[10] **viXra:1104.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 4 pages

The SRT frequency shift, time dilation and energy equivalence formulas are
derived from wave structure of matter concepts. The derivation shown removes Einstein’s
requirement for the constancy of the speed of light between reference frames, which is not
necessary in producing the results of the Lorentz transforms. Also, the photon is revealed
to be the interaction between two electron wave centers, not a separate particle, showing a
preference for Tetrode’s concept of a photon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1104.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 9 pages

The cosmological redshift is described by the intersection of
two Hubble spheres, where a Hubble sphere is defined as a
range over which spherical, quantum-waves interact,
specifically Ru = 1.9 x 10^{26} m.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1104.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 4 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Michael J Savins

**Comments:** 17 pages.

The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal principle of decay
observable in nature. Time is a measure by which things happen, the yardstick of
causality and is a fundamental property of the universe. We can deduce from E = mc2 it
is mass that gives an arrow to time and energy that gives it a rate of flow. Flexi-time is
the square root of the energy of the universe divided by its mass (matter less antimatter).
As mass is responsible for gravity, it can be re written as flexi-time is the square root of
the energy of the universe divided by its gravity. The speed of light in a vacuum without
the influence of gravity is infinite. In the real universe, gravity ‘slows’ the photons down.
It is this ‘slowing’ down of photons by gravity that we call time. Time is the notches on
the yardstick of entropy. Gravity is a manifestation of the universe trying to reach its
ground state.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1104.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-13 11:41:23*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Time is actually an abstract entity which became part of Special Relativity. There has in fact been postulation that time is unreal but just an invention of the intellect. Whether time is an invention or actually real, it cannot be denied that it plays a very important role in our lives, e.g., without a watch to tell us the time practically all of us would be lost in time. This paper takes a look at the philosophical ramifications and difficulties of time, as well as time-travel, and clarifies things.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1104.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 5 pages.

Newton accidentally discovered gravity after observing an apple
falling from a tree. What exactly is gravity? This paper takes a
look at gravity, which evidently remains a subject of mystery.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1104.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Armando V. D. B. Assis

**Comments:** 6 pages. This paper is reviewed and accepted for publication in Progress in Physics.

We solve the general relativity (GR) field equations under the cosmological scope via one extra postulate. The plausibility of the postulate resides within the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle, being heuristically analysed throughout the appendix. Under this approach, a negative energy density may provide the positive energy content of the universe via fluctuation, since the question of conservation of energy in cosmology is weakened, supported by the known lack of scope of the Noether's theorem in cosmology. The initial condition of the primordial universe turns out to have a natural cutoff such that the temperature of the cosmological substratum converges to the absolute zero, instead of the stablished divergence at the very beginning. The adopted postulate provides an explanation for
the cosmological dark energy open question. The solution agrees with cosmological observations,
including a 2.7K CMBT prediction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1104.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 29 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Michael J Savins

**Comments:** 4 pages.

The galaxy rotation problem is the discrepancy between the observed rotation speeds of
matter in the disk portions of spiral galaxies and the predictions of Newtonian
dynamics considering the known mass. However, gravitational time dilation from the
outside in enables galaxies and the space they occupy to rotate as one.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1104.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Cameron Rout, Bruce Rout

**Comments:** 28 pages. This submission is a revised version of the paper appearing in the Proceedings of the 2011 Western Conference of the Society of Amateur Radio Astronomers.

This paper presents an analytical solution to the geometry of large rotating
systems which reconciles the peculiar rotation profiles of distant galaxies with Einstein's
principle of General Relativity. The resulting mathematical solution shows that large
rotating systems are distorted in the space of a non-rotating observer into a spiral
pattern with tangential velocities that behave in agreement with those observed in distant
galaxies. This paper also demonstrates how the scale of the spiral structure of rotating
systems can be used to determine its distance from the observer. The authors' proposed
equations for the rotation prole and the distance measure are compared with
the observed rotation proles and Cepheid distance measurements of several galaxies
with strong agreement. A formal error analysis is not included however the authors
suggest a method for better qualifying the accuracy of the theorums.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1104.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Hamid Reza Karimi

**Comments:** 2 pages.

This paper is using the theory of quantized time - length and a new model of
internal structure of elementary particles by my expression [1] to solve Einstein twin's
paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1104.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 8 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 5 pages.

This article discusses the ambiguity created by dividing the theory of relativity into special and general branches. A systematic study of covariant electrodynamics reveals the relation between matter and Minkowskian space-time, and the governing non-Euclidean geometry. This in turn results in the completion of Poincare’s theory of relativity by showing that motion of a particle is a four-dimensional rotation of its body frame and the interaction field is a four-dimensional vorticity field. Therefore, one can see that there is only one theory of relativity, which is fully covariant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology