[24] **viXra:1305.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-31 07:56:59*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 reference

It has been brought to the attention of the author of this paper that a simple reason why redshift in galactic structures is observed. The author does not posit to answer the question, only brings to light that the question has already been answered and has a simple solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1305.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-02 03:16:59*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 40 Pages. Some of this is covered in previous articles I posted at www.vixra.org, www.fqxi.org and www.researchgate.net; some is new.

The start of this article lies a few years in the past, when I wrote about the Little Ice Age experienced in Europe some 300-360 years ago. I then read an article in “Astronomy” magazine which prompted me to extend those ideas to explanation of heating of the Sun’s corona. On the same page of Astronomy, I was inspired by a story on unidentified spectral lines in the Sun. I thought about this, and decided it could be extended to all matter, supporting Einstein’s conviction that mass is generated by gravitational-electromagnetic interactions (maybe the Higgs field is actually these interactions, for they fill the universe and are certainly capable of producing the Higgs boson, as will be explained here). In writing this, I felt the need to go into more detail frequently – about string theory, the mathematical universe, the infinite universe, the strong and weak nuclear forces, etc. (some of this is covered in previous articles I posted at www.vixra.org, www.fqxi.org and www.researchgate.net; some is new).
All of this seems to fit together perfectly in my mind. However, I don’t feel as though I’ve done much of the work myself. It feels like figuring out the nature of the universe is a giant jigsaw puzzle, and I’ve been handed the solution (if indeed I have it) piece by piece over the years and decades. This fitting together of a giant jigsaw made me think the universe isn’t really such a complicated place, and reminded me of Professor John Wheeler
saying - Can we ever expect to understand existence? Clues we have, and work to do, to make headway on that issue. Surely someday, we can believe, we will grasp the central idea of it all as so simple, so beautiful, so compelling that we will all say to each other, "Oh, how could it have been otherwise! How could we all have been so blind so long! “
The scientist and philosopher in me inspire each other. They combined logic with measurement and willingness to speculate so they could produce these subheadings - Unidentified Spectral Lines; Graviton-Photon Oscillation; Relativistic Mass Increase and Time Dilation; Higgs Boson and (e∞); Quantum Entanglement and Retrocausality; Mathematical Unification; Coronal Heating (Part 1 – Little Ice Age); String Theory, the Mobius Loop and the Klein Bottle; Coronal Heating (Part 2 – Gravity and EM Interact); Nuclear Forces as Modified Gravity; Electromagnetism as Modified Gravity; Reflections on the Actual Curvature of Space and the Pioneer Anomaly; Nonlinear Gravity and EM; Infinite Universe (Physically and Electronically); Brian Greene’s Cosmic Movie; Something from Nothing, Something from Something; Universal Intelligence; Hidden Variables and Virtual Particles; Biogenesis; Bell’s Theorem; Immortal Life; Space-time, Hyperspace and the Big Bang; Physicist John Wheeler; Equation Describing the Universe; and CHALLENGE – Explain To The Layman How Gravity Accounts For Dark Matter and Dark Energy Without Using Any Mathematics (this could have been given subheadings of its own – about Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, tides, orbits, but my abstract’s long enough).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1305.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 16:29:14*

**Authors:** Józef Kajfosz

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the alternative, Lorentzian interpretation of special relativity the ether is a necessity.
This has some far-reaching consequences for fundamental research in physics and for the future unification which under this new paradigm shall be much easier.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1305.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 08:34:46*

**Authors:** Józef Kajfosz

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A short outline of the alternative, Lorentzian version of special relativity is
presented. It is shown that a simple principle of consistency of measurements, familiar and
obvious to every experimentalist, when applied in the interpretation of experimental
evidence about inertial motion, leads straightforward to the Lorentzian formulation of
relativity which involves both the principle of relativity and Lorentz transformation and
also a privileged state of motion and effects related to absolute motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1305.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-28 17:41:03*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 79 Pages.

The General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is an extension of the Special Theory of Relativity (or Restricted) (STR); it was necessary for Einstein to explain the Gravitation.
In the opinion of the writer, GTR is for sure a beautiful physical-mathematical theory, mathematical more than physical, maybe the most beautiful, but it’s also true that it has somewhat weird concepts inside. I think that the GTR is the typical falsifiable Popper-like theory, like if it were an interpretative model which works to explain many phenomena, but that it’s not the real essence of the phenomena just explained. I can scientifically explain the motion of a tyre by that of a rolling cut out cardboard circle, but this would be just a model which then must fall, once we go a bit deeper in it.
And then, provided that the geometric interpretation of the curvature is real, we should still explain why the matter causes it; ok, it causes that, but why? To see is not the same as to explain and justify.
In the GTR, the gravity is just attractive and Einstein, in his Theory of Unified Fields (let’s sum up a bit, out of brevity) after having used the concept of curvature in the GTR to explain the gravitational pull, also used the concept of torsion to try to explain also the repulsive forces of the electricity. All this unfortunately without success, that is, his unitary field equations (maybe 33) couldn’t be proved in the real Universe. Therefore, Einstein work didn’t finish with the GTR; in fact, he died in 1955 in a bed in a Hospital, with paper and pen in his hands!
I personally think the force of gravity is a macroscopic force which is made of microscopic and electric forces among particles, positive and negative, which make the Universe, and that can be considered as randomly spread.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1305.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-24 16:35:02*

**Authors:** Christopher A Laforet

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper describes the method by which the gravitational force between galaxies can be reduced and even reversed as a result of the net energy loss from photon exchange. According to the relativistic Doppler Effect, galaxies moving apart will suffer a net energy loss when exchanging photons. This energy loss reduces the total energy of the system, resulting in a reduction in gravitational attraction between the galaxies. Given sufficient velocity, emitted photon energy, and rate of photon exchange, it is shown that the attractive force between galaxies can be reversed, resulting in an accelerated expansion of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1305.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-31 22:00:33*

**Authors:** Dirk Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Published as: Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2016). Speed of light as an emergent property of the fabric. Applied Physics Research, 8(3): 111-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v8n3p111

Problem- The theory of Relativity is premised on the constancy of the speed of light (c) in-vacuo. While no empirical evidence convincingly shows the speed to be variable, nonetheless from a theoretical perspective the invariance is an assumption. Need- It is possible that the evidence could be explained by a different theory. Approach- A non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solution, the Cordus particule theory, is applied to identify the causes of variability in the fabric density, and then show how this affects the speed of light. Findings- Under these assumptions the speed of light is variable (VSL), being inversely proportional to fabric density. This is because the discrete fields of the photon interact dynamically with the fabric and therefore consume frequency cycles of the photon. The fabric arises from aggregation of fields from particles, which in turn depends on the proximity and spatial distribution of matter. Results disfavour the universal applicability of the cosmological principle of homogeneity and isotropy of the universe. Originality- The work proposes causal mechanisms for VSL, which have otherwise been challenging to ascertain. Uniquely, this theory identifies fabric density as the dependent variable. In contrast, other VSL models propose that c varies with time or some geometric-like scale, but struggle to provide plausible reasons for that dependency. This theory also offers a conceptually simply way to reconcile the refraction of light in both gravitational situations and optical materials.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1305.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-21 06:50:47*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The world is full of ways to think about a Dark Objects. I propose You my way, please follow.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1305.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-19 16:59:08*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We establish the new gravitational theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1305.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-19 07:59:28*

**Authors:** Andrej Rehak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Although acceleration is, by its descriptive definition, the expansion of velocity, where celeritas /kɛ'lɛritas/ or /tʃɛ'lɛritas/ is a Latin word translated as "swiftness" or "speed", we prove that gravity is expansion (dilation) of the speed of light (celeritas c), i.e. the genesis of space in time. From this evidence, we explain the arrow of time. Implicitly, the foundation of a complex manifestation of nature is deduced to a tautological relationship between space-time variables, with the consequence of a unification of the reference measurement system. By unique relation, we connect the predictions of General and Special relativity. We introduce the scalar principle valid in all space-time dimensions of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1305.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-17 15:23:36*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Elizabeth A. Rauscher

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM) cosmology observed temporal reality is a 3(4)D virtual
subspace of an 11(12)D eternity in correspondence with the tenets of the F-Theory incarnation of M-Theory; 12D
being the minimum number of dimensions (D) to signify causal separation from temporality. Succinctly HAM
cosmology postulates an infinite number of nested Hubble spheres each with their own laws of physics; this and
other details of the HAM will be discussed in detail. The HAM present is a dynamic instant, a continuous-state
standing wave of the least cosmological unit of the 12D Superspace undergoing a Continuous Dimensional
Reduction / Compactification Process (CDRCP) based on extensions of the Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer transactional
models. This HAM dynamic entails an energy dependent spacetime metric as 1st proposed by Einstein. This means
that HD properties of the CDRCP standing wave metric entail a form of future-past hysteresis loop. The energetics
of this so-called hysteresis loop of the 12D least unit reveal a new action principle driving the evolution of the HAM
which is itself a form of self-organized complex system. Since the HAM is scale invariant these energetics also
apply to self-organized Autopoietic living systems. This new teleological or noetic action principle is shown to be
associated with the unitary physical field and a form of ‘super quantum potential’ as postulated by de Broglie and
Bohm. Using these parameters an alternate derivation of the string tension formalism is derived. It is anticipated
that this form of the string tension formalism may shed light on recalculating Planck’s constant and lead to a
program for completing quantum theory. HAM cosmology is empirically testable and an experimental protocol for
isolation of the new energy dynamics is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1305.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-16 07:32:35*

**Authors:** John Girault

**Comments:** 1 Page. We show that E=mc^2 is not correct

It is well known that the energy of a particle is equal to mv, with m mass and v the velocity of the particle, We use this, to show that Einstenn was wrong..

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1305.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-13 03:39:30*

**Authors:** Richard Blaber

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper sets out to refute the idea of a ‘quantum theory of gravity’ on the basis that the General Theory of Relativity accounts for gravity in terms of the curvature of space-time, rather than treating it as a force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1305.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-07 14:43:38*

**Authors:** Stephan J.G. Gift

**Comments:** 24 Pages. This paper has been submitted for publication

Light transmission on the surface of the rotating Earth is examined using the Langevin metric of general relativity. It is shown that this metric which yields the rigorously tested and verified algorithm for clock synchronization in the Global Positioning System (GPS) also predicts east-west light speed anisotropy that is inconsistent with light speed isotropy postulated to hold at a local level on the rotating Earth. This light speed anisotropy is further demonstrated using experimentally confirmed light travel time in a simple speed calculation as well as the classical method of light speed relative to a terrestrial observer rotating with the Earth for light travel in the Earth-Centred Inertial (ECI) frame. These theoretical results are confirmed by experimental findings from GPS measurements and lead to the re-interpretation of the Sagnac effect normally treated as a time correction in GPS operation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1305.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-25 08:54:40*

**Authors:** Ken S. Tucker

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This article applies General Relativity (GR) to energy stored in a charge configuration
termed, “potential energy of a system of charges”, as it affects gravitation and space-time.
All mass and energy is expressible as, and convertible to electrical energy, as grams are
equivalent to electron-volts.
The analysis predicts gravitational radiation to be radiated and propagated as Electro-
Magnetic Radiation (EMR), therefore gravitational radiation is equivalent to EMR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1305.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-05 11:27:52*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Since the early days of relativity the question of conservation of energy in general relativity has been a controversial subject. There have been many assertions that energy is not exactly conserved except in special cases, or that the full conservation law as given by Noether’s theorem reduces to a trivial identity. Here I refute each objection to show that the energy conservation law is exact, fully general and useful.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1305.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-04 14:26:24*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 11 Pages. FQXI essay contest 2013: It from Bit or Bit from It?

The information or knowledge we can get from a quantum state, depends on the interaction of this state with the measurement process itself. As we know, this involves an uncertainty in the amount of information and accuracy of this knowledge. Now we ask: is there an information content intrinsic and independent of the observer, in quantum reality? Our answer is a resounding, yes. More precisely, we show that this information is encoded on surfaces, and specifically in circular compactifications. That is, there is a holograph on surfaces. In this encoding of quantum information will call as the strong holographic principle. Due to the application of this principle, it will show as the Higgs vacuum value implies a subtle correction by entropic uncertainty. The connections of quantum information, to cosmology, are clearly shown when the values of the dark energy density approxeq = ln2;and matter density Omega_{m}= Omega_{c}+ Omega_{b}, approxeq = 1-ln2. It showed that the equation of the energy-momentum has five solutions by factoring by two components which appear in terms of mass and imaginary momentum. Far from being a mere mathematical artifice, we see that these states should exist, and that our interpretation of them is that every particle appears to be a mixture of two states, one of them unobservable, having an imaginary component. In other words: these involve imaginary states faster than the speed of light, without contradicting Special Relativity, as we shall see. Failure to observe Cherenkov radiation forces us to determine which are virtual states. These five states also appear to be related to the minimum number of microstates which generate the group E8. Finally: all these results lead us to postulate a particle candidate to the dark matter, of approximately 9,2 Gev.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1305.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-16 03:31:05*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This theory's problem

In the general relativity theory, find the the Rindler theory’s mistake, find the new accelerated theory that used the tetrad on the new method.And discover the new inverse-coordinate transformation of the new accelerated theory and expand to be the new accelerated theory of the accelerated observer that have the initial velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1305.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-03 19:22:32*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Modified torsion is proposed as an alternative to dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1305.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-25 02:24:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Rotation and translation are the two (fundamentally different) kinds of motion in the universe. Rotational motion is the same in all inertial frames and hence can easily be understood as absolute motion. Translational motion, on the other hand, can be understood easily only as a relative motion and has never been clearly understood as an absolute motion. The results of Sagnac’s and Michelson-Morley’s experiments support this. Einstein denied the validity of absolute motion altogether. However, the author feels that if rotational motion is absolute, then absolute translational motion must also be valid somehow and be confirmed experimentally. One reasoning behind this hypothesis is that we apply absolute translational motion in the analysis of Sagnac’s experiment and get the correct result, even though the fringe shift in the final formula is explained in terms of the angular velocity (rotation) of the apparatus rather than the translational velocity of the source and the detector. With the existing logic we are used to in discussions about absolute motion, however, one will always end up in the “ relative to what?” question that always leads to confusion. Therefore, absolute translational motion must be redefined if it is to be valid logically. Absolute (translational) motion can be redefined as resulting from a change in state of motion (acceleration) of a body rather than as motion relative to some universal, static, absolute reference frame. According to the new theory, there is no universal absolute reference frame but there is a dynamic absolute reference frame. According to this theory, although the velocity of the earth relative to the sun is 30Km/s, its absolute velocity in space is almost zero because the acceleration of the earth is almost zero and that was why the Michelson-Morley device failed to detect any fringe shift. Two bodies may be in relative motion and yet may have the same absolute velocity or may be at rest relative to each other and yet may have different absolute velocities at some instant of time. The theory of ‘Absolute Dynamic Space’ reconciles the notion of absolute motion with Galileo’s principle of invariance and Einstein’s two postulates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1305.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-01 16:46:11*

**Authors:** Amine Benachour

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In previous publication, we have imagined a thought experiment, showing that the relative velocities of two observers in a uniform lineaire motion, are different, unlike the predictions of Lorentz transformation. Thanks to this experiment, we show that assuming the equality of the relative velocities, leads inevitably to contradictions. Based on the axioms of the affine space, and their implications, an explanation is provided to understand the source of these contradictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1305.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-02 04:14:53*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 16 pages. « Inconstante cosmologique, supernovae 1a et décélération de l’expansion » is the French version of «Cosmological Inconstant, Supernovæ 1a and Decelerating Expansion» on viXra: 1304.0169v1

En 1998, deux équipes américaines constatèrent que les supernovæ 1a (SN1a) qu’ils observaient étaient moins brillantes que prévu dans un univers en expansion décélérée. Ils en déduisirent que l'univers connaissait une expansion accélérée sous la pression négative d'une énergie noire. Les astronomes ressortirent la constante cosmologique, positive cette fois, pour justifier cette accélération, ce qui cadre avec l’image d’un univers inflationnaire. Pour expliquer la trop faible luminosité des SN1a les plus lointaines, ils misèrent essentiellement sur leur distance qui était à revoir à la hausse. Nous considérons qu’une expansion accélérée conduit droit à une « catastrophe de l’énergie noire » et nous supposons plutôt que l'univers connaît une expansion décélérée sous la pression positive d’une énergie noire, à savoir une constante cosmologique variable. La luminosité noire de cette dernière serait celle d’une « lumière fatiguée » qui aurait perdu de l’énergie avec la distance. Quant au faible rayonnement des SN1a, il s’expliquerait par un double processus physique. Au surplus des arguments sérieux déjà apportés, nous conjecturons que leur luminosité faiblisse sans cesse par des interactions avec des champs magnétiques cosmiques, à l’instar de l’expérience terrestre PVLAS dont le laser perd beaucoup plus de photons qu’attendu en parcourant un champ magnétique.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1305.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-21 04:59:09*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In (viXra.org 1304.0106) there described the 3 generalizations of the First Noether theorem. As
the simple example of application of this generalized theorem there is a paper
“Energy-Momentum Vectors for the Matter and Gravitational Field”(viXra.org 1304.0130).
And the application of the last paper to the Schwarzschild metric is described in the current paper.
And it gives the energy of the Earth gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1305.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-01 07:06:10*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Eight pages

A brief, simple, and solid disproof, by contradiction, of Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology