[45] **viXra:1407.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-31 11:24:23*

**Authors:** Mark Timothy Sheldrick

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Here a simple power series solution for the path of a photon in a static, stationary spherically symmetric gravitational field in a vacuum (described by the Schwarzschild solution) is derived in the form of a power series of the angular coordinate () of the photon around the axis in spherical coordinates (r,,). Standard results for photon trajectories under the influence of gravity are derived by this method. The series solution simplifies where there is a part of the trajectory with a zero first derivative (tangent) and simplifies in a different way when the trajectory crosses the r=3m radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1407.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-30 22:08:53*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is a cover for a book that has been published by LAP Publishing, Saarbrucken, Germany (http://www.lap-publishing.com). If you are interested in this book, you can contact me at email: victorchristianto@gmail.com, or skype: vic1043.

The author asks a number of questions, which touch fundamental subjects, and presents his discussions with many researchers mooting separate big problems starting from the behavior of an electron in an atom to a possible acceleration of the universe. For example, in the book it is treated: the fine structure constant and the Shannon entropy; Shpenkov’s interpretation on the classical wave equation leading to a shell-nodal model of atoms and molecules and the periodic table of elements close to the Mendeleyev’s table; 50 questions on the issue of astrophysics, cosmology and gravitational physics (some of them have been surveyed jointly with M. Peck), etc. Besides, the author considers some serious philosophical issues associated with physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1407.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-31 03:02:40*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

In this paper shown; on the one hand, as the tensor-scalar polarization modes B ratio, it is derived from the initial properties of the vacuum due to the unification of gravitation and electromagnetism. This ratio suggest that it is 2/Pi ^ 2 (0.20262423673), as an upper bound.
Secondly; demonstrates that it is not necessary to introduce any inflaton scalar field or similar ( ad-hoc fields ); If on the other hand, is the same structure of the vacuum and the quantization of gravity which perfectly explains this initial exponential expansion of the universe. In some respects exponential vacuum emptying has certain similarities with the emission of radiation of a black hole.
This quantization of gravity and its unification with electromagnetic field, shown in previous work; It allows deriving complete accurately the exponential factor of inflation; and therefore calculate accurately the Hubble constant, mass of the universe, matter density, the value of the vacuum energy density, the GUT mass scale ( bosons X,Y ), the gravitino mass and more.
The method of quantize gravity used in this work; It is based on dimensionless constants that must be enforced in accordance with general relativity.
We demonstrate the existence of quantum wormholes as the basic units of space-time energy, as an inseparable system.These quantum wormholes explain the instantaneous speed of propagation of entangled particles. Or what is the same: an infinite speed, with the condition of zero net energy.
Another consequence of the dimensionless quantization of gravity; is the existence of a constant gravitational acceleration that permeates all space. Its nature is quantum mechanical, and inseparable from the Hubble constant. This work is not mere speculation; since applying this vacuum gravitational acceleration; first allows us to explain and accurately calculate the anomaly of the orbital eccentricity of the Moon. This anomaly was detected and accurately measured with the laser ranging experiment. This same constant acceleration in vacuum (in all coordinate of space), which interacts with the masses; explains the almost constant rotation curves of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Therefore there is no dark matter.
Current interpretation of quantum mechanics is completely erroneous. We explain that; as the de Broglie–Bohm theory, also known as the pilot-wave theory; is a much more realistic and correct interpretation of quantum mechanics. The current assumption that there is reality no defined; until the act of observation does not occur; is an aberrant, illogical assertion false and derived from the obsolete current interpretation of quantum mechanics.
The age of the universe derived from the Hubble constant is a wrong estimate; due to absolute ignorance of the true nature of this constant and its physical implications. The universe acquired its current size in the very short period of time, a unit of Planck time.
We understand that this work is dense and completely revolutionary consequences. Experiments reflection of lasers; type of the laser ranging experiment; undoubtedly will confirm one of the main results: the existence of an intrinsic acceleration of vacuum of gravitational quantum mechanical nature, which explains the rotation curves of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; and which thus makes unnecessary the existence of dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1407.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-08 19:01:54*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** Pages.

We propose the normalization of some holographic dark energy (HDE) models. Applying the normalization method, we define a dimensionless ratio f_de, interpret the physical meaning of f_de and its average value by the dimensional analysis, propose an assumption which the HDE average force equates to the negative reduced Planck force or negative Planck force statistically. We obtain the normalizable equations of original HDE model, get the parameter c_(L )= 0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; derive the general equation of normalization of General HDE (GHDE) model; obtain that the coefficient w_de is inversely proportional to the square of c_L which is variable; get the normalizable equations of GHDE model, obtain c_L (z) = 0.471 when Ω_de (z) = 0.683 which is in good agreement with c; give the normalizable equations of agegraphic dark energy (ADE) model and New HDE (NHDE) model; get the numerical factor n = 2.894 which agrees well with n = 〖2.886〗_(-0.163)^(+0.169) in ADE model and c_L= 3 which is in agreement with 1.41 < c < 3.09 in NHDE model. We suggest that the normalization of some HDE models is interesting and significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1407.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-27 03:35:43*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 12 Pages. slide presentation

This presentation explains in detail that when studying the effects of rotation on the motion of bodies or light, it is necessary to use the metric of a curved spacetime. Furthermore, it is shown that the relativistic addition of velocities in such systems is not valid and that the classical velocity addition must be used instead. It thus becomes clear that most of the Special Relativity Theory effects are nullified in such systems by the centripetal force of rotation and that the Special Relativity is thus strictly valid only in inertial systems. Finally it is confirmed that the inertial mass depends on velocity differently than the gravitational mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1407.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-26 02:24:42*

**Authors:** M. Sharif, M. Zaeem Ul Haq Bhatti

**Comments:** 09 Pages. Can. J. Phys. 90(2012)1233

We consider static cylindrically symmetric charged gravitating
object with perfect fluid and investigate the gravitational binding
energy. It is found that only the localized part of the mass
function provides the gravitational binding energy, whereas the
non-localized part generated by the electric coupling does not
contribute for such energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1407.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-26 02:35:06*

**Authors:** M. Sharif, Z. Yousaf

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Astrophys. Space Sci. 351(2014)351.

In this paper, we employ cut and paste scheme to construct
thin-shell wormhole of a charged black string with $f(R)$ terms. We
consider $f(R)$ model as an exotic matter source at
wormhole throat. The stability of the respective solutions are
analyzed under radial perturbations in the context of
$R+{\delta}R^2$ model. It is concluded that both stable as well as
unstable solutions do exist for different values of $\delta$. In the
limit $\delta{\rightarrow}0$, all our results reduce to general
relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1407.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-03 11:53:51*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 27 Pages. contact genebarbee@msn.com

The first law of thermodynamics is straightforward. It states that energy can be converted from one form into another but not created or destroyed. The author’s work on the subject indicates that net energy is zero [6][7][13] but separated into two different types of energy that balance one another. The second law is not as straightforward. A quantity called entropy describes the probability of energy states for systems with many particles. The second law states that more probable energy states become filled over time and energy differences that can be used to carry out work become less available. The source of a high original state that can continually “run down” has been difficult to identify.
There is a strange situation in fundamental physics regarding time. Well respected physicists [Julian Barbour for example] point out that all quantum mechanical equations are cyclical with time. Common sense tells us that time advances and tension exists between fundamentals and what we observe. This situation extends to fundamentals of space as well as fundamentals of time. Special relativity and curvature of space time is known to be the source of gravity at the large scale but the author’s approach to quantum gravity is not generally known [7]. Further, the concept that velocity is relative seems to be accepted but velocity is related to kinetic energy that is conserved.
The author uses a cellular model that describes gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic and potential energy at the quantum level [6][7]. Using cosmology as a platform, the present paper explores time and the thermodynamic laws. It concludes that elapsed time enters physics through cosmology. If we believe that the universe expands we must also believe that time advances. Further, the gravitational coupling constant converts quantum behavior to large scale behavior. Although pressure expands the universe, gravitational accumulation begins to dominate locally. The expanded state and the many available thermodynamic states available as particles fall related to gravitational accumulation explain how everything can “run down” as time progresses.
Cellular cosmology allows us to track the behavior of cell kinetic and potential energy as particles fall due to gravitational accumulation. Study of a model galaxy with the same mass and position of the sun allows us to determine where energy resides as it is re-converted to kinetic energy by falling from an expansion determined geodesic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1407.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-26 09:43:28*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** FIVE PAGES

A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measures both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car.
However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1407.0176 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-25 16:14:48*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In May 2014 I published a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle (The Scale Law) where I suggested that all laws of physics obey the Scale Law. This paper provides the derivation of the Lorentz transformations and shows that these transformations obey the Scale Law. The relevance of this paper is that it shows that when all the necessary information about a given phenomenon is known (including assumptions or postulates), the Scale Law can be used to derived the exact law that governs that phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1407.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-22 07:41:31*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 24 Pages. slide presentation

This presentation shows that there cannot be any Gravito-Electro-Magnetic (GEM) field contrary to a popular belief of its existence and contrary to many claims of its existence found in the reputable publications. This is shown using a simple thought experiment of two massive parallel plates that are moving in a direction parallel to the plates’ surfaces and in a direction perpendicular to the plates’ surfaces. It is found that the field energy is not conserved for these two directions if the GEM field existence is postulated as derived from the Einstein’s field equations for the weak gravitational field and as claimed that it has been detected by the Gravity Probe B.
In the second portion of the presentation the Gravity Probe B results are analyzed in a greater detail and it is found that this experiment does not prove the correctness of Einstein General Relativity Theory (GRT) as is enthusiastically claimed. It is clearly shown that an error exists in the GRT geodetic precession formula derivation and that the experiment actually proves the correctness of a different metric rather than the Schwarzschild metric of the celebrated GRT theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1407.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 15:57:04*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the epoch prior to the big bang E8 was an unbroken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) and both positive and negative intrinsic energy (mc^2) boson particles could be formed and combined with positive intrinsic energy leptons, hadrons and strong force particles to form zero intrinsic energy fermibosonic entities which could carry matter from the previous universe without violating flatness requirements. Two new gauge bosons were needed (along with a third to enable the big bang) and these gauge bosons could produce attractive forces much stronger than the weaker force of our broken symmetry force of gravity. The period of time that the universe had unbroken symmetry could thus be relatively short compared to our epoch of broken E8 symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1407.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-28 06:17:08*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. See also viXra:1410.0133, "The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace", by Valdir M.S. Godoi

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1407.0155 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-28 19:37:53*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally-interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also executes a specifically time-cycloidal degenerate gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously disrupted their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent energy density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem. Oppenheimer-Snyder dust of position-independent energy density is furthermore highly unphysical: its infinite dust energy causes the Oppenheimer-Snyder metric to violate the Principle of Equivalence. So for spatially localized dust only numerical computations are inherently credible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1407.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 01:04:15*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Six page paper

Einstein’s Relativity-theories predict: length-contraction, time-dilation, transverse-Doppler-shift, gravitational-spectral-shifts, expansion-of-space, time-dilation-of-super-nova-light-curves...etc. This letter attempts to gain some insight into two of them in terms of wave-theory. For example, the observations of time-dilation of ‘super-nova-light-curves’ are currently considered as a confirmative-test of expansion-of-time; whereas it is shown here that the super-nova-light-curve can be viewed as a ‘gate-function’ in the ‘time-domain’; and it can be Fourier-transformed into frequency-domain; and it is this wide band of waves which travels in space and reaches us after millions of years. During its travel, when this wide-band of waves gets red-shifted due to any mechanism, including the tired-light-interpretation of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’, then its band-width shrinks in the frequency-domain; so when it is transformed back into time-domain we find that the duration of the curve has got increased. Thus, time-dilation of super-nova-light-curves is not an independent observation from the observations of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’ due to any mechanism. Similarly, the relativistic length-contraction with speed is also explained in terms of waves, with the help of Fourier-transform.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1407.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 09:54:35*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 41 Pages. slide presentation

The presentation deals with a discovery of errors in the Einstein’s General Relativity Theory (GRT). The presentation starts with the confirmation of the correctness of Special Relativity Theory (SRT), but derives justification for a different dependence of gravitational mass on velocity than the inertial mass dependence on velocity. This leads to finding that photons cannot have a gravitational mass and thus can escape form “Black Holes”. This finding contradicts the popular belief and the popular statements such as: “not even light can escape from Black Holes”. The presentation then introduces a new metric whose validity has been confirmed by the standard GRT tests and applies it to create a new model of the universe, which is not based on the Big Bang assumption. Finally, the new universe model predictions are compared with observations and an excellent agreement is obtained thus confirming the assumptions on which the model is built.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1407.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 11:27:33*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Conventionally, the phenomenon of light (stellar) aberration is understood as a phenomenon of source observer relative motion. In this paper, it is proposed that a phenomenon of aberration exists even if the source and the observer are at rest relative to each other, but co-moving absolutely in space. The contradiction between the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Sagnac effect is resolved by this theory and this may lead to understanding of many of the other experiments and observations on the speed of light. It discloses the mystery of inability to detect any dependence of the velocity of light on the velocity of its source. Special Relativity theory is rendered unnecessary. A new interpretation of absolute motion and the non-existence of the ether is proposed. A new kind of Michelson-Morley experiment capable of detecting absolute motion is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1407.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-29 08:11:19*

**Authors:** Kevin E Nolan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. v3 adds comments in part 1 addressing misunderstandings encountered. Relation between standard and isotropic form of Schwarzschild metric elaborated in part 3. Other minor edits made throughout.

In GR (general relativity) a static thin solid and uniform spherical matter shell is the source of an external SM (Schwarzschild metric), interior flat MM (Minkowski metric), plus a shell wall metric not of interest here. In part 1 the above is shown to imply an illogical break in dependence on gravitational potential for the radial spatial metric component, exterior vs hollow interior regions, not shared by clocks. In part 2 further anomaly is found. In the gravitationally small regime, any infinitesimal element of shell mass is reasonably treated as an independent point source of SM. To within a tiny fractional error, linearly summing over the shell should but does not yield an interior metric consistent with the usual matching scheme of part 1. Conformally flat exterior metric as necessary cure is discussed in part 3. A tie-in to Mach’s principle is discussed in part 4.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1407.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-17 13:04:45*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this short paper I present two experiments that can be easily done to test the validity of theory, "A relativistic theory based on the invariance of Newton's second law for motion and the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1407.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-17 08:13:18*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A new way of factorizing the Klein-Gordon equation is proposed, which applies to fields of any type. The spin one-half case leads essentially to the Dirac equation. However, a new interpretation is given, in which the occurrence of anti-particles is a consequence of the two-valuedness of the representations of the Lorentz group in Hilbert space. Boosts have in these representations an anti-unitary component which leads to a change of the norm of wave functions. Under a boost, a state originally at rest develops a positive-frequency component. While the mass of a wave packet is a conserved quantity, its energy transforms according to the law of special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1407.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-16 23:42:20*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I present, "The general law of conversion of matter and energy" which supercedes my previous paper on the law of conversion of matter and energy. I draw certain conclusions based upon this law, and one of which is that, the famous mass/energy equation by Einstein, which also describes the conversion of matter and energy, is only a special case of a more general law of conversion of matter and energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1407.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-16 03:37:46*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Physics – Uspekhi, 43 1267–1270 (2000) (including V.L. Ginzburg’s note and L.B. Okun’s Reply)

Does the mass of bodies depend on their velocity? Is the mass additive if separate bodies are joined together to form a composite system? Is the mass of an isolated system conserved? Different teachers of physics and specialists give different answers to these questions because there is no general agreement on the definition of mass. We shall show that the notion of the velocity-dependent relativistic mass should be given preference over that of the rest mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1407.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 15:28:04*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I give the final and complete formulation of the law that describes the conversion from matter to energy and from energy to matter. It is found that the conversion from energy to matter is not as given by the famous mass/energy equation by Einstein. However, the conversion from matter to energy is in accordance to the matter/energy equation by Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1407.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 08:54:57*

**Authors:** Peter B. Wilson

**Comments:** 6 pages; 3 figures; 1 table; references

A physical explanation for dark energy Λ is proposed by revisiting the subject of causality in cosmology, especially with regard to duality. Duality is the observation that local regions are contracting, even as the cosmos is expanding. “Local” means distances less than the center-to-center spacing of galaxy clusters, Ri; “non-local” means distances greater than Ri. It is argued that the Friedmann solution is causally incomplete by two parameters: Ri, denoting “inter-cluster” distance (twice the zero gravity radius RZG); and energy coupling η (0 < η < 1). Both factors--energy coupling and the distance across which it is coupled--are required to describe the duality of a gravitational system. Because Ri and η do not appear in the standard model, it is suggested that Λ may represent them in the relationship Λ = η/Ri^2. This requires η of the order of 0.0001%. It is concluded that modeling the universe gravitationally requires at least four causal parameters, two of which are missing in the Friedmann model. To clarify the situation, a solution is needed to Einstein’s field equations for general relativity that explicitly includes duality, i.e. a solution that includes Ri and η.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1407.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:04:03*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

English (traslation): Half of the stars in the universe are composed of ordinary matter, half antimatter. Each atomic particle has the same number of gravitons that half of the stars in the Universe. Links of gravitons with stars of one kind or another, determine the gravity and inertia. The blueshift phenomenon is explained and also shows how you can get energy from gravity, based on the above.
Spanish (original): La mitad de las estrellas del Universo están compuestas de materia ordinaria, la otra mitad de antimateria. Cada partícula atómica tiene el mismo número de gravitones que la mitad de las estrellas del Universo. Los enlaces de los gravitones con las estrellas, de uno u otro tipo, determinan la gravedad y la inercia. Se explica el fenómeno del blueshift y se muestra, asimismo, como se puede obtener energía a partir de la gravedad, basándose en lo anterior.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1407.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:20:11*

**Authors:** mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I draw more conclusions based on my theory on relativity presented earlier. Here I show, (1) a new expression for the relativistic mass, (2) a new expression for the relativistic kinetic energy of a relativistic mass, (3) the limitation for the equivalence of matter and energy as expressed by Einstein's famous mass/energy equation, (4) formulation of a new law of physics dealing with the conversion of energy into matter and vice versa and lastly, (5) give another example of the breakdown of the thinking based on non-relativistic events when applied to relativistic events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1407.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:14:26*

**Authors:** Branislav Pavlovic

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The following paper consists of two parts. The first one is the translation of the 21st chapter ”The Pioneer anomaly” of my book ” Aether theory with experimental verification”. I chose this particular chapter for the reason that the Pioneer anomaly is a very interesting issue to be discussed. The book is available for reading at viXra. There have been different interpretations of the Pioneer anomaly, but mine is from my aether theory. For the purpose of a more exhaustive explanation of this particular occurrence, the second part of this paper presents some fundamental results of the aether theory, which are closely related to the Doppler effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1407.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-28 10:13:39*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Spanish

In the same publication in which Hermann Weyl in 1918 published his unified field theory, Albert Einstein raised sharp criticism to the new theory. He argued that if true would not exist defined spectral lines. Later Wolfgang Pauli developed this review in more detail, which was accepted by other physicists of the time, including to Weyl. The result was that the theory that unified gravitation and electromagnetism born dead. In this research, we analyze in depth the concept of conformal transformation, a concept basic in the theory of Weyl, and we interpret it as a change in the scale of the units, concluding that the physical phenomena are not altered by making a conformal transformation. We interpret the physical meaning of the metric connection and found his correspondence with the electromagnetic field vector and estimate its numerical value. We conclude that the phenomenon predicted by Einstein exists, but is so weak that it is not observable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1407.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-25 06:26:11*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

Abandon the hypothesis that the satellites of the solar system may be responsible for the precession of 43" arc of the perihelion of Mercury. Satellites together contribute, by our estimate, with just over 1" to the value of this precession, the Moon being the most responsible for this deviation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1407.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-04 18:46:18*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 9 Pages. none

In this article it is shown that the hallmark of the General Relativity Theory (GRT), the calculation of
the light deflection by a gravitating body, is incorrect. The reason is that the derivation does not follow
the well know Fermat principle from optics. Instead an ad hoc principle is used that violates the basic
tenets of relativity in order to force an agreement with observations. The Fermat principle has to be
satisfied because it follows from the wave equation that guides the photon propagation. This is a fatal
problem for the GRT with the root cause traced to the Schwarzschild metric, which does not describe the
reality correctly. When the author's new metric is used the standard Fermat principle can be generalized
and used leading to the results agreeing with observations and experiments quite well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1407.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-15 05:49:15*

**Authors:** Rahul Garg

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

At first the concept of gravitational time dilation may look a bit complicated and it is difficult to figure out the reason. In this paper, I am going to explain gravitational time dilation without the knowledge of any other concept such as the equivalence principle and others. This paper aims to simplify any confusions or doubts that arise regarding gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1407.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 13:26:33*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The article presents arguments with a view to recognize that space is material and has possibly a fractal dimension in the range of from three to two. It is proposed that along to the unit of substance (atom) some a unit of the field (vortex tubes) should be set. It is shown that the formation of the field structures being a kind “doubles” of atomic ones is possible. The existence of the three-zone electron structure is confirmed. It is indicated that this concept have already resulted in to the successful explanation of phenomena and to finding of their important parameters at different levels of the organization of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1407.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 15:30:22*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Conventionally, time dilation is defined as the decrease in the rate of flow of time in a frame moving relative to an outside observer. I argue that any process (exemplified by, say, a clock) that moves through space takes longer than that process would take if that process were stationary relative to space. The space that I define in this context is a field (of particles as yet undefined) that I label the temporal-inertial (TI) field. The relation between the TI field and the Higgs field or Higgs fields is undefined in this conjecture. I argue that the TI field constitutes the one and only frame of reference for motion by which time dilation can be reckoned. Furthermore, the velocity of a process relative to the TI field is the one and only cause of time dilation for that process. Accordingly, time dilation is not a decrease in the rate of flow of time in a moving frame, but an increase in the time taken by a process in motion relative to the TI field. If we measure time by the cycle time of a process (e.g. the ticking of a clock) it doesn’t mean that time slows down when the process is in motion, it means that the process takes longer when moving relative to the TI field. The twin paradox is readily resolved by reckoning the motion of the traveling twin relative to the space through which the twin (or clock) moves, not relative to the reference, stationary twin (or clock). The time dilation between two clocks moving in space is shown to be based on each clock’s velocity relative to the TI field, not on the difference of their velocities relative to each other. The TI field is shown to be subject to gravity. Gravitational time dilation of a process (e.g. a clock) is shown to be caused directly by the velocity of the process relative to the TI field, not by the graviton flux at the process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1407.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 19:33:51*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 9 Pages. one graph

In this article it is shown that the General Relativity Theory is an incorrect theory of gravity. It leads to erroneous predictions when it is extrapolated beyond its experimentally verified validity such as the prediction of the existence of Black Holes with their event horizons. The article describes the two fatal problems found in the theory in particular in the Schwarzschild metric, which is the “vacuum” solution of Einstein field equations for a mass point. The problems are the insufficient contravariance and the violation of conservation of angular momentum. The article then derives the correct metric for the centrally gravitating body, which does not have the above mentioned problems, presents the Christoffel coefficients, and derives the Riemann, and the Ricci tensors. From this metric it is also shown that the Einstein’s Weak Equivalence Principle does not correspond to reality and that the inertial mass and the gravitational mass both depend on the gravitational potential as well as on the velocity in such a way that their product remains constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1407.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-22 18:42:53*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Based on the Scale Law this paper explores several cosmological issues such as the age
of the Universe, the Universe mass density, the radius of the present particle horizon and
the Friedmann’s equation. The Scale Law is the first Model Meta law we, humans, have
discovered. The significance of this investigation is the formula for the age of the
Universe. This formula is in excellent agreement with the experimental data from the Planck spacecraft- 2013 and suggests that one of more of the constants it contains is a function of time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1407.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 13:48:20*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. The major drawback concerning
warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain
the warp bubble.In order to perform an interstellar space travel
to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years away in a reasonable amount
of time a ship must attain a speed of about $200$ times faster
than light.However the negative energy density at such a speed is
directly proportional to the factor $10^{48}$ which is
$1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times bigger in magnitude than
the mass of the planet Earth!! Although the energy conditions of
General Relativity forbids the existence of negative energy the
Casimir Effect first predicted by Casimir in $1948$ and verified
experimentally by Lamoreaux in $1997$ allows sub-microscopical
amounts of it.We introduce in this work a shape function that will
low the negative energy density requirements in the Natario warp
drive from $10^{48} \frac{Joules}{Meter^{3}}$ to
$10^{-7} \frac{Joules}{Meter^{3}}$ a low and affordable level.
However reducing the negative energy density requirements of the
warp drive to arbitrary low levels works only for empty bubbles
not for bubbles with real spaceships inside because the positive
mass of the spaceship exerts over the negative mass of the bubble
a gravitational repulsive force and a spaceship with a large
positive mass inside a bubble of small negative mass destroys the
bubble.According to Lobo and Visser we can reduce the negative
energy density of the warp bubble only to the limit when the
negative energy becomes a reasonable fraction of the positive
mass/energy of the spaceship.and no less otherwise the bubble is
destroyed.The analysis of Lobo and Visser must be taken in account
when considering bubbles with real spaceships inside otherwise the
warp drive may not work.We reproduce in this work the analysis of
Lobo and Visser for the Natario and Casimir warp drives.The work
of Lobo and Visser is the third most important work in warp drive
science immediately after the works of Alcubierre and Natario and
the Lobo-Visser paper must also be considered a seminal paper like
the ones of both Alcubierre and Natario.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1407.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-07 12:42:06*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. Portuguese language.

No satellite was taken into account in calculating the angular displacement of the perihelion of Mercury, even those already known at that time, by Le Varrier.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1407.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-29 15:48:12*

**Authors:** Rami Vitale

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This paper introduces a new approach to relativity; a non-equivalent alternative, explains the same phenomena discussed by Special and General Relativity. This approach is based on the famous mass energy equation as the main postulate as well as the relativity principle and a new theoretical intuitive definition for Kinetic Energy. Then, by using pure mathematical methods, it explains clearly the phenomenon of the fixed speed of light in different inertial frames of reference, as well as those of non-accelerated light when moving toward, or away from a mass, the bending of light near masses and the additional perihelion advance in astronomic objects' orbits. Results do not match perfectly those predicted by General or Special Relativity. However, the known experiments results do not agree with the classical relativity theories more than they do with this study

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1407.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 09:17:58*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Over a period spanning at least the past fifteen years it has been repeatedly pointed out that the singularities and event horizons which arise from the Oppenheimer-Snyder ostensible calculation of the gravitational contraction of a localized sphere of dust are at odds with the Principle of Equivalence: notably the timelike geodesic trajectory which that Principle requires for every dust particle precludes any such dust particle from encountering an infinite redshift. Sweeping abstract arguments on the incompatibility of the Principle of Equivalence with an infinite redshift or other singularities have also been advanced. Scrutiny of the Oppenheimer-Snyder calculation shows that it never deals from scratch with localized dust; its one calculation from scratch is a Friedmann model variant with the archetypal Friedmann uniform dust density that pervades the entirety of space. This very unrealistic model, which inter alia has infinite energy, exhibits singularities and violations of the Principle of Equivalence. Since the Birkhoff theorem doesn't apply to Friedmann models because they have no empty space region, the Oppenheimer-Snyder follow-on instruction to utilize a spliced-on Schwarzschild metric beyond some arbitrarily specified radius contravenes logic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1407.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-03 14:33:58*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In 1632 Galileo proposed an extremely simple gravity experiment that has yet to be carried out. Its essence is to determine what happens when a test mass is dropped into a hole through the center of a larger source mass. It is a common problem in first year physics courses. Using a modified Cavendish balance or an orbiting satellite, with modern technology the experiment could have been done decades ago. In a seemingly unrelated context, many modern theories in physics have been criticized for their lack of connection with empirical evidence. One of the critics, Jim Baggott, has expounded on the problem in a book and more recently in an article, *The Evidence Crisis*, posted to the weblog, *Scientia Salon*. Einstein’s theory of gravity is widely regarded as being supported by empirical evidence throughout its accessible range, from the scale of millimeters to Astronomical Units. Not commonly realized, however, is that, with regard to gravity-induced motion, the evidence excludes the *central* regions of material bodies over this whole range. Specifically, the gravitational *interior* solution has not been tested. It is thus argued that here too modern physics suffers an evidence crisis. The lack of evidence in this case pertains to what may be called the most ponderous half of the gravitational Universe, inside matter. This large gap in our empirical knowledge of gravity could be easily filled by conducting Galileo’s experiment. As conscientious scientists, it is argued, this is what we ought to do.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1407.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 20:45:48*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Still nowadays is not known: What is the gravity? Which is its speed?.
However, in the world, the great majority of the physicists follow the General Relativity, which explains the gravity like the effect of the curvature of the spacetime in the movement of free fall of the bodies. But, simultaneously they agree that gravity as gravitational waves is a quantum phenomenon, endowed with a transmitting particle, known as real graviton, whose origin is the energy of the oscillation of the spacetime. Thus the gravity appears like geometric and quantum phenomenon, that has not allowed unify General Relativity and Quantum Physics. This is the other great existing physical theory, from which has been derived, the Quantum Gravity theory, whose carrier is the virtual graviton.
This problem has two basic alternatives to solve it. One is the theory of "Everything" that is based on explaining the quantum character of the gravity from strings in spaces of 5 and more dimensions, where the particle is turned pure geometry, but in spite of the great efforts realized, it is not surpassed the low energies. The other alternative is to leave General Relativity in search of the unification of the gravity and other physical phenomenons in a quantum theory, but of material particles. This scenery is again explored, as soon as it was left by the pioneers of the quantum gravity.
The geometric-quantum duality of the gravity, of the General Relativity, also, has darkened so much the concept of speed of the gravity like the development of an suitable technology to measure it, that according to the relativity must be equal to c. This was the goal for the end of 2005, of the Laser Interferometry projects of LIGO, GEO, VIRGO, TAMA, LISA, etc.
In 2002, the ingenious experiment made for to measure the speed of the gravity, by the scientist Sergei Kopeikin is not accepted due to its controversial effectiveness.
In 1998, from Quantum Gravity, from the material particles, in a theoretical experiment, the prestigious scientist Tom Van Flandern calculates the speed of the gravity at least in 2 x 1010 times c, that is consistent with the thesis of the author, formulated within an analogous scenery, in 1969, about the superluminal speed of the gravity.
In this paper the author presents the controversy on the speed of the gravity between General Relativity and the Quantum Theory of the Gravity and exposes the foundations of his thesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1407.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 06:24:49*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. See also viXra:1410.0133, "The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace", by Valdir M.S. Godoi

Three hypotheses are given to explain the advance of the perihelion of Mercury without the use of general relativity: 1) bodies not included in the classic Le Verrier and Simon Newcomb calculations, like the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn discovered after the nineteenth century; 2) the latitude of astronomical observatories that performed the measurements related to the value of this precession; 3) solar wind.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1407.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 08:12:28*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Thank you

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s revised gravity field equation (add the cosmological constant), discovers the solution of the cosmological problem. In this time, by the cosmological constant, understand the universe energy density without the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1407.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-21 18:42:11*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Presented APS Baltimore APRil 2015

In previous papers we have discussed the concept of a theory of gravitation with local energy conservation, and the properties of a large neutron star resulting when the energy of gravitation resides locally with the particle mass and not in the gravitational field [1][2][3]. A large neutron star’s surface radius grows closer to the gravitational radius as the mass increases, but is always slightly larger. As the mass increases there is a continuously greater mass defect for incoming particles. Since the localization of energy applies to the photon, a photon does not decrease in energy rising in a gravitational field, and can thus escape. Photon trajectories in a strong gravitational field have some peculiar features that are not immediately obvious, but can be investigated by the use of ray tracing procedures. The most notable is the fact that only a fraction of the blackbody radiation emitted from the surface escapes into space (about 0.00004% for Sag A*). The remainder enters orbit below the maximum photon orbit. Because of the low percent of escaping blackbody radiation, the heavy neutron stars considered in this paper will be referred to as a Neutron Dark Star (NDS). In contrast to the Black Hole (BH) which should be totally dark inside the photon shadow, the NDS will appear as a fuzzy low luminosity ball with a Full Width Half Maximum intensity diameter of about 3.85 Schwarzschild radii inside the shadow. This paper will investigate the difference in the appearance of a Neutron Dark Star and a Black Hole by using ray tracing techniques. The Event Horizon Telescope currently under development should be able to distinguish the difference between the theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1407.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-03 06:12:05*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Portuguese language.

A second reading of the way it calculates the motion of the perihelion of a planet in General Relativity is taken, coming to the conclusion that General Relativity does not explain this movement of precession.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology