[16] **viXra:1910.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-14 10:46:06*

**Authors:** Richard Palkovac

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Dark energy - very simple explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1910.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-12 11:19:35*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Please contact me at genebarbee@msn.com

Flat galaxy rotation curves are unexpected observations. Differences between expectations and observations allow us to learn. Most cosmologists today attribute the difference between observed flat and calculated declining Newtonian velocity curves to dark matter despite decades of failed efforts to identify it.
This paper examines data for five galaxies. Physics for flat galaxy velocity curves is proposed that preserves Newtonian gravitation and explains the flat velocity profiles. The proposal shows that a known quantum effect that physicists call spin actually scales to the galactic scale. The calculation procedure is straightforward and matches data. Data for planets in our solar system is discussed. Dark matter is not required in this approach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1910.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-10 11:10:21*

**Authors:** P.J.E. Peebles

**Comments:** 312 Pages. in Russian

The proposed book is devoted to modern ideas about the physical processes occurring in the Universe, from the early stages of cosmological expansion to the modern era. High scientific level is combined with simplicity and accessibility of presentation . The author avoids cumbersome mathematical calculations, focusing on the physics of the problem. The book summarizes the research on cosmology, carried out recently around the world including in the USSR.
The great achievements of observational and theoretical cosmology in recent times have a General recognition value. An extremely wide range of readers will find in the proposed book answers to questions that concern mankind since time immemorial.
The book is a valuable tool for physicists and astronomers, both students and professionals, especially beginners in science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1910.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-09 20:35:31*

**Authors:** Lei Wang, Xuetao Gan, Qinyue Tan, Jinghui Xu, Diyi Chen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Physical laws in spacetime are commonly represented by tensors. However, it is possible to give a vector form to them, where the vectors follow quite simple rules of sum, product and commutation. We present here a self-contained vector algebra for relativistic spacetime, which is a simplification and generalization of geometric (Clifford) and spacetime algebras, and apply it to electromagnetic theory. We emphasize that the vector algebra is convenient to use and flexible enough to accommodate Euclidean geometry and the symmetries of relativistic spacetime, providing an excellent mathematical framework for physics in spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1910.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-09 23:13:58*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre propulsion system in
which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while reducing the energy, by an arbitrary value

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1910.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-09 07:06:07*

**Authors:** Horacio useche losada

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The erros of Stephen Hawking in his PhD Thesis

We present to the international scientific community a series of misprint and some mathematical mistake found
in Stephen Hawking's doctoral thesis, titled \Properties of Expanding Universe". These errors have been found as a
result of my translation work into Spanish of the aforementioned thesis

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1910.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-08 22:37:24*

**Authors:** Toshiro Takami

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

When I read the probabilities of quantum mechanics and general relativity, I was wondering why physicists do not have the general Japanese philosophy that thoughts are transmitted to the entire universe in an instant.
Perhaps it was an idea that I had personally as I traveled across various religions.
In quantum mechanics, it is a thought that “at the time of observation, there is an inexact interaction between two substances”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1910.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-08 11:21:01*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 27 Pages. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 83, pp. 12-30 (2019). doi: 10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILCPA.83.12

Within the framework of the theory of relativistic vector fields, the covariant expressions are presented for the equations of motion of the matter and the field. These expressions can be written either in terms of the field tensors, that is, the fields’ strengths and solenoidal vectors, or in terms the four-potentials, that is, the fields’ scalar and vector potentials. This state of things is due to the fact that the Lagrange function initially implied the complementarity of description in terms of the strengths and the field potentials. It is shown that the equation for the fields, obtained by taking the covariant derivative in the equation for the metric, has a deeper meaning than the ordinary equation of motion of the matter, found with the help of the principle of least action. In particular, the above-mentioned equation for the fields leads to the generalized Poynting theorem, and after integration over the volume it allows us to introduce for consideration the integral vector as a measure of the energy and the fields’ energy fluxes, associated with a system of particles and fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1910.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-08 12:30:58*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Middle East Journal of Science, Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 46-62 (2019). doi: 10.23884/mejs.2019.5.1.06

The total energy, binding energy, energy of fields, pressure energy and the potential energy of the system consisting of particles and four fields is precisely calculated in the relativistic uniform model. These energies are compared with the kinetic energy of particles. The relations between the coefficients of the acceleration field and the pressure field independent of the system’s properties are found, which can be expressed in terms of each other and in terms of the gravitational constant and the vacuum permittivity. A noticeable difference is shown between the obtained results and the relations for simple systems in classical mechanics, in which the acceleration field and pressure field are not taken into account or the pressure is considered to be a simple scalar quantity. The conclusion is substantiated that as increasingly massive relativistic uniform systems are formed, the average density of these systems decreases as compared to the average density of the particles or bodies making up these systems. In this case the inertial mass of the massive system is less than the total inertial mass of the system’s parts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1910.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-08 14:07:01*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-3 and Italian, pages 4-6

The observations show that the apparent brightness of type Ia supernovae is about 25% lower than that expected. Which would shows that the speed of expansion of the Universe is accelerating.
But with this paper I will show that, instead, it shows that the formula is not correct, because it considers the cosmological redshift as a factor of expansion of space, while it is not.
And since the cosmological redshift is considered as the factor of expansion of the Universe, to respect what say the Special Relativity, the demonstration that it cannot be, does not prove that the theory is not compatible with the apparent brightness of distant celestial objects?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1910.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-07 21:11:27*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** Pages.

ABSTRACT
Unfortunately, this theory contradicts a theory of someone I greatly admire; Stephen Hawking. I emailed him a few questions in the past, that I thought only he could answer!
This theory assumes that:-
#1 Quantum tunnelling, negative energy, mass or particles does not exist when it comes to “particle emission” from “WITHIN a black hole”.
#2 Matter-energy cannot be created or destroyed.
#3 Matter-energy cannot be emitted from the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole.
#4 Electro-magnetic radiation cannot be emitted from the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole.
#5 Gravity cannot be created or destroyed.
#6 Gravity can be emitted from the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole.
#7 Information (from information theory) cannot be created or destroyed.
#8 Information (from information theory) can be emitted from the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole.
#9 Electrons & positrons are EMITTED from the energy just outside the event horizon of the black hole! (Only half of the “energy that is converted to mass” is EMITTED. The other half is ADDED TO THE MASS OF THE BLACK HOLE!)
#10 A black hole GAINS MASS from the energy just outside the event horizon, whilst “emitting” electrons & protons!
#11 The only “entropy energy” that is “allowed” to be emitted from the 3 space-dimensional event horizon of a black hole is gravitational energy!
#12 Black holes “emit gravitational energy”! This “emitted radiation” should reduce the mass of a black hole!
#13 To create an electron-positron pair there would be minimum values required for these values:- (a) amount of energy; (b) energy density; (c) energy density gradient.
#14 The matter spiralling in towards the black hole could continue inwards, through the event horizon, looking like a hurricane.
#15 The “eye of the storm” of the black hole could be “mostly mass free”.
#16 The “lumpiness” of matter just inside a galactic black hole’s event horizon could be measured by the “gravity probes” of changes in the orbital movements of its nearby stars.
#17 The “gravity probe analysis” of the masses moving within the black holes, would also reveal their angular momentum.
#18 Our universe could come from the collapse of a “super-super star” in a previous universe, transferring “our mass & energy”, through its event horizon, into our universe!
#19 The transfer would start quickly, proceed quickly, end quickly, when the “pre-universe’s star” ran out of matter- energy around its event horizon, or our universe expanded beyond the “pre-universe’s star’s” “energy-matter region” outside its event horizon! The “matter-energy” transferred would be very homogeneous , leading to the very even cosmic microwave background radiation!
#20 absolute measurements are where only “one measurement” is needed for “a measurement”
e. g. mass, charge, temperature.
#21 relative measurements are where “two measurements” are needed for “a measurement”; it needs a start & stop to create “a measurement”
#22 The pre-universe star’s universe properties – could have absolute measurements of matter-energy (& maybe 1 space dimension & 2 time dimensions that were “incompatible with our space & time dimensions)
#23 Our universe, before the merger, could have been balanced with 3 space dimensions & 3 time dimensions.
#24 The merger then ADDED 1 “different” space dimension (only evidence; gravity sidesteps the 3 dimensional event horizon of a black hole & our universe is expanding like a 4 dimensional sphere (all points see the same expansion!
#25 In the merger of the time dimensions, the two time dimensions from the “pre-universe star’s universe” cancelled out or destroyed two of our three dimensions of time!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1910.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-07 06:54:43*

**Authors:** ssor Vladimir Leonov

**Comments:** 7 Pages, 6 Figure.

In 1996, I introduced the quantum of space-time (quanton) into theoretical physics in the form of electromagnetic quadrupole. It was a particle unknown in science before. Quanton is a carrier of superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI). This is the fifth fundamental interaction in nature unknown before. SEI unites four fundamental interactions: gravitation, electromagnetism, nuclear and electroweak forces. Quanton and SIA are the basis of the fundamental theory of Superunification [2]. Quanton is a four-dimensional particle that forms the electromagnetic structure of Einstein’s four-dimensional space-time. SIA is a hidden form of the global energy field of the Universe, which is characterized by a gravitational potential equal to the square of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1910.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-06 13:28:48*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

The conservation of mass in inertial reference frame is a property of the conservation law of momentum.
The inelastic collision between two identical objects shows that the total momentum is zero in the COM frame (center of mass).
In another inertial reference frame, the rest frame of one object before collision,
the total momentum before the collision is equal to the total momentum
after the collision. This conservation of momentum shows that the mass of an object is also conserved in all inertial
reference frames. The mass of a moving object is independent of its velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1910.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-06 15:03:36*

**Authors:** Kathleen A. Rosser

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Interest in general relativistic treatments of thin matter shells has flourished over recent decades, most notably in connection with astrophysical and cosmological applications such as black hole matter accretion, spherical wormholes, bubble universes, and cosmic domain walls. In the present paper, an asymptotically exact solution to Einstein's field equations for static ultra-thin spherical shells is derived using a continuous matter density distribution ρ(r) defined over all space. The matter density is modeled as a product of surface density μ0 and a continuous or broadened spherical delta function. Continuity over the full domain 0<r<∞ ensures unambiguous determination of both the metric and coordinates across the shell wall, obviating the need to patch interior and exterior solutions using junction conditions. A unique change of variable allows integration with asymptotic precision. It is found that ultra-thin shells smaller than the Schwarzschild radius can be used to model supermassive black holes believed to lie at the centers of galaxies, possibly accounting for the flattening of the galactic rotation curve as described by Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). Concentric ultra-thin shells may also be used for discrete sampling of arbitrary spherical mass distributions with applications in cosmology. Ultra-thin shells are shown to exhibit constant interior time dilation. The exterior solution matches the Schwarzschild metric. General black shell horizons, and singularities are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1910.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-06 02:49:44*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Relativity claims that the simultaneity between two (or more) observers, each traveling in different Inertial Reference Frames (IRFs) is such that “Both observers consider the clock of the other as running slower”. This is shown on a Minkowski diagram in the section titled “Time dilation” on the Wikipedia page given in my Reference [2]. However, as I will explain, this interpretation leads to an inconsistency which cannot be true. I point out the error being made in the interpretation of Minkowski diagrams that leads to this inconsistency, and how the diagram should be interpreted to correct this error.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1910.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-02 09:29:11*

**Authors:** Vigneswaran Ramamoorthy

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

For the collided region of two gravitationally bound structures A and B, geodesic equation is derived using calculus of variations. With the help of geodesic equation derived for the collided region of A and B, a method to calculate any possible curvature of universe beyond observable flat universe is detailed. This relativistic method is used to describe a generic idea on the evolution of gravitationally bound structures and its effect on the evolution of universe. Using this idea, distribution of matter and antimatter in the universe, observed accelerating expansion of universe, cosmic inflation, and large-scale structure of present universe are explained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology