Authors:** Sam Nassiri

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article is first of our multi-part articles covering our Unified Theory of Quantivity, which addresses the non-classical theoretical physics concepts studied in Quantum Mechanics, Relativity, and String Theory. This article has comprehensive coverage of the vacuum mass/energy We postulate that Planck mass refers to the neutral (i.e., with no charge) positive vacuum mass. This is the large mass unit (before being shared based on a sharing scheme to be covered in our future articles). This mass is combination of mass from h and G constants, which are sources of small units of positive and negative mass, respectively. For the first time here, we are referring to G as the counterpart of h, as the smallest unit of negative energy. We will show, while the Planck constant h is the source of positive mass with negative charge, while G is the source of negative mass with positive charge. We postulate that G could be behind the Dark energy/mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1912.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-07 09:44:53*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 1 Figure; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

According to the liquid universe model, some of our existing ideas about extraterrestrial civilizations may need to be revised to some extent. Considering that the development of biological civilization needs to last for a relatively long time, for example, from the formation of protein on the earth to the age of dinosaurs, to the emergence of humans, it has continued for billions of years. And this time beginning was shortly after the birth of the planet. Therefore, the appearance of life on a planet is closely related to the life of the entire galaxy. Considering the liquid universe model, there are two cases. One is that the center of the galaxy is a black hole, which will continuously absorb the surrounding masses. The other is a white hole, which constantly throws masses to the outside. A common feature of both cases is that the outer masses of the galaxy exists for a long time, while the inner masses of the galaxy exists for a short time. Combining the time required for the evolution of living things, it can be judged that if advanced biological civilization is to be evolved in a galaxy, the more proliferating planets should be closer to the periphery of the galaxy, the longer the development time, the higher the civilization. According to such a conclusion, it means that at least in the Milky Way, the biological civilization on Earth should be in a very advanced position. This article also briefly discusses the various ways of detecting extraterrestrial civilizations, and gives some suggestions for the detection of extraterrestrial civilizations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1912.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-06 08:25:01*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism has to satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Specially solution of the unified theory is generally Kerr-Newman solution in vacuum. We finally found the revised Einstein gravity tensor
equation with new term (2 order contravariant metric tensor two times product and the constant matrix) is right in Kerr Newman solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1912.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-06 05:00:30*

**Authors:** Ramses BOUNKEU SAFO

**Comments:** 20 pages in English. Corrected version of Disruptive Gravity (vixra:1905.0264)

Viewing gravity as a spacetime bending force instead of just a spacetime curvature, we come to the conclusion of rest mass relativity since it yields equivalent equations as General Relativity. A close analysis of the Schwarzschild metric leads us naturally to the Vacuum Apparent Energy Invariance principle from which we derive the metric equation. Applying this theory to cosmology, we can explain galaxies redshift as a delayed gravitational redshift which explains Hubble diagrams with no need for Dark Energy.
This theory has the same predictive power as General Relativity for every local experimental tests of the latter since it's based on a slight modification of the Schwarzchild metric.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1912.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-06 05:30:28*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 164 Pages.

Undulating Relativity + § 29 Yukawa Potential Energy “Continuation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1912.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-10 10:13:35*

**Authors:** Kovalyov, Mikhail

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Of the 11 gravitational waves detections up to date, seven occurred within 43 hours
of New/Full Moon or perihelion and four within a two-week period between the 2017/8/7 and
2017/8/21 eclipses. Why do the gravitational waves coming from millions of light years away
arrive to Earth so close to these lunar events? The question is investigated in this paper. Of the 11 gravitational waves detections up to date, seven occurred within 43 hours
of New/Full Moon or perihelion and four within a two-week period between the 2017/8/7 and
2017/8/21 eclipses. Why do the gravitational waves coming from millions of light years away
arrive to Earth so close to these lunar events? The question is investigated in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1912.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-05 02:17:37*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** timinva@yandex.ru, 11 pages in Russian

The main task of this work is a formulaic description of the wave propagation process in Galilean
space (GP). The cases of isotropic wave propagation in an absolute reference system (ASO), the
equation of wave propagation in inertial-term reference frame (IDF), wave propagation from moving
source in its own ISO, ASO and ISO observer. Questions of Doppler effect and aberration are considered.
When considering these issues, it is assumed that the source of the wave is not a point object,
but is the source of a monochromatic wave that fills all space. It is also assumed that the wave
source time and distance are synchronized with the GP time and distance.
The word "Galileo"is often used in the work. It is this word – perhaps, the main thing in this
work. Galilean space, Galilean standard, Galilean metric. The practical physical model for the application
(use) of these words and phrases is a fixed continuous (air, liquid, solid) medium – ASO, in
which the wave propagates, and where this "air" medium is located is an empty absolute Galilean
space. In itself, this medium is not an absolute inertial frame of reference, it can nahzoditsya in a state
of arbitrary motion in the GP. But for propagating waves as independent entities when embedded in
Galilean space, this is the current Galilean ASO.
A wave in a continuous medium (ASO) of GP can propagate only with one certain speed – the
speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its
basis, to forget about the existence of the material basis for its existence, leaving only the essential
points of this fact. They are the frequency and speed of wave propagation. In this case, the wave as
an independent object itself determines the ASO. In addition to waves, there may be non-wave objects
in it, the speed of movement of which is not limited to the speed of sound. But in this work they
are not considered.
The word "relativistic"is hardly used. This is the next level of abstraction of the independent existence
of the wave.
Главной задачей этой работы является формульное описание процесса распространения волны в галилеевом пространстве (ГП). Рассмотрены случаи распространения изотропной волны в абсолютной системе отсчета (АСО), уравнение распространения волны в инерциальной системе отсчета (ИСО), распространения волны от движущегося источника в собственном ИСО, АСО и ИСО наблюдателя. Рассмотрены вопросы эффекта Доплера и аберрации. При рассмотрении данных вопросов предполагается, что источник волны не является точечным объектом, а является источником монохроматической, заполняющей все пространство, волны. Также предполагается, что время источника волны и расстояния синхронизированы с временем и расстоянием ГП. В работе очень часто используется слово "галилеево". Именно это слово – пожалуй, глав-ное в этой работе. Галилеево пространство, галилеев эталон, галилева метрика. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) этих слов и словосочетаний является неподвижная сплошная (воздушная, жидкая, твердая) среда – АСО, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "воздушная" среда, есть пустое абсолютное галилеево про-странство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, она может нахзодится в состоянии произвольного движения в ГП. Но для распространяющих-ся волн как самостоятельных сущностей при вложении в галилеево пространство это настоящее галилеево АСО. Волна в сплошной среде (АСО) ГП может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – скоростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать отдельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, оставив только существенные моменты этого факта. Ими являются частота и скорость распространения волны. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АСО. Кроме волн, в ней могут существовать и не волновые объекты, скорость движения которых не ограничена скоростью звука. Но в данной работе они не рассматриваются. Практически не используется слово "релятивистское". Это – следующий уровень абстрак-ции самостоятельного существования волны.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1912.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-04 08:57:53*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 464 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light. Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong
“Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“The gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“The electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right”
Adrian Ferent
You learned from Einstein, your professors that when v = c, mass and energy goes to infinity and that’s not physically possible.
In particle accelerators scientists try to accelerate electrons to the speed of light.
Because the scientists do not understand what the electron is, they do not understand what they do there.
In Ferent Quantum Gravity, FQG, during the electron – positron collision are created gamma rays and Dark Matter electrons.
I discovered that:
“The electron is a photon around Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron”
Adrian Ferent
“Between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons”
Adrian Ferent
“What the scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand?
When the electron is accelerated gains kinetic energy and when the electron – positron collide the kinetic energy is transferred to the photons and Dark Matter electrons”
Adrian Ferent
“In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created”
Adrian Ferent
The electron – positron pair is produced by a photon – photon interaction.
This means:
“The gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“The electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right”
Adrian Ferent
279. I am the first who discovered that Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light
280. I am the first who discovered that the gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light
281. I am the first who discovered because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong
282. I am the first who discovered because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong
283. I am the first who discovered that in electron – positron collision, gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong
284. I am the first who discovered that the electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1912.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-02 21:16:23*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 1 figure

It is generally believed that both gravitational and electromagnetic forces belong to macroscopic interactions. However, since the smallest unit of matter is impossible to be infinitely small, the gravity or electromagnetic force cannot be infinitely small too. When these two macroscopic interactions are less than a certain value, it can be considered that there is no longer any interaction. How to determine the interaction range of gravitation, this article mainly analyzes by using the Planck length as the smallest unit of spacetime. It is assumed that if the gravitational potential changes across spacetime of Planck length less than a certain energy value, it indicates that gravitational potential cannot cross the Planck length. The gravitation will disappear as a result. From this, it is inferred that the effective interaction range of the gravitational force is related to the size of the mass. According to the gravitational effective range of the sun, the gravitational effective range of the huge mass of the galaxy's center can be calculated, and then the diameter of the galaxy's core can be calculated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1912.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-03 03:15:13*

**Authors:** Vaggelis Talios

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The “big bang theory” was established at the end of the third decade of the past century, when astrophysicist Edwin Hubble made the very great discovery, that the Galaxies of the Universe do not have fixed positions, but they move and even move away, which means that the “Universe is expanding”. The theory of the big bang was in completely agreement with Hubble's discovery; so although it had many doubts, it was established as a cosmological theory, provided, of course, that over the time and the advancement of science, these doubts would be clarified. However, in the 1990s-2000s decade, something unexpected happened; two independent research teams, the Supernova Cosmology Project and the High Z Supernova Team, trying to study more thoroughly the expansion of the Universe, discovered that this expansion is accelerated, something that did not agree with the big bang theory, which provides for the opposite; that the expansion of the Universe is, a slowed down expansion. Since then, all of the scientific community has been in turmoil, because an overthrow of the theory of the big bang will overthrow and most of the newer theoretical physics too, which is related to the big bang theory. Unfortunately, science attempting to explain the accelerated expansion, through the controversial concepts of “dark matter” and “dark energy”, –defined as strange cosmic “some-things” and nothing more–, has failed and so far, not produced any positive result. Following these developments, I thought it necessary to get out of my office drawer and restore forward once again the “theory of the chain reaction”, which explains the accelerated expansion, describes with credibility and scientific consistency the creation and operation of the Cosmos and answers to almost all the questions that do not answer the big bang and the other cosmological theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1912.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-03 07:22:50*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-2 and Italian, pages 3-4

The observations show that the apparent brightness of the celestial objects with high redshift, is lower than that expected, that is calculated considering the cosmological redshift as an indicator of the expansion of space. Which shows, of course, that it cannot be this indicator. So, since Special Relativity is compatible with the cosmological redshift only if it indicates the expansion of space, the proof that it is not so, falsifies Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1912.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-02 02:09:15*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

Having dispatched multiple, significant confirmations of General Relativity, it’s time to find out what went wrong and, if possible, fix it. (Spoiler: It can’t be fixed.)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1912.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-01 16:22:06*

**Authors:** Sam Nassiri

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Quantivity covers the fundamental concepts due to high-energy being explored in Special Relativity(SR), General Relativity(GR) Quantum Mechanics (QM) as well as String Theory (ST), and eventually reconciles them. Through our unique reverse engineering approach, we have got the big picture, we have conceptually unraveled the glorious grand design of the Universe. Our theory strongly supports the Holographic model of the universe. We claim that all the objects measurements might be turned into dimensionless frequencies, referred by us as q (or q factor), by using relevant cosmological units. It is further postulated that nature uses the same approach for objects measurements, so these q factors are compatible with each other and are capable of seamlessly being mixed with each other in any desired equation. Additionally, we strongly confirm the existence of the hidden world as mentioned in the literature, which simultaneously communicates with our visible world. While SR and GR address our visible world, and QM addresses the hidden world, QUANTIVITY addresses both. We have a comprehensive set of findings that will be published in multiple articles. In this article, as the first article of series of our articles, we concentrate on showing that the Spacetime is quantized, by deriving its grain size, rigorously, employing the previously known constants, which then consequently reveals its inverse as the number of Spacetime grains. Going into deeper discussions, we will show that, this fixed expansion of Spacetime is due to a special built-in mechanism that inflated its size vertically, due to high builtin velocity (i.e., c) and small rest mass (i.e., vacuum pos/neg masses), causing the Spacetime excitation with high frequency (coined by us as qmax, see Fig. 1). Additionally, said Spacetime inflation has caused a series of resource shortages, making objects to obey a resource sharing scheme for resources including energy, mass, space, and time. This concept might be considered as the propagation of resources, in the (vertical) Time, additional to their propagation in the (horizontal) Space. The value of this intrinsic qmax with the value of its inverse partner (qmin, as a pair of dimensionless constants) is the glorious set of numbers: 10±38.6308177. This pair behaves similar to the parameters of a balloon, wherein the size of its inflated space competes with its thickness. Further, we show that this pair of constants are being used everywhere as ultimate sizes, as well as addressing the following issues: (1) the long being sought for Cosmological Constant, (2) the ratio between the Strong Force and the Gravitational Force, (3), and the reason behind the so-called Gravity leak and/or possibly the presence of Dark Matter/Energy. Additionally, in this and our future articles we make interesting conclusions, including a postulate stating that length and space (after redefinition of space) are inverses of each other, and the time dilation, as well as the space dilation (i.e., the length contraction), lead to extreme light motion traversing the whole Spacetime almost instantly, without violating the SR’s 2nd postulate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1912.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-01 17:34:29*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We derive in this article that the four dot product between two arbitrary velocities is less than the square of the speed of light in vacuum and the product of two four momenta is less than the product of the two masses involved and the square of the speed of light[in vacuuo].Based on these results we strive to show a contradiction. Flat spacetime has been considered.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1912.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-01 01:47:59*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

Applying the Natural Mechanics model (Taylor M 2019 Natural Mechanics http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0294) to describe the decay of Binary quasar systems - necessary to forge a consensus among astrophysicists

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1912.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-08 13:11:29*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** timinva@yandex.ru, 24 pages in Russian, A4

This work is devoted to the equations of propagation of harmonic waves in one of the ISOS of space–time, which can be taken as ASO for waves. The equations of wave propagation in the case of infinite, dimensionless spaces, cyclic and mixed spaces are derived. A practical physical model for the application (use) of the equations is a fixed continuous (air, liquid, three–dimensional) medium in which the wave propagates, and where this "continuous" me-dium is located can be taken as an empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an ab-solute inertial frame of reference, but for propagating waves as independent entities when embedded in Galilean space, it is a real Galilean AISO. A wave in a medium in Galilean space can propagate at only one particular speed – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its basis, to forget about the existence of the material basis for its exist-ence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. In this case, the wave as an independent object it-self determines the AISO. Galilean space with embedded AISO allows the determination of aIso pa-rameters using wave standards.
Данная работа посвящена уравнениям распространения гармонических волн в одном из ИСО пространства–времени, которое можно принять как АСО для волн. Выведены уравнения распространения волн в случае бесконечных, неограниченных размерами пространств, циклических (одно направление) и смешанных пространств. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) уравнений является неподвижная сплошная (воздушная, жидкая, трердая) среда, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "сплошная" среда, можно принять как пустое абсолютное галилеево пространство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, но для распространяющихся волн как самостоятельных сущностей при вложении в галилеево пространство это настоящее галилеево АИСО. Волна в среде в галилеевом пространстве может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – скоростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать отдельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, оставив только существенные моменты этого факта. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АИСО. Галилеево пространство с вложенной в нее АИСО допускает определение пара-метров АИСО с использованием волновых эталонов.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1912.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-03 18:41:09*

**Authors:** John Lawrence Duval

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

If Relativity Theory is wrong, the error should be found at the very beginning of its derivation. This work does just that.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology