[32] **viXra:1508.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-28 08:43:05*

**Authors:** allen Graycek

**Comments:** 3 Pages. update to previous great age cosmology

Great Age Model rescues an old dusty galaxy. A1689-zD1 is a dusty galaxy very distant from us, 700 million years after the big bang when light left it. [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150302122925.htm] Oh wait, it is thought that stars did not form for several hundred million years after the big bang. Think of the time necessary for galaxies to mature to the level of being dusty. The evidence is there are several hundred supernova per year everywhere, which includes the greatest distances. Supernovae occur at a slow rate throughout the universe, which makes this galaxy at least 10 billion years old when light left it. In the Milky Way there are several per century. These are very bright and noticeable events, so the idea this dusty galaxy occurred due to many early supernovae lacks evidence. This galaxy’s age plus the time for its light to travel to earth, 13 billion years, is far more than 13.8 billion years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1508.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-26 13:00:01*

**Authors:** Iourii Gribov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The substantially new simple method for generating & detection of elementary particles of Dark Matter (DM) is proposed, distinguished by the fact that pairs of elementary (DM /(Ordinary Antimatter (OAM), particles like (dark electron/positron), (dark proton/antiproton) etc. could be easily created in conventional low energy colliders, but only in collision between elementary antiparticles (preferably positrons-positrons, antiprotons-antiprotons or positrons- antiprotons). This method is predicted by the new physical concept of DM by the author, where DM particles are intrinsically identical to our Ordinary Matter (OM) particles, but are shifted in two the nearest adjacent DM-Universes. The method can be used for calibration the proposed direct-DM-detectors by the author, using captured antiparticles - physical mediators between OM and DM. The dark DM-protons etc. created in the collider via the colliding antimatter will atypically annihilate with the visible OAM antiprotons, captured in the DM-detector, with outcome of two gamma quanta (one dark- undetectable and one detectable).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1508.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-26 03:24:52*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Comments/Criticism are wellcomed

A thought experiment shows that the concept of the critical density is nonsense.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1508.0205 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-03 01:49:30*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper has been prepared to show the derivation of the Doppler transformations as eigenvalues of the Lorentz transformations matrices and to conclusively proves that these eigenvalues are the correct relativistic factors which have to be use instead of the Lorentz factor. The paper also shows the forms of the Doppler matrices that can replace the Lorentz matrices, and discuss some of the consequences that follow
the equivalence of Lorentz and Doppler transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1508.0203 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-27 11:10:57*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

In this paper I propose a quantum gravitational cosmological model which introduces a mass
density function that reproduces the WMAP and the PLANCK missions' data quite accurately. This function implies that the Universe started with a mass equal to one half of the Planck mass, avoiding the need for a singularity (point with infinite mass density) at the beginning of (normal) time. One of the predictions of the model is that the mass of the Universe grew very rapidly according to an exponential function so that most of the mass of the Universe was “created” very early in its history (99 % of the mass of the Universe was created in the first 442 million years since
the Big Bang). Because the average mass density function changes over time, this model is
radically different to the Steady State Model. The model presented here assumes the existence of a Pre-universe, meaning that our Universe is not the result of a “creation process” but the result of a mysterious transformation. Finally, this formulation, which does not use General Relativity's field equations, encompasses part of the original Friedmann work. Therefore, we draw the conclusion that we don't need GR to develop an acceptable cosmological model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1508.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 14:23:38*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** There is theoretical overlap with paper viXra:1412.0213 but this new paper has 31 pages and the other has 16 pages. This paper is about the physics context and interpretation related to the theory of paper viXra:1412.0213 so it has a very different focus.

Using frequency gauged clocks on a free fall grid we look at gravitational phenomena as they appear for observers on a stationary grid in a central field of gravity. With an approach based on Special Relativity, the Weak Equivalence Principle and Newton's gravitational potential we derive first order correct expressions for the gravitational red shift of stationary clocks and of satellites. We also derive a second order correction of a satellite's clock frequency, related to the geodetic precession. In the derivation of the apparent velocity of light in a field of gravity, a Lorentz symmetry breaking occurred. The derived changed radial velocity of light is at the basis of the Shapiro delay and the gravitational index of refraction, so phenomena connected to the curvature of the metric. The advantage of the free fall grid SR-WEP approach is that it is less advanced and thus far less complicated as compared to the GR approach, but still accurate enough for all GPS purposes for the next few decades. Also important: our approach is never in conflict with GR because we do not introduce additional axioms to the ones already in use in GR. We only use less axioms. For GPS engineers, our approach will give a deeper insight into problems concerning clock synchronization in a grid around the earth, without using the complex mathematics needed in GR. The free fall grid SR-WEP approach can be taught to GPS engineers in an achievable and economically affordable time. It will considerably reduce the communication gap between those engineers and the GR experts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1508.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 05:55:04*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Bijective epistemology results confirm models of “space-time” and “empty” space have no counterpart in physical universe. NASA results confirm universal space is “flat”, means it corresponds to the Euclidean geometry. Riemann finite geometry seems not to be an adequate model of universal space. The only possible alternative is infinite Euclidean universal space which has origin in quantum vacuum. As theory of infinite numbers confirms “infinity” is not a metric term, this opens new perspectives about the qualitative dimension of the universe which surpasses empirical scientific research methods.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1508.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-23 06:34:19*

**Authors:** Davide Fiscaletti, Amrit Sorli

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

A model of a three-dimensional quantum vacuum with variable energy density is proposed. In this
model, time we measure with clocks is only a mathematical parameter of material changes, i.e.
motion in quantum vacuum. Inertial mass and gravitational mass have origin in dynamics between
a given particle or massive body and diminished energy density of quantum vacuum. Each
elementary particle is a structure of quantum vacuum and diminishes quantum vacuum energy
density. Symmetry “particle – diminished energy density of quantum vacuum” is the fundamental
symmetry of the universe which gives origin to mass and gravity. Special relativity’s Sagnac effect in GPS system and important predictions of general relativity such as precessions of the planets, the Shapiro time delay of light signals in a gravitational field and the geodetic and frame-dragging effects recently tested by Gravity Probe B, have origin in the dynamics of the quantum vacuum which rotates with the earth. Gravitational constant N G and velocity of light c have small deviations of their value which are related to the variable energy density of quantum vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1508.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-22 00:19:59*

**Authors:** T.E.Girish, V.Vipindas, C. Radhakrishnan Nair

**Comments:** 16 pages, 4 tables

Using a phenomenological model in the ultra-relativistic limits we suggest that elementary particles including photons transforms in to micro black holes subjected to the following critical conditions:(i) When the de Broglie wavelength of elementary particles becomes equal to its Schwarzschild radius its energy reaches an upper limit (Em) given by the relation: Em= hc3/2Gm where m is the rest mass of the elementary particle (ii) Particle black holes will have a mass equal to the limiting relativistic mass of the elementary particles and Schwarzschild radius equal to Compton wavelength of these particles. Lorentz invariance of the Compton wavelength of elementary particles in the trans Planckian scales is suggested from this result. Photon black holes are found to be similar to massive elementary particles resembling the Planck particles discussed in cosmology. We find that the known elementary particle physical properties may be a window to the early universe since it provides clues about density distribution and nature of primordial black holes formed during the post Planck era after the Big Bang

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1508.0178 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-10 03:39:25*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 177 Pages.

According to Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) proposed in this paper, the center of the spherical wave fronts moves with the apparent source. The velocity of light emitted by a source in absolute motion is constant c relative to the apparent source. For absolutely co-moving source and observer, the position (distance and direction ) of the source apparently changes relative to the observer; the effect of absolute motion is to change the path length, and not the speed and wavelength, of light. Physically ( intuitively ) this means that the group velocity ( magnitude and direction) of light varies relative to the ( real) source, due to absolute motion of the source. This implies different group velocities of light in different directions relative to the source , transverse velocity components and bending light rays in lateral directions, and aberration of light for co-moving source and observer. Unconventionally, in some cases, this also means that the measured group velocity of light varies along its path. Such behavior of light results from light being a dual phenomenon: local and non-local. AST is a modified emission theory, a fusion between emission theory and absolute motion theory, with the real source replaced by an apparent source to account for absolute velocity of the source. In the Sagnac experiment, the source appears farther away than its physical distance when looking in the backward direction and closer than its actual/ physical distance in the forward direction. Physically this means that the velocity of light is c + V in the backward direction and c - V in the forward direction, relative to the source , hence a fringe shift at the detector. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in the position of the light source relative to an observer does not create a fringe shift, for the same reason that an actual ( physical ) change of the source position doesn't create any significant fringe shift. This is unlike the Sagnac interferometer, which will form a fringe shift if the position of the source was changed physically ( mirror positions changed accordingly), instead of rotating the apparatus. The group velocity of light relative to the source moving with absolute velocity Vabs is c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction. Therefore, the velocity of light relative to a stationary observer will be: (c - Vabs ) + Vabs = c and (c + Vabs ) - Vabs = c . This is why the group velocity of light has been found to be independent of source velocity in moving source experiments; the (group) velocity of light changes relative to the source in such a way that it will not be affected by source velocity. The (group) velocity of light depends on the observer (absolute) velocity and on mirror velocity. The reason why GPS works accurately in the ECI frame is discussed. The phase velocity of light is always constant c, independent of source or observer velocity. This paper explains why absolute velocity does not affect characteristic wavelengths of atoms , why Doppler effect depends only on relative velocity, why Ives-Stilwell experiments are not affected by Earth's absolute velocity. Einstein’s thought experiment ( ‘chasing a beam of light’ ) is interpreted as follows. For an observer moving away at (near) the speed of light from a light source that is at absolute rest, the group will be 'frozen' but the phases will still go past the observer at the speed of light, with a wavelength of λ’ = eλ, where e is Euler’s constant . A new theory : ' Exponential Law of Doppler effect of Light ' is proposed to explain the Ives-Stilwell experiment, according to which λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e - V/c . Transverse Doppler effect doesn't exist. A strange behavior of light is revealed that can explain the Argo starlight refraction and aberration experiments . The Trouton-Noble Paradox is a glaring evidence disproving relativity and supporting absolute motion. Absolute velocity is defined to be relative to the observer, where 'observer ' is any massive object. It is proposed that the absolute velocity of an object is the resultant of its mass weighed velocities relative to all massive objects in the universe. The ether doesn't exist, but absolute motion does. The speed of light is the universal limit on all absolute and relative velocities of physical objects in the universe. This is not due to Special Relativity, but is proposed to be due to non-linear law of electromagnetic radiation power and radiation reaction . As the absolute velocity of a body approaches the speed of light, any further acceleration will result in or require increasingly infinite amounts of radiation power and radiation reaction. Mass ( inertia) itself may be just radiation reaction. A neutral object/particle also radiates electromagnetic energy and develop radiation reaction during acceleration but, unlike radiation from charged particles, radiations of opposite charges 'cancel' each other and just become inaccessible, not destroyed. The ever confusing problem of electric field of uniformly moving charges is solved. The 'speed' of electrostatic and gravitational fields is shown to have dual nature: finite (light speed) and infinite, from a new interpretation of astronomical observations and laboratory experiments according to AST. The force of gravity is shown to be just a difference between electrostatic attraction and repulsion forces. For absolutely co-moving, accelerating charge and observer, the position of the charge changes apparently, as seen by the observer, and physically resulting in bending lines of force, creating transverse component electric field and this is the cause of radiation during acceleration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1508.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 06:56:20*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

This experiment is based on the physical meaning of Apparent Source Theory which states that light rays from an absolutely moving source will be bent in the lateral directions. To test this assertion, a plate with slit is placed between a laser source and a photo diode, all mounted on the same rod. Just by varying the orientation of the apparatus ( the rod) in space, the voltage /current output of the photo diode should vary. The direction of Earth's absolute velocity is orthogonal to that plane in which rotation of the apparatus will result in a steady(non-varying) current/voltage of the photo diode. The magnitude of the absolute velocity is determined from the magnitude of photo diode voltage.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1508.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 12:08:39*

**Authors:** Alexander Poshelaev

**Comments:** 150 Pages, English

These parts of the work with help of the model of an elementary mass (it may be the
Higgs boson) unveils internal essence of nature of time; the forces of Newton, and corrects
understanding of the nature of gravitational force. The model explains the physical nature of the
postulates of special relativity, and shows that the physical frames of reference are obeyed to
the Lorentz transformation of coordinates and time because of the existence of matter of our
world in a "special" wave form.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1508.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 07:35:44*

**Authors:** Pavel Voráček

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Initially it is proposed to interpret the fact that the delay of gravitational interaction in a binary system causes the emanation of gravitational waves, as a generalization of the Newtonian Principle of action and reaction. Then, the impact of such a concept is shown for a situation with mutual and simultaneously acting electromagnetic and inertia force, as well as consequences for a possible validity of the Mach principle. Further, the same phenomenon of retardation of the physical interactions is applied on the mechanistic Bohr model of the hydrogen atom together with the Indeterminacy principle, which results in a realistically adequate quantum description of the atom involving the pertinent de Broglie wave. Finally, the physical conclusions made before are discussed from a philosophical point of view; a new `para-deterministic' concept is presented being an alternative to both the deterministic and holistic views of our world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1508.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 07:42:20*

**Authors:** Pavel Voráček

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The GR-concept of the ‘frozen star’ can be seriously questioned, considering the quantum structure of space. If, however, the parallel validity of GRT and quantum physics becomes a basic assumption, a way out of the problem can be found. The solution – a quantum membrane – fulfilling both criteria, is deduced with the use of the quantum limit for acceleration and the GR- mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1508.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 06:11:21*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Single-page letter

This letter proposes that ‘time’ is not an objective physical entity. So there is a difference between the ways how: ‘space’ is measured; and how ‘time’ is estimated. A foot-rule can measure a ‘distance’; but a clock does not measure ‘time’; rather we get an estimate of ‘time’ with the help of clock. Does an hour-glass measure ‘time’? According to GR ‘time’ runs slower in stronger gravitational field. If an hour-glass were ‘measuring’ ‘time’, then the flow of sand should slow down. But we know that the flow of sand becomes faster in stronger gravitational field. Similarly, an atomic-clock too does not measure ‘time’. Coincidentally, the revolutions of electrons in the atoms slow-down in stronger gravity, but it should not be mistaken as an ‘experimental-test’ of GR. Since ‘time’ is not a physical entity, the general-relativistic space-time-continuum too is not an objective physical entity; rather it is nothing more than a ‘mathematical abstraction’. Consequently, the ‘expansion of space’, and ‘time-dilation’ of super-novae ‘light-curves’ too are mathematical objects. As was shown in ref.1, any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation’ of super-novae light-curves’. If the space between the galaxies is expanding; but the space within the galaxy is not expanding, because a galaxy is a ‘gravitationally-bound-structure’, then what happens at the boundary of the galaxy? Such un-even expansion of glass would break the glass, and should tear-off the space. Therefore, we need to find better alternative to the GR and the ‘expanding model of the universe’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1508.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-13 18:14:00*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A solution is presented that describes a region of space, box or warp bubble, where time gets
slowed down by an arbitrary factor, while reducing the components of the energy-impulse tensor by
any chosen amount

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1508.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-20 19:12:54*

**Authors:** Denny L.Y. Lee

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The commonly accepted no-hair conjecture postulates that all black holes can be completely characterized by three and only three externally observable classical parameters: mass, electrical charge, and angular momentum. The Kerr–Newman metric describes the spacetime geometry in the region surrounding a charged, rotating mass. These three parameters are also the basic parameters of many subatomic particles. In light of the similarities between the black holes and the subatomic particles, this paper applies the Kerr–Newman metric to investigate the spacetime properties of a spinning Planck mass particle carrying an angular momentum of one half Planck constant. Depending on the angular frequency of the rotation of the particle, the results exhibit a group of particles with properties similar to those of the stable subatomic particles, including the neutrino, electron, position, proton, and anti-proton. The highly curved spacetime surrounding the particle in Planck scale, together with the rotation of the particle, make the Planck mass particle to appear as a laboratory mass similar to the mass of the respective particle. The laboratory measurable size of these particles is in the same order of their respective Compton wavelengths. Interacting forces between these particles in the Planck scale exhibit strengths similar in magnitudes to the strong force, electrical force, weak force and the gravitational force depending on the spacetime curvature at the point of interaction. This preliminary attempt of investigating the “spinning Planck mass” using the Kerr-Newman metric has resulted with an interesting model that resembles many particles in nature and raised two interesting questions:
(1)Are there any relationships between the fundamental particles and the “spinning Planck masses”?
(2) Could the particle-particle interacting forces be expressed in terms of the interactions of spacetime curvatures in Planck scale?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1508.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-16 20:11:29*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A new quantum gravity experiment is reported with the data confirming the generalisation of the Schr\"{o}dinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space turbulence, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing consequent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. The interaction process is dependent on the angle between the dynamical space flow velocity and the direction of the electron flow in the diode, and this dependence is experimentally demonstrated. This interaction process explains gravity as an emergent quantum process, so unifying quantum phenomena and gravity. Gravitational Waves are easily detected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1508.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-16 08:35:15*

**Authors:** L.Rimsha, V.Rimsha

**Comments:** 39 Pages. In Russian

In the free falling geocentric reference system do not valid local gravitational and inertial forces identity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1508.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-15 13:13:10*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

paper we show that the origin of spacetime precedes the beginning of the material Universe. Thus, the Universe arises at a finite time, which defines the beginning of time itself in our Universe. In addition, it is possible to calculate the maximum scale of time between the beginning of the time and the end of the time in our Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1508.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-21 22:46:09*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 45 Pages. Article for the colloquium QSCP-XX, September 2015, Varna, Bulgary

Arthur Haas explained the Hydrogen spectra, 3 years before Niels Bohr, by extending the virial theorem to the Planck energy formula. This suggests the holographic coherence principle: energy conservation means frequency unicity, i.e. the coherence condition for Holography. This is applied to an Hydrogen molecule model, in a black-hole sphere of horizon R = 2GM/c^2: this critical condition being seen as a general holographic conservation, and tied to the Non-Doppler cosmic period tcc. So R/c appears as a period 2GFtcc^2/ħƛe^3≈ 13.8123(1) Gyr, while R = 2ħ^2/Gm_em_pm_H ≈ 13.812(1) Glyr confirms Eddington's Theory. These two formulas displays a G-GF symmetry between Newton and Fermi constants and are compatible with the so-called 'Universe age' 13.81(5) Gyr of standard cosmology.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) wavelength enters an associated special holographic conservation, confirming a come-back to the steady-state cosmology, for which the factor Wm = 3/10 for matter density is trivial, eliminating the 'dark energy problem', and confirming the Eddington prediction M/m_H = 136 × 2^256, while the real Hydrogen density is √(m_e/m_H) ≈ 0.0233, nearly compatible with the Helium density and CMB temperature, and connected to Wm. From Sanchez-Maruani matter-antimatter vibration viewpoint, dark matter would be usual matter vibrating in quadrature. A cosmic Hydrogen atom model relates directly R, ƛe and the Bohr radius rB with R' = 2r_e^3/l_P^2≈ 4R/3, seen as the radius of a sphere representing a Grandcosmos. This rules out several common conjectures: 1) the Primordial Big-Bang, 2) the Planck Wall, 3) the Cosmic Anthropic Principle, 4) the Multiverse.
The holographic relations can be represented in a topological axis, involving a double exponential function, and showing the special string dimension series n = 2 + 4p. It yields R and rB for the canonic values n = 26 (tachyo-bosonic) and 10 (superstring), with a non-standard Gluon mass for p = 1. The Grandcosmos is the lacking concept in 1) the CMB interpretation (not a fossil radiation) 2) the steady-state model (no need for an internal thermostat) 3) the lacking point p = 7. The physical parameters are shown to connect with music numbers, economic numbers and biological parameters, pointing to a Grand Theory.
Keywords Quantum Theory, Steady-state Cosmology, Holographic Principle, Eddington Theory, Cosmic Oscillation, Antimatter, Dark matter, Combinatorial Physics, String Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1508.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-28 22:12:23*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

There are two spaces, the metaphysical space and the abstract mathematical space of physics. The mathematical space is the Euclidean space commensurate with the innate faculty of man. There is the mysterious metaphysical time and there is the physical time based on the mathematical scalar. The universe and everything within exists only in the moment of the present. The past and the future are only within the mind of man. The only reality is the present. Time in philosophy is metaphysical time. It is the motion of the present, the unceasing unfolding of reality. Every real event in the universe happens simultaneously. An Euclidean coordinate system together with synchronized coordinate clocks implements a system of universal physical timekeeping. There is a covenant of physical reality which sets forth in a determinate way
what constitutes a physical quantity. Physical reality has absolute three dimensional Euclidean space and absolute universal time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1508.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 09:11:08*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Cosmologists always claim that their black holes, mathematical fabrications entire as they are, have a finite mass. This mass, they say, is concentrated at their 'singularity', where volume is zero, density is infinite, and their spacetime infinitely curved. Their singularity they say is not a mathematical artifice, not a limiting fiction, but a real physical entity which absorbs all other matter that encounters it. In this way cosmologists have even asserted that their black holes can become obese. Their black hole was first conjured from their solution to what Einstein called The Field Equations of Gravitation in the Absence of Matter. Notwithstanding the absence of matter, Einstein claimed that a material source is still present, because his gravitational field is spacetime curvature induced by the presence of a material source. Without matter there is no gravitational field. And what is matter? According to Einstein it is everything except his gravitational field. Now there is only one other form of Einstein’s field equations: The Field Equations of Gravitation in the Presence of Matter. Thus, in both cases, Einstein and his followers claim that a material source is present. However, in a mathematical theory, matter cannot be both present and absent by the very same mathematical constraint. Cosmologists routinely call their contradictions 'paradoxes' that defy 'common sense'. Nonetheless, common sense does in fact know that a contradiction is a contradiction; no less than a rose by any other name is still a rose. Not only does the black hole defy common sense, it defies physics and mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1508.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 22:59:08*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Cosmologists always claim that their black holes, mathematical fabrications entire, have an escape velocity. They even have an equation for it and by using this equation they assert that the ‘escape velocity’ at their black hole ‘event horizon’ is the speed of light. This event horizon, they say, is at the ‘Schwarzschild radius’ of their black hole; and they have an equation for that too. On the other hand, the cosmologists also always assert that nothing can even leave the event horizon of their black holes. Light, they say, hovers forever at their event horizon as it tries to leave or escape the clutches of a black hole. Thus, according to the cosmologists, their black holes have and do not have an escape velocity simultaneously at the same place. However, nothing can in fact have and not have an escape velocity simultaneously at the same place. This schizophrenic character of the black hole is sufficient to completely invalidate it. But there is more. Escape velocity is a two body relation – one body escapes from another body. The black hole is, by its supposed mathematical construction, a one mass universe. Consequently the very concept of escape velocity does not even apply. Obviously, no cosmologist understands the meaning of escape velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1508.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-08 17:18:12*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Supersymmetry has been found at LHC with the discovery of the ttH entity. This contains the massive Higgs boson particle of spin 0 together with fermonic matter. The massive weak boson of the spin 1 version is also expected, so we should see a ttZ supersymmetric entity. This form upon disintegration is almost certainly observed as direct-collapse black holes in the early universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1508.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-08 13:34:09*

**Authors:** Marvin E. Kirsh

**Comments:** 22 pages, 3 figues

The purpose of this writing is to propose a frame of view, a form as the eternal world element, that is compatible with paradox within the history of ideas, modern discovery as they confront one another. Under special consideration are problems of representation of phenomena, life, the cosmos as the rational facility of mind confronts the physical/perceptual, and itself. Current topics in pursuit are near as diverse and numbered as are the possibilities for a world composed strictly of uniqueness able to fill infinite space; it is assumed that not all of the paths chosen in contemporary pursuits will produce coherent determinations in an appropriate frame able to accommodate a world of nominals in motion, containing motion, and is commensurate with basic physical law and the propagation of form, change from within. Intended as a potential guiding post for the aim of reason seeking to select, define and capture topics, chosen as special examples are the works of logistician/mathematician Lewis Carroll as he presents a paradox of actuality verses the reality of perception in Alice in Wonderland, the theory of relativity of Albert Einstein as he fails to elaborate a mathematics to communicate an inertial frame of reference, and the reconstruction ideas of Jacques Derrida as he refers for contrast with the scientific world view constructed of dualisms, monisms that are conceived to have no opposites. Supporting discussion is evolved from the works of Bertrand Russell, Erwin Schrodinger, Jurgen Habermas, Bronislaw Malinowski, Michel Foucault.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1508.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-06 02:34:45*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory.Recently Gianluca Perniciano a physicist from Italy
appeared with a very interesting idea for the Alcubierre warp
drive spacetime:he introduced in the Alcubierre equations a
coefficient which is $1$ inside and outside the warp bubble but
possesses large values in the Alcubierre warped region thereby
reducing effectively the negative energy density requirements
making the warp drive more "affordable" even at $200$ times light
speed.In this work we reproduce the Perniciano analysis for the
Natario warp drive spacetime in both the original and parallel
$ADM$ formalisms.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1508.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-04 19:55:12*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has been accepted and published in Prespacetime Journal, august 2015. This preprint is uploaded here with permission.

In a recent paper, I derived an exact analytical solution of Riccati form of 2D Navier-Stokes equations with Mathematica. Now I will present a possible route from an exact analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations to Navier-Stokes Cosmology on Cantor Sets. The route is by showing that Raychaudhury equation leads to Friedmann equation when the vorticity vector, shear tensor and tidal force tensor vanish. Then, I show how one may generalize it further towards Navier-Stokes equations on Cantor Sets. Further observations are recommended.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1508.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 17:19:51*

**Authors:** Soloshenko M.V., Yanchilin V.L.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. «The priorities of the world science: experiments and scientific debate»,17-18 June 2015, North Charleston, SC, USA

The atomic frequency (atomic oscillation frequency) increases in the field of gravity. The value of Planck’s constant decreases with the increase of the absolute value of the gravitational potential. According to the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin, time goes faster in the field of gravity. This is the hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin. The authors propose a crucial physical experiment with two high precision atomic clocks to verify their hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1508.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-28 03:05:55*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Spanish

In 1945, Einstein began a new investigation into the unified field theory, which we call the Hermitian theory. A metric tensor and a connection whose components are complex numbers and have the Hermitian property. In essence it is an asymmetric metric-affine theory. In three studies, one conducted jointly with Straus, Einstein formulated the equations of Hermitian unified field theory. We analyzed this research, detailing and updating all calculations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1508.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 12:48:06*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The boson count of 8 for the cyclic universe theory includes 4 massless gauge bosons. These must be assigned 1 for 2 fermiboson force implementations, 1 for a big bang force and 1 each for the graviton and photon

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1508.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 08:42:45*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Cosmologists claim that they have found black holes all over the Cosmos. The black hole is however entirely a product of mathematics. The simplest case is the 'Schwarzschild' black hole, from the solution to Einstein's field equations in the absence of matter, for a static, uncharged, non-rotating mass. "In the absence of matter" involves linguistic legerdemain, but in any event all types of black holes reduce, mathematically speaking, to a very simple question: Can a squared real number take values less than zero? Symbolically this is restated as follows. Let r be any real number. Is r^2 < 0 possible? No, it's not possible. Thus, the black hole is not possible. Anybody who can square a real number is capable of understanding why the black hole is a fantasy of mathematical physicists and cosmologists, illustrating once again why it can be very dangerous to put trust in the word of an Authority.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology