[21] **viXra:1311.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-29 07:39:44*

**Authors:** Douglas L. Weller

**Comments:** 8 Pages. An earlier work. It illustrates concepts, though some details may be debatable.

Light transmitted towards the event horizon of a black hole will never complete the journey. Either the black hole will disintegrate or the light itself will disintegrate before the light can reach the event horizon. The incomplete journey illustrates how locations where time is dilated observe and experience an increase in the rate that things disintegrate. When a mass is compacted so that the Schwarzschild radius is near its surface, the very significant increase in time dilation at the surface results in a corresponding increase in the rate of surface disintegration, explaining the existence of quasars.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1311.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-29 09:37:27*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** Here are two versions: English (page 1-15) and Russian (pages 15-30)

One of popular problems, which are experimentally studied in physics in a long time, is the testing of the special relativity theory, first of all – measurements of isotropy and constancy of light speed; as well as attempts to determine so called “absolute speed”, i.e. the Earth speed in the absolute spacetime (absolute reference frame), if this spacetime (ARF) exists. Corresponding experiments aimed at the measuring of proper speed of some reference frame in other one, including [the absolute speed] in the ARF, are considered in the paper

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1311.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-28 11:14:45*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The microwaves of the CMBR behave like stationary waves (or standing waves). They serve as an absolute framework of reference at rest.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1311.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-03 10:20:55*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 9 Pages. misspellings corrected.

This paper serves two aims: First, it wraps up the previous parts. Second, it shows that vast areas of particle physics are yet waiting to be explored through relatively inexpensive and small experiments. I divided these into three sections. It is my hope that a future generation of physicists will rediscover the wealth of experimental simplicity for its own, and not for the pleasure and confirmation of any given physical theory. Experiments document the current state of affairs. They live through their repetition and continuous revision by experts and amateurs. This demands experiments to be cheap, common, and ubiquitously carried out.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1311.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-22 16:38:56*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Two anomalies observed during lunar eclipses, the enlargement of the Earth`s shadow and the excessive clarity of the penumbra, which have been usually attributed to the Earth's atmosphere, would be largely due to the Allais eclipse effect. This effect, in conformity with the specificity of each eclipse, would cause a slight decrease in gravitational potential: the curvature of sun's rays would be flatter, the light would end at on average 2 % farther than what is expected, thus enlarging the cone of shadow of the Earth. On the other hand, the rays emanating from the Moon would have a shorter wavelength and therefore the luminescence would increase by anti-Stoke Raman effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1311.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-22 19:38:11*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 10 pages. This is the French version of « LUNAR ECLIPSES AND ALLAIS EFFECT» on viXra: Reference #: 7770866.

Deux anomalies observées lors les éclipses lunaires, soit l’agrandissement de l’ombre terrestre et une clarté excessive de la pénombre, dont la cause est généralement attribuées à l’atmosphère terrestre, seraient dues en majeure partie à l’effet d’éclipse Allais. Selon la spécificité de chaque éclipse, cet effet provoquerait une légère baisse du potentiel de gravité : les rayons solaires courberaient moins, la lumière aboutirait en moyenne 2% plus loin que ce qui est attendu, agrandissant ainsi le cône d’ombre de la Terre. Par contre, les rayons émanant de la Lune auraient alors une longueur d’onde plus courte et par conséquent la luminescence augmenterait par effet Raman anti-Stokes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1311.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-21 01:53:33*

**Authors:** Surajit Chattopadhyay

**Comments:** ISRN High Energy Physics, Volume 2013, Article ID 414615, 7 pages, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/414615

In the present work, we have studied some features of the generalized Brans-Dicke (BD) model in which the scalar field is allowed
to couple nonminimally with the matter sector. Extended holographic Ricci dark energy (EHRDE) has been considered in the
above framework of BD cosmology. Some restrictions have been derived for the BD parameter

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1311.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-21 01:56:45*

**Authors:** Surajit Chattopadhyay

**Comments:** ISRN High Energy Physics Volume 2013, Article ID 895614, 6 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/895614

We have investigated the effects of the interaction between a brane universe and the bulk in which it is embedded. Considering
the effects of the interaction between a brane universe and the bulk, we have obtained the equation of state for the interacting
holographic Ricci dark energy density in the flat universe.We have investigated the impact of $

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1311.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-21 02:16:07*

**Authors:** Surajit Chattopadhyay

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section A: Physical Sciences, 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s40010-013-0090-8

The present work reports study on the interacting Ricci dark energy in a modified gravity theory named $f(R,T)$ gravity. The specific model $f(R,T)=\mu R+\nu T$ (proposed in \cite{Myrza1}) is considered here. For this model we have observed a quintom-like behavior of the equation of state (EoS) parameter and a transition
from matter dominated to dark energy density has been observed through fraction density evolution. The statefinder parameters reveal that the model interpolates between dust and $\Lambda$CDM
phases of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1311.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-20 11:38:44*

**Authors:** Patrick Lee Nash

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Inflation supported by
a real massless scalar inflaton field $\varphi$
whose potential is identically equal to zero is described.
Assuming that inflation takes place after the Plank scale
(after quantum gravity effects are important),
zero potential is concomitant with an initial condition for $\varphi$ that is exponentially more probable
than an initial condition that assumes an
initial inflaton potential of order of the Planck mass.
The Einstein gravitational field equations are
formulated on an eight-dimensional spacetime manifold
of four space dimensions and four time dimensions.
The field equations are sourced by a cosmological constant $\Lambda$
and the real massless scalar inflaton field $\varphi$.
Two solution classes
for the coupled Einstein field equations are obtained that exhibit
temporal exponential
\textbf{deflation of three of the four time dimensions}
and temporal exponential inflation
of three of the four space dimensions.
For brevity this phenomenon is sometimes simply called ``inflation."
We show that
\textbf{the extra time dimensions do not generally induce the exponentially rapid growth of fluctuations of quantum fields.}
Comoving coordinates for the two \textbf{unscaled} dimensions are chosen to be
$(x^4 , x^8 )$ (unscaled means a constant scale factor equal to one).
The $x^4$ coordinate corresponds to our universe's observed physical time dimension, while
the $x^8$ coordinate corresponds to a new spatial dimension that may be compact.
$\partial_{x^8}$ terms of $\varphi$ and the metric are seen to play the role of an effective inflaton potential
in the dynamical field equations.
In this model, after ``inflation" the observable physical macroscopic world appears to a classical observer to
be a homogeneous, isotropic universe with three space dimensions and one time dimension.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1311.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-10 17:38:22*

**Authors:** Aleksandr V. Bukalov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The beginning of the era of dominance of the vacuum energy or dark energy, and the change in the sign of acceleration of the Universe expansion leads to change in the sign of density of quantum radiation of vacuum in the expanding Universe. This effect is similar to the Unruh effect, but differs from it. The dominance of dark energy leads to the emission of energy flow with negative density, which is absorbed by objects moving in a vacuum. This effect may be due to the formation of cosmic structures, including the origin of the phenomenon of life.
Keywords: vacuum, dark energy, Unruh radiation, expansion of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1311.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-17 11:28:20*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract The argument is given here that absolute time is a principle of our physical world. Any physical theory that violates this principle would be found to be invalid. So it is not surprising that special relativity is trivially repudiated by the Dingle observation. General relativity predicts gravitational time dilation. There have been claims of it being verified with cesium clocks - but it is no verification. Gravitational time dilation is unverifiable and it is only an internal logical contradiction of a theory. The argument is made that a physical theory is acceptable only if it is found to be valid for all clock-time type. Newtonian mechanics is clearly valid whether it is with pendulum-clock time or cesium-clock time; not a single failure was ever found. But general relativity's gravitational time dilation prediction is clearly contradicted with pendulum-clock time. It is presented here that the refutation of general relativity based on this contradiction is clearly founded on sound scientific principles and rigorous scientific reasoning.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1311.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-15 17:53:32*

**Authors:** Iván Guzmán de Rojas

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The author analyses the difficulties in describing accelerated motion trajectories in M4 in the framework of the Special Relativity Theory due to the lack of time as an independent scalar parameter. It is proposed reinstating the Newtonian time in an Integral Relativity Theory (IRT) without detriment to the Lorentz transformations. It is shown that in the frame of IRT it is possible to exceed the speed of light in accelerated motion. The formula is deduced for the composition of relative velocities with acceleration in M4. As an illustrative example the radial velocity is calculated in the course of the cosmic cloud G2 orbiting Sagittarius A* comparing results with the observed data and the author suggests the possibility that in the G2 cloud there is a system of two or three stars. He proposes an explanation of the phenomenon of "black hole" as the passage to the hyperluminic subspace in M4. Further research is suggested towards an IRT capable of handling in M4 the Hamiltonian formulation of classical mechanics and relativistic quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1311.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 18:52:59*

**Authors:** Robert Kardien Vanderhoek

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

An oscillating proton model, describing electron atomic orbital capacity, based on electromagnetic-like field dynamics, that is a mirror image of our universe at the largest astrophysical scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1311.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 01:37:03*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A brief history of Relativity from the origins to these days is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1311.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-07 04:41:30*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rejected in Nature and Phys.Rev.D

Are given simplest, concise answers to the astronomical open questions. The first Einstein's equations did not described all of the observations. Thus, already Einstein added to the space-time the non-material cosmological constant, describing so the non-material Dark Energy. As You know the historical Einstein equations G=T explore the space, gaps (non-material things on left) with matter tensor on the right. To empirically describe early states near Singularity, one is introducing the f(R) Gravity. Last is non-material Dark Matter, as proved in this paper. These non-material things I simply call "ethers".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1311.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-04 16:22:11*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that replacements of principle of processes invisibility, underlying the relativity theory, on opposite principle their discernability lead to the absoluteness theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1311.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-04 13:23:39*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the paper [1] we presented the concept of the effective mass tensor (EMT) in General Relativity. In this paper we consider the concept of the EMT but in the aspect of the gravitational waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1311.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-03 07:14:57*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor is negative implying in a negative energy density. While from a classical point of view the negative energy is forbidden the Quantum Field Theory allows the existence of very small amounts of it being the Casimir effect a good example as stated by Alcubierre himself.The major drawback concerning negative energies for the warp drive is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years away with $3$ potential habitable exo-planets(Gliese $667c$) at superluminal speeds in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor $10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!! Some years ago Barcelo,Finazzi and Liberati published a work in which the composed mixed tensor $\langle {T_\mu}^\nu\rangle$ obtained from the negative energy density tensor $T_{\mu\nu}$ $\mu=0,\nu=0$ of the $1+1$ dimensional Alcubierre warp drive metric diverges when the velocity of the ship $vs$ exceeds the speed of light.(see pg $2$ in \cite{ref19}).We demonstrate in this work that in fact this do not happens and their results must be re-examined.We introduce here a shape function that defines the Natario warp drive spacetime as an excellent candidate to low the negative energy density requirements from $10^{48}$ to affordable levels.We also discuss Horizons and Doppler Blueshifts that affects the Alcubierre spacetime but not the Natario counterpart.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1311.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-01 20:36:44*

**Authors:** Henry Gu Cao, Zhiliang Cao

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Published on http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/1/5/5/index.html

An experiment is proposed, consisting of a Java UDP program that performs simple tests using two different servers connect by the internet. These tests can be repeated using the source code provided in the paper. The test results conclude that the two clocks, in different geographical locations, are drifting throughout the twenty four hour day.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1311.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-01 20:54:48*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Published on http://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajmp.20130206.14.pdf

The paper "SR Equations without Constant One-Way Speed of Light" brings us a century back by discussing contradictory Relativity postulates. Instead of dealing with the aether theory, this paper proposes the Unified Field Theory (UFT) that replaces both the Theory of Relativity and Theory of Aether. In this new theory, the universe exists in form of Torque Grids in which Space, Time and Energy are unified. The ideal Torque Grids have same size and String movement cycle is the same as the Grid size in all directions. When Torque Grids have different sizes, the Torque Grids have size dis-tortions. When Torque String movement speeds are different between two opposite directions, the Torque Grids have charge distortion. Both size and charge distortion can be measured by energy. The charge distortion can be measured by electronic charge in addition to the energy. The Gravity interactions and Strong interactions are related to Torque Grids’ size distortions. The electron-magnetic interactions and weak interactions are related to charge distortions. The Unified Field Theory derives the Planck equation and Newton’s gravity equation and explains why the electron is stable. The electron has a single Torque Grid distortion on its shell and is in resonance with its wavelength. Therefore, electron is stable and electronic field is formed. Strong force and weak force are result of two additional main resonance wave forms on the shell of the electron. Finally, the paper unifies the four fundamental fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology