[3] **viXra:0902.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-12 01:04:20*

**Authors:** Teimuraz Bregadze

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Spherical wave vs. plane wave approximation to the nature of the electromagnetic waves in regard to the Doppler shift and aberration is considered. The first approach is free from the blueshift – redshift transition paradox innate for the second one. For spherical electromagnetic waves, in contrast with the plane ones, we have to assume that not only the magnitude, but also the direction of the light velocity is the same in any inertial frame, which leads to the accepted expression for time dilation. The rest frame of the source of electromagnetic waves is unique among all inertial frames (in it the angles of emission and reception coincide, and there is no shift in wavelength in all directions). The spherical approximation to electromagnetic waves preserves this uniqueness without violating the principle of relativity of the uniform motion, while the planar approximation ignores the source completely. Both approximations give the same expression of the Lorentz–FitzGerald contraction. Both spherical and planar approaches give the same Doppler shift in the directions of the relative motion of the frames, but in the directions with perpendicular components there may be significant differences. A geometrical picture of the transformation of wavefronts of spherical electromagnetic waves, which differs from the one according to the Lorentz transformation, is suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:0902.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Feb 2009*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua, Fu Anjie, Zhao Ge

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

According to the viewpoints of "one divides into two", "one divides into three" (e.g. Neutrosophy)
and "one divides into many", at present there exist six kinds of matter in the universe altogether
(one divides into six). If there exists the ordinary matter (called matter for short), there must
exist its opposite. However there may exist more than one kind of its opposite, today the known
opposites of matter may be the antimatter and dark matter; Other three kinds of matter are the neutral
ones: the first neutral matter between matter and antimatter (Prof. Smarandache named it unmatter),
the second neutral matter between matter and dark matter, and the third neutral matter between
antimatter and dark matter. Similarly, if there exists the original "law of universal gravitation"
(positive law of universal gravitation), there must exist its opposites (negative laws of universal
gravitation), and the neutral ones (neutral laws of universal gravitation). According to this
analysis, it is impossible to find the unified and ultimate gravitational theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:0902.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Feb 2009*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The gravitational redshift might explain any case of light redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology