[38] **viXra:1405.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-31 04:45:11*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 24 Pages; 29 Figures; 10Tables

Some cosmological branches of physics have postulated that information can be stored in 5 dimensions. It has also been well established in quantum physics that observations can affect experimental results. There have been several published papers where an inexplicable intuitive, noetic, or dowsing response has been obtained when the mind’s intent is relating to the fifth dimension. To research the possible connection between these 3 concepts, this paper undertakes relevant quantitative scientific experiments in order to interpret this 5-dimensional response which is found in numerous diverse situations such as multi-body interactions, auras, the Kabbalah tree of life, peace grids, psi-lines, spirals in general, and a half sine wave. On analysis of these situations, a 5-dimensional response only seems to occur with two perceived geometries - lines and spirals. This paper explores these situations, and comes to the conclusion that as the mind is detecting universal laws of physics together with universal constants and bifurcations this five-dimensional phenomenon is not just a figment of the imagination but requires further scientific investigation.
Key Words
Mind, noetics, dowsing abstract geometry, 5th dimension, vortices, bifurcations, subtle energies, psi-lines

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1405.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 18:10:17*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The present paper utilized a Complete Relativity Theory (CR), in which the common assumption of speed of light invariance is relaxed. Under the simplifying assumption of linear motion, I derive a new relativistic expression for Newton's Second Law, according to which the acceleration a produced by a force F is an increasing function of the velocity β, satisfying a(β)≥ aN and a(0)= aN, where aN is the classical Newtonian acceleration. This result may account for the observed increase of acceleration at large distances, without altering Newton's second law, except for the modification implied by relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1405.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 08:44:46*

**Authors:** Gunn Quznetsov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

I call any subjects, connected with an information the informational objects. It is clear that information received from such informational object can be expressed by a text which is made of sentences. I call a set of sentences expressing information about some informational object recorder of this object.
Some recorders systems form structures similar to clocks.
The following results are obtained from the logical properties of a set of recorders:
First, all such clocks have the same direction, i.e. if an event expressed by sentence A precedes an event expressed by sentence B according to one of such clocks then it is true according to the others.
Secondly, time is irreversible according to these clocks, i.e there's no recorder which can receive information about an event that has happened until this event really happens
Thirdly, a set of recorders is naturally embedded into metrical space.
Fourthly, if this metrical space is Euclidean, then the corresponding "space and time" of recorders obeys to transformations of the complete Poincare group. If this metric space is not Euclidean then suitable non-linear geometry may be built in this space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1405.0333 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-28 12:46:23*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this short paper I show that using the famous " mass/energy " equation by Einstein to define " mass " makes it much easier to grasp the general applicability of the " matter density " equation used in the theory to define an " object ".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1405.0330 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-17 20:20:55*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 15 Pages. International Journal of Advanced Astronomy, 2 (1) (2014) 8-22, doi: 10.14419/ijaa.v2i1.2765

Throughout the cosmic evolution, currently believed cosmic ‘critical density’ can be shown to be a default result of the ‘positively curved’ light speed rotating black hole universe ‘volume density’. As there is no observational or experimental evidence to Friedmann’s second assumption, the density classification scheme of Friedmann cosmology must be reviewed at undamental level and possibly can be relinquished. The observed cosmic redshift can be reinterpreted as an index of ‘cosmological’ thermodynamic light emission mechanism.Clearly speaking during cosmic evolution, at any time in the past, in hydrogen atom- emitted photon energy was always inversely
proportional to the cosmic temperature. Thus past light emitted from older galaxy’s excited hydrogen atom will show redshift with reference
to the current laboratory data. Note that there will be no change in the energy of the emitted photon during its journey from the distant
galaxy to the observer. In no way ‘redshift’ seems to be connected with ‘galaxy receding’. By considering the ‘Stoney mass’ as the initial mass of the baby cosmic black hole, past and current physical and thermal parameters (like angular velocity, growth rate, age,redshift, thermal energy density and matter density) of the cosmic black hole can be understood. For a cosmic temperature of 3000 K,obtained redshift is 1100. From now onwards, CMBR temperature can be called as ‘Comic Black Hole’s Thermal Radiation’ temperature
and can be expressed as ‘CBHTR’ temperature. Current cosmic black hole is growing at a rate of 14.66 km/sec in a decelerating mode. Uncertainty relation and all other microscopic physical constants play a crucial role in understanding the halt of the present cosmic expansion.In view of the confirmed zero rate of change in inverse of the Fine structure ratio (from the ground based laboratory experimental results), zero rate of change in the current CMBR temperature (from satellite data) and zero rate of change in the current Hubble’s constant (from satellite data), it can be suggested that, current cosmic expansion is almost all saturated and at present there is no significant cosmic acceleration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1405.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 11:39:17*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 6 color figures

Where physical theory normally seeks to describe an objective natural world, the modified cosmological model (MCM) seeks to describe an observer's interaction with that world. Qualitative similarities between the psychological observer, the MCM, and the Kerr-Newman black hole are presented. We describe some minimal modifications to previously proposed processes in the MCM. Inflation, large-scale CMB fluctuations and the free energy device are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1405.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 03:15:07*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Paper 1 of 2 for conference ‘SPESIF-2009, Huntsville, AL, Von Braun Center, February 24-27, 2009, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum’, but rejected by organising committee for alleged “illegal use of tensors”.

The so-called ‘Schwarzschild solution’ is not Schwarzschild’s solution, but a corruption, due to David Hilbert (December 1916), of the Schwarzschild/Droste solution, wherein m is allegedly the mass of the source of an associated gravitational field and the quantity r is said to be able to go down to zero (although no proof of this claim has ever been advanced), so that there are two alleged ‘singularities’, one at r = 2m and another at r = 0. It is routinely claimed that r = 2m is a ‘coordinate’ or ‘removable’ singularity which denotes the so-called ‘Schwarzschild radius’ (event horizon) and that a ‘physical’ singularity is at r = 0. The quantity r in the so-called ‘Schwarzschild solution’ has never been rightly identified by the physicists, who, although proposing many and varied concepts for what r denotes, effectively treat it as a radial distance from a source of the gravitational field at the origin of coordinates. The consequence of this is that the intrinsic geometry of the metric manifold has been violated. It is easily proven that the said quantity r is in fact the inverse square root of the Gaussian curvature of a spherically symmetric geodesic surface in the spatial section of the ‘Schwarzschild solution’ and so does not in itself define any distance whatsoever in the that manifold. With the correct identification of the associated Gaussian curvature it is also easily proven that there is only one singularity associated with all Schwarzschild metrics, of which there is an infinite number that are equivalent. Thus, the standard removal of the singularity at r = 2m is, in a very real sense, removal of the wrong singularity, very simply demonstrated herein. In addition, the ‘field equations’ Rμν = 0 define a spacetime that contains no matter, and since the ‘Principle of Superposition’ does not apply in General Relativity, it is impossible for Schwarzschild black holes to persist and mutually interact in a mutual spacetime that by construction contains no matter. Consequently, there are no black holes associated with the equations Rμν = 0 and therefore no related gravitational waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1405.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 03:16:35*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Paper 2 of 2 for conference ‘SPESIF-2009, Huntsville, AL, Von Braun Center, February 24-27, 2009, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum’, but rejected by organising committee for alleged “illegal use of tensors”.

According to Einstein his ‘Principle of Equivalence’ and his laws of Special Relativity must manifest in his gravitational field. It is shown herein that Ric = Rμν = 0 violates Einstein’s ‘Principle of Equivalence’. This has major implications for gravitational waves generally because it results in the total energy of Einstein’s gravitational field always being zero so that gravitational energy cannot be localised. Attempts to rectify this problem by means of Einstein’s pseudo-tensor fail because of mathematical non-existence. Linearisation of the field equations also fails because of mathematical non-existence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1405.0320 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-27 20:54:09*

**Authors:** Stephen Winter

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

3. WHAT IS THE UNIVERSE NOT : The universe is not a bubble . Many-worlds means not 'multiverse' . Wikipedia/Universe is not from this universe? . CMB means not 'Big Bang'

4. WHAT IS WRONG WITH TODAY'S MATHEMATICS : The Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric . Not mathematics but the intention is wrong

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1405.0316 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-02 17:17:30*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Notation based on four-by-four time and space projection matrices enables solution from scratch of the isotropic static metric-tensor ansatz for the empty-space Einstein equation. This isotropic Schwarzschild solution's version of the Riemann tensor which contracts directly to the Ricci tensor is finite at the horizon despite the divergence there of the contravariant metric tensor and of the affine connection, but raising that tensor's third index produces a horizon-divergent version of the Riemann tensor as well; the horizon-finitude of the first-mentioned version of the Riemann tensor is nothing more than a fortuitous by-product of the Ricci tensor's being zero. Furthermore, certain curvature scalars calculated from the isotropic Schwarzschild solution become ill-defined at the horizon, which is a departure from the "no drama" horizon behavior of those scalars calculated from the "standard" Schwarzschild solution. That departure occurs because the Jacobian of the map of the "standard" Schwarzschild solution into the isotropic solution diverges at the horizon, which invalidates tensor-contraction theorems there. Gravitational horizons in empty-space models in fact merely reflect unphysical overstatement of the effective mass of the gravitational source: the internal gravitation of any extended source which can be inscribed in a sphere reduces the effective mass of that source below the value needed to produce a horizon in the empty space outside the sphere.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1405.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-25 17:05:38*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper is an attempt to bridge the chasm between Quantum Physics and Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. Here I re-define what an object is in specific mathematical terms. Using this new definition for an object I find that, (1) It is compatible with the Newtonian definition for an object when dealing with gravitational interaction under specific conditions, (2) It is also not incompatible with the quantum physical definition for an object, (3) The gravitational interaction between bodies is reduced to quantum mechanical interactions at all levels, from the sub-atomic to the cosmic, (4) The theory is reducible to the Newtonian theory for gravitation under specific conditions,(5) The strange concept in General Relativity of matter acting upon empty space (nothingness) and causing it's distortion is eliminated, (6) In rough terms, the famous experiment of the bending of light by gravity which established General Relativity in 1919 can also be explained using quantum interactions, (7) It is very likely that the existence of dark matter is absolutely necessary for the very existence of an object from the sub-atomic to the cosmic, (8) A simple experiment that can be done easily in the laboratory using modern technology can prove/disprove the proposed theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1405.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-24 19:32:50*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I continue the discussion started in " An addendum to the theory " On the consequences of a probabilistic space-time continuum" paper" by doing a formal derivation of the proportionality that connects the rate of decrease of the probability for attraction with respect to mass and the inverse of the square of the mass of the object when applied to large objects that are well defined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1405.0303 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-25 15:46:13*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Corrected a few faults, added a diagram, few more words in conclusion.

This paper seeks to investigate the questions of: How does the constancy of the speed of light come about? Why does time dilation and length contraction occur? Are they physical effects with a mechanism? Does mass have a role is in these effects? Is Relativity an emergent phenomenon? The enquiry is along a different tact than the standard Lorentzian invariance canon but in the realm of readily known experimental facts or analogies and theory in the domain of wave propagation and solid state physics. These analogies, to almost prosaic physics, have a small following and are called Ether Theories, which modern physics has implicitly reinstated by General Relativity and Quantum Field Theories. In the category of Ether Theories based on analogies to solid state physics, this presentation is unique in not being Lorentz invariant; it is based on earlier papers by the author enquiring into the speed of coincidence counting of the Bell Inequality and a communication protocol. It is believed that Lorentz invariance emerges from the Ether and all Relativistic Mechanics can be built from the bottom up. The conclusion is that space-time is not really curved but the effects are all ascribable to mass gain.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1405.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-24 09:08:45*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The generic defining characteristics of all alleged black hole universes contradict the generic defining characteristics of big bang universes. Consequently black hole universes and big bang universes are mutually exclusive - they cannot co-exist. For instance, all alleged black hole universes are eternal whereas all alleged big bang universes are of finite age (~13 billion years); all alleged black hole universes are not expanding whereas all alleged big bang universes are expanding. All black hole universes are independent universes just as all alleged big bang universes are independent universes since each different type of black hole universe pertains to a completely different set of Einstein field equations. Despite their incompatibility cosmologists routinely blend these black hole and big bang universe to produce multiple black holes in some big bang universe, in violation of elementary logic, and augment the inadmissible hybrids with a Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation ad arbitrium.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1405.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 21:01:07*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I discuss the relationship between the probabilities and mass which was not explored in the original paper. The original paper dealt with the relationship between the probabilities and distance. It is found that the larger the mass of an object the more distant is the point of zero net gravity or to put it in another terms, the rate of decrease of the probability for attraction is slower the larger the mass of the object.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1405.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 02:08:21*

**Authors:** Mustafa Salti, Murat Korunur, Irfan Acikgoz

**Comments:** 13 Pages. European Physical Journal Plus 129: 95 (2014) 1-13

We consider the fractal Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe filled with dark fluid. By making
use of this assumption, we discuss two types of dark energy models: Generalized Ricci and generalized
holographic dark energies. We calculate the equation of state parameters, investigate some
special limits of the results and discuss the physical implications via graphs. Also, we reconstruct
the potential and the dynamics of the quintessence and k-essence(kinetic-quintessence) according to
the results obtained for the fractal dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1405.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 03:02:04*

**Authors:** Miroslav Sukenik, Jozef Sima

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the paper, a description of the Universe is provided at three different levels. The lowest one represents an elementary description by means of Friedmann equations. A higher level is a quantum mechanical description involving wave equation and the Universe wave function. The highest level is a mathematical description leading to the conclusion that the Universe is infinite both in time and space, it has never been created and never will cease. Based on a causal coupling of the past and future, an independent derivation of the Feigenbaum constant δ is possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1405.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-22 09:24:50*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The black hole is allegedly predicted by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. However, by comparison of the Einstein field equations for Schwarzschild spacetime and de Sitter spacetime it is plainly evident that matter is allegedly present and absent by the very same mathematical constraint: Tμν = 0. Since this is impossible, and since de Sitter’s empty universe contains no matter by virtue of Tμν = 0, Schwarzschild spacetime also contains no matter. Consequently, the black hole has no basis in General Relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1405.0279 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-18 11:35:50*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper points out that the observed relativistic slowing of meson
decay time cannot represent the decay time experienced by the meson
in its own inertial reference frame unless the Galilean time
transformation, τ = t, is used.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1405.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-20 12:49:07*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2014 Competition

Is there a consistent microscopic foundation for both general relativity and quantum mechanics? Both arose early in the 20th century from a background of classical mechanics and special relativity, but they took quite different turns, leading to seemingly incompatible worldviews. A simple picture is presented that may serve as a bridge between the microscopic quantum and macroscopic gravitational worlds. One may regard a relativistic quantum field as a real physical clock, which slows down as it enters a gravitational potential, providing a simple explanation for gravitational time dilation. This picture leads to a semi-classical Hamiltonian, with an orbital trajectory that is examined in the context of the Parameterized Post-Newtonian (PPN) Approximation. Remarkably, this avoids divergences and singularities, including black holes and event horizons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1405.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-19 09:14:03*

**Authors:** James Dunn

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Copyright 2014 James Dunn

Shown is a physics treatment potentially providing modeling of everything observable in physics as separate but connected systems of emergent space and time; gravity, duality, fringe patterns, energy, power, forces, momentum, quantum entanglement … and every other observable physics relationship. Intended is providing for the reverse engineering of particle physics experimentation into space/time relationships that can potentially be modeled in synchronous state machines on present computer systems (not in real-time). While upon development of a Non-Relativistic Quantum Computer (NQC) the universe can potentially be sampled to capture actual causal relationships and simulate cosmology precisely in real-time. Creating alternate dimensional universes within the NQC and when causally entangling the NQC space with our universe, providing for the warping of space/time relationships and related tools.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1405.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-18 07:51:18*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we derived the relativistic Quantized force, where the force given as a function of frequency[1]. Where, in this paper we defined the relativistic momentum as a function of frequency equivalent to the energy held by a body, and time, and then the quantized force is given as the first derivative of the momentum with respect to time. Subsequently we introduce in section one Newton's second law as it is relativistic quantized, and in section two we introduce the relativistic quantized inertial force, and then the relativistic quantized gravitational force, and the quantized gravitational time dilation. What is leading to there is no graviton it is photon. This paper is meaningless without modification the SRT in my paper http://dx.doi.org/10.14299/ijser.2014.04.001

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1405.0262 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-18 06:46:43*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Spanish

We obtain the gravitational field equations in the unified field theory of Weyl without imposing any restrictions and find static spherically symmetric solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1405.0254 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-17 04:46:04*

**Authors:** luis Sancho

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

This article introduces in a simplified manner, for non-specialists, a new concept of Mass by extending the Principle of Equivalence of Einstein and the metrics of the 5th dimension, deducing from it, a Unification Equation of Charges and Masses. It considers also some philosophical and existential consequences of those results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1405.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-01 00:06:07*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Lorentz transform indicates that the emission and absorption of a photon occur when events separate in real time are synchronous in complex time. Photons only exist as separate entities from the point perspective of real time. Cumulative fields of time dilation act within complex time also. If this is true then electromagnetic fields do not contain any energy. An explanation for inertia as the consequence of electromagnetic force is then in harmony with both relativity and quantum mechanics.
Inertia may be an interaction with matter in the distant universe. Gravity may be a geometric imbalance between electromagnetic attraction and repulsion due to the distribution of charges. The results of recent propulsion experiments can then be explained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1405.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 23:18:42*

**Authors:** G. H. Mickey Thompson

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Big bang evidence is overwhelming and most scientists agree our region of space contains matter that began to expand from a small point some 13.8 billion years ago. Yet, the accepted Inflation model has encountered several misfit anomalies and to accommodate them its proponents have had to invent some dubious new physics. It’s becoming increasingly clear, however, even to adherents of that model, that their magical physics can’t predict anything and therefore leaves nothing they can legitimately call a theory. We now have a groundswell of researchers who are openly rebelling, but cannot overcome the ivory tower fortress defended by those vested in the current model.
This paper focuses on anomalies challenging that Standard model. When analyzed as a set, their analysis yields insights for developing a model that more closely matches the data. This alternative model sets aside the unproven physics the current model requires in order to deal with its problems. It’s based on the assertion that dark energy; matter/antimatter disparity; microwave background texture; early genesis of stars and galaxies; and anthropic conditions are a coherent body of evidence that suggests the big bang did not occur in an empty void, but took place in a much older and larger universe.
While some details of this model may not pass muster, its fresh perspectives expose new avenues of exploration and shows how Einstein’s universe—having only three spatial dimensions and one time dimension—can easily accommodate every phenomenon we observe, with no need for supernatural dimensions, warp-speed inflation, or mysterious vacuum energies.
Keywords: Anthropic conditions, antimatter disparity, Big Bash model, dark energy, dark matter, Electric Universe, gravity, magnetohydrodynamics, quantum mechanics, radioactive decay, singularities, Z-Pinch

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1405.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-16 02:50:17*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is commonly claimed that the Sagnac effect does not contradict Special Relativity, because it is manifest in non-inertial radial motion and should be treated in the framework of General relativity. This claim is adhered to in justifying the implementation of both the Sagnac effect, and the Special Relativity time dilation in the GPS clocks synchronization. The present paper describes a thought experiment, called the absent-minded assistant, which proves that as far as the velocity, kinetic energy, time and distance of travel, are concerned, a uniform radial motion with fixed radios R, and radial velocity ω = v/R,is equivalent to a uniform linear motion with velocity v. With this proven on base of pure logic, the conclusions to be drawn are: (a) that the equivalence between of the linear and the radial Sagnac effects, previously detected experimentally, is also proven theoretically, and (b) That the second axiom of Special Relativity, positing that the speed of light is the same for all uniformly moving frames along a straight path, is incorrect.
I.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1405.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-18 21:48:58*

**Authors:** Arindam Sinha

**Comments:** 20 Pages. v1 is Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2014 Awards for Essays on Gravitation. Subsequent versions are more explanatory and contain additional material

A theory of gravity reconciling Mach's Principle and General Relativity (GR) is proposed. At any location, total gravitational potential from the Universe's matter distribution is c^{2}. This Universal background potential constitutes unit rest energy of matter and provides its unit mass, which is the essence behind E=mc^{2}. The background gravity creates a local sidereal inertial frame at every location. A velocity increases gravitational potential through net blue-shift of Universe's background gravity, causing kinematic time dilation, which is a form of gravitational time dilation. Matter and energy follow different rules of motion, and speed of matter may exceed the speed of light. The theory is consistent with existing relativity experiments, and is falsifiable based on experiments whose predictions differ from GR. The theory also explains why all the ICARUS and corrected OPERA experiments still show mean neutrino velocities slightly above speed of light (early arrival of neutrinos by 0.1-6.5ns), even after correcting the issues that had led to the original OPERA experiments to erroneously report faster than light neutrinos (early arrival by ~60ns).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1405.0229 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-14 04:21:00*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Spanish

The theory of gravity as derived from the Weyl tensor admits a static, spherically symmetric solution which differs from the corresponding solution of general relativity, which allows us to find differences between the two theories. We analyze the correction to planetary precession of Einstein obtaining the exact solution. We found the parameters of the static spherically symmetric solution which we associate to the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1405.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-13 02:54:51*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Starting with today’s generation of rocket thrust by means of the energy-mass relation (as in chemical rockets or ion propulsion), this essay proposes thrust generation through the gravity-electromagnetism relationship (modifying string theory to explain G-EM). Then the statement “T Tauri stars don't generate energy through fusion but rather as a result of gravitational collapse" takes us to m=E/c^2, Einstein’s E=mc^2 solved for mass. It also takes us to the concept that mass does not create gravity, but gravity produces mass as well as the other fundamental forces (this section includes Dark Energy and Dark Matter). The essay ends with “The paragraphs above show that the magnetic waves are actually modifications of gravitational waves. When they encounter the iron oxide in the bees, m=E/c^2 describes how the interacting forces/energies produce a tiny amount of what we call mass, causing the iron oxide to swell.“

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1405.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-11 19:55:14*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 11 pages. This is a compilation of results from viXra:1312.0010 and viXra:1305.0024 with minor updates.

We propose a modification of Einstein-Cartan gravity equations. The modified
cosmology departs from the standard model of cosmology for small Hubble parameter.
A characteristic Hubble scale h0, which is intrinsically related to cosmological
constant, marks the boundary between the validity domains of the standard model of
cosmology and modified cosmology. Such a role for h0 is similar to Planck’s constant
in the quantum/classical context, or to the speed of light c in the relativity/classical
context. For large Hubble parameter, the standard model of cosmology is restored.
In the opposite limit of small Hubble parameter, which is the case for present epoch,
Lorentz-violating effects would manifest themselves. One of the implications is that
there may be no need to invoke dark matter to account for cosmological mass discrepancies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1405.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-11 12:53:27*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The theory of the universe following the 8-fold SU(3) symmetry of life (see viXra 1310.0261) requires that before the big bang when the arrow of time was inactive E8 symmetry was an unbroken symmetry and the concept of negative intrinsic (-mc2) energy was viable. The graviton was inactive hence there was no gravity but in its place were three new gauge bosons and associated forces which led to fermibosonic matter entity production and the big bang phenomenon. The big bang was a universe-wide U(1) electromagnetic event which broke the perfect E8 symmetry then existing and caused our universe with its familiar gravity to begin

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1405.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-10 13:04:08*

**Authors:** Paris S. Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 36 Pages. This is a very nearly finished draft of my paper ready for publication. References to be added shortly.

The High Temperature Superconductors consist of planes of antiferromagnetic spin texture that when doped create a material capable of phase transitioning into a superconducting state. From this it is reasoned that a spin field must be incorporated into the model. The generation of a spin field, and the interaction of the net momentum with the electromagnetic field are then considered, as well as the implications for a covariant gener- alization of quantum mechanics in the setting of this field of spins, with the question in mind of: "How does the eigenstate condition change in the context of a model which incorporates a field of spin and an electromagnetic interaction?" This is shown via the covariant differential to lead directly to the principle of a reversed potential between particles interior to a superconductor. From this it is argued that an effect of mutual and relative cur- vature arises between charged particles in the spin field by way of the electromagnetic interaction. As a whole this description is predictive of pairing, the diamagnetic effect, the condition of zero magnetic field interior to a superconductor, and the gap. It is established that the states internal to a superconductor are in inertial freefall with respect to the spin field and under the influence of the electromagnetic potential. From this, we must move to a new viewpoint where the variables of spin curvature momentum and orbital momentum are treated in a manner such that they are in a zero-sum relationship. The attractive interaction in superconductivity and gap is motivated by the displacement of and reciprocation of quantum mechanical particle only orbital energy momentum and spin curvature energy momentum under comparison of different accelerative frames with the presence of an electromagnetic potential. The frame difference under acceleration by the electromagnetic field is found to amount to the effect of a lowering and raising operator under the covariant two particle Dirac equation in the presence of a spin field, which explains the appearance of a pairing gap, while the condensation gap is given by the reciprocal process of motion of charge pairs apart. From here the discussion is taken over to that of the Cosmological Constant. For this, there exists a scale in both the description of quantum mechanics and general relativity. For instance there is

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1405.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-06 17:44:48*

**Authors:** J. N. Percival

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Copyright 2014 by J. N. Percival

This paper reviews the 100+ year dispute regarding the philosophical basis and physical
interpretation of Einstein’s special theory of relativity (STR). The Dingle-Popper debate is
analyzed. Dingle asserted that STR could not be “symmetric, physical and consistent”. Popper
gave his rebuttal. More recently, Dotson also contested Dingle’s claim. Taking Dotson’s analysis
to a much deeper level, it’s shown that Dingle (and Einstein) were correct. In addition, careful
analysis shows that one cannot consistently interpret STR’s time dilation as describing actual
proper time accumulation. Further still, STR’s time dilation equation even when interpreted as
describing “just observed” time is not consistent with GPS data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1405.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-20 01:47:20*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

After having defined the most important physical properties and the three main types of gravitational field and after having examined dynamics of a moving system into a gravitational field, we prove the theoretical cogency of a gravitational perturbation that propagates in the gravitational field and is caused by the free fall of a massive body. This gravitational perturbation is due to the real gravitational field where motion happens and it isn't related to traces of primordial gravitational waves recently detected in the cosmic microwave background radiation in the order of BICEP2 experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1405.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-05 13:38:06*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The concept of the effective mass tensor in the General Relativity we discussed in the aspect of the gravitomagnetism. Model predicts the violation in the mass ratio during the planet year, i.e. measured from the periastron to the periastron. For the planet Earth the predicted violation in the mass ratio is of the order 6.6 x 10E-6 during the year, i.e. measured from the perihelion to perihelion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1405.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-19 11:51:28*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 23 pages. Jordan Journal of Physics. Vol. 8 (No. 1), pp. 1-16, (2015).

Within the framework of the covariant theory of gravitation (CTG) the energy is calculated for a system with continuously distributed matter, taking into account the contribution of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields and the contribution of the pressure and acceleration fields. The total energy of all the fields is equal to zero, and the system’s energy is formed from the energy of the particles, which are under the influence of these fields. From the expression for the energy the inertial M and gravitational mg masses of the system are found. These masses are compared with mass mb, obtained by integrating the density over the volume, and with the total mass m’ of the body particles scattered to infinity in order to make the energy of macroscopic fundamental fields equal to zero. The ratio for the masses is obtained: m’ = M < mb = mg . From this the possibility of non-radiative ideal spherical collapse follows, when the system’s mass M does not change during the collapse. In addition, the mass of the system is less than the gravitational mass. In contrast, in the general theory of relativity (GTR) the ratio for masses is obtained in a different form: M = mg < mb < m’. In CTG the electromagnetic field energy reduces the gravitational mass and in GTR, on the contrary, increases. In order to verify the obtained results it is suggested to conduct an experiment on measuring the change of the gravitational mass of the body with increasing its electrical charge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1405.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-01 04:23:54*

**Authors:** Jon Grate

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The author attempts to relate the relationship between gravity, magnetic energy, and density.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology