[56] **viXra:1912.0541 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-31 14:53:59*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The “ladder paradox”, a decision, for the first time in 110 years. In the represented earlier by me Poincare’s theory of relativity, I said, what the converselength contraction are virtual (unrealistic) and are a consequence of the “virtual time” introduced by Poincare, which I called “local Poincare time.” Now we consider this in more detail, using the so-called "Ladder paradox" as an example

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[55] **viXra:1912.0535 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-31 16:55:36*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the article, was derived formulas for unidirectional speed of light in vacuum and
material medium. Unidirectional speed of light is one of the important elements that
distinguishes special theory of relativity from ether theory. The calculations are based
on space-time transformation of ether theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1912.0534 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-31 16:58:38*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol

**Comments:** 6 Pages. in Polish language

W artykule zostały wyprowadzone zależności na jednokierunkową prędkość światła w
próżni oraz ośrodku materialnym. Jednokierunkowa prędkość światła jest jednym z istotnych
elementem, który rozróżnia szczególną teorię względności od teorii eteru.
Przedstawione obliczenia oparte są na transformacji czasoprzestrzennej teorii eteru.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[53] **viXra:1912.0493 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-28 11:45:25*

**Authors:** James Carter

**Comments:** 15 Pages. An alternative to special and general relativity theories

Being ignorant of most of today’s modern experimental measurements, Einstein largely ignored experimental physics when he foolishly imagined his arbitrary unmeasured relativity theories to be true. He then went on to fool generations of theoretical physicists into believing in impossible things like infinite gravitational fields, massless photons, equivalent force and motion, non-local gravity, and the many metaphysical assumptions of the Big Bang creation myth. Einstein’s interpretations and definitions of Mass, Space, Time, and Gravity and their relationships of Momentum, Force, and Energy were often upside down, backwards, and inside out from their physical parameters.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[52] **viXra:1912.0487 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-28 02:20:37*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 36 Pages. 7 Figure; 1 table. Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version. The file is about 1MB.

The white hole hypothesis can explain various problems faced by spiral galaxies more than the black hole hypothesis. At present, the main problems still focus on the theoretical model of white holes. White hole solutions can also be obtained from general relativity. However, negative time must be used, and this article demonstrates very briefly that time inversion does not exist through the example of returning to youth age. This problem can be solved very well using virtual space-time physics. Under the framework of virtual space-time physics, a white hole model can be constructed without time inversion. In this paper, a white hole model is used for numerical calculations to obtain the trajectory of the solar system from the center of the Milky Way to the periphery of the Milky Way. Comparing the calculation results with the actual patterns of the Milky Way, it can be seen that the calculation results coincide well with the actual patterns. The calculation results show that the solar system orbit is an expanding elliptical spiral orbit. There is a clear demarcation point between the orbits in the center of the Milky Way and the orbits around the galaxy. This may be the reason for the bulge structure in the center of the Milky Way. The solar system has been in the center of the Milky Way for about 2.8 billion years. So far, the solar system has been running for about 1.8 billion years outside the center of the Milky Way, and about 600 to 700 million years have been far from the center of the Milky Way. This is basically consistent with the evolution of life on Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1912.0473 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-27 06:42:05*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** timinva@yandex.ru, 12 pages in Russian

This work is used as a General application for other works on the propagation of waves in Galile-an space. The main task of this work is to solve General issues related to the propagation of waves in Gali-lean space. When considering this question, it is assumed that the source of the wave is not a point ob-ject that propagates a spherical wave, but is the source of a monochromatic wave that fills the entire space. It is also assumed that the time of the wave source and the distance are synchronized with the time and distance of the GP. The word "Galileo"is very often used in the work. This word is perhaps the main one in this work. Galilean space, Galilean standard, Galilean metric. The practical physical model for the application (use) of these words and phrases is a fixed solid (air, liquid, solid) medium – an absolute reference sys-tem (ASO) in which the wave propagates, and where this "air" medium is located is an empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an absolute inertial frame of reference, it can nahzoditsya in a state of arbitrary motion in the GP. But for propagating waves as independent entities when em-bedded in Galilean space, this is the current Galilean ASO. A wave in a continuous medium (ASO) of Galilean space (GP) can only propagate at one specific speed – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its basis, forget about the existence of the material basis for its existence, leaving only the essen-tial points of this fact. They are the frequency and speed of wave propagation. In this case, the wave as an independent object itself determines the ASO. In addition to waves, there may be non-wave objects in it, the speed of movement of which is not limited to the speed of sound. But they are not considered in this work. The word "relativistic"is hardly used. This is the next level of abstraction of the independent exist-ence of the wave.
Эта работа используется как общее приложение для других работ, посвященных распространению волн в галилеевом пространстве.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1912.0471 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-27 08:44:22*

**Authors:** Zane Andrea Quintili

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Schwarzschild radius describes the radius of the event horizon within which no object can exit and which sees a singularity at its center.
The mathematical expression of this ray without resorting to the complex mathematical formalism of general relativity can be summarized as follows by simply using the kinetic energy and the gravitational potential energy of the body in question.
1/2 mc^2=G mM/d
Rs=(2G M)/c^2
At this point, however, nothing in the mathematical expression tells us if that "2" is linked to Newton's mass or gravitational constant so that we can also freely interpret "2" as twice the mass, or two masses.
This new interpretation completely reverses the information we have for the Schwarzschild radius which, using Planck's units, will become:
Rs=(G 2Mp)/c^2 =2Lp

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1912.0464 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-27 15:37:23*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

The absolute gravimeter measures the gravitational constant by dropping a corner cube retro-reflector in a vacuum.
The light reflected by the corner cube interferes with another light from the same emission.
The interference pattern can not be explained by the theory if the speed of light remains constant upon reflection.
Two research teams were obliged to propose new definition of acceleration to match their test data.
Neither team understands that the speed of light actually changes upon reflection by a moving mirror.
The definition of acceleration should remain intact.
The speed of reflected light should increase to match the observed fringe pattern from the gravimeter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:1912.0459 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-26 03:57:49*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The theory of relativity is a mathematical and not a physical theory.

Begins of glorification [1]:
12 In 1919 it had carried an article [13 autor Alexander Moszkowski (1851-1934), 15 editor-in-chief was Arnold Berliner (1862-1942)] announcing the results of the British solar eclipse expedition that rose to laudatory hyperbole, not shying away from declaring that “a highest truth, beyond Galileo and Newton, beyond Kant” had been unveiled by “an oracular saying from the depth of the skies.”
16 on December 14, 1919, the front page of the Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung [17 This newspaper had been founded by Leopold Ullstein (1826-1899)] carried a large close-up portrait of Einstein whose caption read: “A new eminence in the history of the world: Albert Einstein, whose researches signify a complete revolution of our understanding of Nature and whose insights equal in importance those of a Copernicus, Kepler, and Newton.”
2 The huge public acclaim that was accorded Einstein. It also vexed conservative academics (e.g. the Nobel Laureate Philipp Lenard have felt that the theoretical physicist Einstein had captured too much of the limelight, while other, experimental physicists were not appreciated enough.)
For nearly 100 years ago have been Nobel Prize winners said:
"- The theory of relativity is a mathematical and not a physical theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[47] **viXra:1912.0453 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-25 14:00:12*

**Authors:** Cameron Wong

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Special relativity rejects its own 2nd postulate.

The key for the “successful” derivation of the special relativity lies on convincing people to believe the following two spherical equations representing only one sphere that is created by light propagation: x^2 + y^2 + z^2=(ct)^2, and x’^2 + y’^2 + z'^2=(ct’)^2. The reason that the readers have so easily believed such convincing for more than a century is because of the acceptance of the second postulate. Unfortunately, verification using relativity’s own rule regarding the relationship between length , time and speed must fail the second postulate. The 2nd postulate gone, relativity loses must end up self-refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1912.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-25 00:54:25*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

In following on from the preceding papers [1-13], this paper presents the case for the disparity between vacuum energy [14] and the associated cosmological constant [15] (when applied to calculated values of the redshift effect in regard to the metric expansion of space and associated energy requirements). A solution is provided to this problem while correctly deriving the value for the Lamb shift radiation as evidence for vacuum energy marrying up correctly with the large scale observed cosmological value, such in the context of a revised understanding of the redshift effect and associated scaling system for the Planck constant [13]. The process of proof presented here is by taking a close look at the theory behind the cosmological constant, those calculations, and any of those associated assumptions of theory and modelling of time and space in those calculations and observations that could lead to the problem, and thus determine in fact why the value for the observed energy of space is so great according to contemporary estimates and processes of theoretical modelling of space. Above all, this paper shall present proof for vacuum energy and cosmological constant being in parity, such by using the fundamental basis of the phi-quantum wave-function scaling system in deriving the temperature value of the CMBR and Boltzmann constant, and finally proof for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury which is demonstrated to be directed related to the vacuum energy of space and CMBR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1912.0445 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-24 10:20:41*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Mysterious numerical coincidences to be explained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1912.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-23 20:56:49*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Einstein's STR dynamics are contradictory (in Polish).

W artykule zostało przedstawione wyprowadzenie prawidłowej dynamiki Szczególnej Teorii Względności dla wszystkich wymiarów przestrzennych. Wyprowadzona dynamika nie posiada wad, które posiadają inne dynamiki, także dynamika Einsteina, czyli brak równoległości wektora siły z wektorem przyśpieszenia, nierozwiązywalność paradoksu dźwigni kątowej oraz niezgodność z prawem zachowania energii.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1912.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-23 14:17:30*

**Authors:** Cavași Ioan Abel

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We present the generalization of Einstein's principle of equivalence and highlight the consequences of this generalization regarding black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1912.0427 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-03 21:16:16*

**Authors:** James Carter

**Comments:** 7 Pages. New Experimental Principles of Mass, Space, Time, and Gravity

There is a great deal of confusion and contradiction in the standard model relativity theories of physics and the Big Bang. There is little consensus about the true experimental nature of Mass, Space, Time and Gravity and their mea- sured physical quantities of Momentum, Force, and Energy. Most theoretical physicists calculate and believe that mass, momentum, Force, and energy are stand along entities that can be physically separated from one another.
Einstein’s primary theoretical mistake was his metaphysical assumption of massless photons containing single and separate quantities of energy and mo- mentum. Physical measurements of photons calculate them to be eternal units of a yin yang dichotomy of Energy/Mass = cC. Big Bang’s initial assumption of a singularity of pure energy (e = mc2) has never been reconciled with the measured Energy/Mass (E/M = CC) contained in the electrons, protons, photons, atoms, and stars in today’s cosmos. The conservation of momentum as calculated by the Lorentz transformation is the primary parameter of all physical measurements. Energy is the secondary parameter used in calculating a change in momentum.
Einstein’s second theoretical mistake was his metaphysical assumption of the Equivalence Principle with its downward direction of accelerating gravitational motion and force. All measurements with clocks and accelerometers clearly show that measured upward deceleration of Earth’s gravitational momentum produces an upward gravitational force and a deceleration of time. The Force of gravity F = MS/T2 extends no further than the surface of each atom. Gravity is measured as changing momentum and then calculated as kinetic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1912.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-23 15:00:02*

**Authors:** James Carter

**Comments:** 6 Pages. A new explanation of quasars

Ever since they were first discovered, the true nature of quasars has long been one of the most difficult paradoxes in cosmology and astrophysics. There is nothing in the initial assumptions of the Big Bang and Relativity theories that would lead to the creation of quasars. Also, the principles of relativity theories and quantum mechanics offer no solutions to the gigantic energies that quasars are purported to produce. The experimental observations of over two thousand quasars lead to the inescapable conclusion that all of these peculiar stars reside within the Milky Way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1912.0398 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-15 06:26:04*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. One reference added and typos corrected.

Three characteristics of the human mind are described, which cannot have material correlates. The question of how to bind mind to matter, posed in the initial paper from 15 January 1990, has been reexamined by scrutinizing the postulate of locality and the invariant speed of light in “vacuum”, after the Michelson-Morley experiment. It is shown that, in the so-called doctrine of trialism, the question of how to bind mind to matter depends on the underlying phenomenon of matter interacting with matter, by following the Heraclitean flow of Time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1912.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-21 16:01:16*

**Authors:** Toshiro Takami

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In quantum mechanics, whenever a red board comes out, the other always comes out blue, which is the spirit.
It still seems to be a mystery, but I wrote in my previous book (Thoughts Are Faster Than Light viXra: 1910.0131) to explain that we are living at the same time as another dimension .
As a psychiatrist, I have been focusing on research on hallucinations. Hallucinations suggest that we are living at the same time as another dimension.
The reason that two related colors always emit different colors (red and blue) is said to be tied, but it is unknowingly tied by human will.
The two are tied together by the deep unconsciousness of a person. It is tied to the deep unconsciousness of people who are difficult to understand with current science.
My previous work (Thoughts Are Faster Than Light
ViXra: 1910.0131) was written to explain it.
People live next to another dimension. The human brain is simply an organ that commands this movement, and it is common sense that we are thinking of a different dimension located behind the human occipital area (only I But you may think so.)
The brain doesn't think. The upper dimension behind the brain is thinking.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1912.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-21 10:41:19*

**Authors:** Giacomo Roccaforte

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This version is in Italian

In this research is highlight a situation in which the fact that the speed of light is constant in all
reference systems would imply that even the flow of the time should be the same in all reference
systems , a conclusion that is exactly and paradoxically opposed to the Theory Of Relativity
The first research about this matter has been published at http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0225 in a typical
Special Theory's scenario.
In this case, taking into consideration the so-called elevator experiment, used by Einstein for the
development of the General RelativityTheory.
In the same scenario and setting acceleration = 0, we refer back to Special Relativity Theory, taking
into consideration what happens inside the elevator, which in this case for greater clarity becomes
an airplane.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1912.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-20 14:21:41*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Despite E= mc² being a foundational equation of modern physics, it has not been experimentally verified. Though four eminent physicists claimed ‘A direct test of E=mc²’ (Nature 2006) giving verification accurate to 1:10⁶, the experiment was not any verification of E=mc², but rather an alternative experiment to deduce the mass of the neutron. Instead of the usual Deuteron interaction, they used the nuclear interaction involving sulfur S-32 and silicon Si-28. The claim of accuracy of 1:10⁶ is about the comparison of the new value with the accepted value of the mass of the neutron. This paper shows that a chemical analysis (with a good analytical balance) of the mass composition of oxygen and hydrogen in plain distilled water may show that the law of conservation of mass is universally valid without the need for the hypothesis of mass-energy equivalence; this would also imply an unequivocal refutation of the equation E=mc². Such an experiment could easily be carried out by any laboratory in today’s universities. The experiment should be simple and straightforward, yet its outcome may have enormous consequences for the world of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1912.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-20 21:46:03*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Presented evidence, that Black Hole is hole. Namely right behind the black surface (event horizon
for non-rotational BH) there are no space nor time. No spacetime. Just as it would be prior to the
Big Bang. First composite image of Black Hole from Event Horizon Telescope is another evidence
for that, with the resulting correction of the reported mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1912.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-19 03:14:38*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Due to his solution of Energy Localization problem in General Relativity, the author finds out, that tidal forces of Black Hole can compress the falling astronaut instead of ripping him into parts. Moreover, found necessity of inclusion mathematical correction made "by hand" into first order Deviation equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1912.0315 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-28 02:42:52*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Based on a model of a huge white hole in the Galactic Center, this article analyzes the orbit of the solar system in the Milky Way. It is pointed out that the motion of the solar system in the Milky Way can be divided into two parts. The first part lasts about three to four billion years. During this time, the solar system made elliptical movements in an elongated bar structure at the Galactic Center. A large number of galaxies perform elliptical motion around the Galactic Center, forming the elongated bar structure near the Galactic Center. When the solar system gradually moves away from the Galactic Center and reaches a certain distance, the solar system will be ejected from the elongated bar structure of the Galactic Center and enter the spiral orbit outside the Milky Way. Moving outside the Milky Way, the Solar System flies away from the Milky Way following a parabolic trajectory. For simplicity of calculation, this article uses a straight line instead of this parabola. Calculation shows that the solar system has been flying for at least 600 million years after flying far away from the elongated bar structure of the Galactic Center. Comparing these 600 million years with the evolutionary process of life on Earth, it can be found that this period is the time when a large number of higher organisms on the earth evolved. Including the emergence of fish, the concentrated evolution of dinosaurs, and the emergence of humans. This article points out that this is related to the fact that the entire Earth's environment is more suitable for the growth of higher organisms after the solar system flies from the elongated bar structure of the Galactic Center. Since the earth has obtained biological prosperity and the development of human civilization in this way, it is believed that galaxies similar to the solar system are ubiquitous in the Milky Way. Therefore, there will also be extraterrestrial civilizations similar to Earth civilization on the periphery of the Milky Way. This article analyzes some areas in the spiral structure of the Milky Way that require attention, and points out that the development of civilization in these areas may exceed the development of human civilization on Earth by more than millions of years. If we can obtain important information about these civilized societies, it will help us better grasp the destiny of human civilization on earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1912.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-17 07:53:47*

**Authors:** Ayman Kassem

**Comments:** 196 Pages.

The mechanism of the universe’s inflation is variation of energy in
space and in time , the relationship between space and time
varying energy fields is governed by energy constraining inside
what was once a Planck scale entity : the quanton
as energy varies in space or in time, it creates associated fields
and through their interactions, inflationary momentum and the
fundamental forces are generated
this model comes in three parts : energy constraining , where the
evolution of the quanton and its different transitions are discussed
until the stable state is reached
the second part , electromagnetic waves in terms of space and
time varying energy fields and role of Maxwell equations in the
evolution of the quanton
the third part , energy fields and their interactions , while using
basic physics concepts , this model shows that the origin many of
the physical phenomena can be traced back to the quanton based
world

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1912.0299 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-29 09:20:54*

**Authors:** Yuli Vladimirsky

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this essay we suggest that description of processes in classical physics based on differential calculus of integer order is an approximation. We propose use of fractional calculus with orders very close to integers to replace classical equations. We define time axiomatically in terms of set theory: time is partially ordered, can be continuous or discrete, homogeneous, and, generally, nonuniform. Use of fractional calculus predicts irreversible time, temporal indefinitism, and evolution of the Universe, as described by the Hubble's Law of expansion. Dimensionless Hubble and Cosmological constants are numerically equated to first and second fractional derivatives deviations from corresponding integers. The deviations are extremely small and their ratio corresponds to the Universe expansion deceleration parameter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1912.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-15 22:25:37*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate two schemas of the thought experiment for the length of an object with zero velocity and with velocity greater than zero as equivalent to confirm the conjecture but without resorting to transit times of light. These results form a tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1912.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-15 12:57:05*

**Authors:** S. Kulas

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The model of the Big Bang implies that Something is created out of Nothing. Since the first moments of the Big Bang are still quite unknown, we make
implications which are based on rational conclusions and end up with a variable speed of light, which was nearly zero at the beginning of the universe and grew exponentially in the first moments. Then it represents an impetus for inflation. If a fraction of this process still goes on today, it could be a source for dark
matter and dark energy. We show a phenomenological approach to a simple model and the similarity to dark photons, which hopefully can be detected in
the near future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1912.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-15 14:20:02*

**Authors:** James Carter

**Comments:** 16 Pages. A new version of Big Bang theory without the metaphysical assumptions.

Abstract
The Living Cosmos is an alternative explanation to the Big Bang theories of cosmic creation and evolution. It differs from the Big Bang on two major points. First, the Big Bang began suddenly with a singularity containing an undetermined amount of “pure energy” that was not conserved as it spread out into the universe and eventually transformed into atoms and photons. The evolution of the Living Cosmos begins with a single, matter/antimatter duality containing equal and inseparable quantities of Energy and Mass E/M = CC that remain independently conserved throughout the entire evolutionary process. Second, Big Bang theories all begin with the often unstated metaphysical assumption that the electron/proton mass ratio of e/p = 1/1836 is a universal and eternal constant that has not changed since the beginning of time. The Living Cosmos creation process begins with an electron/proton mass ratio of e/p = 1.0/1.0 that has slowly evolved throughout cosmological time to its present value of e/p = 1/1836. This new cosmic model uses Big Bang’s astronomical observations and measurements to illustrate a cosmic reproduction process producing equal quantities of atomic matter and antimatter. Instead of a nearly instant inflation followed by slow gravitational collapse, the Living Cosmos was formed through evolutionary reproduction and separation processes lasting billions of years. The galaxies, stars and atoms reached their present structures and locations through first weak nuclear, then strong nuclear, and finally electromagnetic interactions. Gravity played only a minor role in this organizational process. Contrary to Big Bang models, this new cosmic model strictly adheres to the principles of the scientific method of experimental measurement as they apply to quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, and the laws of gravitational force and motion,. The Living Cosmos examines the basic values and events in cosmological history from perspectives that are sometimes upside down, backwards, and inside out from standard Big Bang ideas. In this non-linear synchronous creation, antineutrons reproduced first, then atoms formed as they emitted photons. Galaxies formed before stars and then stars were created before protons, electrons, and photons. The conclusions reached from the slowly evolving electron/proton mass ratio provide new explanations for matter/antimatter equality, Hubble red shifts, Dark Energy, the homogeneous 2.7 K temperature of the cosmic blackbody radiation, the enormous energy of cosmic rays, the constant energy output of the sun, plate tectonics, and even the very large size of dinosaur bones.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1912.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-15 18:15:00*

**Authors:** James Carter

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Definitive disproof that starlight is deflected by the sun.

The above photo of the Andromeda Galaxy is definitive proof there is absolutely no change in the momentum vectors of any photons when they pass through the extended gravitational fields of stars. If each photon in this picture was not lined up perfectly in Euclidian space and time with its emitting star, the photo would appear as a quite dim homogenous grey cloud. Any photons moving through a non-Euclidian curving gravitational spacetime would completely blur astronomical observations beyond recognition. There can be no gravitational deflection of any photon’s path through empty space without the ultimate destruction of astronomy. All photons, from gamma rays to radio waves, would be jumbled together and coming to us on trajectories far removed from their original emission vectors.
Actual physical measurements of the solar deflection of photons show the effect to be an optical illusion without any change in a photon’s actual path through Euclidian space. The apparent angle of curvature is measured as changes in the gravitational momentum of Earth and not by any gravitational effect of the sun. These measurements show conclusively that the downward pointing gravity of Einstein’s equivalent principle is false and verify that Earth falls up.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1912.0276 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-10 11:12:51*

**Authors:** Donghui Wang

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Scientists have explained the phenomenon of redshift in the universe by using the viewpoint of cosmic expansion, while the phenomenon of blueshift has perplexed academic circles for a long time. To solve this problem, the author conducted a thought experiment. The focus of the experiment was to let an elevator box at high altitude fall along a track and then compare the results observed by a person inside the box with the phenomena of redshift and blueshift observed by people on Earth. The results show that redshift and blueshift in the universe can be simulated above the Earth, indicating that cosmic space may have the features of a gravitational field. Thus, the author assumed that cosmic space is a gravitational field, analysed the movement pattern of celestial bodies in this context, and gave reasonable explanations for Earth’s rotation deceleration, Venus’s abnormal auto-rotation and global warming. Based on further association, the author argues that the continuous increase in the Ground’s gravity may be the cause for the largest animal on the Earth becoming progressively lighter, and this derivation can be verified by correlated detection.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1912.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-14 05:23:10*

**Authors:** Laszlo G Meszaros

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Opinions are welcome

In a thought experiment, in which transit-times of light signal propagation over given distances are measured, it is demonstrated that the length of an object in motion is independent of the object's (relative) velocity and, consequently, equals its resting length, i.e. its 'proper' length. Thereby, after discussing Einstein's two (essentially different) light speed postulates, the scientific merit of the Special Theory of Relativity (as well as that of the Lorentz transformations) is questioned.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1912.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-14 09:47:12*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 3 Figure; 1 Table

It has long been assumed that the Galactic Center is a huge black hole. However, from some existing data, if the Galactic Center is a black hole, the surrounding mass will move around the Galactic Center. This will cause the outer mass of the Milky Way to move faster than the mass of the inner Milky Way. But this is not consistent with observations over the years. Although it can be explained by the existence of dark matter, direct evidence for the existence of dark matter is still lacking. If there is dark matter around the earth that has a serious effect on gravitation, there should be many experimental results that violate the law of conservation of energy. However, various experiments conducted on the earth for more than 100 years have shown that energy is conserved. However, if the Galactic Center is a white hole, the white hole continuously ejects masses, and at the same time the white hole is still rotating at a high speed, the distribution of the surrounding mass is like a spiral firework, and it has a spiral shape. Combined with my previous works, I concluded that the scope of gravitation is limited at the cosmic scale. Therefore, the motion of the galaxy's peripheral mass around the Galactic Center can be simplified to a linear fluid motion, and its velocity is equal everywhere. This can be used to explain the observations of galactic rotation curves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1912.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-13 07:36:57*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Email:yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

An object at motion decreases in its mass and converts it into energy and vanishes when reaching the speed of light c, the kinetic energy in this case is the mass energy adding to it energy due to motion , the kinetic energy will travel with the speed of light as photon , the total energy of the rest mass is conserved , part of it change to energy and part of it still solid until it vanishes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1912.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-12 07:41:46*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** Pages.

‘Fractals are everywhere’; but for the large-scale galaxy distribution in the observable universe, by the 2012 WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, they were ruled out. They were, however, granted on small cosmic scales, as claimed by proponents, and notwithstanding the ensuing enigma of explaining the standard model of cosmology ‘very large’ cosmic structures (LQGs) have indeed – as predicted – have been observed in the large-scale universe since the WiggleZ survey. Can a (different) fractal model explain all these cosmological observations and conjectures, and if so, are we are modelling the fractal the universe incorrectly? An experiment was conducted on a ‘simple’ (Koch snowflake) fractal from the perspective of an observer within a growing/emergent fractal – ‘looking’ in iteration-time. The fractal was inverted – to show what the fractal looks like back to its origin; new triangle sizes were held constant allowing earlier triangles in the set to expand as the set iterated. Classical kinematic equations of velocities and accelerations were calculated for total area total and the distance between points. Hubble-Lemaitre's Law and other cosmological observations and conjectures were tested for. Results showed area(s) expanded exponentially from an arbitrary starting position; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. It was concluded that the fractal is a geometrical match to the cosmological problems. It explains Hubble-Lemaitre and accelerated expansion; inhomogeneous (and said fractal) galaxy distribution on small scale and large scales; and other problems – including the cosmological catastrophe and the early inflationary expansion epoch of the universe. Also, the fractal offers a direct mechanism to the cosmological problem and can further explain the quantum problem – unifying the two realities as being two aspects of the same geometry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1912.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-16 23:16:55*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We investigate the flat space time Friedmann Lemaitre Robertson Walker model of cosmology in the light of two metric signatures:(-,+,+,+) and (+,-,-,-). We arrive at the interesting fact that with the (+,-,-,-)signature both the Ricci scalar and the energy component of the stress energy tensor are negative for all points of cosmological time. With this component we do have a positive pressure favoring the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1912.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-11 15:15:56*

**Authors:** Milan D. Nešić

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Aristotle, Ptolemy, and geocentrism. Copernicus, Kepler and heliocentrism. Newton, the real estate stars and the universe ether. Einstein, Lemaitre and the “big bang”—homocentrism, hidden geocentrism. One has to decide: either at once all the mass of the world was created and so large one, or the mass is variable and the measure of inertia is c2=const, whatever being energy from all over the universe. The article shows that today, when we know that there are quasars moving away from us at a speed and 95% of the speed of light, Einstein's energy E=mc2 should be considered as differential dE=c2dm. So since the corresponding binomial series for v→c is divergent, along with the solution of this differential equation goes an indefinite integration constant of infinite energy wherever we take the mass of rest m0 as coordinate origin. This is where the dark energy lies. And when Perlmutter writes that “it has long been assumed that there must be some underlying symmetry that precisely cancels the vacuum energy” at least 1055 times greater than required by astrophysical data, Maxwell Newton's postulate imposes by itself, while the unity of mass and vacuum could be shown by mathematical passage through the singularity of Planck's black body radiation, that is, of particles without mass, into Maxwell Boltzmann's distribution of velocities now of particles with mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1912.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-09 03:06:41*

**Authors:** Mahesh Khati

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

This paper proves that Newton’s inertial frame concept & Special theory of relativity of Einstein are both wrong & requires some improvement.
1)This theory solves the problem of dark energy & dark matter.
2)This can solve the problem of dual nature of particle.
3)This gives answer for mass less photon.
4)This gives answer to difference between space & vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1912.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-08 14:15:12*

**Authors:** Rayd majeed Al-Shammari

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

To explor the effect of the gravitational red shift of a gravity well on the electric permittivity of the free space then to expand this towards the collaboration between schwarzschild metric and lorentz transformation on electric permittivity of the free space under the unflonce of a moving gravity well .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1912.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-08 18:27:47*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The article considers a simple algebraic result to bring out an interesting mathematical property of the general relativity metric . This property creates limitation on its application in that it may not apply to all space time points.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1912.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-07 20:59:36*

**Authors:** Sam Nassiri

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article is first of our multi-part articles covering our Unified Theory of Quantivity, which addresses the non-classical theoretical physics concepts studied in Quantum Mechanics, Relativity, and String Theory. This article has comprehensive coverage of the vacuum mass/energy We postulate that Planck mass refers to the neutral (i.e., with no charge) positive vacuum mass. This is the large mass unit (before being shared based on a sharing scheme to be covered in our future articles). This mass is combination of mass from h and G constants, which are sources of small units of positive and negative mass, respectively. For the first time here, we are referring to G as the counterpart of h, as the smallest unit of negative energy. We will show, while the Planck constant h is the source of positive mass with negative charge, while G is the source of negative mass with positive charge. We postulate that G could be behind the Dark energy/mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1912.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-07 09:44:53*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 1 Figure; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

According to the liquid universe model, some of our existing ideas about extraterrestrial civilizations may need to be revised to some extent. Considering that the development of biological civilization needs to last for a relatively long time, for example, from the formation of protein on the earth to the age of dinosaurs, to the emergence of humans, it has continued for billions of years. And this time beginning was shortly after the birth of the planet. Therefore, the appearance of life on a planet is closely related to the life of the entire galaxy. Considering the liquid universe model, there are two cases. One is that the center of the galaxy is a black hole, which will continuously absorb the surrounding masses. The other is a white hole, which constantly throws masses to the outside. A common feature of both cases is that the outer masses of the galaxy exists for a long time, while the inner masses of the galaxy exists for a short time. Combining the time required for the evolution of living things, it can be judged that if advanced biological civilization is to be evolved in a galaxy, the more proliferating planets should be closer to the periphery of the galaxy, the longer the development time, the higher the civilization. According to such a conclusion, it means that at least in the Milky Way, the biological civilization on Earth should be in a very advanced position. This article also briefly discusses the various ways of detecting extraterrestrial civilizations, and gives some suggestions for the detection of extraterrestrial civilizations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1912.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-06 08:25:01*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism has to satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Specially solution of the unified theory is generally Kerr-Newman solution in vacuum. We finally found the revised Einstein gravity tensor
equation with new term (2 order contravariant metric tensor two times product and the constant matrix) is right in Kerr Newman solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1912.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-06 05:00:30*

**Authors:** Ramses BOUNKEU SAFO

**Comments:** 20 pages in English. Corrected version of Disruptive Gravity (vixra:1905.0264)

Viewing gravity as a spacetime bending force instead of just a spacetime curvature, we come to the conclusion of rest mass relativity since it yields equivalent equations as General Relativity. A close analysis of the Schwarzschild metric leads us naturally to the Vacuum Apparent Energy Invariance principle from which we derive the metric equation. Applying this theory to cosmology, we can explain galaxies redshift as a delayed gravitational redshift which explains Hubble diagrams with no need for Dark Energy.
This theory has the same predictive power as General Relativity for every local experimental tests of the latter since it's based on a slight modification of the Schwarzchild metric.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1912.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-06 05:30:28*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 164 Pages.

Undulating Relativity + § 29 Yukawa Potential Energy “Continuation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1912.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-25 18:41:21*

**Authors:** Kovalyov, Mikhail

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Of the 11 gravitational waves detections up to date, seven occurred within 43 hours of
New/Full Moon or perihelion and four within the two weeks between the 2017/8/7 and 2017/8/21
eclipses. Why do the gravitational waves coming from millions of light years away arrive to Earth
so close to these lunar events? The question is investigated in more detail.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1912.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-05 02:17:37*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** timinva@yandex.ru, 11 pages in Russian

The main task of this work is a formulaic description of the wave propagation process in Galilean
space (GP). The cases of isotropic wave propagation in an absolute reference system (ASO), the
equation of wave propagation in inertial-term reference frame (IDF), wave propagation from moving
source in its own ISO, ASO and ISO observer. Questions of Doppler effect and aberration are considered.
When considering these issues, it is assumed that the source of the wave is not a point object,
but is the source of a monochromatic wave that fills all space. It is also assumed that the wave
source time and distance are synchronized with the GP time and distance.
The word "Galileo"is often used in the work. It is this word – perhaps, the main thing in this
work. Galilean space, Galilean standard, Galilean metric. The practical physical model for the application
(use) of these words and phrases is a fixed continuous (air, liquid, solid) medium – ASO, in
which the wave propagates, and where this "air" medium is located is an empty absolute Galilean
space. In itself, this medium is not an absolute inertial frame of reference, it can nahzoditsya in a state
of arbitrary motion in the GP. But for propagating waves as independent entities when embedded in
Galilean space, this is the current Galilean ASO.
A wave in a continuous medium (ASO) of GP can propagate only with one certain speed – the
speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its
basis, to forget about the existence of the material basis for its existence, leaving only the essential
points of this fact. They are the frequency and speed of wave propagation. In this case, the wave as
an independent object itself determines the ASO. In addition to waves, there may be non-wave objects
in it, the speed of movement of which is not limited to the speed of sound. But in this work they
are not considered.
The word "relativistic"is hardly used. This is the next level of abstraction of the independent existence
of the wave.
Главной задачей этой работы является формульное описание процесса распространения волны в галилеевом пространстве (ГП). Рассмотрены случаи распространения изотропной волны в абсолютной системе отсчета (АСО), уравнение распространения волны в инерциальной системе отсчета (ИСО), распространения волны от движущегося источника в собственном ИСО, АСО и ИСО наблюдателя. Рассмотрены вопросы эффекта Доплера и аберрации. При рассмотрении данных вопросов предполагается, что источник волны не является точечным объектом, а является источником монохроматической, заполняющей все пространство, волны. Также предполагается, что время источника волны и расстояния синхронизированы с временем и расстоянием ГП. В работе очень часто используется слово "галилеево". Именно это слово – пожалуй, глав-ное в этой работе. Галилеево пространство, галилеев эталон, галилева метрика. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) этих слов и словосочетаний является неподвижная сплошная (воздушная, жидкая, твердая) среда – АСО, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "воздушная" среда, есть пустое абсолютное галилеево про-странство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, она может нахзодится в состоянии произвольного движения в ГП. Но для распространяющих-ся волн как самостоятельных сущностей при вложении в галилеево пространство это настоящее галилеево АСО. Волна в сплошной среде (АСО) ГП может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – скоростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать отдельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, оставив только существенные моменты этого факта. Ими являются частота и скорость распространения волны. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АСО. Кроме волн, в ней могут существовать и не волновые объекты, скорость движения которых не ограничена скоростью звука. Но в данной работе они не рассматриваются. Практически не используется слово "релятивистское". Это – следующий уровень абстрак-ции самостоятельного существования волны.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1912.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-04 08:57:53*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 464 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light. Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong
“Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“The gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“The electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right”
Adrian Ferent
You learned from Einstein, your professors that when v = c, mass and energy goes to infinity and that’s not physically possible.
In particle accelerators scientists try to accelerate electrons to the speed of light.
Because the scientists do not understand what the electron is, they do not understand what they do there.
In Ferent Quantum Gravity, FQG, during the electron – positron collision are created gamma rays and Dark Matter electrons.
I discovered that:
“The electron is a photon around Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron”
Adrian Ferent
“Between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons”
Adrian Ferent
“What the scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand?
When the electron is accelerated gains kinetic energy and when the electron – positron collide the kinetic energy is transferred to the photons and Dark Matter electrons”
Adrian Ferent
“In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created”
Adrian Ferent
The electron – positron pair is produced by a photon – photon interaction.
This means:
“The gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“The electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right”
Adrian Ferent
279. I am the first who discovered that Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light
280. I am the first who discovered that the gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light
281. I am the first who discovered because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong
282. I am the first who discovered because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong
283. I am the first who discovered that in electron – positron collision, gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong
284. I am the first who discovered that the electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1912.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-02 21:16:23*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 1 figure

It is generally believed that both gravitational and electromagnetic forces belong to macroscopic interactions. However, since the smallest unit of matter is impossible to be infinitely small, the gravity or electromagnetic force cannot be infinitely small too. When these two macroscopic interactions are less than a certain value, it can be considered that there is no longer any interaction. How to determine the interaction range of gravitation, this article mainly analyzes by using the Planck length as the smallest unit of spacetime. It is assumed that if the gravitational potential changes across spacetime of Planck length less than a certain energy value, it indicates that gravitational potential cannot cross the Planck length. The gravitation will disappear as a result. From this, it is inferred that the effective interaction range of the gravitational force is related to the size of the mass. According to the gravitational effective range of the sun, the gravitational effective range of the huge mass of the galaxy's center can be calculated, and then the diameter of the galaxy's core can be calculated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1912.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-03 03:15:13*

**Authors:** Vaggelis Talios

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The “big bang theory” was established at the end of the third decade of the past century, when astrophysicist Edwin Hubble made the very great discovery, that the Galaxies of the Universe do not have fixed positions, but they move and even move away, which means that the “Universe is expanding”. The theory of the big bang was in completely agreement with Hubble's discovery; so although it had many doubts, it was established as a cosmological theory, provided, of course, that over the time and the advancement of science, these doubts would be clarified. However, in the 1990s-2000s decade, something unexpected happened; two independent research teams, the Supernova Cosmology Project and the High Z Supernova Team, trying to study more thoroughly the expansion of the Universe, discovered that this expansion is accelerated, something that did not agree with the big bang theory, which provides for the opposite; that the expansion of the Universe is, a slowed down expansion. Since then, all of the scientific community has been in turmoil, because an overthrow of the theory of the big bang will overthrow and most of the newer theoretical physics too, which is related to the big bang theory. Unfortunately, science attempting to explain the accelerated expansion, through the controversial concepts of “dark matter” and “dark energy”, –defined as strange cosmic “some-things” and nothing more–, has failed and so far, not produced any positive result. Following these developments, I thought it necessary to get out of my office drawer and restore forward once again the “theory of the chain reaction”, which explains the accelerated expansion, describes with credibility and scientific consistency the creation and operation of the Cosmos and answers to almost all the questions that do not answer the big bang and the other cosmological theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1912.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-03 07:22:50*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-2 and Italian, pages 3-4

The observations show that the apparent brightness of the celestial objects with high redshift, is lower than that expected, that is calculated considering the cosmological redshift as an indicator of the expansion of space. Which shows, of course, that it cannot be this indicator. So, since Special Relativity is compatible with the cosmological redshift only if it indicates the expansion of space, the proof that it is not so, falsifies Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1912.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-02 02:09:15*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

Having dispatched multiple, significant confirmations of General Relativity, it’s time to find out what went wrong and, if possible, fix it. (Spoiler: It can’t be fixed.)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1912.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-01 16:22:06*

**Authors:** Sam Nassiri

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Quantivity covers the fundamental concepts due to high-energy being explored in Special Relativity(SR), General Relativity(GR) Quantum Mechanics (QM) as well as String Theory (ST), and eventually reconciles them. Through our unique reverse engineering approach, we have got the big picture, we have conceptually unraveled the glorious grand design of the Universe. Our theory strongly supports the Holographic model of the universe. We claim that all the objects measurements might be turned into dimensionless frequencies, referred by us as q (or q factor), by using relevant cosmological units. It is further postulated that nature uses the same approach for objects measurements, so these q factors are compatible with each other and are capable of seamlessly being mixed with each other in any desired equation. Additionally, we strongly confirm the existence of the hidden world as mentioned in the literature, which simultaneously communicates with our visible world. While SR and GR address our visible world, and QM addresses the hidden world, QUANTIVITY addresses both. We have a comprehensive set of findings that will be published in multiple articles. In this article, as the first article of series of our articles, we concentrate on showing that the Spacetime is quantized, by deriving its grain size, rigorously, employing the previously known constants, which then consequently reveals its inverse as the number of Spacetime grains. Going into deeper discussions, we will show that, this fixed expansion of Spacetime is due to a special built-in mechanism that inflated its size vertically, due to high builtin velocity (i.e., c) and small rest mass (i.e., vacuum pos/neg masses), causing the Spacetime excitation with high frequency (coined by us as qmax, see Fig. 1). Additionally, said Spacetime inflation has caused a series of resource shortages, making objects to obey a resource sharing scheme for resources including energy, mass, space, and time. This concept might be considered as the propagation of resources, in the (vertical) Time, additional to their propagation in the (horizontal) Space. The value of this intrinsic qmax with the value of its inverse partner (qmin, as a pair of dimensionless constants) is the glorious set of numbers: 10±38.6308177. This pair behaves similar to the parameters of a balloon, wherein the size of its inflated space competes with its thickness. Further, we show that this pair of constants are being used everywhere as ultimate sizes, as well as addressing the following issues: (1) the long being sought for Cosmological Constant, (2) the ratio between the Strong Force and the Gravitational Force, (3), and the reason behind the so-called Gravity leak and/or possibly the presence of Dark Matter/Energy. Additionally, in this and our future articles we make interesting conclusions, including a postulate stating that length and space (after redefinition of space) are inverses of each other, and the time dilation, as well as the space dilation (i.e., the length contraction), lead to extreme light motion traversing the whole Spacetime almost instantly, without violating the SR’s 2nd postulate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1912.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-01 17:34:29*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We derive in this article that the four dot product between two arbitrary velocities is less than the square of the speed of light in vacuum and the product of two four momenta is less than the product of the two masses involved and the square of the speed of light[in vacuuo].Based on these results we strive to show a contradiction. Flat spacetime has been considered.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1912.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-01 01:47:59*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

Applying the Natural Mechanics model (Taylor M 2019 Natural Mechanics http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0294) to describe the decay of Binary quasar systems - necessary to forge a consensus among astrophysicists

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1912.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-08 13:11:29*

**Authors:** Valery Timin

**Comments:** timinva@yandex.ru, 24 pages in Russian, A4

This work is devoted to the equations of propagation of harmonic waves in one of the ISOS of space–time, which can be taken as ASO for waves. The equations of wave propagation in the case of infinite, dimensionless spaces, cyclic and mixed spaces are derived. A practical physical model for the application (use) of the equations is a fixed continuous (air, liquid, three–dimensional) medium in which the wave propagates, and where this "continuous" me-dium is located can be taken as an empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an ab-solute inertial frame of reference, but for propagating waves as independent entities when embedded in Galilean space, it is a real Galilean AISO. A wave in a medium in Galilean space can propagate at only one particular speed – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its basis, to forget about the existence of the material basis for its exist-ence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. In this case, the wave as an independent object it-self determines the AISO. Galilean space with embedded AISO allows the determination of aIso pa-rameters using wave standards.
Данная работа посвящена уравнениям распространения гармонических волн в одном из ИСО пространства–времени, которое можно принять как АСО для волн. Выведены уравнения распространения волн в случае бесконечных, неограниченных размерами пространств, циклических (одно направление) и смешанных пространств. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) уравнений является неподвижная сплошная (воздушная, жидкая, трердая) среда, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "сплошная" среда, можно принять как пустое абсолютное галилеево пространство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, но для распространяющихся волн как самостоятельных сущностей при вложении в галилеево пространство это настоящее галилеево АИСО. Волна в среде в галилеевом пространстве может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – скоростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать отдельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, оставив только существенные моменты этого факта. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АИСО. Галилеево пространство с вложенной в нее АИСО допускает определение пара-метров АИСО с использованием волновых эталонов.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1912.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-03 18:41:09*

**Authors:** John Lawrence Duval

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

If Relativity Theory is wrong, the error should be found at the very beginning of its derivation. This work does just that.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology