[41] **viXra:1711.0458 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-29 03:32:30*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Critical thinking and common sense.

Modern physics based on relativity theory requires re look . Some ideas can save time for all of us instead of harping on the same string.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1711.0455 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 10:20:15*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: There are at least two recent publications indicating that spinless tau leptonic matter-antimatter pairs can exist and are Nature's way of removing redundant H dark matter and top quark annihilation dark energy particles via spin-less neutrinos of several masses that are also dark and thus unobservable

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1711.0451 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-23 08:12:42*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Abstract. We specify a time vector for an event in the theory of special relativity (TSR). This vector is well suited to specify various types of simultaneity. Moving (possibly imagined) clocks, which are synchronized at a common ‘point of initiation’, play a crucial role. We can present the time vector as a complex variable, and there is a close relation to the Minkowski distance. We exemplify the approach by including a short discussion of the ‘travelling twin’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1711.0428 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-11 10:56:32*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Where standard physics runs into infinite challenges, atomism predicts exact limits. We summarize the mathematical results briefly in a table in this note and also revisit the energy-momentum relationship based on this view.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1711.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 13:42:22*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 7 pages

In this study, it was hypothesized that speed cannot be indefinite, and must be bounded by a universal limit. This hypothesis was rigorously analyzed using thought experiment and mathematical deduction. A time and space transformation was deemed necessary for the hypothesis to seem viable. However, the transformation turned out to be inconsistent when obtained using different derivation approaches. Furthermore, the obtained transformation equations resulted in critical contradiction. Hence, the universal speed limit hypothesis was deemed false and rejected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1711.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 23:14:27*

**Authors:** Garen Karapetian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This article reports a relation between Heliocentric velocities of galaxies vʘ and Luminosity distances dL: dL≈vʘ/H0+dL*vʘ/c.
Data of 3655 Ia type Supernovas from Open Supernova Catalog (https://sne.space/) with Heliocentric velocities v☉ between 240 and 142100 km/sec was utilized and shows accuracy about 3%.
The relation utilized for developing the distance calculation formula: dV=vʘ/(H0*(1-vʘ/c)).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1711.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-26 05:33:37*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An explanation is provided for why different observers can see the same shape as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1711.0414 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-24 10:29:12*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show there are two colliding gravitational plane wave pulses that result in signals that travel faster than light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1711.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 02:31:50*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Many previous attempts have been undertaken to produce a singularity-free solution to the black hole problem. This effort included many “Bardeen black hole” models, as well as quantum mechanical, and string theory models. The present paper describes a new solution based on a relativistic extension of Newton-Galileo physics, termed Information Relativity theory. For a purely gravitational, spherical black hole, the theory yields a black hole radius that equals the Schwarzschild radius, but without an interior singularity. Moreover, for a typical galaxy with a supermassive black hole residing at its center, the model produces a simple expression for the galaxy's dynamics in its dependence on redshift. According to the emerging dynamics, a galaxy's supermassive black hole is part of a binary system, together with a naked singularity at redshift z = 2 -1/2 ≈ 0.707, suspected to be a quasar with extreme velocity offsets or an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Another redshift, z ≈ 2.078, is also predicted to be associated with quasars and AGNs. The derived results are contrasted with observational data and with a recent ΛCDM model. Taken together, the produced galaxy dynamics and the aforementioned results could shed some light on the role of supermassive black holes in the evolution of the galaxies in which they reside.
The success of Information Relativity in reproducing the Schwarzschild radius of black holes, together with previous successful predictions of the phenomena of light bending, gravitational redshift, dark matter, and dark energy, attest the possibility of constructing a simple cosmology, based only on physical variables, without the notion of space time and its geodesics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1711.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 05:58:47*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We are describing a new and potentially important paradox related to Einstein’s theories of special relativity and relativity of simultaneity.1 We fully agree on all of the mathematical derivations in Ein- stein’s special relativity theory and his result of relativity of simultaneity when using Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronized clocks. The paradox introduced shows that Einstein’s special relativity theory leads to a motion paradox, where a train moving relative to the ground (and the ground moving relative to the train) must stand still and be moving at the same time. We will see that one reference frame will claim that the train is moving and that the other reference frame must claim that the train is standing still in the time window “between” two distant events. This goes against common sense and logic. However, looking back at the history of relativity theory, even time dilation was going against common sense and a series of academics attempted to refute it.2 Still, based on this new paradox we have to ask ourselves if the world really can be that bizarre, or if Einstein’s special relativity could be incomplete in some way? We are not going to give an answer to the second question in this paper, but we will simply present the new paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1711.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 12:24:26*

**Authors:** Igore Elkin

**Comments:** 10 Pages. -

The theory of Einstein's gravity actually gives only a change in the metric. This change, when using the principle of least action, leads to a convergence of material massive bodies. This is perceived as a gravitational interaction. In fact, the principle of least action can not force bodies to move, but only describes their motion. That is, there is an interaction that forces the bodies to move according to the principle of least action. That is, Einstein's theory is far from describing the gravitational interaction. The reason for the appearance of this interaction is written here and the basis of this interaction is the electrical interaction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1711.0404 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-28 14:49:14*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Several typos fixed, and a less restrictive derivation of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation is presented.

A simple, parameter-free conformal approach to gravity is presented based on the the square of the quadratic Ricci scalar R alone. It is shown that when R is a non-zero constant, the associated action is fully conformal and leads to the usual equations of motion associated with the standard Einstein-Hilbert action. To demonstrate the approach, we derive the Schwarzschild metric, the field of a charged particle and the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1711.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 22:34:13*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Given the near universality of the Benford/Newcomb Law of First Digits, and the ubiquity of fractal self-similarity observed throughout nature from the smallest to largest scales, it is argued that nature’s most fundamental geometry may be conformal geometry, which is universally present in full, partial, and discrete/broken forms. As a consequence, the assumption of absolute scale may apply only in restricted contexts, whereas relative scale may be the more dominant principle for the cosmos as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1711.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-24 04:56:28*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The unified theory of dynamic space describes the first force of Nature
as the Universal antigravity one, because of which the galaxies follow an accelerated
centrifugal motion. Therefore, what the great astronomer Edwin Hubble observed is
not due to the Universe expansion as a result of the Big Bang, but to the relative
motion of galaxies and their centrifugal antigravity motion. The Cosmic journey of the
matter (the galaxies) takes place at the constant timeless speed towards the Universe
periphery, while the smallest Pythagorean Triple (3, 4, 5) reveals the harmony of
Universal antigravity motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1711.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-22 16:34:54*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the Experiment conducted at temperature 5.8Kelvin by scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optic they got the following measure for the charge radius of proton: 0,8335(95)fm. We deduce that the ether is function of temperature
See Vixra: 1711.0299, 1711.0362 Relativity and Cosmology; Vixra: 1711.0334 Nuclear and Atomic Physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1711.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 04:51:16*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 87 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“The Gravitons are faster than light”
Adrian Ferent
“The gravitational redshift is the proof that the gravitons are faster than light”
Adrian Ferent
Because:
“The gravitons emitted after the photons are emitted, will not interact with the photons if they have only the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who explained the gravitational redshift”
Adrian Ferent
Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction:
E = h × f + a × f - a × ν
where - a × ν is the negative energy of the graviton
ν is the frequency of the interaction graviton
This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right.
Only my Gravitation theory explains the gravitational redshift.
Another proof that the gravitons must be faster than light:
I am the first who understood and explained that gravitons with the speed of light are too slow to keep constellations together.
“If gravitons have only the speed of light will not be able to keep constellations together.“
A graviton needs less then one second to travel between stars located within 10 light-years.
Another proof that the gravitons must be faster than light:
If the gravitons have only the speed of light, the light, the electromagnetic waves, the photons can escape from a black hole.
This means the gravitons must be faster than light.
You learned from your professors that nothing can travel faster than light; I explained that the gravitons are faster than light.
This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right and Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong.
This is another proof that LIGO is a fraud, because gravitational waves are faster than light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1711.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 10:14:31*

**Authors:** A.V. Antipin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ЭТО СТАТЬЯ НА РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ.

Замечания к идее ВАРП двигателя. А.Антипин a1_mail@inbox.ru
В работе приведены общие соображения, которые показывают, что ВАРП устройства не смогут обеспечить ожидаемой сверхсветовой скорости перемещения объектов. Реальная скорость перемещения объектов с помощью ВАРП не превысит (с/2), т.е. ПОЛОВИНЫ скорости света.
=========
Comments to the idea of a WARP drive Antipin Alexandr Veniaminovich a1_mail@inbox.ru
The paper presents general considerations, that show that the WARP devices will not be able to provide the expected superluminal velocity of moving objects. The actual speed of the moving objects using WARP will not exceed (c/2), i.e. HALF the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1711.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 10:34:35*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is shown that a precise characterization of the class of pfs is out of grasp. Moreover, the problem is totally useless physically.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1711.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-03 16:41:54*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this short note we are looking into a few interesting details about relativistic kinetic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1711.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 17:33:57*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the theory "The Proton Charge radius of Muonic-Hydrogen (Vixra:1711.0229;Author: Piscedda Giampaolo; Category: Relativity and Cosmology) we have deduced the existence of ether and explaining why Michelson-Morley's experiment failed. So, the concept of ether allows us to calculate the Proton Charge radius of Muonic-Hydrogen: 0,840935•10^(-15) meters (Vixra:1711.0229) and the Charge radius of Muonic-Deuterium:2.12567•10^(-15)meters (Vixra:1711.0333; Author: Piscedda Giampaolo; Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1711.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 03:04:27*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two inertial reference frames moving at identical velocity can be
seperated if one of them
is put under acceleration for a duration. The coordinates of both
inertial reference frames are
related by this acceleration and its duration. An immediate property of
such coordinate transformation is the conservation of distance and length across reference frames. Therefore, the concept of
length contraction from Special Relativity is impossible in
reality and physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1711.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-26 12:53:10*

**Authors:** R.I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Gravitation and Cosmology, 20, 4 (2014), p. 264.

The operational and canonical definitions of an energy-momentum tensor (EMT) are considered as well as the tensor and nontensor conservation laws. It is shown that the canonical EMT contradicts the experiments and the operational definition, the Belinfante-Rosenfeld procedure worsens the situation, and the nontensor “conservation laws” are meaningless. A definition of the 4-momentum of a system demands a translator since integration of vectors is meaningless. The mass of a fluid sphere is calculated. It is shown that, according to the standard energy-momentum pseudotensor, the mass-energy of a gravitational field is positive. This contradicts the idea of a negative gravitational energy and discredits the pseudotensor. And what is more, integral 4-pseudovectors are meaningless in general since reference frames for their components are not determined even for coordinates which areMinkowskian at infinity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1711.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 07:15:39*

**Authors:** Alama Ekabal Ansari

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Time dilation is a well-known phenomenon for special theory of relativity and general relativity theory.
The present technology is not advanced enough to implement these theories practically.
Time dilation is a difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers either moving relative to each other or differently situated from a gravitational mass. The time dilation is caused by differences in either gravity or relative speed. The time dilation is explained by working of two clocks reporting different times for different speed According to Einstein relativity (E=mc2), we know that an object with a non- zero rest mass cannot achieve the speed of light. According to relativistic theory, as the speed of the object increases, effective mass of the object also increases. The increase in effective mass makes more difficult to accelerate the object. Hence, more energy is required to increase the speed of the object.
Achieving the speed of light for the object, the effective mass become almost infinite. Hence, lot of energy is required to accelerate the object with the speed of light.
There is no such technology developed as on date through which speed of light can be achieved without consuming humongous energy.
Therefore, there is a need to provide a system which can overcome the limitation of existing technology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1711.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 10:47:28*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We derive the element of spatial distance in terms
of the time coordinate and a new tensor related to the Kronecker delta.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1711.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-08 21:17:38*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper underwent a major update and was published under the new title: “General Relativity: Effects in time as Causation and can be found here: http://vixra.org/abs/1804.0109

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1711.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 11:04:24*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: Using simple methods of analysis I conclude that our present broken E8 symmetry epoch without antimatter means that Majorana neutrinos cannot exist: this results, however, in neutrinos having masses and small electric charges of 3 different amounts. The charges probably aid in neutrino detection. Masses of the leptons are derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1711.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 13:57:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Theories of gravity are incomplete when we neglect quantum phenomena and the internal structure of spacetime described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST shows that the grainy two-component spacetime is a mix of non-locality and locality that leads to a conceptual error about gravitational waves, to different theories of gravitation and to the matter-antimatter asymmetry. Within the General Theory of Relativity (GR) we can not justify whether the metric is local or non-local. Here we described a conceptual error in obtaining the local (speed = c = 299,792,458 m/s) wave-like solutions by solving the non-local/superluminal vacuum field equations of general relativity - we express the opinion that non-locality cannot lead directly to locality. SST, which is the lacking fundamental part of Theory of Everything, shows that spacetime is a mixture of two fields i.e. of the Higgs field (it is non-gravitating, imaginary, non-local and geodesic/metric) and of the Einstein spacetime (it is gravitating, real, local, dynamical and practically-flat/non-geodesic i.e. the total energy-momentum crossing the hypersurface vanishes). Such structure of spacetime causes that there are different theories of gravitation, for example, the GR, which binds the curvature of the non-local Higgs field with the local energy-momentum tensor, the YARK theory, which binds the local Einstein spacetime (ES) with the energy-momentum tensor or the SST which shows the origin of gravitation. Within GR it is easier to describe the non-local phenomena in spacetime (for example, the Kasner solutions describe such phenomena) whereas within YARK theory it is easier to describe the local phenomena in spacetime such as dark energy or “gravitational waves” discovered by LIGO-Virgo Collaborations (which, in reality, are the flows in ES) or the observed energy dependence of gravitational bending which is incomprehensible within the framework of GR. SST shows that we should observe the same speed of propagation of both the “gravitational waves” and electromagnetic waves - there should be high correlation between their intensity for active binary systems of neutron stars or neutron “black holes”. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from infinitesimal imaginary spin of the Higgs-field components so we must use SST to solve the problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1711.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 19:18:11*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

From Einstein's theory of general relativity we can calculate the proton radius of muonic-hydrogen.
The value obtain is 0,840935×10^(-15) meter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1711.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-12 14:37:01*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Version 2 contains a minor change in References

A lot has been philosophized and written about the phenomenon ‘time dilation’. This article shows the consequences applying this phenomenon to a photon, traveling with velocity c, relative to whichever observer, as the Special Theory of Relativity prescribes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1711.0238 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-17 11:50:49*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** In this file two versions of the paper are presented: English, pages 1-14, and Russian, pages 15-32

In this paper a more detailed consideration in framework of the “The
Information as Absolute” conception of the Space and Time problems “is presented. In this file two versions of the paper are presented: English, pages 1-14, and Russian, pages 15-32

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1711.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 04:15:13*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper reports on the large round trip time variations observed in the Shapiro delay experiments, as reported by Bryan G Wallace , whose claim will be confirmed according to Apparent Source Theory. The 'anomalous' variations in the measured round trip time could be larger than the reported gravitational time dilation effect, typically by a factor of about five to ten. Such large anomalous variations in the round trip time that could be attributed to either the ether theory or the emission theory may have been discarded from the raw data to arrive at the relativistic prediction. The argument in this paper is that Apparent Source Theory predicts that there must have been large variations in the round trip time in the Shapiro delay experiments. And this claim is supported by the reports of Bryan G Wallace. All this casts doubts on the integrity of the experimenters. Therefore, not only did they discard data showing large variations in round trip time, they must also have manipulated the remaining data in order to 'prove' gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1711.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 07:02:12*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the knowable Universe"

This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the Knowable Universe". Here a scientific hypothesis on the origin of the Universe is presented and that hypothesis is described through a succession of stages, in concordance with the Theory of Reference Frames. According to this interpretation the Universe isn't a closed and finite system, as it considered in present prevailing models. The Universe, here supposed, is an unlimited system whose origin is characterized by numerous nanobigbangs in the order of a series of subsequent stages rather than by an unique central explosive bigbang. Because the experimental science can give reliable answers to all questions unless the first question on the origin of the Universe and the last question on its final future, the interpretation of this essay on the origin of the Universe is only a scientific hypothesis that doesn't pretend to represent the truth on the origin of the Universe. Besides this hypothesis is in conflict neither with the religious narration of the Genesis nor with the philosophical speculation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1711.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 20:46:41*

**Authors:** Jose P. Koshy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Submitted to MNRAS, but rejected on the basis that the theory behind speed-dependent gravity is not well explained. However, explaining that part in detail renders it unsuitable for MINRAS.

The alternate model put forth in my previous papers visualize that gravity is finite and G depends on the square of the speed. A higher G implies that less matter is required in galaxies for satisfying Kepler's laws of orbiting motion. A finite gravity implies that distance between bodies depend on mass, and so the distribution of bodies in galaxies is nearly uniform; this in turn gives flat rotation curves. The gravitational lensing maps of Bullet Cluster is in perfect agreement with speed-dependent gravity. Speed-dependent gravity thus resolves the anomaly of missing matter, and completely rules out the existence of any dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1711.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 07:51:23*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As Haug has shown in a long series of papers, Newton's gravitational constant is almost for sure a composite constant. What is this exotic animal that is meters cubed divided by kg and seconds squared? It is difficult to get any intuition from the gravitational constant alone, except from understanding that it is a constant we can measure empirically and use to get Newton's formula to match actual observations. Newton's gravitational constant is a composite constant that consists of the more fundamental constants.
This means we also can rewrite Einstein's constant in a more intuitive form where it becomes independent of big G.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1711.0137 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-03 19:01:37*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Journal-Ref: JHEPGC 4(4), 651-654 (2018)

A black hole model is proposed in which a neutron star is
surrounded by a neutral gas of electrons and positrons. The gas is in a completely degenerate quantum state and does not radiate. The pressure and density in the gas are found to be much less than those in the neutron star. The radius of the black hole is far greater than the Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1711.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-06 23:08:21*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the century since Einstein's general relativity we have translated all of our solutions for relativity and quantum mechanics back into clock time, despite that dimension being too limited and too localised to describe those relationships. If we accept that clock time can have a natural complex conjugate, we can resolve quantum mechanics by appreciating the photon as a quantum without extension in its own time. We can then unify gravity and inertia with electromagnetic action, without paradox, in a Machian universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1711.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 13:03:12*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Using fourth order polynomial in the mass of the higgs boson, to interpolate basic properties, including the possible modification of one of the DM models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1711.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:21:17*

**Authors:** William Q Sumner

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Vacuum permittivity is the scalar in Maxwell’s equations that determines the speed of light and the strength of electrical fields. In 1907 Albert Einstein found that vacuum permittivity changes with gravity. Møller, Landau & Lifshitz, and Sumner found that it changes with spacetime curvature.
The wavelengths of both photons and atomic emissions decrease with vacuum permittivity but the photons emitted from atoms decrease more than photons themselves do. This changes the interpretation of gravitational redshift to one where blueshifted photons are compared to greater blueshifted atomic emissions.
For Schwarzschild geometry, redshifts can be calculated most accurately using the metric. The equation derived using time dilation and the one derived here are identical. Their weak field approximation is the same as the redshift derivation using special relativity with Doppler shift.
For Friedmann geometry, redshifts calculated by comparing blueshifted atomic emissions to those of photons flips the meaning of Hubble redshift. The universe is accelerating in collapse, a result confirmed by supernova redshift observations. The equations and logic used for Friedmann and Schwarzschild redshifts are identical. Only their vacuum permittivities are different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1711.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 06:58:44*

**Authors:** leo Vuijk

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

According to Einstein’s relativity theory, the speed of light is supposed to be the same for every observer in all reference frames.
However, there seem to be incidental differences in the lightspeed if we observe the outliers of GPS satellite to CHAMP satellite distance measurements of 180m.
At the same time in the literature I found tiny structural but characteristic unexplained irregularities in Planetary radar-pulse reflection measurements, made by I.I. Shapiro in 1964, between the Earth and Venus.
Both observations support the idea of the existence of ellipsoidal lightspeed extinction (or vacuum adaptation) volumes around massive objects like the earth. Such a volume I will call LASOF or Local Asymmetric Oscillating Vacuum Frame.
Other historic lightspeed experiments support the idea that all objects with mass are equipped with some extinction volume.
As a consequence I propose new triangular trajectory lightspeed comparison experiments between the earth and dual satellites or dual balloons and even in the laboratory to support these lightspeed extinction and adaptation ideas.
Future GRACE / LISA satellite experiment should serve as alternative for the Michelson Morley ether wind experiment, reduced by Earth lightspeed frame dragging of the Local Asymmetric Oscillating vacuum Frame (LASOF) according to Q-FFF theory.
Observing Up and down ether wind differences of the light speed between two Grace satellites by earth motion around the sun as alternative for Michelson Morley experiment.
No lightspeed differences should be measured to or from the earth direction due to gravity drag effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1711.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 10:17:49*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The original ideas

The special theory of relativity formula for the photon Doppler
effect is applied to the frequency of the RLC circuit moving
vith velocity v relativly to the rest system. The relativistic
transformation of the RLC circuit components is derived in
case the components are all in series with the voltage source
(R−L−C−v). The generalization to the more complex situation
was not considered. It is not excluded that the article is the
preamble for the future investigation of electronic physics and will
be integral part of such instituions as Bell Laboratories, NASA,
CERN and so on.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1711.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-01 03:07:58*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that a rigid body which accelerates cir-
cularly relative to a fixed point must simultaneously accelerate angularly
relative to its center of mass. Formulae which coupling of the angular mo-
mentum and kinetic energy due to the induced spin motion of the rigid
body to the angular momentum and kinetic energy due to the rotational
motion of the same spinning rigid body have been derived. The paper
also bringing to light the nature of the force which causes the induction
of spin motion in a rigid body and a formula which coupling of this high-
lighted force to the force which causes the rotation of the rigid body has
been also derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology