[22] **viXra:1903.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-22 13:21:21*

**Authors:** D.H.W. Reffer

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The General Theory of Relativity now retires to history.

Henceforth the fact is admitted as an axiom that all bodies in the universe set up gravitationally the universe’s optical medium, named gravitational ether, whose strength is the sum of all relative-velocity dependent gravitational potentials, from which we derive its index of refraction, that
therefore is both nonuniform in space and changes in time as bodies move.
Keywords: gravitational ether; ether refraction index.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1903.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-21 22:01:37*

**Authors:** Tom Fuchs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Herein I derive a new metric for Schwarzschild geometry that doesn't predict black holes, thus is compatible with quantum mechanics re black holes and their singularities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1903.0389 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-23 14:55:13*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to verify the
conservation of momentum in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and
during the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1903.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-20 17:13:08*

**Authors:** Hristu Culetu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A correlation between mass and a compact 5th dimension is proposed. The 5th coordinate appears to represent the gravitational radius of the black hole. The source of curvature of the spacetime turns out to be an anisotropic null fluid with no energy density and isotropic pressure but nonzero energy flux and anisotropic pressures.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1903.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-19 10:55:21*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page. See recent paper by Bruce Wallman in ViXra cosmology and relativety

Abstract: The problem of the Hubble constant being so large that the universe is seemingly in danger of collapse is solved by the heavy Majorana neutrino proposed in MHCE8S theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1903.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-19 10:44:34*

**Authors:** Nathaniel Julian

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

While general relativity provides an accurate description of spacetime and gravitational forces and effects, it does not provide a mechanism for gravity itself. By explaining the mechanism of gravitational force as a resistance of massive and high energy objects to the observed accelerating expansion of the universe, we simplify and provide a model that does not rely on unobserved particles or other hypothetical factors while staying in agreement with general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1903.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-17 17:15:00*

**Authors:** Bruce Wallman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The value for the “Hubble constant” is referred to as the Hubble value in this paper. Hv is dealt with herein just as Edwin Hubble developed it in the 1920’s. However, Hubble drew a straight line through his points assuming that there might be a straight line relationship between expansion or recessional velocity and proper distance. This assumption is no longer correct since Riess and Perlmutter showed with better data that there is a slight acceleration or increase in the velocity of expansion especially in the past several billion light-years. Given the data available today this paper does not assume a straight line relationship between recessional velocity and distance. It proves that this relationship is a power series with a slight downward bend. There is an open question in cosmology as of 2018 about the significance of the difference between the 2016 Planck collaboration value H0=66.93±0.62 km/s/Mpc and the 2016 Riess et al value H0=73.24±1.74 km/s/Mpc. This paper shows that both the Planck collaboration and Riess et al values are likely correct. Tracing the cosmological redshift z from SN1a several thousand megaparsecs in the past to those that exploded closer to today describes an increase in our perception of Hv as distance to us lessens. A best fit power function of vr=73.586*Dp-0.9909 (where vr is recessional velocity and Dp is proper distance) for recessional velocity versus distance is derived connecting these two values of H0 using 1836 SN1a data points in the NED database3. Taking a Hubble derivative of this formula gives the power function Hv=dvr/dDp= 72.85014*Dp -0.01. This formula describes a change of over 5 km/s/Mpc in the Hubble value for the observable universe increasing smoothly from 66.8 to over 71.6 km/s/Mpc as the universe expands with most of the increase occurring in the last 1000 Mpc. This is consistent with the ΛCDM cosmology which gives an expansion to the observable universe that accelerates in the most recent several billion light-years4. The values 66.8 and 71.6 km/s/Mpc derived in this paper are affected by assumptions for the values of omega matter and omega lambda and are not meant to be taken as final numbers. They are calculated to show that there is a legitimate connection between the Planck collaboration and Riess et al values for H0. Furthermore, by converting distance in megaparsecs to light-seconds, it is possible to show Hv is an acceleration that varies from 6.47 angstrom/s/s at the distance of the CMB to 6.93 angstrom/s/s in the local vicinity of the visible universe (approximately 8 Mpc) where the Hubble flow breaks down due to local gravity. This depiction of Hv as an acceleration is helpful in envisioning what we have learned from the Riess and Perlmutter SN1a studies versus the WMAP and Planck probes dating from 1998 to today.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1903.0312 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-17 19:06:59*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Cosmology Fundamental Theorem is established based on Total Relativity and the total energy conservation of nature, using the testable consequences of the cosmological principle of isotropy and homogeneity and incorporating a new testable consequence, the redshift temporal on a large scale. It is shown that Cosmology must be cyclical.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1903.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-15 11:16:54*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The mass of the neutron can be calculated simply yet accurately in MHCE8S theory by a method I outline in this note.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1903.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-14 08:22:56*

**Authors:** Ho Dong Jo, Chol Song Kim

**Comments:** 60 Pages.

We presented the difficulties of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory and Einstein’s gravitational theory in detail, established a new unified theory of field including consistent electromagnetic theory and gravitational theory on the basis of new starting postulates, and applied these theoretical methods to quantum electrodynamics. We accepted a new geometrical space in which metric tensor and all main physical functions become implicit functions, called “KR space” consistent to our starting postulates, and normalization of implicit functions in order to give physical meanings to all physical functions of implicit forms defined in this space. As a result, we naturally unraveled problem of radiation reaction, a historical difficult problem of Maxwell-Lorentz electromagnetic theory, built new quantum electrodynamics without renormalization procedure followed by quantum gravitational theory and also predicted new theoretical results which could not find in traditional theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1903.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-14 10:41:54*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A bi-metric formalism is introduced to describe two bodies gravitational interaction using Whitehead's version of Schwarzschhild's original solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1903.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-14 16:02:21*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Quasi-Steady State Cosmology (QSSC) posits a continuous creation at the center of galaxies. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) posits the components of the universe have a creation and an end. A Sink at the center of elliptical galaxies is added to the Source of the QSSC at the center of Spiral galaxies. This allows the explanation of many more anomalous cosmological observations and allows correspondence with quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1903.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-14 04:13:07*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The accelerated expansion of Universe is caused by the Universal antigravity force, with which the Hubble’s Law is proved. The black holes are
sustainable matter forms of the dynamic space that cannot disappear, because of the particulate antigravity force that prevents the further gravitational collapse. The inverse electric-nuclear field causes the nuclear forces, namely the strong nuclear force and the nuclear antigravity one, on which the architecture of the nuclei model is based.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1903.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-11 11:12:05*

**Authors:** Timoteo Briet Blanes

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

If you want to explain how the Universe works, it is necessary to know how the clusters of matter that originate the galaxies and the clusters of galaxies that originate the large-scale geometry of the Universe are formed. On the other hand, it is also necessary to know the mechanisms by which galaxies evolve and interact among them, and also, what the process for mater aggregation are. Finally, it is also necessary, therefore, an explanation of dark matter in terms of properties and not its composition, since it is a majority part of the matter of the Universe. A series of mechanisms and numerical models are established, which explain all this.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1903.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-10 12:45:13*

**Authors:** Attilio Colombo

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The intent of this work is to present a discussion of the Galilean Principle of Relativity and of its implications for what concerns the characteristics of light propagation and the nature of simultaneity. It is shown that by using a clock synchronization procedure that makes use of isotropically propagating signals of generic nature, the simultaneity of distinct events can be established in a unique way by different observers, also when such observers are in relative motion between themselves. Such absolute nature of simultaneity is preserved in the passage from a stationary to a moving reference frame also when a set of isochronous generalized coordinates is introduced. These transformations of coordinates can be considered as a generalization of the Lorentz transformations to the case of synchronization signals having characteristic speed different from the speed of light in vacuum. The specific invariance properties of these coordinate transformations with respect to the characteristic speed of propagation of the synchronization signals and of the corresponding constitutive laws of the underlying physical phenomenon are also presented, leading to a different interpretation of their physical meaning with respect to the commonly accepted interpretation of the Lorentz transformation as a space-time distortion. On the basis of these results, the emission hypothesis of W. Ritz, that assumes that light is always emitted with the same relative speed with respect to its source and that is therefore fully consistent with the Galilean Principle of Relativity, is then applied to justify the outcomes of the Michelson-Morley and Fizeau interferometric experiments by introducing, for the latter case, an additional hypothesis regarding the possible influence of turbulence on the refractive index of the fluid. Finally, a test case to verify the validity of either the Galilean or the Relativistic velocity composition rule is presented. The test is based on the aberration of the light coming from celestial objects and on the analysis of the results obtained by applying the two different formulas for the resultant velocity vector to process the data of the observed positions, as measured by a moving observer, in order to determine the actual un-aberrated location of the source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1903.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-10 22:05:00*

**Authors:** Gaurav kumar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This pdf file is in hindi language

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1903.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-08 14:23:31*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The mysterious dimensionless constant 273.55488 signals that two new up and down quarks exist which accurately form neutrons: this makes 8 types of quark in all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1903.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-09 05:00:16*

**Authors:** Wikipedia

**Comments:** 19 Pages. In Russian

String theory is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the dynamics of interaction not of point particles, but of one-dimensional extended objects, the so-called quantum strings. String theory combines the ideas of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity, so it may be based on the future theory of quantum gravity.
Тео́рия струн — направление теоретической физики, изучающее динамику взаимодействия не точечных частиц, а одномерных протяжённых объектов, так называемых квантовых струн. Теория струн сочетает в себе идеи квантовой механики и теории относительности, поэтому на её основе, возможно, будет построена будущая теория квантовой гравитации.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1903.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-05 07:24:07*

**Authors:** Warren Tancock

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

General Relativity describes gravity as objects following straight paths through curved spacetime but this could equally be applied to acceleration in the absence of gravity. An object following a straight path through curved spacetime is physically equivalent to an object following a curved path through flat spacetime, either way the object is following a curved path through spacetime. Energy causes an outward negative curvature and mass causes an inwards positive curvature and because of the high energy to mass equivalence ratio, gravity is a comparatively weak force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1903.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-04 02:45:32*

**Authors:** Özgen Ersan

**Comments:** 4 Pages. If some factors are neglected, analyses may generate mystic inferences.

The present scientific paradigm does not allow cosmological analysis because of the non-simultaneity of data. However, a cosmological analysis was realized through a new method (the concept of Light Coordinate System). This new method also indicates that the theory of special relativity and light kinematics can be revised and improved to become more functional and useful. In this article, the essence and details of important/supplement factors (especially considering: the types of relativity, sequential chain of reference systems, prioritizing the method of co-reference frame, and relational holism) are explained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1903.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-02 12:00:36*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

At least one observational study has claimed that Newton's gravitational constant seems to vary with the direction relative to the fixed stars, see [1]. We think this is unlikely, but such experiments should be repeated or at least investigated further. If it is the case that gravity is directionally dependent, then how could this be explained, and how could/should our gravity formulas be modified?
In this paper, we introduce an anisotropic big G that is dependent on the direction relative to the fixed stars, and therefore on a given location on Earth, dependent on the Earth's rotation. A series of experiments claim to have found the anisotropic one-way speed of light when getting around Einstein-Poincare synchronization, although they have not received a great deal of attention. We do not question that the one-way speed of light is isotropic when measured with Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks. We hypothesize here that gravity moves with the speed of light and that the true one-way speed of gravity is anisotropic. Based on this, we get an anisotropic gravitational ``constant," which, if calibrated to one-way light experiments, is inside two standard deviations of error as given by CODATA.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1903.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-03 05:25:27*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In special relativity, we operate with length contraction and length transformation; these are not the same thing even though they are related. In addition, we have time dilation and time transformation. However, when it comes to mass, we have only relativistic mass and no mass transformation. We will suggest here, based on a better understanding of mass at the quantum level, that there must also be a Lorentz mass transformation. Recent research strongly indicates that mass is directly linked to the Compton wavelength of the particle in question and since we can operate with both length contraction and length transformation, this means we should have corresponding masses. Length contraction of the Compton wavelength corresponds to what is known today as relativistic mass, while length transformation means we also need mass transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology