[21] **viXra:1710.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 05:54:38*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 13 Pages. What is Charge, from what does it arise and, if discrete, why?

In the paper „ Physics is easy“ we showed, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . Similarly hyperons, mesons and quarks can be replaced by proton and neutron (or alpha particle respectively ) moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c .
While, the neutron is composed of proton and electron orbiting around it.
Thus, all particles, which are currently known, can be replaced by the various fast moving electron or proton. Electron and proton are the only stable fundamental elementary particles.
We show, that neutron is source β rays - β electrons ( bosons Zo, W+- too) , γ rays, electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos, tauon neutrinos.
The hole is making with cocoon cloud and has a negative charge, such as electron - Spherical electron cocoon or an electron cloud has 4.57e + 14 electron orbits during 1 sec in the hydrogen atom for H alpha, and occupies a volume 2.7e-30m^3/s.
The hole is making with cocoon cloud and has a negative charge, such as electron
in neutron - Spherical electron cocoon or an electron cloud has 1,944e+25 electron orbits during 1 sec
Electron in neutron works analogically as electron in atom H.
Only their speeds are many times bigger.
Speed of electron in neutron: 0,999994c
Speed of electron in atom H: afnucleum: v/c = 0.0027212435663
perinucleum: v/c = 0.0027270653746
for Spectral line Hα 656.281 + - 1.4 nm
Speed of proton in neutron: 0,023337c
Speed of proton in atom : 0.0000636c
proton orbits around the center-of-mass with speedspeed 0,023337c,
and radiates γ ray.
In the "stable" neutron, electron orbits around the center-of-mass with speed greater than 0,999994c.
Proton is compact mass not making cocoon cloud.
The hole is making with cocoon cloud and has a negative charge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1710.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 16:05:16*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

In GNSS, the improvement of atomic clocks will lead to Phi/c^2 in relativistic gravitational redshift three to four decades from today. Research towards a relativistic positioning system capable of handling this expected accuracy is all based upon the Schwarzschild metric as a replacement of todays GNSS Euclidian-Newtonian metric. The method employed in this paper to determining frequency shifts between atomic clocks is an intermediate Minkowski-EEP approach. This approach is based on relating two atomic clocks to one another through a background ensemble of frequency gauged clocks, a grid. The crucial grid of this paper, the Free Fall Grid or FFG, can be related to the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild P-CP Weyl space formalism, when applied to a central mass. The FFG second order in Phi/c^2 redshifts are derived for static to static, static to satellite and satellite to satellite atomic oscillators and then compared to GR-Schwarzschild and PPN (Parametrized Post Newtonian) results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1710.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 00:16:04*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A little over 4 centuries ago, Galileo concluded - and possibly confirmed by experiment - that different weights hit the ground at the same time when dropped from a height (discounting air resistance). This agrees with Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity; which proposes that gravity is the curvature of space-time pushing objects towards, say, the surface of a planet. It says this curvature acts equally on all bodies, making massive and less massive ones fall at equal rates. However, Einstein published a paper in 1919 (four years after General Relativity) asking if gravitation plays an essential role in formation of matter's particles. If it does, there would be more gravity acting on a massive body and it would fall slightly faster. The rate at which different objects fall is the subject of a French-backed space experiment called Microscope. Einstein's 1919 paper did more than suggest limitations of his general relativity. It seems to have been the launching pad for his Unified Field Theory; which occupied the last 30 years of his life, sought to unite gravitation with electromagnetism, and proposed that this unified field connected all parts of time and space. While the unified field theory is generally considered a failure, my own conviction is that it could transform into a world-changing success through the application of quantum mechanics, something Einstein didn't approve of because he regarded it as incomplete.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1710.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 03:22:03*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In order to explain the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein denied the existence of the absolute reference frame. It will be shown that all Einstein did was replace the absolute reference frame with another preferred reference frame: the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley apparatus. According to the Special Theory of Relativity (SRT ) , there is no preferred reference frame and all inertial reference frames are equivalent in predicting and analyzing the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. No reference frame, including the rest frame of the experiment, has any special significance different from other reference frames. It will be shown that the SRT analysis of the experiment violates this principle. This is because all other inertial observers moving relative to the Michelson-Morley apparatus do not know the outcome of the experiment until they get the experimental result of the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus. Only then can they use the Lorentz Transformation equations to ‘predict’ the outcome of the experiment in their own reference frames. If all inertial reference frames are really equivalent, why not first analyze the experiment in one of the reference frames moving relative to the apparatus, in which case there will be a fringe shift δ, and use Lorentz Transformation so that all other observers ( including the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus ) agree on the same fringe shift δ. The Special Relativity Theory ( SRT ) is just another form of Lorentz ether theory ( LET): both depend on a preferred reference frame. In LET the ether is the preferred reference frame, while in SRT the rest frame of the experimental apparatus is the preferred reference frame. SRT only shifted the privilege of deciding the outcome of the experiment from the absolute reference frame to the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley experiment. The same hidden fallacy exists in the SRT analysis of the Trouton-Noble experiment. An alternative theory of absolute motion and the speed of light will be proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1710.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-20 07:49:40*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Explains relativity in the light ofa new invention

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1710.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 06:53:15*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper tries a new attempt to space travel at higher speeds

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1710.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-14 03:33:17*

**Authors:** Mihir Kumar jha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Theory of everything (T.O.E), final theory or ultimate theory is a theoretical framework in the field of
physics, which holds an ultimate key to unify all the fundamental forces of nature in a single field. In other words
such theory can glue quantum mechanics with general relativity into a single framework. Many theories have been
postulated over the decades but the dominant one includes string theory and loop quantum gravity. In this paper I
would like to present a new framework which can unify quantum mechanics with general relativity by showing that
the change in Riemannian metric or the bend in space time is always an integral multiple of planks constant and
since gravity is the result due to bend in space-time, gravity itself is a discrete force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1710.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 02:54:20*

**Authors:** Eran sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The arrow of time is the "one-way direction" or "asymmetry" of time. The
thermodynamic arrow of time is provided by the Second Law of Thermodynamics,
which says that in an isolated system, entropy tends to increase with time
(Wikipedia).
Nevertheless, this asymmetry of time is not intuitive based on the Einstein’s field
equations that relate to space and time as one entity. Since space is symmetrical to
all directions time is also expected to be a “two way direction”.
Based on Einstein’s field equations mass curves space time and curvature of spacetime
is actually what Newtonian physics refer to as potential energy or the
gravitational field.
Two major questions can arise from this field equation interpretation:
1. Mass m, has a well-defined inherent energy based on Einstein’s special
relativity equation, =
2
.The mass curves space-time and this curvature
adds potential energy to its surrounding based on Einstein’s field equations.
What is the source of this added potential energy?
2. Since space-time is considered as a unified description and since space is
symmetric to all directions, we expect that time should flow symmetrically
both to the future and to the past. We know that this is not the case and time
flows only towards the future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1710.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 07:08:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Moving Magnet Conductor problem is the problem of 'coincidence' of the effect of magnetic field in the reference frame of the magnet and the effect of electric field in the reference frame of the conductor, the effect being a definite current flowing in the conductor, for a magnet and a conductor in relative motion. In this paper, we will show that this problem will not lead to the theory of relativity, i.e. to the conclusion that absolute motion doesn't exist. This 'coincidence' occurs only in the special case in which at least one of the two ( either the magnet or the conductor ) is at absolute rest and hence is only a special case. In general, the magnet and the conductor can have a relative motion while having a common absolute motion. This is the case, for example, of a magnet - conductor experiment carried out on Earth, which has an absolute velocity of 390 Km/s . In such cases, the motion of the magnet and the motion of the conductor will have different effects even if the relative velocities are the same. We will apply Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) to this problem. In the case of light, the effect of absolute motion for co-moving light source and observer is to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the observer. Therefore, no fringe shift will occur in the Michelson-Morley experiment due to an apparent change of source position for the same reason that no (significant ) fringe shift will occur if the position of the source was actually, physically changed relative to the detector. Intuitively, AST can be stated as: the speed of light is equal to c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction, relative to the source, for a source moving with absolute velocity Vabs. This theory readily explains the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. AST applies not only to light sources, but also to all electromagnetic sources: sources of electric fields ( charges ) , sources of magnetic fields ( magnets or electromagnets ) and sources of gravitational fields. Therefore, for absolutely co-moving magnet and (infinitesimal) conductor, the effect of absolute velocity is to create an apparent change in position of the magnet as seen by the conductor. The procedure of analysis is to replace the real magnet with an apparent magnet and analyze the problem as if both the apparent magnet and the conductor are at rest. There will not be any current induced in the conductor because the conductor is not moving relative to the magnet ( hence relative to the apparent magnet ). Since the conductor is at rest relative to the magnet, it is also at rest relative to the apparent magnet and hence no current will be induced in the conductor. There will be no induced current in this case for the same reason that there will be no induced current in the case of magnet and conductor both at absolute rest. An intuitive way of stating the same theory is to assume that the magnetic field is carried by the real magnet, but will be distorted due to absolute motion. Therefore, absolute motion of a magnet can be detected by a co-moving observer from the distortion of its field. The magnetic field of a magnet moving with absolute velocity will become weaker in front of the magnet and stronger behind the magnet. The electric field of a charge in absolute motion will become weaker in front of the charge and stronger behind the charge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1710.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 13:47:33*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 18 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

W artykule wyprowadzona została uogólniona transformacja Galileusza. Uzyskana transformacja jest podstawą wyprowadzenia nowej teorii fizycznej, którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru.
Uogólnioną transformację Galileusza można wyrazić od prędkości względnych (26)-(27) lub od parametru delta(v) (37)-(38). Na postawie wniosków wynikających z eksperymentu Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a wyznaczony został parametr delta(v). Dzięki temu transformacja przyjmuje szczególną postać (80)-(81), która jest zgodna z eksperymentami, w których mierzono prędkość światła.
Na podstawie otrzymanej transformacji wyznaczone zostały wzory na sumowanie prędkości oraz prędkość względną.
Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania prowadzone przez jego autorów.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1710.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 20:02:39*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Special Relativity theory postulates that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (the relativity postulate), and that the velocity of light in vacuum has the same value c in all inertial frames of reference (constancy of c postulate). We hereby show that relativity principle need not be postulated, since it follows from basic principles, without reliance on Lorentz transformations, or equivalently, reliance on the constancy of light postulate. The independency of the principle of relativity on the constancy of light postulate is featured by a different symmetry of Nature from the one constrained by the Lorentz transformations. We also show that that the same deductions apply to the relativity of simultaneity principle. Furthermore, we show that the symmetry of the laws of Nature, as being embedded in Nature itself, is a general law, which holds true for ALL systems of moving bodies, regardless of the velocity of the signal which carries information between one frame of reference to another, provided that the velocity of the information carrier is constant with respect to its source, and exceeds the relative velocities between the system's reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1710.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 20:59:13*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 17 Pages. AN ORIGINAL RESEARCH FINDING INTEGRATING SR AND GR

We examine the Lorentz factor and the Schwarzschild solution in relation to the estimation and
verification of time dilation particularly from available Global Positioning System data. We as a result
detect the possible occurrence of a proportionality between time dilation effects of special and general
relativity in free-fall motion in Keplerian orbits. This observation is then mathematically proved. The
results show that gravitational time dilation during free fall in Keplerian orbits must be exactly double
that caused in special relativity due to linear velocity. We propose that a law has to be enunciated in view
of the proof provided, and of the experimental and technological verification of time dilation effects
during the past six to seven decades. The importance of this finding as a universal phenomenon and in the
further development of stable clocks and satellite technology is highlighted.
1.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1710.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 21:43:29*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 13 Pages. TO UPLOAD A NEW PAPER

Research on human’s attachment to cosmological phenomena at least since the Neolithic Period may prove invaluable in modern scientific understanding of our ultimate realities. Of interest has been the archaeological research about the Neolithic Magic Cosmology. In more recent periods the Greek civilization and Hindu cosmological mythology amongst others engaged in various profound intellectual ways to understand and explain the cosmos. The last two millennia saw the progress of more modern civilizations in Asia and Europe resulting in the further empowerment of philosophy, religions and of astronomy. Astronomical discoveries in recent centuries have created particularly interesting philosophical and scientific reflections on the realities of the universe. But the last few decades have evolved differing scientific concepts which have made our notions of the universe and of existence more elusive to unfold thereby digging further the gaps between philosophy, religion and science. Interestingly studies on ancient human socio-religious cultures strongly suggest that human societies have an instinctive urge to unite their material experience with religious and cosmological beliefs, that is, with supernatural phenomena. This is intriguing because our own modern scientific literature clearly shows that many of even the most eminent of scientists see a supernatural character with our universe. Philosophy and religions in their theoretical ways have produced all that can be humanly interpreted on the origin and nature of the universe and existence. Since science has the objective role to explain natural phenomena including the manner the universe originated it should eventually be able to explain what the universe and existence stand from the manner scientific research on the origin of the universe develops in the decades to come. However the final decision as to whether the universe is a natural or supernatural emanation will obviously always remain a matter of personal judgment and choice.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1710.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 22:05:08*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 23 Pages. upload

The world of astronomy could be at a new and pivotal crossroad. In recent decades the controversial debate on the origin of the universe in relation to the conflict among science, philosophy and religion has reached a crescendo to the extent that humanity is quite confused on how to interpret the nature of the realities of the universe. Is science an atheistic endeavor and are philosophers and prophets of religion just scientific illiterates. Astronomy, the oldest and biggest branch of Science, has been intimately linked to human culture including philosophy and religion for millennia or even longer. Advances in cosmology and astrophysics on the one hand and the natural sciences on the other hand are now producing insights which could, in the coming decade, elucidate in quite concrete scientific details how most probably our universe originated and what could be the nature of the intriguing realities of the universe such as the nature of matter, life, energy, gravity,
2
the mind and consciousness amongst many other riddles. This paper will show a bit of the trends in relation to mindsets on the universe and its origin and will predict that in due course we will have a new way of profoundly looking at the universe, its realities and of the place of humanity in it. This new view of our ultimate realities, when it materializes and mature, would progressively bring science, philosophy and religion under a common umbrella, spearheaded by a new Scientific Cosmological Argument. Introduction

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1710.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-16 08:38:43*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

This paper is mostly philosophical in its nature thus avoiding many equations and computations, which casual readers do not necessarily understand. Paper investigates and compares side by side in detail assumptions with their logical consequences and resulting internal inconsistencies in both; the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the GRT has many such internal inconsistencies, which have to be corrected by unusual and difficult to believe assumptions that are not backed up by a typical experience one encounters in a real life, while the MTG avoids such problems. For the readers who are interested in proofs of discussed findings the paper provides internet links to papers where such proofs are available. The key differences between the GRT and MTG theories are: the gravitational mass dependence on velocity, the nature of “empty” space, the finite or infinite size of the Universe, the existence of Black Holes (BH) with their Event Horizons (EH), the creation of Universe by the Big Bang (BB), and the relation between the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) temperature, and the Hubble constant that characterizes the velocity of receding Galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1710.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 12:16:31*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper presents a quantitative equation for Mach’s Principle that appears to satisfy the requirements of most of the qualitative expressions of Mach’s Principle, and it suggests that the universe has spatial closure and a Transactional gravitational exchange mechanism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1710.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 05:47:13*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The true nature of absolute motion has eluded physicists for more than a century because they presumed absolute motion to be motion relative to the hypothetical ether. This author has developed a new interpretation of absolute velocity, Apparent Source Theory (AST ), that shows the ether does not exist, but absolute motion does. AST successfully explains the hitherto apparently contradicting experiments including the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. An argument against the validity of absolute motion is that if absolute motion existed, it would have been detected in the Ives-Stilwell and the fast ion beam experiments.In this paper it is proposed that, unconventionally, absolute motion does not affect experiments of Doppler effect. Therefore, such experiments cannot prove or disprove absolute motion. Doppler effect is determined only by the source-observer relative velocity, by applying Exponential Doppler Effect theory [1] already proposed by this author. Absolute velocity results only in phase delay of light, and has no effect on Doppler effect and this would be a novel nature of motion and the speed of light. This is not the case for sound waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1710.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 07:11:25*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 128 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1710.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 17:11:39*

**Authors:** Thomas Preusser

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The holographic principle concept of physics theory traces its origins to the study of black holes. In the 1970’s Hawking and Bekenstein showed that black holes carry entropy, i.e. information, that is proportional not to black hole volume (i.e. 3-Dimensions), but to the area of the black hole horizon (i.e. 2-Dimensions). Subsequently Hooft and Susskind developed the holographic principle which pairs quantum gravity (3D) with quantum field theory (2D), making the black hole horizon “contoured 2D” and enabling entanglement information across the black hole horizon. More recently (1997 arXiv:9711200) Maldacena’s Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory correspondence, provided the holographic principle with a more explicit geometric (bulk, gravity, 3D, AdS) boundary correspondence with quantum field theory (2D, CFT), where the 2D is actually related to a dual boundary and the varying entanglement of two subsystems, A and its complement B.
The most interesting part of all the foregoing is that the holographic principle, which pertains to geometry and information, brings string theory adjacent to loop quantum gravity (LQG), which also pertains to geometry and information. More recently in LQG (1994 arXiv:9411005) Rovelli and Smolin related quantization to area / volume (geometry), and graphs (information). If “conservation” of information is a law, geometry is a more malleable topological property, (i.e. networked inter-connectedness is unaffected by changes in geometry).
There are two major issues that need to be addressed for further holographic principle progress.
Issue 1:The AdS, or bulk, gravity, 3D side, needs to be more topologically explicit and generalized. Gravity in 3D is a purely topological theory. In a topological theory geometric properties and spatial relations, i.e. networked inter-connectedness, are unaffected by the continuous change of shape or size of an object. Topological consistency is a very important aspect for systems of information, being akin to adiabatic consistency for systems of energy, thus providing stability.
Issue 2:Holographic principle entanglement needs to be put in a larger context that generalizes entanglement , and development of complexity. This includes CPT symmetry breaking, Lorentz covariant bound states (spooky action at a distance), neutrino oscillation involving electron, muon, and tau neutrinos, and gluon color charge oscillation.
Holography involves projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer. This paper expounds on projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer. In particular this paper looks at Pascal’s Projection Ellipse, and in a larger sense General Projective Relativit y (GPR), as models for projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer, and in so doing addresses the prior holographic principle issues.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1710.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 04:07:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It is known that most existing cosmology models do not include rotation, with few
exceptions such as rotating Bianchi and rotating Godel metrics. Therefore in this paper
we aim to discuss four possible ways to model rotating universe, including Nurgaliev’s
Ermakov-type equation. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with
observations, in order to open new possibilities of more realistic nonlinear cosmology
models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1710.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-02 22:03:50*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Some years ago, Hidding et al. suggest that the emergence of intricate and pervasive weblike structure of the Universe on Megaparsec scales can be approximated by a well-known equation from fluid mechanics, the Burgers’ equation. The solution to this equation can be obtained from a geometrical formalism. The resulting Adhesion formalism provides deep insight into the dynamics and topology of the Cosmic Web. It uncovers a direct connection between the conditions in the very early Universe and the complex spatial patterns that emerged out of these under the influence of gravity. In the present paper, we describe a cellular automaton model of the Burgers’ equation, which can be investigated via a fast computer simulation. In the end, this suggests a Cellular Automata Adhesion Model of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology