Relativity and Cosmology


On the 5D Extra-Force According to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon Formalism and Three Important Features: Chung-Freese Superluminal Braneworld,strong Gravitational Fields and the Pioneer Anomaly.

Authors: Fernando Loup

We use the 5D Extra Dimensional Force according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon, Overduin-Wesson and Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Formalisms to study the behaviour of the Chung-Freese Superluminal BraneWorld compared to the Alcubierre Warp Drive and we arrive at some interesting results from the point of view of the Alcubierre ansatz although we used two different Shape Functions one continuous g(rs) as an alternative to the original Alcubierre f(rs) and a Piecewise Shape Function fpc(rs) with a behaviour similar to the Natario Warp Drive. We introduce here the Casimir Warp Drive.We also demonstrate that in flat 5D Minkowsky Spacetime or weak Gravitational Fields we cannot tell if we live in a 5D or a 4D Universe according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon,Overduin-Wesson and Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Dimensional Reduction but in the extreme conditions of Strong Gravitational Fields we demonstrate that the effects of the 5D Extra Dimension becomes visible and perhaps the study of the extreme conditions in Black Holes can tell if we live in a Higher Dimensional Universe.We use a 5D Maartens-Clarkson Schwarzschild Cosmic Black String centered in the Sun coupled to the 5D Extra Force from Ponce De Leon together with Mashoon-Wesson-Liu and the definitions of Basini-Capozziello and Bertolami-Paramos for the Warp Fields in order to demonstrate that the Anomalous Effect disturbing two American space probes known as the Pioneer Anomaly is a force of 5D Extra Dimensional Nature.As a matter of fact the Pioneer Anomaly is the first experimental evidence of the "Fifth Force" predicted years ago by Mashoon-Wesson-Liu and we also demonstrate that this Extra Force is coming from the Sun.

Comments: 91 Pages. This work was sent to as arXiv:0710.0924 in 4 October 2007 to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Space Race and the launch of the Sputnik I (4 October 1957). It suffered major modifications in order to be accepted for publication. Versions #1 and #2 can be considered as a different paper from versions #3 and #4 It was published in the book Space Exploration Research Chapter IX from Nova Scientific Publishers ISBN 978-1-60692-264-4 2009. It was also published in the Volume 14 Issue 3-4 (Journal of Magnetohydrodynamics, Plasma and Space Research) ISSN: 1083-4729 The published versions are the #3 and #4 from - The versions #1 and #2 contains a mathematical description about how to solve the pathologies of the Einstein Field Equation known as the Superluminal Alcubierre Warp Drive. It also contains a Memorial to Serguei Pavlovitch Korolev(the creator of the Sputnik I) and a Memorial to all the Cosmonauts and Astronauts that died in Outer Space in the spaceships Soyuz I,Soyuz XI,Apollo I,Challenger and Columbia…the first 50 years of the Space Race We feel that this work in the unpublished version #1 and #2 deserves to be placed on viXra as a valid paper to overcome the limitations of the Superluminal Alcubierre Warp Drive Spacetime specially the part of the Horizons and the causally disconnected portions of the Spacetime inside the Warp Drive bubble.We use something that resembles the Apollo spacecrafts This version is exactly equal without changes to the version #2 stored in This paper was inspired in a TV series from the British Broadcasting Corporation called "The Space Race"

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Submission history

[v1] 30 Apr 2010

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