Relativity and Cosmology

1610 Submissions

[30] viXra:1610.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 14:45:11

Wave Detected by Ligo is not Gravitational Wave

Authors: Alfonso León Guillen Gómez
Comments: 9 Pages.

General Relativity defines gravity like the metric of a Lorentzian manifold. Einstein formulated spacetime as quality structural of gravity, i.e, circular definition between gravity and spacetime, also Einstein denoted "Space and time are modes by which we think, not conditions under which we live" and “We denote everything but the gravitational field as matter”, therefore, spacetime is nothing and gravity in first approximation an effect of coordinates, and definitely a geometric effect. The mathematical model generates quantitative predictions coincident in high grade with observations without physical meaning. Philosophy intervened: in Substantivalism, spacetime exists in itself while in Relationalism as metrical relations. But, it does not know what spacetime. The outcomes of model have supported during a century, validity of the General Relativity, interpreted arbitrarily. Einstein formulated, from quadrupoles of energy, the formation of ripples in spacetime propagating as gravitational waves abandoned, in 1938, when he said that they do not exist. LIGO announced the first detection of gravitational waves from a pair of merging black holes. They truly are waves of quantum vacuum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29] viXra:1610.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 16:39:43

The Entropy Paradox

Authors: Eran Sinbar, Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein
Comments: 8 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s general relativity theory, increase in mass causes time dilation. In this paper we introduce 2 identical closed systems A&B. Each system contains masses M&m where .Each system can be in one of 2 stable steady states modes, mode 1 in which m is far from M held in its position by a slider (Fig. 1) and mode 2 in which m has travelled towards M because of its gravitational pull, until they both collided and became a unified mass (fig. 3). At mode 1 the system is potential energy dominated and in mode 2 the system has transferred its potential energy first to kinetic energy and finally after the collision to heat (radiation) energy which was radiated immediately out of the system until reaching a stable steady state mode. Switching between the 2 modes is possible through the slider (Fig. 3) which by sliding aside enables mass m to be pulled by gravity towards mass M. A seconds. In system B the sequence is: mode 1 for seconds and mode 2 for seconds. Where , , .Although in both systems the total energy ,the total time and the surrounding conditions are the same at the end point after time T (Fig. 3) the entropy in system B is lower than the entropy in system A and we will name this “The entropy paradox”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[28] viXra:1610.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 08:02:10

The Essence of the Universe and the World

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a viewpoint regarding to the essence of the Universe and the world
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27] viXra:1610.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 23:56:49

On the Reason of Cosmological Constant Problem and Its Solution

Authors: Kapil Chandra
Comments: 5 Pages.

Quantum field theory’s energy density of vacuum corresponds to the cosmological constant. We found, calculation of its numerical value is based on Planck unit which assumes, the gravity is as strong as the strong nuclear force is. We argue, this assumption is the reason of very high predicted value of it and cosmological constant problem emerges. Here we modified this assumption and got correct value of it and apparently cosmological constant problem is vanished.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[26] viXra:1610.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 19:48:18

Introduction to The Natural Force Of The Universe

Authors: Luo Zhengda
Comments: 3 Pages.

There is one truth only, it is not existed in the concept of the single "gravity", also not in the single "repulsion", and certainly not in the "gravity and repulsion" taking the same mass substance as the carrier, but in the external force and the repulsive force.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[25] viXra:1610.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 10:09:27

The Michelson-Morley Experiment with the Relative Motion to Earth and the Corrected Ether Theory

Authors: Jixueshi
Comments: 5 Pages. This experiment can prove that the etheric by earth traction

Michelson morley experiment denies the existence of ether wind, rocky (Oliver w. f. Lodge, 1851-1940) in 1892, made of steel plate rotation experiment rejected ether by steel plate of traction, also indirectly negative ether by earth traction, the two experimental rejected ether.This experiment can prove that the etheric by earth traction,the Michelson-Morley Experiment on the relative motion to the earth: The light source is the green laser, with its wavelength 532nm. Compared to the original Michelson-Morley Experiment, the installation of this experiment is improved in two ways (as is seen in figure 1): Firstly, a parallel plane optical resonant cavity is added to the optical path in order to improve its sensitivity. As the times of the reflex in the resonant cavity is unknown, the sensitivity cannot be measured; Secondly, the stationary relative to the earth is changed to the rectilinear motion. The installation is placed horizontally on the high-speed train carriage with the shock cushion installed, which is made of multiple layers of sponges and slates. When the installation works in uniform linear motion, relatively to the earth surface at a speed of over 260km per hour, rotate it horizontally, and the move of optical interference fringe can be observed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[24] viXra:1610.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 09:37:53

Retrocausal Communication Email Process That Violates Causality

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 9 Pages.

In the theory of special relativity, a particle that has rest mass with subluminal velocity needs infinite energy to accelerate to the speed of light. Special relativity does not prohibit the existence of particles that travel faster than light. In arXiv:1303.0614 quantum entanglement was measured at 10,000 times the speed of light or 4 orders of magnitude the speed of light or 2.99 E 12 m/s 2. At the quantum level some believe that retrocausality is forbidden. The purpose of this paper is to show how an email message can go proportionally faster than light to report on an event from the present into the past. The event reported from the present is sent into the past in the Inbox history instantaneously and a copy of the email that is (-) 2.7 hours in the past will also be sent to the Inbox history. Whether or not the event reported from the present that is sent into the past can be changed is not the purpose of this paper. The purpose of this paper is to show how a message from now can report on an event from now and sent into the past.(retrocausal communication)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23] viXra:1610.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-27 06:49:26

A Newtonian Equivalent for the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 6 Pages.

Following some older ideas, an equivalent for the cosmological constant in classical mechanics it was found. In our development, this Newtonian equivalent for the cosmological constant appears in a natural way into Friedmann first equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[22] viXra:1610.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 06:34:22

Mathematical Theory of Black Holes – Its Infinite Equivalence Class

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 1 Page. This article was submitted on 2nd May 2016 to the 2016 International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (COSPA), hosted at the University of Sydney, 28 Nov - 02 Dec 2016.

There exists an infinite equivalence class of solutions for the equations Rμν = 0, thereby constituting all admissible 'transformations of coordinates'. If any element of this infinite equivalence class cannot be extended to produce a black hole then none can be extended to a black hole, owing to equivalence. No such element can be extended to produce a black hole. Consequently, the mathematical theory of black holes violates the rules of pure mathematics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21] viXra:1610.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 08:02:05

Model of the Universe based on the Repulsive Dark Matter

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 25 Pages. none

This article describes the new model of the Universe that is an alternative for the well-known Big Bang (BB) model. The recently published paper [1], where the authors have presented data on the oldest star in the Milky Way galaxy halo, challenges the validity of the BB model claim about the age of the Universe. It is thus apparent that there is a need to develop an alternative model for the Universe that would not have this problem and provide a better agreement with observations. The model presented in this paper offers such a new alternative by assuming that the Universe is not expanding and is filled with a static gravitating "dark matter" (DM) that is transparent and therefore does not absorb light. This matter provides a framework in which the visible matter moves similarly as defects or vacancies move in a crystal floating from the bulk to the surface. It is further assumed that the visible matter may have been created from this dark transparent matter by an unspecified process sometime in the past, or is being constantly created with a smaller rate. After aggregation to stars and galaxies the visible matter is driven out to the edge of the Universe where it disintegrates and generates the immense Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). This radiation then may contribute to the generation of new matter throughout the Universe similarly as the assumption that the matter is being constantly created in the Fred Hoyle's model of the Universe [2]. The DM model provides equations for the observed recession velocities of distant galaxies, and for many remaining parameters that follow directly from the Hubble constant such as: the size and the mass of the Universe, the maximum observable luminosity modulus, the maximum observable Z shift, the maximum galaxy recession velocity, the size of the average galaxy, etc.. An important relation, also derived from the model, is the relation between the Hubble constant and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). This relation allows a precise calculation of Hubble constant from this temperature. The developed theory is compared with the available data of the GRBs, the Supernova Cosmology project, and the BATSE catalog, and a very good agreement is obtained.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20] viXra:1610.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 04:23:17

Comment on On the Equality of Relative Velocities by Buenker in APEIRON 20 2 2015

Authors: Miroslav Josipović
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the cited paper author (Robert J. Buenker) “proves” invalidity of the special relativity length contraction prediction, relaying on muon experiments and using incorrect calculation of the relative velocity. This phenomenon is common in anti-relativistic texts: arguments against the special theory of relativity authors base on misunderstandings (misconceptions) of the theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19] viXra:1610.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 20:46:35

Time Dilation in the Global Positioning System Has Implications for the Theory of Gravity

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 43 Pages.

The observation of two occurrences of time dilation underlie new conclusions about the essence of gravity that cascade logically from these observations, but are at odds with the descriptions of gravity offered by conventional physics. 1) An examination of the time dilation of a process reveals that it is a function of the velocity of the process relative to space itself, not relative to an arbitrary frame of reference. A fundamental frame of reference for motion in the Universe must permeate all space at both the greatest and smallest scales. A field of particles that I call the Temporal-Inertial (TI) field that supports the propagation of nature’s force particles meets the requirements of such a fundamental frame of reference for motion. 2) The Global Positioning System (GPS) compensates precisely for the time dilation introduced by the GPS satellite’s orbital speed and the gravitational field of Earth. I argue that this precise compensation is achievable only if Earth is at rest relative to the TI field. Accordingly, Earth and particles of the TI field must orbit the Sun in concert. Hence, particles of the TI field must be subject to gravity. Several other behaviors ensue from these two observations of time dilation: 3) the TI field mediates gravity, 4) massive particles and objects comprising massive particles are not directly subject to gravity, 5) in the ‘near’ vicinity of a gravitational body the velocity of the TI field is directed toward the center of mass of the body, 6) gravitational time dilation is caused by the infall velocity of the TI field toward a gravitational body, not directly by gravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18] viXra:1610.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 08:57:38

The Origin of the Coupling Constant (E) and Some Other Important Dimensionless Physical Constants Within General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper will answer the mystery of the coupling constant (e), a puzzle of its origin that was made popular by Richard Feynman, by using what will be defined as “temporal kinematics”. Temporal kinematics studies the motion of time, we will name this “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion should not be confused with cosmic inflation, it can only act as an initiator of it. Temporal kinematics functions as a bridge between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:1610.0175 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-22 05:28:15

Comment on Special Relativity Refutation Through the Relativistic Doppler Effect Formula by Kassir

Authors: Miroslav Josipović
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the cited paper author (R.K.) “proves” invalidity of the special relativity using invalid transformation formula(s) for the electromagnetic wave period (and the wavelength). This phenomenon is common in anti-relativistic texts: arguments against the special theory of relativity authors base on misunderstandings (misconceptions) of the theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1610.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 03:08:22

Mass Shift Due to the Nonlinear Lorentz Group.

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 10 Pages. The original ideas

We determine nonlinear Lorentz transformations between coordinate systems which are mutually in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion. The maximal acceleration as an analogue of the maximal velocity in special relativity follows from the nonlinear Lorentz group of transformtion. The mass formula was derived by the same method as the Thomas precession formula by author. It can play crucial role in particle physics and cosmology
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15] viXra:1610.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 18:20:17

Simplicity of Cyclic Universe E8 Symmetry Theory: H, Z, and T Particles Supplied All the Dark Matter and Dark Energy Mass Needed to Rebuild the Cyclic Universe Immediately After the Big Bang

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: The 8 Ht, Zt, Htt, and Ztt Fermibosonic entities and anti-entities seen at the LHC played a crucial role role in bringing fermibosonic matter from the previous universe into our present universe, where it could form new fermonic matter at no energy cost or loss of universe flatness. The used H particles are later swallowed in the large black holes at the centers of spiral galaxies (these black holes had survived the big bang). The Z components are used again, as food for growing stars in the spiral arms of the same galaxies.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:1610.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 11:13:59

The Origin of the Coupling Constant (E) and Some Other Important Dimensionless Physical Constants Within General Relativity

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper will answer the mystery of the coupling constant (e), a puzzle of its origin that was made popular by Richard Feynman, by using what will be defined as “temporal kinematics”. Temporal kinematics study the motion of time, we will name this “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion should not be confused with cosmic inflation, it can only act as an initiator of it most probably caused by quantum vacuum fluctuations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[13] viXra:1610.0130 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-19 12:41:50

The Geometrization of the Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 40 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany.Published by: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2016, 4, 2135-2171. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.412211.

Einstein used the term ‘unified field theory’ in a title of a publication for the first time in 1925. Somewhat paradoxically, an adequate historical, physical and philosophical understanding of the dimension of Einstein’s unification program cannot be understood without fully acknowledging one of Einstein’s philosophical principles. Despite many disappointments, without finding a solution besides of the many different approaches along the unified field theory program and in ever increasing scientific isolation, Einstein insisted on the unity of objective reality as the foundation of the unity of science. Einstein’s engagement along his unification program was burdened with a number of difficulties and lastly in vain. Nevertheless, a successful geometrization of the gravita-tional and the electromagnetic fields within the framework of the general theory of relativity is possible. Thus far, it is a purpose of the present contribution to geometrize the electromagnetic field within the framework of the general theory of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:1610.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 09:14:02

Theory of Spacetime

Authors: Enrico Belmonte
Comments: 10 Pages.

Three hypotheses on spacetime expansion are presented. First, velocity is independent of spacetime expansion. Second, spacetime expansion does not change energy. Third, spacetime expansion is a change in size of spacetime and energy conversion is a change in shape of spacetime, or equivalent to change in velocity. These are mathematical arguments hence mathematical proofs are presented in each hypothesis. The difference in the calculation of velocity between Hubble’s law and Belmonte theory is discussed. The so-called dark energy emerges as a consequence of velocity calculation in Hubble’s law but it does not appear in Belmonte theory. It is shown that the cosmological constant in the general theory of relativity arises from a violation of the conservation of energy. The cosmological constant does not appear in Belmonte theory as energy is automatically conserved in the theory. Following the Second Hypothesis, the Belmonte Mass is predicted. This is the total mass of dark matter and baryonic matter in the observable universe. It is derived theoretically from the Planck vacuum energy density.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:1610.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-13 09:47:11

Are Dark Matter and Dark Energy Opposite Effects of the Quantum Vacuum?

Authors: Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez
Comments: 13 Pages. Remplace

In the standard model of cosmology, λCDM, were introduced to explain the anomalies of the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters highest according estimated by General Relativity the dark matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe the dark energy. The model λCDM is based in the equations of the General Relativity that of the total mass-energy of the universe assigns 4.9% to matter (including only baryonic matter), 26.8%, to dark matter and 68.3% to dark energy adjusted according observed in Planck mission, therefore, excluding bosonic matter (quantum vacuum). However, the composition of dark matter and dark energy are unknown. Due to that it lacks of a correct physical theory of gravity since General Relativity is only their powerful equations, which in their applications, their results are interpreted arbitrarily. Properties as curvature, viscous fluid, dragging frame and gravity action are attributed mistakenly to the spacetime by the materialist substantivalism, the most credible philosophical interpretation that complements the General Relativity, caused by its absence of physical definition of spacetime and static gravitational field as immaterial, but which violates, the conception of gravity as an effect of coordinates of the generalization of the inertial motion to the accelerated motion and, in particular, the description of the metric tensor of gravity as a geometric field. These properties are really of the quantum vacuum, the main existence form of the matter. In this paper we propose that the quantum vacuum is the source of dark matter and dark energy, therefore, the components of the quantum vacuum are of them. Both are opposite effects of the quantum vacuum that when gravitationally interacts with the cosmic structures, the vacuum it curves and when such interaction tends to cease by declination of the formation of these structures, occurring since near five milliard of years ago, vacuum it maintains quasi plane, since it interacts gravitationally very weakly with itself, accelerating expansion of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1610.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-11 08:11:23

Comment on the Off-Nuclear Ultrasoft X-Ray Source J141711+52

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 2 Pages. This article was submitted to the editors of the Astrophysical Journal on 11 October 2016 for the purpose of publication.

It has recently been reported that the candidate HLX ultrasoft x-ray source J141711+52 in SO galaxy GJ1417+52 is explained best by the presence of a massive black hole, of ~105 solar masses. Although the size of the black hole has been reported, the type of black hole has not. In any event, no black hole is associated with J141711+52 because the mathematical theory of black holes violates the rules of pure mathematics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9] viXra:1610.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-10 17:58:58

Explanation of Special Relativity Theory using Photon Clocks

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 6 Pages. none

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions, which are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions, are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using simple photon clocks. This approach avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1610.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-08 22:46:57

Kinematics of Time Within General Relativity v2

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 13 Pages. Updated conclusion

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space ever since.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1610.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-08 07:26:20

Stanford Physicist Proposed ER=EPR

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

A Stanford physicist has proposed this radical idea in the form of a new equation, ER=EPR – and he says it could build a space-time bridge between the long-competing theories of general relativity and quantum mechanics. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1610.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-10 11:24:52

The Structure and Composition of Cosmic Background

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: shows a viewpoint about the structure and composition of cosmic ontology.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:1610.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 20:01:26

If Quantum Entanglement is True, a Method of Superluminal Communication is Realized

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 1 Page.

Consider, for example, that the BBO emits a pair of entangled beams, a beam of horizontally polarized light to Alice, and another beam of vertically polarized light to Bob. Now, if a polarizer is placed in front of Alice's detector and driven by a 16Hz motor so that the "state" of the beam changes continuously, it is now questionable whether Bob's detector is more or less "Induced" 32 Hz light intensity changes or other changes?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[4] viXra:1610.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 00:36:11

Kinematics of Time Within General Relativity

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space ever since.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3] viXra:1610.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 11:13:48

Everything About Einstein’s Relativity Theory

Authors: Omar Shabsigh
Comments: 31 Pages.

This research paper discusses the validity of Einstein’s relativity theory. It took four years of intensive work to reach the final conclusions. All assumptions of Einstein and his mathematics (where it exists) will be reviewed. Experiments done to show the validity will be restudied then we shall show their correctness under the constraints and conditions made by Einstein and show their practical and scientific value. We shall also show how much is the truthfulness of general relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1610.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 19:06:18

Mathematical Theory of Space-Time

Authors: Chunxuan Jiang
Comments: 10 Pages.

using space-time ring we establish mathematical theory of space-time .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:1610.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-02 07:16:46

Hawking Radiation and the Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar
Comments: 5 Pages.

Based on Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle it is concluded that the vacuum is filed with matter and anti-matter virtual pairs (“quantum foam”) that pop out and annihilate back in a very short period of time. When this quantum effects happen just outside the "event horizon" of a black hole, there is a chance that one of these virtual particles will pass through the event horizon and be sucked forever into the black hole while its partner virtual particle remains outside the event horizon free to float in space as a real particle (Hawking Radiation). In our previous work [1], we claim that antimatter particle has anti-gravity characteristic, therefore, we claim that during the Hawking radiation procedure, virtual matter particles have much larger chance to be sucked by gravity into the black hole then its copartner the anti-matter (anti-gravity) virtual particle. This leads us to the conclusion that hawking radiation is a significant source for continuous generation of mostly new anti-matter particles, spread in deep space, contributing to the expansion of space through their anti-gravity characteristic.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology