[52] **viXra:1910.0649 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-31 03:36:33*

**Authors:** A. Lightman, W. Press, K. Price, S. Teukolsky

**Comments:** 6 Pages. in Russian. Pay attention to the fact that this is a necessary introduction to the only published work!

In accordance with the need to comply with the copyright law in the first file of the book: A. Lightman, V. Press, K. Price, S. Tyukolsky: "Problem book in relativity and gravity " are all the formal characteristics of the book, assigned by the publishing house "Мир". The need to present the book as two files is related to the peculiarity of the formats *.docx,*.pdf,*.djvu

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1910.0641 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-22 15:17:06*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The dark heavy particle is included in this model. All masses are 4 digits or less, including the down neutron quark

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1910.0640 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-01 12:56:39*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here, using the dynamics of the core of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain the origin of the rest frame peak energy versus isotropic energy for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). We present also how isotropic energy depends on mass of captured star by the most massive neutron star.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1910.0629 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-30 04:16:01*

**Authors:** A. Lightman, W. Press, K. Price, S. Teukolsky

**Comments:** 532 Pages. In Russian

This book, written by A. Lightman, V. Press, R. Price and S. Tyukolsky, is a collection of problems with solutions to the General theory of relativity and gravity. It is unique in its breadth and overall design. Almost 500 problems introduce the reader to the modern mathematical apparatus and methods used in this field of physics. The problems presented in this collection are borrowed from the latest original works on topical problems of General relativity and gravity (solution of the equations of gravitation, physics of curved space-time, black holes, gravitational healing, cosmological aspects of General relativity and its experimental verification). The book is intended for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and students of physical and mathematical specialties

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:1910.0611 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-29 02:02:47*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

After the presentation of the Special Relativity Theory, Mass was discovered to be a
form of Energy. Thus, after the presentation of the Special Relativity Theory, the Electric Charge remained the only distinct entity that is not a form of Energy.
This article claims that Electric Charges might be considered also as a form of Energy.
This claim is initially based on an analysis, presented in several articles, which analyze the energies embedded in electric and magnetic fields, and show that such energies, which are dependent on the existence of a force field (electric or magnetic) in order to exist, can annihilate each other, in certain situations, an annihilation that seems to violate the Energy Conservation Principle. In light of the above such energies are grouped as Energy Pairs.
Then, because energies in electric and magnetic fields are generated initially from electric charges, the Energy Pairs Theory is also used to explain the issue of charge disappearance in electron positron collisions.
This provides additional support to the assumption that Charge is Energy. Because, as electric or magnetic energies are shown to annihilate each other and disappear, in certain situations, positive and negative charge might also annihilate each other in certain situations, such as, in electron positron collisions, which strengthen the claim that Electric Charges are also a form of Energy.
In addition to using the above, the claim, that Electric Charge might be a form of Energy, is discussed in this article from additional angles.
As will be shown in this article, there are similarities between Mass and Charge which might lead us to conclude that Charge should also be considered as a form of Energy.
Thus, this article does claim that Charge might also be recognized as a form of Energy, as Mass turned to be. This claim will make Energy as the only distinct entity (in addition to Time and Space), a simpler and cleaner view of nature

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[47] **viXra:1910.0587 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-28 05:57:21*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

According to the principle dynamic equilibrium, we understand the force of inertia is a
force that acts on whatever body that accelerated with respect to an inertial frame. It is, therefore,
a real force, observed in whatever reference frame. We identify this force with force gravitational
induction produced by the whole of the Universe. Therefore, the Universe is an inertial reference
frame. In developing the theory, we find that the gravitational induction force produced by the
entire Universe is proportional to acceleration and in the opposite sense, as is the force of inertia.
In making this identification, we find that the inertial and gravitational mass are proportional, with
a coefficient of proportionality depending on the cosmic time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1910.0585 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-28 06:53:11*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In several articles such as: "Consolidated Waves might create Dark Energy" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1909.0496 a scenario of two one dimensional electromagnetic traveling waves, which collide and then consolidate and continue to travel in the same direction, is described. In these articles it was shown that in this scenario energy is lost such that it appears to violate the Energy Conservation Principle.
In some additional articles such as: "Energy Pairs Theory" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1910.0523 the Energy Pairs theory is presented which explains this energy loss. And, the above described scenario is presented as a proof of this Energy Pairs Theory.
Also, in some of these articles, it was shown that Energy Pairs might turn into Dark Energy, which is a mystery that the science of Physics seeks a solution to it.
In this article the argument that complete emptiness is actually the Dark Energy is presented

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1910.0566 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-27 21:24:25*

**Authors:** Simon WW Manley

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Micro-kelvin resolution of temperature measurement in atmospheric gas is shown to be achievable provided the sample is isolated thermally, electrically and barometrically from the environment. Such high-resolution measures should permit the investigation of thermal effects mediating the small signal residuals seen in historical data from ether-drift interferometers. The proposal of Consoli & Pluchino (2018) that small thermal gradients may result from a non-local effect brings the discussion into the framework of contemporary quantum physics and distances it from the discredited notions which motivated the original experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1910.0562 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-02 05:40:34*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In separate articles such as: "Energy Pairs Theory" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1910.0523 the Energy Pairs Theory was presented.
This theory explained energy loss in a scenario described in several separate articles such as: "Consolidated Waves might create Dark Energy" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1909.0496 which described two one dimensional electromagnetic traveling waves, which collide and then continue to travel in the same direction, which manifested loss of the energy that these waves carried before that consolidation, and even full disappearace of these waves, which seemed to be a clear violation of the Energy Conservation Principle.
In this article other energy conservation issues related to electric and magnetic fields are presented, and explained via this Energy Pairs Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1910.0550 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-26 15:35:57*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

The inelastic collision between two identical particles shows that the ratio of the momentum to the mass includes an
extra term in addition to
the velocity. An extra function independent of the speed of the particle is part of the momentum.
This function can be determined empirically from the parameters of Large Hadron Collider at CERN.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1910.0535 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-26 10:41:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, using the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we derived the main equation in theory of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and used it to describe the GRB 080916C. Such theory is closely related to the theory of neutron black holes (NBHs) which is similar to the theory of baryons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1910.0531 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-24 23:09:39*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Applying the laws of dynamics to discern future motion is not an easy thing to do, for there are cases where these laws fail to predict what’s really measured.
Inertial frames are thought to provide a stable platform of reference frames from which to solve this failure of dynamics, but current fundamental definitions related to dynamics are often incomplete, in conflict or just illogical.
Adopting a credible definition of inertial frames and applying it to frames of reference in constant relative motion leads to a surprising discovery, challenging the scientific wisdom of the last five centuries and raising far-ranging and deep questions that spill over into modern worldviews and religion.
As usual the epistemology is based on the scientific method’s dependence on testing and the rationality of philo-realism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1910.0523 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-02 04:12:30*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In a separate article named "Consolidating Waves create Dark Energy" that can be found at http://viXra.org/abs/1910.0496 a scenario of two one dimensional electromagnetic traveling waves, which collide and then consolidate and continue to travel in the same direction, is described. In that article it was shown that in this scenario energy is lost such that it appears to violate the Energy Conservation Principle.
In this article, the Energy Pairs theory is presented which explains this energy loss. And, the above described scenario is presented as a proof of this Energy Pairs Theory.
The article also describes various possible combinations of Energy Pairs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1910.0508 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-25 15:20:19*

**Authors:** Jeremy Fiennes

**Comments:** 1 Page.

1) In his station and truck observer thought exercise, Einstein shows that an observer moving inertially relative to a photon clock sees it ticking slower than his own. 2) Different inertial observers, travelling at different relative speeds, each see the clock running at a different rate. 3) The first SR postulate says all their views are correct. 4) This being absurd, so on the 'reductio ad absurdum' principle is Special Relativity itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1910.0505 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-25 18:47:52*

**Authors:** Cherkasov V.A.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. language - Russian

The paper describes the concept of the ether (neoether, neo-aether), which does not conflict with the main consequences of the Special Theory of Relativity. On the basis of the stated concept, the features of light propagation in inertial reference frames are determined with generalization of the results to all types of fundamental interactions. The obtained results determine the presence of Lorentz contraction factor, as well as the fact of time slowing down in inertial reference frames with elimination the Twin paradox, inherent to the Special Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1910.0496 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-02 03:38:35*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The issue of electromagnetic traveling waves interference was already presented and analyzed extensively. Examples of such scenarios might be counter propagating one dimensional two source waves, or a single source wave propagating in two or more dimensions via scattering one portion of the wave into another portion, such as a double slit experiment with a single source. Analysis of these scenarios show that in these cases, the interference between these waves conserve the wave energy. (Ref 3).
However, the following scenario was not yet presented or analyzed, (according to the best knowledge of the writer of this article) :
A scenario of very focused two source electromagnetic traveling waves, focused such that they can be considered as traveling only in one dimension, which are colliding, and following this collision, the waves consolidate, and continue to travel in the same direction.
It was usually assumed, that two one dimensional waves, moving in the same direction, cannot arrive at the constellation that they collide, then consolidate and continue to move in the same direction. Because if both waves are one dimensional, in order, for the first wave, to colide with another one dimensional wave traveling in its same direction, another wave source must exist somewhere along the line the first wave is traveling on. Then, the first wave will collide with this wave source and not with the second wave. However, this scenario can happen.
This article presents a description of how to arrange the above scenario, of two one dimensional waves, originating from two separate sources, which collide, then consolidate and continue to travel in the same direction.
Analysis of this scenario clearly reveals that there is a loss of the energy that these waves carried before that consolidation, which is a clear violation of the Energy Conservation Principle. And if, following this consolidation, the waves have same energy and opposite amplitudes in their electric fields and also in their magnetic fields the waves actually disappear.
In light of the above scenario, and because of the energy loss that is shown to occur when electromagnetic waves consolidate and become unified, and continue to travel together in the same direction, the article argues that such scenarios are the cause of the Dark Energy, which is a mystery that the science of Physics seeks a solution to it

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1910.0491 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-24 06:59:52*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 1 Page. Email:yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

A proved hypothesis : Finite gravity range extending with the speed of light c

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1910.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-24 14:06:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, using the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of the time and mass versus number of bursts for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1910.0480 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-29 13:02:39*

**Authors:** Denis Nepveu

**Comments:** Revised October 29, 2019: corrected typos, revised abstract, added prediction at bottom of page 3, corrected pagination

If general relativity is true, then G should not be constant for all observers, and therefore gravitational redshift should be exhibited at large scales. The resulting effects would explain phenomena currently described by dark energy and dark matter, and would also reconcile the ages of the universe derived by CMB and supernova data. If the initial hot dense state of the universe is taken as maximum energy density over the current volume of the universe, then the Big Bang can be modeled as a purely thermodynamic process precipitated by random cooling that leads to a phase change, much like a soap bubble popping, which should immediately produce the cosmic web structure exhibited in the CMB. Gravity emerges from chaotic energy flows with a normal probability distribution, and time can be expressed as the average number of iterations it takes for chaotic flows to produce a given state. Observed gravitational wave phenomena are explained as an effect on the path of light due to energy flows. Assuming that not all forces are perfectly balanced, the underlying fields will tend to rotate around the axis of energy flow, creating vortices in spacetime that would tend to result in mutual attraction between immediately adjacent objects. The sum of the attractive forces thus generated can be equated with gravity in the far field and magnetism in the near field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1910.0474 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-23 22:31:07*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The Bohr Model is an alternative theory of light to Maxwell's theory. It is extended to a wave pulse theory of light, WPTOL. It is a classical aether theory. When an orbital electron of an atom makes a quantum jump to a lower energy state, it emits a single polarization wave pulse of one wavelength in the aether. There is no neutron in the nucleus of the atom in the `Simple Unified Theory', SUT; the neutron is replaced with a proton and an nuclear electron. As the nucleus of the atom has only proton and electron, WPTOL covers the emission of gamma-rays originating from the nucleus of the atom. The binding energy within the nucleus is also the Coulomb electric force; there is no strong force. All radiation consist of single wavelength wave pulses and the wave pulses are all separate wave entities;there is no `train of light waves' in WPTOL. The train of light waves as found in Maxwell's theory has no physical basis. A light wave pulse has energy E=hν and momentum P=E/c, the same energy and momentum relation of the relativistic photon. It is this single wave pulse of one wavelength that gives the illusion of light as particle. WPTOL eliminates the `wave particle duality' hypothesis for light. The theoretical value of light speed in the aether is c=m_e e⁴ /(8ε₀h³R), R being the Rydberg constant. Newton's first law is extended to a light wave pulse in the aether which explains why light propagates in a straight line. There is no dissipation of energy of a wave pulse as it propagates in the aether. WPTOL does not need the concept of magnetism. The WPTOL is a much stronger theory of light as compared to the Maxwell's theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1910.0465 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-23 02:46:24*

**Authors:** Vladimir B. Belayev

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Equations of the critical curve are obtained by the nonzero energy integral variation in accordance with principles of the calculus of variations in mechanics. This method is compared with the Fermat’s principle and geodesics principle. The force vector acting on the photon in Schwarzschild space-time is found for the weak gravity and corresponds to photon’s gravitational mass equal to the twice mass of a material particle of the same energy. Compliance with the law of conservation of energy as a source of gravity leads to the presence of particles with negative gravitational mass and zero kinematic momentum in the results of the annihilation reaction. Accretion of matter onto compact stars results in their absorption of positive energy from the vacuum and the release negative energy in a free deep space. The particles with negative gravitational mass create there antigravitating vacuum with negative pressure. Extended Space Model (ESM) is a generalization of the special theory of relativity at a 5-dimensional space. Rotations in extended space correspond to the motion of a particle in gravity field in the embedded four-dimensional space-time. Within the framework of ESM the photons have a nonzero mass in a gravitational field. We study how a rotation in ESM agrees with photon dynamics in the Schwarzschild field. A non-conservation of energy in gravitational systems is interpreted by the ESM as the rotation of the energy-momentum vector in 5-dimensional space. The comparison bubble cosmic structures of a type gravastar with electron an estimate of its radius is made.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1910.0439 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-22 14:15:20*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, using the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the hedgehog-like mechanism in the neutron stars is responsible for the prompt emission of GRBs. The half-jets/hedgehog-needles produced from the cores of baryons inside the created neutron stars act as "wave-guides" of the Einstein-spacetime scalar condensates which on surface of the neutron stars decay to gamma rays and energetic leptons. Most energetic particles are the result of annihilation of the half-jets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1910.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-29 21:24:04*

**Authors:** Mohan Basnet

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This is alternate explanation for the problem related with dark matter with out modifying gravity. Geometry of spacetime might work differently in large scale than we Think. just adding a simple term in the Einstein field equation, we can balance out the he problem related to dark matter and dark energy. Gravity is a long distance force and gets weaker on increase in distance but it never get ZERO. Curvature in the space-time can be add up and merge together to form a bigger curvature and it gets more smoother and stable. This model helps to visualize how curvature of the space-time works from the planets to galaxy. I do believe that this theory is the ultimate answer for the dark matter, but again just I believe in this theory, it does not necessary to be right, it has to be test and verify with different data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1910.0410 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-21 04:55:23*

**Authors:** R. Wayte.

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Gravitational collapse of diffuse material has been investigated using a new solution of Einstein’s equations of general relativity. This obviates the theory of black-hole formation developed for the standard vacuum solution of Schwarzschild. The bodies which now form have reasonable physical properties, such as nuclear hard core density in collapsed stars, or 104kg/l in galactic centres. Accreting material converts to kinetic energy then radiation so that a singularity cannot be produced.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1910.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-21 12:25:40*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan

**Comments:** 58 Pages. 03 August 2017, Germany, ISBN: 978-620-2-01092-4

In this first volume of our main scientific research We showed that the «Armenian Theory of Special Relativity» is full of fine and difficult ideas to understand, which in many cases seems to conflict with our everyday experiences and legacy conceptions. This new crash course book is the simplified version for broad audiences. This book is not just generalizing transformation equations and all relativistic formulas; It is also without limitations and uses a pure mathematical approach to bring forth new revolutionary ideas in the theory of relativity. It also paves the way to build general theory of relativity and finally for the construction of the unified field theory – the ultimate dream of every truth seeking physicist.
Armenian Theory of Relativity is such a mathematically solid and perfect theory that it cannot be wrong. Therefore, our derived transformation equations and all relativistic formulas have the potential to not just replace legacy relativity formulas, but also rewrite all modern physics. Lorentz transformation equations and other relativistic formulas is a very special case of the Armenian Theory of Relativity when we put s = 0 and g = -1 .
The proofs in this book are very brief, therefore with just a little effort, the readers themselves can prove all the provided formulas in detail. You can find the more detailed proofs of the formulas in our main research book «Armenian Theory of Special Relativity», published in Armenia of June 2013.
In this visual book, you will set your eyes on many new and beautiful formulas which the world has never seen before, especially the crown jewel of the Armenian Theory of Relativity - Armenian energy and Armenian momentum formulas, which can change the future of the human species and bring forth the new golden age.
The time has come to reincarnate the ether as a universal reference medium which does not contradict relativity theory. Our new theory explains all these facts and peacefully brings together followers of absolute ether theory, relativistic ether theory and dark energy theory. We just need to mention that the absolute ether medium has a very complex geometric character, which has never been seen before.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1910.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-21 12:32:02*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan

**Comments:** 60 Pages. 03 August 2017, Germany, ISBN: 978-620-2-01092-4

Armenian Theory of General Relativity
--------
In this new - second volume of the visual crash course of "Armenian Theory of General Relativity", which is organic sequel of the first volume, we discuss the case (Case B), where observing coordinate systems moving against each other with arbitrary acceleration. We use the most general considerations and a pure mathematical approach, and in so doing, we build a theory of general relativity (kinematics) and received Armenian direct and inverse transformation equations for observed particle coordinates differentials.
Our visual book, which is made for broad audiences of physicists, does not only generalize legacy theory of general relativity formulas, but also using almost the same axioms, we succeeded to build more logical and correct theory of general relativity in one physical dimension (for now kinematics only), which has two additional new constants (s and g).
Our received Armenian direct and inverse transformation equations we can also obtain in a very easy way from the Armenian Theory of Special Relativity (volume A) transformation equations, by just taking particle’s infinitesimal coordinates, where reciprocal relative velocities between observing systems are instantaneous variable velocities.
But we prefer to go hard way to show the fact that Armenian Theory of Relativity is a solid mathematical theory. In this volume B we also faced contradiction and our next volume we will solve this "contradiction".
We also advice readers to be very cautious when comparing legacy theory of relativity with the Armenian Theory of Relativity, especially when instead of trying understand the new theory concepts, they use their whole energy trying to find “mistakes” or “paradoxes” in Armenian Theory of Relativity. Please just remember that legacy theories of relativity are symmetric theories, but Armenian Theory of Relativity is asymmetric theory of relativity.
Proofs in this volume are also very brief and therefore readers need to put sufficient effort to prove all providing formulas.
========
Facing With Contradictions
--------
Contradiction illustrated by (I_07) are not just specific for Armenian Theory of Relativity, discussed in this volume B, but this contradiction are already build in legacy theory of relativity as well. Unfortunately the experts in that field deliberately or unconsciously ignoring the contradiction in the legacy theory of relativity and patching all the holes.
This contradiction arise when we start discussing the case of general relativity where the observing coordinate systems are moving respect to each other with accelerations. In this case we derived reciprocal relative acceleration formulas from which follows, for example, that the inverse relative acceleration depends not just on direct relative velocity and direct relative acceleration, but it also depends at arbitrary observed particle's velocity, which for different observed particles can have different arbitrary values. We can say the same thing about the direct relative acceleration formula, which depends not just on inverse relative velocity and inverse relative acceleration, but it also depends on arbitrary observed particle velocity.
This exposed contradiction, which was existed in the legacy theory of relativity and just now was introduced in this volume B, we can perhaps compare to the beginning of 20-th century ultraviolet catastrophe for the black body radiation problem. But in those days, theoretical physicists faced problems head on, instead of hiding from them.
It is quite logical that the reciprocal relative accelerations of the mutual observing coordinate systems cannot be dependent on the arbitrary observed particle's velocities, but that reciprocal accelerations must depend only observing origins of coordinate systems corresponding relative velocities and relative accelerations. Therefore to solve this contradiction, we need to completely revise all concepts and interpretations about how we describe relative motions in time-space and how we define observed particle time-coordinates. Therefore we need rewrite whole theory of relativity at large, which we already accomplish in our new volume C (in Armenian).
In that new volume C we become victorious from this deep crisis in theoretical physics and we succeeded to build powerful "Armenian Theory of Time-Space" in one physical dimension and we will create it in three physical dimensions as well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1910.0344 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-24 03:46:45*

**Authors:** Mohammad Hadi Mohammadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper I have made a great discovery ,I realized there was space-time before the Big Bang, the universe was shrinking and dark energy was negative before big bang then the universe has been expanding after the Big Bang, Another prediction of this paper is that ordinary matter, which makes up 5 percent of the universe, was made before the big bang, and dark matter has been made after the big bang. The reason for these predictions is that I have put the essence of dark energy into Wilmore energy and made the dark matter equivalent to the Hawking mass. Dark matter has a mathematically imaginary nature whose physical interpretation can be that it can be in and out of space-time.An other discovery is Unveiling of fine-tuning problem[1].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1910.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-12 14:38:03*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 25 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

W artykule wyjaśnione zostało na podstawie Szczególnej Teorii Eteru zjawisko dylatacji czasu oraz zjawisko skrócenia Lorentza-FitzGeralda. Przedstawione wyjaśnienia polegają na konstrukcji nowatorskich technicznych modeli tych zjawisk, a nie jedynie na ich klasycznym opisie. Dylatacja czasu jest naturalną własnością czasu mierzonego zegarem świetlnym.
W artykule wykazano, że zjawisko dylatacji czasu jest dowodem istnienia uniwersalnego układu odniesienia, w którym propaguje oddziaływanie elektromagnetyczne.
W artykule wykazane zostało, że nie ma teoretycznych podstaw, aby twierdzić, że prędkość światła w próżni jest prędkością maksymalną. Przyjęcie takiej doktryny we współczesnej fizyce wynika z nadinterpretacji matematyki, na której opiera się Szczególna Teoria Względności.
Z przedstawionego modelu wynika to, w jaki sposób przy pomocy zegarów atomowych można wyznaczyć ruch względem uniwersalnego układu odniesienia, w którym propagują sygnały elektromagnetyczne. Z przedstawionego modelu wynika także, w jaki sposób można zmodyfikować eksperyment Michelsona-Morleya, aby być może był w stanie wykryć ruch względem eteru.
W artykule zostało wyjaśnione co to jest czas w teoriach kinematyki.
Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania prowadzone przez jego autora.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1910.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-17 04:28:13*

**Authors:** Halil Ibrahim Ay, Oktay Aydogdu, Musafa Salti

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this work, we study the polytropic gas (PG) cosmology in a d-dimensional (dD) form of the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) framework. In this context, we focus on the evolution of the
corresponding energy density as a first step. Next, we use the most recent data from the Type Ia
Supernova (SN Ia), observational values of the cosmic Hubble parameter (OHD) and the updated
Planck-results to place constraints on the free parameters defined in the model. We show that the
5D form of the scenario is more compatible with the recent observations. Moreover, according to
the best values of the auxiliary parameters, we compte age of the cosmos theoretically.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1910.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-17 04:32:57*

**Authors:** M. Salti, E. E. Kangal, O. Aydogdu

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Annals of Physics 407 (2019) 166–178

We mainly study a cosmological scenario represented by the variable Polytropic gas (VPG)
unified energy density proposal. To reach this aim, we start with reconstructing a variable form
of the original Polytropic gas (OPG) definition. We show that this model is a generalization of
the OPG, cosmological constant plus cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and two different Chaplygin gas
models. Later, we fit the auxiliary parameters given in the model and discuss essential cosmological
features of the VPG proposal. Besides, we compare the VPG with the OPG by focusing on recent
observational dataset given in literature including Planck 2018 results. We see that the VPG model
yields better results than the OPG description and it fits very well with the recent experimental
data. Moreover, we discuss some thermodynamical features of the VPG and conclude that the
model describes a thermodynamically stable system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1910.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-17 04:34:45*

**Authors:** Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu, Hilmi Yanar, Kenan Sogut

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Annals of Physics 390 (2018) 131–142

We construct the variable generalized Chaplygin gas (VGCG) defining a unified dark matterenergy
scenario and investigate its essential cosmological properties in a universe governed by
the Kaluza-Klein (KK) theory. A possible theoretical basis for the VGCG in the KK cosmology
is argued. Also, we check the validity of thermodynamical laws and reimpelement dynamics of
tachyons in the KK universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1910.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-17 04:36:03*

**Authors:** M. Salti, O. Aydogdu, A. Tas, K. Sogut, E. E. Kangal

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Can. J. Phys. 97: 117–124 (2019)

We investigate cosmological features of the variable Chaplygin gas (VCG) describing a unified
dark matter-energy scenario in a universe governed by the five dimensional (5D) Kaluza-Klein
(KK) gravity. In such a proposal, the VCG evolves as from the dust-like phase to the phantom
or the quintessence phases. It is concluded that the background evolution for the KK type VCG
definition is equivalent to that for the dark energy interacting with the dark matter. Next, after
performing neo-classical tests, we calculated the proper, luminosity and angular diameter distances.
Additionally, we construct a connection between the VCG in the KK universe and a homogenous
minimally coupled scalar field by introducing its self-interacting potential and also we confirm the
stability of the KK type VCG model by making use of thermodynamics. Moreover, we use data
from Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia), observational H(z) dataset (OHD) and Planck-2015 results to
place constraints on the model parameters. Subsequently, according to the best-fit values of the
model parameters we analyze our results numerically.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1910.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-17 04:37:45*

**Authors:** E. E. Kangal, M. Saltiy, O. Aydogdu

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Physics of the Dark Universe 26 (2019) 100369

In the present work, we mainly discuss the variable polytropic gas (VPG henceforth) proposal,
which is describing a self-gravitating gaseous sphere and can be considered as a crude approximation
for realistic stellar denitions, from a caloric perspective. In order to reach this aim, we start
with reconstructing the VPG model by making use of thermodynamics. And then, the auxiliary
parameters written in the proposal are tted by focusing on updated experimental dataset published
in literature. We also discuss the model in view of the statistical perspective and conclude that
the caloric VPG model (cVPG henceforth) is in good agreement with the recent astrophysical
observations. With the help of the statistical discussions, we see that the cVPG model is suitable for
the statistical cosmology and can be used to make useful predictions for the future of the universe
via the machine learning (ML henceforth) methods like the linear regression (LR henceforth)
algorithm. Moreover, according to the results, we also perform a rough estimation for the lifetime
of the universe and conclude that the cosmos will be torn apart after 51Gyr which means our
universe has spent 21 percent of its lifetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1910.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-17 08:27:28*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 162 Pages.

Yukawa Potential Energy

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1910.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-16 17:23:41*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the dynamics of the cores of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain the origin of the isotropic Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1910.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-15 16:12:44*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: A leptonic tau-antitau composite particle of presumably 3552 MeV mass was observed over 3 years ago. Later in 2017 I published about such a heavy dark neutrino particle, which I am here reexamining

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1910.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-14 10:46:06*

**Authors:** Richard Palkovac

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Dark energy - very simple explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1910.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-12 11:19:35*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Please contact me at genebarbee@msn.com

Flat galaxy rotation curves are unexpected observations. Differences between expectations and observations allow us to learn. Most cosmologists today attribute the difference between observed flat and calculated declining Newtonian velocity curves to dark matter despite decades of failed efforts to identify it.
This paper examines data for five galaxies. Physics for flat galaxy velocity curves is proposed that preserves Newtonian gravitation and explains the flat velocity profiles. The proposal shows that a known quantum effect that physicists call spin actually scales to the galactic scale. The calculation procedure is straightforward and matches data. Data for planets in our solar system is discussed. Dark matter is not required in this approach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1910.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-10 11:10:21*

**Authors:** P.J.E. Peebles

**Comments:** 312 Pages. in Russian

The proposed book is devoted to modern ideas about the physical processes occurring in the Universe, from the early stages of cosmological expansion to the modern era. High scientific level is combined with simplicity and accessibility of presentation . The author avoids cumbersome mathematical calculations, focusing on the physics of the problem. The book summarizes the research on cosmology, carried out recently around the world including in the USSR.
The great achievements of observational and theoretical cosmology in recent times have a General recognition value. An extremely wide range of readers will find in the proposed book answers to questions that concern mankind since time immemorial.
The book is a valuable tool for physicists and astronomers, both students and professionals, especially beginners in science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1910.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-09 20:35:31*

**Authors:** Lei Wang, Xuetao Gan, Qinyue Tan, Jinghui Xu, Diyi Chen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Physical laws in spacetime are commonly represented by tensors. However, it is possible to give a vector form to them, where the vectors follow quite simple rules of sum, product and commutation. We present here a self-contained vector algebra for relativistic spacetime, which is a simplification and generalization of geometric (Clifford) and spacetime algebras, and apply it to electromagnetic theory. We emphasize that the vector algebra is convenient to use and flexible enough to accommodate Euclidean geometry and the symmetries of relativistic spacetime, providing an excellent mathematical framework for physics in spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1910.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-09 23:13:58*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre propulsion system in
which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while reducing the energy, by an arbitrary value

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1910.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-09 07:06:07*

**Authors:** Horacio useche losada

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The erros of Stephen Hawking in his PhD Thesis

We present to the international scientific community a series of misprint and some mathematical mistake found
in Stephen Hawking's doctoral thesis, titled \Properties of Expanding Universe". These errors have been found as a
result of my translation work into Spanish of the aforementioned thesis

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1910.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-08 22:37:24*

**Authors:** Toshiro Takami

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

When I read the probabilities of quantum mechanics and general relativity, I was wondering why physicists do not have the general Japanese philosophy that thoughts are transmitted to the entire universe in an instant.
Perhaps it was an idea that I had personally as I traveled across various religions.
In quantum mechanics, it is a thought that “at the time of observation, there is an inexact interaction between two substances”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1910.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-08 11:21:01*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 27 Pages. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 83, pp. 12-30 (2019). doi: 10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILCPA.83.12

Within the framework of the theory of relativistic vector fields, the covariant expressions are presented for the equations of motion of the matter and the field. These expressions can be written either in terms of the field tensors, that is, the fields’ strengths and solenoidal vectors, or in terms the four-potentials, that is, the fields’ scalar and vector potentials. This state of things is due to the fact that the Lagrange function initially implied the complementarity of description in terms of the strengths and the field potentials. It is shown that the equation for the fields, obtained by taking the covariant derivative in the equation for the metric, has a deeper meaning than the ordinary equation of motion of the matter, found with the help of the principle of least action. In particular, the above-mentioned equation for the fields leads to the generalized Poynting theorem, and after integration over the volume it allows us to introduce for consideration the integral vector as a measure of the energy and the fields’ energy fluxes, associated with a system of particles and fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1910.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-08 12:30:58*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Middle East Journal of Science, Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 46-62 (2019). doi: 10.23884/mejs.2019.5.1.06

The total energy, binding energy, energy of fields, pressure energy and the potential energy of the system consisting of particles and four fields is precisely calculated in the relativistic uniform model. These energies are compared with the kinetic energy of particles. The relations between the coefficients of the acceleration field and the pressure field independent of the system’s properties are found, which can be expressed in terms of each other and in terms of the gravitational constant and the vacuum permittivity. A noticeable difference is shown between the obtained results and the relations for simple systems in classical mechanics, in which the acceleration field and pressure field are not taken into account or the pressure is considered to be a simple scalar quantity. The conclusion is substantiated that as increasingly massive relativistic uniform systems are formed, the average density of these systems decreases as compared to the average density of the particles or bodies making up these systems. In this case the inertial mass of the massive system is less than the total inertial mass of the system’s parts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1910.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-19 14:43:01*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-4 and Italian, pages 5-8

The observations show that the apparent brightness of type Ia supernovae with high redshift, is about 25% lower than that expected. Which, according to the present article, shows that the cosmological redshift cannot indicate the expansion of space.
So since Special Relativity is compatible with the cosmological redshift only if it indicates the expansion of space, the demonstration that does not indicate it, prove that Special Relativity is not compatible with the cosmological redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1910.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-07 21:11:27*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** Pages.

ABSTRACT
Unfortunately, this theory contradicts a theory of someone I greatly admire; Stephen Hawking. I emailed him a few questions in the past, that I thought only he could answer!
This theory assumes that:-
#1 Quantum tunneling, negative energy, mass or particles does not exist when it comes to “particle emission” from “WITHIN a black hole”.
#2 Matter-energy cannot be created or destroyed.
#3 Matter-energy cannot be emitted from WITHIN the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole.
#4 Electro-magnetic radiation cannot be emitted from WITHIN the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole.
#5 Gravity cannot be created or destroyed.
#6 Gravity can be “emitted” from WITHIN the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole.
#7 Information (from information theory) cannot be created or destroyed.
#8 Information (from information theory) can be “emitted” from WITHIN the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole.
#9 Electrons & positrons are EMITTED from the energy just outside the event horizon of the black hole! (Only half of the “energy that is converted to mass” is EMITTED. The other half is ADDED TO THE MASS OF THE BLACK HOLE!)
#10 A black hole GAINS MASS from the energy just outside the event horizon, whilst “emitting” electrons & protons!
#11 The only “entropy energy” that is “allowed” to be “emitted” from WITHIN the 3 space-dimensional event horizon of a black hole is gravitational energy!
#12 Black holes “emit gravitational energy”! This “emitted radiation” should reduce the mass of a black hole!
#13 To create an electron-positron pair there would be minimum values required for these values:- (a) amount of energy; (b) energy density; (c) energy density gradient.
#14 The matter spiraling in towards the black hole could continue inwards, through the event horizon, looking like a hurricane.
#15 The “eye of the storm” of the black hole could be “mostly mass free”; i. e. the central “singularity” could be mostly “mostly mass free”.
#16 The “lumpiness” of matter just inside a galactic black hole’s event horizon could be measured by the “gravity probes” of changes in the orbital movements of its nearby stars.
#17 The “gravity probe analysis” of the masses moving within the black holes, would also reveal their angular momentum.
#18 Our universe could come from the collapse of a “super-super star” in a previous universe, transferring “our mass & energy”, through its event horizon, into our universe!
#19 The transfer would start quickly, proceed quickly, end quickly, when the “pre-universe’s star” ran out of matter- energy around its event horizon, or our universe expanded beyond the “pre-universe’s star’s” “energy-matter region” outside its event horizon! The “matter-energy” transferred would be very homogeneous , leading to the very even cosmic microwave background radiation that we see today!
#20 absolute measurements are where only “one measurement” is needed for “a measurement”
e. g. mass, charge, temperature.
#21 relative measurements are where “two measurements” are needed for “a measurement”; it needs a start & stop to create “a measurement”
#22 The pre-universe star’s universe properties – could have absolute measurements of matter-energy (& maybe 1 space dimension & 2 time dimensions that were “incompatible with our space & time dimensions)
#23 Our universe, before the merger, could have been balanced with 3 space dimensions & 3 time dimensions.
#24 The merger then ADDED 1 “different” space dimension (only evidence; gravity sidesteps the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole & our universe is expanding like a 4 dimensional sphere (all points see the same expansion!
#25 In the merger of the time dimensions, the two time dimensions from the “pre-universe star’s universe” cancelled out or destroyed two of our three dimensions of time!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1910.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-07 06:54:43*

**Authors:** ssor Vladimir Leonov

**Comments:** 7 Pages, 6 Figure.

In 1996, I introduced the quantum of space-time (quanton) into theoretical physics in the form of electromagnetic quadrupole. It was a particle unknown in science before. Quanton is a carrier of superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI). This is the fifth fundamental interaction in nature unknown before. SEI unites four fundamental interactions: gravitation, electromagnetism, nuclear and electroweak forces. Quanton and SIA are the basis of the fundamental theory of Superunification [2]. Quanton is a four-dimensional particle that forms the electromagnetic structure of Einstein’s four-dimensional space-time. SIA is a hidden form of the global energy field of the Universe, which is characterized by a gravitational potential equal to the square of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1910.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-06 13:28:48*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

The conservation of mass in inertial reference frame is a property of the conservation law of momentum.
The inelastic collision between two identical objects shows that the total momentum is zero in the COM frame (center of mass).
In another inertial reference frame, the rest frame of one object before collision,
the total momentum before the collision is equal to the total momentum
after the collision. This conservation of momentum shows that the mass of an object is also conserved in all inertial
reference frames. The mass of a moving object is independent of its velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1910.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-06 15:03:36*

**Authors:** Kathleen A. Rosser

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Interest in general relativistic treatments of thin matter shells has flourished over recent decades, most notably in connection with astrophysical and cosmological applications such as black hole matter accretion, spherical wormholes, bubble universes, and cosmic domain walls. In the present paper, an asymptotically exact solution to Einstein's field equations for static ultra-thin spherical shells is derived using a continuous matter density distribution ρ(r) defined over all space. The matter density is modeled as a product of surface density μ0 and a continuous or broadened spherical delta function. Continuity over the full domain 0<r<∞ ensures unambiguous determination of both the metric and coordinates across the shell wall, obviating the need to patch interior and exterior solutions using junction conditions. A unique change of variable allows integration with asymptotic precision. It is found that ultra-thin shells smaller than the Schwarzschild radius can be used to model supermassive black holes believed to lie at the centers of galaxies, possibly accounting for the flattening of the galactic rotation curve as described by Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). Concentric ultra-thin shells may also be used for discrete sampling of arbitrary spherical mass distributions with applications in cosmology. Ultra-thin shells are shown to exhibit constant interior time dilation. The exterior solution matches the Schwarzschild metric. General black shell horizons, and singularities are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1910.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-26 22:42:40*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Relativity claims that the simultaneity between two (or more) observers, each traveling in different Inertial Reference Frames (IRFs) is such that “Both observers consider the clock of the other as running slower”. This is shown on a Minkowski diagram in the section titled “Time dilation” on the Wikipedia page given in my Reference [2]. However, as I will explain, this interpretation leads to an inconsistency which cannot be true. I point out the error being made in the interpretation of Minkowski diagrams that leads to this inconsistency, and how the diagram should be interpreted to correct this error.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1910.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-02 09:29:11*

**Authors:** Vigneswaran Ramamoorthy

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

For the collided region of two gravitationally bound structures A and B, geodesic equation is derived using calculus of variations. With the help of geodesic equation derived for the collided region of A and B, a method to calculate any possible curvature of universe beyond observable flat universe is detailed. This relativistic method is used to describe a generic idea on the evolution of gravitationally bound structures and its effect on the evolution of universe. Using this idea, distribution of matter and antimatter in the universe, observed accelerating expansion of universe, cosmic inflation, and large-scale structure of present universe are explained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology