[16] **viXra:1711.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 11:04:24*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: Using simple methods of analysis I conclude that our present broken E8 symmetry epoch without antimatter means that Majorana neutrinos cannot exist: this results, however, in neutrinos having masses and small electric charges of 3 different amounts. The charges probably aid in neutrino detection. Masses of the leptons are derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1711.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 13:57:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Theories of gravity are incomplete when we neglect quantum phenomena and the internal structure of spacetime described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST shows that the grainy two-component spacetime is a mix of non-locality and locality that leads to a conceptual error about gravitational waves, to different theories of gravitation and to the matter-antimatter asymmetry. Within the General Theory of Relativity (GR) we can not justify whether the metric is local or non-local. Here we described a conceptual error in obtaining the local (speed = c = 299,792,458 m/s) wave-like solutions by solving the non-local/superluminal vacuum field equations of general relativity - we express the opinion that non-locality cannot lead directly to locality. SST, which is the lacking fundamental part of Theory of Everything, shows that spacetime is a mixture of two fields i.e. of the Higgs field (it is non-gravitating, imaginary, non-local and geodesic/metric) and of the Einstein spacetime (it is gravitating, real, local, dynamical and practically-flat/non-geodesic i.e. the total energy-momentum crossing the hypersurface vanishes). Such structure of spacetime causes that there are different theories of gravitation, for example, the GR, which binds the curvature of the non-local Higgs field with the local energy-momentum tensor, the YARK theory, which binds the local Einstein spacetime (ES) with the energy-momentum tensor or the SST which shows the origin of gravitation. Within GR it is easier to describe the non-local phenomena in spacetime (for example, the Kasner solutions describe such phenomena) whereas within YARK theory it is easier to describe the local phenomena in spacetime such as dark energy or “gravitational waves” discovered by LIGO-Virgo Collaborations (which, in reality, are the flows in ES) or the observed energy dependence of gravitational bending which is incomprehensible within the framework of GR. SST shows that we should observe the same speed of propagation of both the “gravitational waves” and electromagnetic waves - there should be high correlation between their intensity for active binary systems of neutron stars or neutron “black holes”. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from infinitesimal imaginary spin of the Higgs-field components so we must use SST to solve the problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1711.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 19:18:11*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

From Einstein's theory of general relativity we can calculate the proton radius of muonic-hydrogen.
The value obtain is 0,840935×10^(-15) meter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1711.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 03:24:40*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A lot has been philosophized and written about the phenomenon ‘time dilation’. This article shows the consequences applying this phenomenon to a photon, traveling with velocity c, relative to whichever observer, as the Special Theory of Relativity prescribes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1711.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 04:48:43*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** Pages.

In this paper a more detailed consideration in framework of the “The
Information as Absolute” conception of the Space and Time problems “is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1711.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 04:15:13*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper reports on the large round trip time variations observed in the Shapiro delay experiments, as reported by Bryan G Wallace , whose claim will be confirmed according to Apparent Source Theory. The 'anomalous' variations in the measured round trip time could be larger than the reported gravitational time dilation effect, typically by a factor of about five to ten. Such large anomalous variations in the round trip time that could be attributed to either the ether theory or the emission theory may have been discarded from the raw data to arrive at the relativistic prediction. The argument in this paper is that Apparent Source Theory predicts that there must have been large variations in the round trip time in the Shapiro delay experiments. And this claim is supported by the reports of Bryan G Wallace. All this casts doubts on the integrity of the experimenters. Therefore, not only did they discard data showing large variations in round trip time, they must also have manipulated the remaining data in order to 'prove' gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1711.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 07:02:12*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the knowable Universe"

This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the Knowable Universe". Here a scientific hypothesis on the origin of the Universe is presented and that hypothesis is described through a succession of stages, in concordance with the Theory of Reference Frames. According to this interpretation the Universe isn't a closed and finite system, as it considered in present prevailing models. The Universe, here supposed, is an unlimited system whose origin is characterized by numerous nanobigbangs in the order of a series of subsequent stages rather than by an unique central explosive bigbang. Because the experimental science can give reliable answers to all questions unless the first question on the origin of the Universe and the last question on its final future, the interpretation of this essay on the origin of the Universe is only a scientific hypothesis that doesn't pretend to represent the truth on the origin of the Universe. Besides this hypothesis is in conflict neither with the religious narration of the Genesis nor with the philosophical speculation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1711.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 20:46:41*

**Authors:** Jose P. Koshy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Submitted to MNRAS, but rejected on the basis that the theory behind speed-dependent gravity is not well explained. However, explaining that part in detail renders it unsuitable for MINRAS.

The alternate model put forth in my previous papers visualize that gravity is finite and G depends on the square of the speed. A higher G implies that less matter is required in galaxies for satisfying Kepler's laws of orbiting motion. A finite gravity implies that distance between bodies depend on mass, and so the distribution of bodies in galaxies is nearly uniform; this in turn gives flat rotation curves. The gravitational lensing maps of Bullet Cluster is in perfect agreement with speed-dependent gravity. Speed-dependent gravity thus resolves the anomaly of missing matter, and completely rules out the existence of any dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1711.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 07:51:23*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As Haug has shown in a long series of papers, Newton's gravitational constant is almost for sure a composite constant. What is this exotic animal that is meters cubed divided by kg and seconds squared? It is difficult to get any intuition from the gravitational constant alone, except from understanding that it is a constant we can measure empirically and use to get Newton's formula to match actual observations. Newton's gravitational constant is a composite constant that consists of the more fundamental constants.
This means we also can rewrite Einstein's constant in a more intuitive form where it becomes independent of big G.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1711.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 23:37:12*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A black hole model is proposed in which a neutron star is
surrounded by a neutral gas of electrons and positrons. The gas is in a completely degenerate quantum state and does not radiate. The pressure and density in the gas are found to be much less than those in the neutron star. The radius of the black hole is far greater than the Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1711.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 07:11:17*

**Authors:** John Eastmond

**Comments:** Pages.

It has been speculated that the universe is a zero-energy vacuum fluctuation. I attempt to show how matter might be continually created in the universe from quantum fluctuations using the uncertainty and holographic principles. I derive a unique linear cosmology with a scale R = ct where t is the age of the universe. I show that the annihilation time of a quantum fluctuation depends exponentially on R so that there is an effective cosmological horizon at that distance. Previously it has been found that a linear Big-Bang model fits the Hubble expansion data remarkably well. Additionally such a model does not suffer from the classical horizon and flatness problems and so does not require a period of cosmological inflation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1711.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-06 23:08:21*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the century since Einstein's general relativity we have translated all of our solutions for relativity and quantum mechanics back into clock time, despite that dimension being too limited and too localised to describe those relationships. If we accept that clock time can have a natural complex conjugate, we can resolve quantum mechanics by appreciating the photon as a quantum without extension in its own time. We can then unify gravity and inertia with electromagnetic action, without paradox, in a Machian universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1711.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 13:03:12*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Using fourth order polynomial in the mass of the higgs boson, to interpolate basic properties, including the possible modification of one of the DM models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1711.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:21:17*

**Authors:** William Q Sumner

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Vacuum permittivity is the scalar in Maxwell’s equations that determines the speed of light and the strength of electrical fields. In 1907 Albert Einstein found that vacuum permittivity changes with gravity. Møller, Landau & Lifshitz, and Sumner found that it changes with spacetime curvature.
The wavelengths of both photons and atomic emissions decrease with vacuum permittivity but the photons emitted from atoms decrease more than photons themselves do. This changes the interpretation of gravitational redshift to one where blueshifted photons are compared to greater blueshifted atomic emissions.
For Schwarzschild geometry, redshifts can be calculated most accurately using the metric. The equation derived using time dilation and the one derived here are identical. Their weak field approximation is the same as the redshift derivation using special relativity with Doppler shift.
For Friedmann geometry, redshifts calculated by comparing blueshifted atomic emissions to those of photons flips the meaning of Hubble redshift. The universe is accelerating in collapse, a result confirmed by supernova redshift observations. The equations and logic used for Friedmann and Schwarzschild redshifts are identical. Only their vacuum permittivities are different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1711.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 06:58:44*

**Authors:** leo Vuijk

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

According to Einstein’s relativity theory, the speed of light is supposed to be the same for every observer in all reference frames.
However, there seem to be incidental differences in the lightspeed if we observe the outliers of GPS satellite to CHAMP satellite distance measurements of 180m.
At the same time in the literature I found tiny structural but characteristic unexplained irregularities in Planetary radar-pulse reflection measurements, made by I.I. Shapiro in 1964, between the Earth and Venus.
Both observations support the idea of the existence of ellipsoidal lightspeed extinction (or vacuum adaptation) volumes around massive objects like the earth. Such a volume I will call LASOF or Local Asymmetric Oscillating Vacuum Frame.
Other historic lightspeed experiments support the idea that all objects with mass are equipped with some extinction volume.
As a consequence I propose new triangular trajectory lightspeed comparison experiments between the earth and dual satellites or dual balloons and even in the laboratory to support these lightspeed extinction and adaptation ideas.
Future GRACE / LISA satellite experiment should serve as alternative for the Michelson Morley ether wind experiment, reduced by Earth lightspeed frame dragging of the Local Asymmetric Oscillating vacuum Frame (LASOF) according to Q-FFF theory.
Observing Up and down ether wind differences of the light speed between two Grace satellites by earth motion around the sun as alternative for Michelson Morley experiment.
No lightspeed differences should be measured to or from the earth direction due to gravity drag effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1711.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 10:17:49*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The original ideas

The special theory of relativity formula for the photon Doppler
effect is applied to the frequency of the RLC circuit moving
vith velocity v relativly to the rest system. The relativistic
transformation of the RLC circuit components is derived in
case the components are all in series with the voltage source
(R−L−C−v). The generalization to the more complex situation
was not considered. It is not excluded that the article is the
preamble for the future investigation of electronic physics and will
be integral part of such instituions as Bell Laboratories, NASA,
CERN and so on.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology