## Our Universe Expands With the Arrow of Time

**Authors:** Charles B. Leffert

There are no such entities as dark matter or dark energy and, indeed, there can be no
future for our universe with an accelerated rate of expansion. A new closed model for the
expansion of our universe predicts correctly all astronomical measurements so far
presented with no free parameters for adjustments to fit the data. Our universe is more
complex than anticipated by Einstein. This has already been made clear by the inability
to unify quantum physics with classical physics, The many problems encountered by
general relativity (GR) in trying to account for the expansion also attest to that
complexity and in particular, the collapse of the universe with the third (k = 1) option of
the Friedmann equations. There can be only one correct model, so the vision of the new
expansion model began with the complete abandonment of GR and a search for what
makes our universe expand. The reality of space and its production rate takes center
stage in the new model. New concepts of geometry and higher-dimensional spaces with
a new arrow of time came into being which solved many other long-standing
fundamental problems. Only algebra and beginning calculus were needed to develop the
new model. The new model is described in detail in a new self-published Book 3 just
coming off the press and the highlights are described in the following paper. Normally
cosmology papers are written about incomplete models with free parameters and the
authors minimize the number of equations. The opposite approach was used for the
closed model in this Book 3. In 112 pages, nine present fixed data are presented with 50
equations and 58 figures so the reader could reproduce any, or all, of the predictions.

**Comments:** 9 pages, 4 figures

**Download:** **PDF**

### Submission history

[v1] 22 Jan 2011

**Unique-IP document downloads:** 94 times

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