[10] **viXra:1004.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 91 Pages. This work was sent to arXiv.org as arXiv:0710.0924 in 4 October 2007 to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Space Race and the launch of the Sputnik I (4 October 1957).
It suffered major modifications in order to be accepted for publication. Versions #1 and #2 can be considered as a different paper from versions #3 and #4
It was published in the book Space Exploration Research Chapter IX from Nova Scientific Publishers ISBN 978-1-60692-264-4 2009.
It was also published in the Volume 14 Issue 3-4 (Journal of Magnetohydrodynamics, Plasma and Space Research) ISSN: 1083-4729
The published versions are the #3 and #4 from
arXiv.org - The versions #1 and #2 contains a mathematical description about how to solve the pathologies of the Einstein Field Equation known as the Superluminal Alcubierre Warp Drive.
It also contains a Memorial to Serguei Pavlovitch Korolev(the creator of the Sputnik I) and a Memorial to all the Cosmonauts and Astronauts that died in Outer Space in the spaceships Soyuz I,Soyuz XI,Apollo I,Challenger and Columbia…the first 50 years of the Space Race
We feel that this work in the unpublished version #1 and #2 deserves to be placed on viXra as a valid paper to overcome the limitations of the Superluminal Alcubierre Warp Drive Spacetime specially the part of the Horizons and the causally disconnected portions of the Spacetime inside the Warp Drive bubble.We use something that resembles the Apollo spacecrafts
This version is exactly equal without changes to the version #2 stored in arXiv.org
This paper was inspired in a TV series from the British Broadcasting Corporation called "The Space Race"

We use the 5D Extra Dimensional Force according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon,
Overduin-Wesson and Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Formalisms to study the behaviour of the Chung-Freese Superluminal
BraneWorld compared to the Alcubierre Warp Drive and we arrive at some interesting results from the
point of view of the Alcubierre ansatz although we used two different Shape Functions one continuous
g(rs) as an alternative to the original Alcubierre f(rs) and a Piecewise Shape Function fpc(rs) with
a behaviour similar to the Natario Warp Drive. We introduce here the Casimir Warp Drive.We also
demonstrate that in flat 5D Minkowsky Spacetime or weak Gravitational Fields we cannot tell if we
live in a 5D or a 4D Universe according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon,Overduin-Wesson and
Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Dimensional Reduction but in the extreme conditions of Strong Gravitational
Fields we demonstrate that the effects of the 5D Extra Dimension becomes visible and perhaps the
study of the extreme conditions in Black Holes can tell if we live in a Higher Dimensional Universe.We
use a 5D Maartens-Clarkson Schwarzschild Cosmic Black String centered in the Sun coupled to the
5D Extra Force from Ponce De Leon together with Mashoon-Wesson-Liu and the definitions of
Basini-Capozziello and Bertolami-Paramos for the Warp Fields in order to demonstrate that the Anomalous
Effect disturbing two American space probes known as the Pioneer Anomaly is a force of 5D Extra
Dimensional Nature.As a matter of fact the Pioneer Anomaly is the first experimental evidence of the
"Fifth Force" predicted years ago by Mashoon-Wesson-Liu and we also demonstrate that this Extra
Force is coming from the Sun.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1004.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 3 pages

Arxiv:1004.2901 exposes a chink in the armor.
It seems that joining general relativity with quantum
mechanics is like trying to fit a square peg in a
round hole. Obviously there's something terribly
wrong with one of the theories. Since quantum
mechanics has been far too successful in too many
areas, it is felt general relativity has to go.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1004.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
4 pages, one figure. Actual ( minus the address ) submission for the following conference :
extended abstract of 4 pages for possibly being placed in C. Corda's section namely , "Second Big Challenge Symposium - The Big Challenge of
Cosmological Understanding: Gravitation, Dark Matter and Dark Energy.
Towards New Scenarios" during the 8th International Conference of
Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics, at Hotel Rodos Palace,
Rhodes, Greece, 19-25 September 2010.

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe in five
dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis upon if five dimensional geometries as given below give us new physical
insight as to cosmological evolution. We postulate that a calculated inflaton φ(t) may re-emerge after fading out in the
aftermath of inflation. The inflaton may be a contributing factor to, with non zero graviton mass, in re acceleration of the
universe a billion years ago. Many theorists assume that the inflaton is the source of entropy. The inflaton also may be
the source of re acceleration of the universe, especially if the effects of a re emergent inflaton are in tandem with the
appearance of macro effects of a small graviton mass, leading to a speed up of the rate of expansion of the universe one
billion years ago, at red shift value of Z ~ .423

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1004.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
4 pages, 1 figure. extended abstract of 3-4 pages for possibly being placed in C. Corda's
section namely , "Second Big Challenge Symposium - The Big Challenge of
Cosmological Understanding: Gravitation, Dark Matter and Dark Energy.
Towards New Scenarios" during the 8th International Conference of
Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics, at Hotel Rodos Palace,
Rhodes, Greece, 19-25 September 2010.

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe
in five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis upon if five dimensional geometries as given
below give us new physical insight as to cosmological evolution. One noticeable datum, that a
calculated inflaton φ(t) re-emerged after fading out in the aftermath of inflation. The inflaton is
a contributing factor to, with non zero graviton mass, in re acceleration of the universe a billion years
ago. The inflaton also may be the source of re acceleration of the universe, especially if the effects
of a re emergent inflaton are in tandem with the appearance of macro effects of a small graviton
mass, leading to a speed up of the rate of expansion of the universe one billion years ago, at red shit
value of Z ~ .423

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1004.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
20 pages, 5 figures. Meant as a thought experiment which when cleaned up will be a companion piece
to the question of the nature of cosmological constants, as presented in viXra:1004.0079

If a non zero graviton mass exists, the question arises if a release of gravitons, possibly as a "Graviton gas"
at the onset of inflation could be an initial vacuum state. Pros and cons to this idea are raised, in part based
upon bose gases. The analysis starts with Volovik's 1condensed matter treatment of GR, and ends with
consequences, which the author sees, if the supposition is true.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1004.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:**
2 pages.

This short letter manifests how Smarandache geometries can be employed in order to
extend the "classical" (Riemannian geometry) basis of the General Theory of Relativity
through joining the properties of two or more (different) geometries in the same single
space. Perspectives in this way seem much profitly: the basic space-time of General
Relativity can be extended to not only metric geometries, but even to non-metric ones
(where no distances can be measured), or to spaces of the mixed kind which possess
the properties of both metric and non-metric spaces (the latter should be referred to as
"semi-metric spaces"). If both metric and non-metric properties possessed at the same
(at least one) point of a space, it is one of Smarandache geometries, and should be referred
to as "Smarandache semi-metric space". Such spaces can be introduced according
to the mathematical apparatus of physically observable quantities (chronometric
invariants), if considering a breaking of the observable space metric on the continuous
background of the fundamental metric tensor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1004.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Bruce Rout

**Comments:**
6 pages.

A closed form analytic model has been presented and matched to the
morphology of spiral galaxies[9]. This model consists of an Archemedean
spiral which matches the physical attributes of spiral galaxies as a result
of relativistic effects due to great distances on a rotating rigid body. This
effect was first posed by Minkowski[5]. We present a derivation of this
analytical model though the application of Lortentz transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1004.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
30 pages, 5 figures. One of two subject areas submitted to the conference 11th annual international
meeting "Fundamental Frontiers of Physics" which will take place in the capital of France, Paris, from
the 6th to the 9th of July, 2010.

The following document is to prepare an analysis on if the cosmological constant is a vacuum field.
Candidates for how to analyze this issue come up in terms of brane theory, modified treatments of WdM
theory (pseudo time component added) and/ or how to look at squeezing of vacuum states, as initially
coherent semi classical constructions, or string theory versions of coherent states. The article presents a
thought experiment if there is a non zero graviton mass, and at the end, in the conclusion states
experimental modeling criteria which may indicate if a non zero graviton mass is measurable, which would
indicate the existence, de facto of a possible replacement for DE, based upon non zero mass gravitons, and
indications for a replacement for a cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1004.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Roald C. Maximo

**Comments:** 2 pages

Many physicists still do not accept the obvious conclusion that (c + v) and (c - v) are valid solutions when applied to moving observers. There are
actually well known experimental proofs to validate those expressions. Besides the Sagnac effect, one experiment that has been hidden and given
no publicity was a measurement of the orbital periods of the Jovian satellite (Io) performed by Ole C. Römer that shows just such a velocity
composition as the Earth approaches the planet or recedes in its orbit. [1]
But, perhaps due to the pervading lato sensu interpretation of the second postulate of the Special Theory of Relativity in connection with the
currently generalized opinion that any physical theory, to be valid, must conform to the TR, many physicists are reluctant to accept it. Whenever
such a situation arises, they are eager to draw the Lorentz transformation from their pockets and apply it in some way to alleviate the discomfort.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1004.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Alex Ceapa

**Comments:** 80 pages

At the time factors of unknown origin and physical meaning (like β in the Lorentz
transformation, the Dirac matrices, etc.) are embedded in some underlying equations and,
by way of consequence, the physical significance of the terms of these equations rests
undisclosed, we validate the principle of the physical determination of equations in
special relativity theory and relativistic quantum theory, as first step toward an exciting
foundation of modern physics on this principle (yet all restraints of the principle are off in
modern physics).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology