[36] **viXra:1101.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Amrit Srecko Sorli

**Comments:** 5 pages.

Today's physics understands space and time as being coupled in "space-time"; a
fundamental arena in which universe takes place. Einstein himself has never
considered time as being part of space; he was talking about a "four-dimensional
continuum" in which physical events occur. In his Special Theory of Relativity Einstein
used Minkowski's 4-dimensional space that has four coordinates: X1, X2, X3, X4 where
X4 = ict. X4 is not a "temporal coordinate", X4 is not the time t that is measured with
clocks. In the formula X4 = ict, time t is only a component. Out of this mathematical
formalism one can conclude that in the Special Theory of Relativity time t is not part of
space. Minkowski space is not 3D+T, it is 4D (1).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1101.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-03 01:49:09*

**Authors:** Yongfeng Yang

**Comments:** 48 Pages. 18 figures and 2 tables

Observations show that there are an asteroid belt, four giant planetary ring systems, and countless comets in the solar system. Various scenarios in the past had been presented to account for their origins, but none of them is competent. Asteroid belt located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is flat, circular, and parallel to the ecliptic, similarly, planetary ring located between the orbits of satellites is also flat, circular, and approximately parallel to planetary equatorial plane. This resemblance implies that both asteroid belt and planetary ring are likely to derive from a common physical process. Here we propose 5 significantly disruptive collisions of the two bodies of binary planetary (satellite) systems in the history of the solar system to be responsible for the formation of asteroid belt and giant planets’ ring systems. In each collision the two bodies of a binary system are firstly shattered into fragments and ejected towards all around, but due to the constraint of a hierarchical two-body gravitation (non-Newton’s gravitation), the barycenter of initial binary system is survived in the collision, and the fragments are still organized in a series of hierarchical two-body systems. As inferred from Galileo’s experiment of projectile, the fragments run some parabolic trajectories around the collisional origin, but at the same time the survived barycenter continues to orbit and drag the fragments to move by means of the barycenters of a series of two-body systems, by which nearby fragments are confined to gradually fall on a circular belt (ring). Some of the falling fragments are further shattered into very small fragments to form independent belts (rings). The collision of the two bodies of a binary planetary system gives birth to asteroid belt, while the collision between the two bodies of a binary satellite system gives birth to a planetary ring system. Further fragments (relative to the collisional origin) in travel bombard the objects they encounter and leave craters on the surfaces. Due to the motions of the survived barycenter around the Sun (giant planet) and giant planet around the Sun, these further fragments are being brought to run through the solar system back and forth, this results in the advent of comets when close enough to the Sun (if they hold icy materials), and appearance of meteors when close enough to the Earth, some of the fragments occasionally landed on the surfaces of planets and satellites and become meteorites.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1101.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 50 pages

Although both Alcubierre and Natario Spacetimes belongs to the same family of Einstein Field
Equations of General Relativity and both have many resemblances between each other ,the Energy
Density distribution in the Alcubierre Warp Drive is different than the one found in the Natario Warp
Drive.The Horizons will arise in both Spacetimes when approaching Superluminal(Warp) speeds however
due to a different distribution of Energy Density the Natario Warp Drive behaves slightly different when
compared to the Alcubierre one. The major differences between the Natario and Alcubierre Warp Drive
Spacetimes occurs when we study the Infinite Doppler Blueshifts that affect the Alcubierre Spacetime
but not affect the Natario one because while in Alcubierre Spacetime the Negative Energy is distributed
in a toroidal region above and below the ship perpendicular to the direction of the motion while in front
of the ship.the space is empty having nothing to prevent a photon to reach the Horizon because in this
case the Horizon lies on empty space,in the Natario Spacetime the Energy Density is distributed in a
spherical shell that covers the entire ship and a photon sent to the front will be deflected by this shell
of Negative Energy before reaching the Horizon because the Horizon also lies inside this shell and not
on "empty" space.This shell avoids the occurrence of Infinite Doppler Blueshifts in the Natario Warp
Drive Spacetime.We examine in this work the major differences between both Natario and Alcubierre
Spacetimes outlining the repulsive character of the Negative Energy Density.The creation of a Warp
Bubble in Alcubierre or Natario Spacetimes is beyond the scope of Classical General Relativity and will
have to wait until the arrival of a real Quantum Gravity theory that must encompass Superluminal
Non-Local Quantum Entanglement Effects in order to deal with the Horizon problem added to the
Geometrical features of Classical General Relativity plus it must also provide a way to generate large
outputs of Negative Energy Densities.Since this theory is ahead of our scientific capabilities,we discuss
in the end of this work an approach that could be performed by our science in a short period of term.to
increase our knowledge about the Warp Drive as a Dynamical Spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1101.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Charles B. Leffert

**Comments:** 8 pages 3 figures

In 1998-1999 two teams of astronomers, measuring the radiation from exploding
supernova Ia (SNIa) stars, found that their predicted curves fell short of the measured
values of magnitude m, or distance modulus m-M, for redshift z ~0.5 - 1.0. Instead of
announcing incomplete theoretical models, and searching for an increase in the
luminosity distance dL, they used their free parameters and added more physical content
to our universe of either Einstein's rejected lambda or dark energy, to better fit the data.
Such added contents also added acceleration to the expansion rate of our universe. The
unwise acceptance of this added acceleration by the scientific community, now known as
the acceleration paradigm shift, will become one of the greatest, and more costly,
blunders of science.
It so happened in 1993, that this author had started the development of a new nonrelativistic
model of the universe and by 1998 could check his new model for its
prediction of the magnitude of the SNIA data near redshift z ~ 1. Using the new
computer model, a check on the first reported data, indicated the new model could predict
the data with no addition of either lambda or dark energy. As the development of the
author's model continued, a long 20 year effort began to try to halt and reverse the
acceleration paradigm. This paper describes the record of those efforts, and it adds
another face of experience to most all of the major points of the "Why viXra?".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1101.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 35 pages

In 1637 Fermat wrote: "It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain."
This means: (3)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1101.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 40 pages

In 1637 Fermat wrote: "It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain."
This means: (2)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1101.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 48 pages

In 1637 Fermat wrote: "It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain."
This means:

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1101.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 9 pages

Mach Principle presents the absolute universe. For example, when you stand on the ground
and relaxed, your arms fall down naturally. However, if you rotate your body then your arms
are lifted up as the rotation is faster and faster. Mach principle is that the matter of the whole
universe can affect local dynamic systems. That is, the matter of the whole universe sets up
the local absolute reference frames. However, both the theories of general relativity and Big
Bang are against the absolute reference frames of Mach Principle. Here I present a simple
model of flat universe which is consistent to most cosmic laws, and Mach Principle is recovered
amazingly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1101.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-07 13:20:12*

**Authors:** Adam G. Freeman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

If matter has a spherical or elliptical time-like spacetime, through geometrical symmetry it makes sense that anti-matter, the converse of matter, has a hyberbolic space-like spacetime. The author theorizes that such a space-like spacetime is the spacetime for anti-matter and for the natural phenomena referred to as black holes. Also such a spacetime shortens spacetime distances and could eventually lead to feasible space travel.
To support the theory here is presented an extension to the Schwarzschild derivation for the Einstein vacuum field equations corresponding to the gravitational field surrounding a pseudo-spherical point mass. The same restrictions employed by Schwarzschild are used here but an interesting property of the space-time is elicited in that it is revealed to be gravitationally repulsive to matter as opposed to gravitationally attractive. The pseudo-sphere point mass solution complements the spherical Schwarzschild solution and provides an elegant symmetry to the original Schwarzschild solution. Also via Occam’s razor, this theory could potentially reduce the notion of dark or exotic matter to familiar anti-matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1101.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Charles B. Leffert

**Comments:** 9 pages, 4 figures

There are no such entities as dark matter or dark energy and, indeed, there can be no
future for our universe with an accelerated rate of expansion. A new closed model for the
expansion of our universe predicts correctly all astronomical measurements so far
presented with no free parameters for adjustments to fit the data. Our universe is more
complex than anticipated by Einstein. This has already been made clear by the inability
to unify quantum physics with classical physics, The many problems encountered by
general relativity (GR) in trying to account for the expansion also attest to that
complexity and in particular, the collapse of the universe with the third (k = 1) option of
the Friedmann equations. There can be only one correct model, so the vision of the new
expansion model began with the complete abandonment of GR and a search for what
makes our universe expand. The reality of space and its production rate takes center
stage in the new model. New concepts of geometry and higher-dimensional spaces with
a new arrow of time came into being which solved many other long-standing
fundamental problems. Only algebra and beginning calculus were needed to develop the
new model. The new model is described in detail in a new self-published Book 3 just
coming off the press and the highlights are described in the following paper. Normally
cosmology papers are written about incomplete models with free parameters and the
authors minimize the number of equations. The opposite approach was used for the
closed model in this Book 3. In 112 pages, nine present fixed data are presented with 50
equations and 58 figures so the reader could reproduce any, or all, of the predictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1101.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Roald C. Maximo

**Comments:** 7 pages

What many people do not realize is that in the root of all motion detection by means of sound or
electromagnetic waves, be it by interferometry or direct wave length measurements, there is, invariably, the
all important Doppler effect. Experimenters who conducted experiments in interferometry, which involve
phase comparisons, resorted frequently to a naive analogy with boats in river flows to substantiate their
calculations.That analogy does not take into account that the source and observer are moving together in the
same direction. And that makes all the difference! Apparently, the prime importance of the Doppler effect
has been consistently neglected. Thinking in terms of Doppler makes things easier!. So, let's, firstly, try to
bring it back to its rightful stand.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1101.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith, F.Y. Li, N. Yang, J. Dickau, G. Stephenson, L. Glinka, R. Baker

**Comments:** 18 pages, 2 figures. Meant as a companion piece to the following vixra document, namely
http://vixra.org/abs/1101.0017 which has been submitted for possible
inclusion as to a book chapter by nova book company of a cosmology volume

In the inaugural ICG meeting, on August 11, 2007 at Penn State, Roger Penrose[1] gave a
presentation about an alternative to cyclic cosmological models, which needs experimental tests for
falsifiabity. As discussed by Beckwith, in EJTP [2], Penrose brought up how a De Albertain wave equation,
as simplified in flat space could lead to a rising vacuum nucleation field which would engender the pop up
behavior as sought in most emergent field models of gravity. The scalar field pop up with certain
qualifications is not so startling in itself. Now for the radical extension Penrose brought to bear. Penrose
asserted in his ICG lecture that there was a good chance that there was no collapse in future events, but that
matter would be eventually sucked up by 'millions' of black holes, creating a clean up of most interstellar
matter. The issue to be brought up is how to come up with a mapping for re combination of the black hole
collected material, for a big bang. A topic which was not solved by Penrose. We also discuss a criteria for a
first order phase transition which would be a feed into a new universe, which awaits experimental
confirmation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1101.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 22 pages, 2 figures, to be heavily edited with co authors added by those expressing an interest.
To be submitted to a journal after enough edits

Could a causal discontinuity lead to an explanation of fluctuations in the CMBR radiation
spectrum? Is this argument valid if there is some third choice of set structure (for instance do self
referential sets fall into one category or another?). The answer to this question may lie in (entangled?)
vortex structure of space time, along the lines of structure similar to that generate in the laboratory by
Ruutu [1] (1996). Self referential sets may be part of the generated vortex structure, and we will endeavor
to find if this can be experimentally investigated. If the causal set argument and its violation via this
procedure holds, we have the view that what we see a space time 'drum' effect with the causal
discontinuity forming the head of a 'drum' for a region of about 10^{10} bits of 'information' before our
present universe up to the instant of the big bang itself for a time region less than t ~ 10^{-44} seconds in
duration, with a region of increasing bits of 'information' going up to 10^{120} due to vortex filament
condensed matter style forming through a symmetry breaking phase transition.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1101.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 pages

On a summer morning in 1981 I sat at my kitchen table in upstate New York and drew a
space-time map of the cosmos, such as we see in Fig. 1. It has remained unchanged in all
essential details since that time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1101.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** H. Ron Harrison

**Comments:** 4 pages

Measurement of the precession and orbital decay of binary pulsars is said to support the
General Theory of Relativity. This is true for the rate of precession but the rate of decay
is said to be due to energy loss. The loss of energy alone cannot account for the decay. In
some cases it is attributed to gravitational energy loss and in others it is due to tidal drag.
The quoted theory for the decay is based on Newtonian dynamics but it is not applicable
in these cases because the equations used are derived assuming that the energy is constant
and the orbits are conical. This article gives justification to this comment, however this
does not mean that gravitational radiation is not the cause of binary decay.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1101.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 2 pages

It is obvious that the principle directing the expansion
of the universe works in a way completely opposite to
what we expect. We therefore come up with a law that
says a nearby universe is tugging at ours on the basis
of an inverse cube relationship, not inverse square.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1101.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Charles B. Leffert

**Comments:** 5 pages, 5 figures

In this introduction to the new SC-expansion model of our universe, the new
physical concepts will be quickly reviewed to explain the source of gravity and a
failure of the big bang consensus cosmology to account for a fundamental
photon feature in an expanding universe.. This photon delay effect is not
accounted for using present relativistic concepts of co-moving distance and
standard candles. It is shown that following the photons by integration of the
photon delay equation produces a larger luminosity distance and greater
apparent magnitude sufficient to fit the supernovae SNIa data with no need of
dark energy. It is shown that without this photon delay effect, the cosmic
microwave radiation would not produce a clear first-pass pattern, but a smeared
background of multi-orbit passes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1101.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 pages, 2 figures, submitted to DICE 2010 as part of their conference

We make explicit an idea by Padmanabhan in DICE 2010 [1], as to finding "atoms
of space{time" permitting a thermodynamic treatment of emergent structure similar to Gibbs
treatment of statistical physics. That is, an ensemble of gravitons is used to give an "atom" of
space-time congruent with relic GW. The idea is to reduce the number of independent variables
to get a simple emergent space-time structure of entropy. An electric field, based upon the
cosmological Schwinger principle, is linked to relic heat
flux, with entropy production tied in
with candidates as to infl
aton potentials. The effective electric field links with the Schwinger
1951s result of an E field leading to pairs of e+e- charges nucleated in space-time volume V.t.
Note that in most in
flationary models, the assumption is for a magnetic field, not an electric
field. An electric field permits a kink-anti-kink construction of an emergent structure, which
includes Glinka's recent pioneering approach to a Multiverse. Also an E field allows for an
emergent relic particle frequency range between one and 100 GHz. The novel contribution is a
relic E field, instead of a B field, in relic space-time "atom" formation and vacuum nucleation
of the same.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1101.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Akindele J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 18 pages, Submitted to Progess in Physics.

The flat two-dimensional proper intrinsic spacetime... (see paper)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1101.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Akindele J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 20 pages, Submitted to Progess in Physics.

A curved 'two-dimensional' absolute intrinsic metric spacetime... (see paper)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1101.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2011-11-27 12:03:14*

**Authors:** Gocho V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The change of the units second and metre and the constant speed of light between two “time-spatial domains” with different gravitational potentials is considered in the article. It is analyzed as a consequence of the nature of space and time which are mutually connected with each other in the warped space-time of the Universe.
The main topic of the article is:
The postulate “Invariance of the speed of light” is proposed to be changed with “Uncertainty principle of the macro-world”.
Some consequences of the approach used in this article could be simple solutions of problems such as “the accelerated expansion of the Universe”, as well as “the dark matter and the dark energy in the Universe”, which have been under research for a long time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1101.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith, F.Y. Li, N. Yang, J. Dickau, G. Stephenson, L. Glinka

**Comments:** 25 pages, seven figures, FIRST draft of a chapter to go to Nova book publishers in
February 2011 for a book in cosmology. Expect extensive revisions to be made to this document.

We ask if Octonionic quantum gravity [1] is a relevant consideration near the Planck scale.
Furthermore, we examine whether gravitational waves would be generated during the initial
phase,and how to detect their effects during alterations of an initial phase factor
which may be detected in a GW detector . Doing this will enable the development of realistic
cosmology models

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1101.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 7 pages.

Relativistic motion in the gravitational field of a massive body is governed by the
external metric of a spherically symmetric extended object. Consequently, any solution
for the point-mass is inadequate for the treatment of such motions since it pertains to a
fictitious object. I therefore develop herein the physics of the standard tests of General
Relativity by means of the generalised solution for the field external to a sphere of
incompressible homogeneous fluid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1101.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 12 pages.

It is generally alleged that Einstein's theory leads to a finite but unbounded universe.
This allegation stems from an incorrect analysis of the metric for the point-mass when
λ ≠ 0. The standard analysis has incorrectly assumed that the variable r denotes a
radius in the gravitational field. Since r is in fact nothing more than a real-valued
parameter for the actual radial quantities in the gravitational field, the standard
interpretation is erroneous. Moreover, the true radial quantities lead inescapably to
λ = 0 so that, cosmologically, Einstein's theory predicts an infinite, static, empty
universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1101.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 pages.

The Kruskal-Szekeres "coordinates" are said to "extend" the so-called "Schwarzschild
solution", to remove an alleged "coordinate singularity" at the event horizon of a black
hole at r = 2m, leaving an infinitely dense point-mass singularity at "the origin" r = 0.
However, the assumption that the point at the centre of spherical symmetry of the
"Schwarzschild solution" is at "the origin" r = 0 is erroneous, and so the
Kruskal-Szekeres "extension" is invalid; demonstrated herein by simple counter-examples.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1101.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 pages.

The Regge-Wheeler tortoise "coordinate" and the the Kruskal-Szekeres "extension"
are built upon a latent set of invalid assumptions. Consequently, they have led to
fallacious conclusions about Einstein's gravitational field. The persistent unjustified
claims made for the aforesaid alleged coordinates are not sustained by mathematical
rigour. They must therefore be discarded.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1101.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 pages.

The vacuum field of the point-mass is an unrealistic idealization which does not occur
in Nature - Nature does not make material points. A more realistic model must therefore
encompass the extended nature of a real object. This problem has also been solved for
a particular case by K. Schwarzschild in his neglected paper on the gravitational field
of a sphere of incompressible fluid. I revive Schwarzschild's solution and generalise it.
The black hole is necessarily precluded. A body cannot undergo gravitational collapse
to a material point.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1101.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 pages.

I derive herein a general form of Kepler's 3rd Law for the general solution to Einstein's
vacuum field. I also obtain stable orbits for photons in all the configurations of the
point-mass. Contrary to the accepted theory, Kepler's 3rd Law is modified by General
Relativity and leads to a finite angular velocity as the proper radius of the orbit goes
down to zero, without the formation of a black hole. Finally, I generalise the expression
for the potential function of the general solution for the point-mass in the weak field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1101.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 8 pages, This paper was published in the international magazine "Electronics World" in 2010.

Pierre-Marie Robitaille, a Professor of Radiology at Ohio State University, is an expert when
it comes to instrumentation and signal analysis. It was Robitaille who conceived and directed
the construction of the world's first 8 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner
[1,2]. In doing so, he nearly doubled the maximum field strength in MRI and gave birth to
Ultra High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (UHFMRI). Robitaille's scanner
immediately revealed anatomical structures within the human brain that were previously
never seen on human scans [3]. In recent years, Robitaille has applied his skills to
astrophysics, and his findings are very significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1101.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 pages

It is proved herein that the metric in the so-called "isotropic coordinates" for Einstein's
gravitational field is a particular case of an infinite class of equivalent metrics.
Furthermore, the usual interpretation of the coordinates is erroneous, because in the
usual form given in the literature, the alleged coordinate length
(see paper) is
not a coordinate length. This arises from the fact that the geometrical relations between
the components of the metric tensor are invariant and therefore bear the same relations
in the isotropic system as those of the metric in standard Schwarzschild coordinates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1101.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 pages

The notion of black holes voraciously gobbling up matter, twisting spacetime into contortions
that trap light, stretching the unwary into long spaghetti-like strands as they fall
inward to ultimately collide and merge with an infinitely dense point-mass singularity,
has become a mantra of the astrophysical community, so much so that even primaryschool
children know about the sinister black hole. There are almost daily reports of
scientists claiming that they have again found black holes here and there. It is asserted
that black holes range in size from micro to mini, to intermediate and on up through to
supermassive behemoths. Black holes are spoken of as scientific facts and it is routinely
claimed that they have been detected at the centres of galaxies. Images of black holes
having their wicked ways with surrounding matter are routinely included with reports
of them. Some physicists even claim that black holes will be created in particle accelerators,
such as the Large Hadron Collider, potentially able to swallow the Earth. Despite
the assertions of the astronomers and astrophysicists, nobody has ever found a black
hole, anywhere, let alone "imaged" one. The pictures adduced to convince are actually
either artistic impressions (i.e. drawings) or photos of otherwise unidentified objects
imaged by telescopes and merely asserted to be due to black holes, ad hoc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1101.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 pages

There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of
Einstein's Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics
and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein's theory. This paper reveals
and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein's field equations for
the so-called static vacuum configuration, R_{μν} =0, violates his Principle of Equivalence,
and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept
of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation
for localisation of energy using Einstein's pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the
relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed,
along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein's
gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical
symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1101.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 7 pages

The usual interpretations of solutions for Einstein's gravitational field satisfying
the spherically symmetric condition contain anomalies that are not mathematically
permissible. It is shown herein that the usual solutions must be modified to account
for the intrinsic geometry associated with the relevant line elements.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1101.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 4 pages

Neither the layman nor the specialist, in general, have any knowledge of the historical
circumstances underlying the genesis of the idea of the Black Hole. Essentially,
almost all and sundry simply take for granted the unsubstantiated allegations of
some ostentatious minority of the relativists. Unfortunately, that minority has been
rather careless with the truth and is quite averse to having its claims corrected,
notwithstanding the documentary evidence on the historical record. Furthermore, not a
few of that vainglorious and disingenuous coterie, particularly amongst those of some
notoriety, attempt to dismiss the testimony of the literature with contempt, and even
deliberate falsehoods, claiming that history is of no importance. The historical record
clearly demonstrates that the Black Hole has been conjured up by combination of
confusion, superstition and ineptitude, and is sustained by widespread suppression
of facts, both physical and theoretical. The following essay provides a brief but
accurate account of events, verifiable by reference to the original papers, by which the
scandalous manipulation of both scientific and public opinion is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1101.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 12 pages

The black hole, which arises solely from an incorrect analysis of the Hilbert solution,
is based upon a misunderstanding of the significance of the coordinate radius r. This
quantity is neither a coordinate nor a radius in the gravitational field and cannot of
itself be used directly to determine features of the field from its metric. The appropriate
quantities on the metric for the gravitational field are the proper radius and the curvature
radius, both of which are functions of r. The variable r is actually a Euclidean
parameter which is mapped to non-Euclidean quantities describing the gravitational
field, namely, the proper radius and the curvature radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1101.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 7 pages

In a previous paper I derived the general solution for the simple point-mass in a true
Schwarzschild space. I extend that solution to the point-charge, the rotating pointmass,
and the rotating point-charge, culminating in a single expression for the general
solution for the point-mass in all its configurations when Λ = 0. The general exact
solution is proved regular everywhere except at the arbitrary location of the source
of the gravitational field. In no case does the black hole manifest. The conventional
solutions giving rise to various black holes are shown to be inconsistent with General
Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology