[18] **viXra:1203.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-28 22:43:35*

**Authors:** Todd J. Desiato

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Presented herein is a revision of the time-independent solutions of the equations of motion for the Refractive Index, in the Polarizable Vacuum (PV) Model. It is demonstrated that these equations may be used to obtain solutions and equations of motion for the metric component functions, identical to General Relativity (GR). The equations of motion in this Revised PV Model are easier to solve than the equations of GR as they do not require Tensor mathematics or geometrical interpretations to be understood.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1203.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-23 23:28:11*

**Authors:** Todd J. Desiato

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

When a space-time warp bubble is moving at velocity (i.e. v > c), Doppler shifted photons with energy tending to infinity, approach from the direction of motion. Event horizons form on the leading and trailing walls of the bubble. It is demonstrated herein that these phenomena mathematically arise from the application of shift-only space-time solutions; derived retrospectively from the geometrical interpretation of General Relativity. Moreover, it shall be demonstrated that these phenomena do not manifest in a properly formulated Polarizable Vacuum warp drive solution, IFF the refractive index within the space-time bubble is precisely controlled. This formalism is consistent within the analog gravity framework of the Polarizable Vacuum Model, representing a variable speed of light interpretation of General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1203.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-19 14:15:50*

**Authors:** Marinela Preoteasa

**Comments:** 156 Pages.

În anul 1972 Florentin Smarandache prezentase o ipoteză supraluminala (prin care susţinea că nu există barieră a vitezei în univers), infirmând postulatul einsteinian. Autorul l-a contrazis din nou pe Einstein în 1982 construind, prin calcule matematice simple, o Teorie Absolută a Relativităţii (T.A.R.), din care erau înlăturate fanteziile ştiinţifice din Teoria Specială a Relativităţii precum dilatare a timpului, contractare a spaţiului, simultaneitate relativistă, sau paradoxuri relativiste.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1203.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-18 08:35:34*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The idea of the existence of ether has been abandoned after the theory of relativity was accepted. It appears that the existence of an ether, compatible with the classical standard Cosmological model, permits to solve some enigmas of the present Cosmological model that are very important, for instance the enigma connected to dark matter or to fossil radiation. In this article we show how the existence of ether, being compatible with the classical standard Cosmological model, permits to solve those enigmas. In particular how it can give the nature of dark matter, the origin of its invisibility, the curve of velocities of stars in galaxies (constant) and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1203.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-25 03:11:23*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Using Compton Equation(1923) ,
1] Classicl Relativity is Extended to Relativity in N Dimensinal Space.
2] I give the ultimate proof that Nothing can pass speed of light.
3] I have found a beter "compton Equation".
4] The paper gives a hint about how mass and charge curve space .
5] It is also shown that Relativity is necessary also for what we think to be non reletavistic problems

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1203.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-18 14:25:19*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show the core and central issue where Relativity and the speed of light are so commonly misunderstood by virtually every 21st century physicist, engineer, university professor, high school teacher, physics book author, and encyclopedia author. The problem stems from Dr. Einstein’s famous 1905 paper and the resulting over complication of the relativity principle, which got thoroughly “masked” by some unfortunate higher math, which is totally inappropriate to describe what is a principle that even an 8th grader can understand, and a physics PhD cannot. Very few scientists really understand Dr. Einstein’s 1905 paper, which has never been properly subjected to detailed analysis by a professional engineer, with said proper engineering analysis being accepted by the traditional physics peer reviewed community.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1203.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-22 09:46:39*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosingr

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Recently, [3], it was shown that Special Relativity is in fact based just about on one single physical axiom which is that of Reciprocity.
Originally, Einstein, [1], established Special Relativity on two
physical axioms, namely, the Galilean Relativity and the Constancy of the Speed of Light in inertial reference frames. Soon after, [2,4,5], it was
shown that the Galilean Relativity alone, together with some implicit mathematical type conditions, is sufficient for Special Relativity. The
references in [7,3] can give an idea about the persistence over the years, even if not the popularity, of the issue of minimal axiomatic
foundation of Special Relativity. Here it is important to note that, implicitly, three more assumptions have been used on space-time
co-ordinate transformations, namely, the homogeneity of space-time, the isotropy of space, and certain mathematical condition of smoothness type on the
coordinate transformations. In [3], a weaker boundedness type condition on space-time coordinate transformations is used instead of the usual
mathematical smoothness type conditions. In this paper it is shown that the respective boundedness condition is related
to the Principle of Local Transformation Increment Ratio Limitation, or in short, PLTIRL, a principle introduced here, and one which has
an obvious physical meaning. It is also shown that PLTIRL is not a stronger assumption than that of the mentioned boundedness in [3], and yet it
can also deliver the Lorentz Transformations. Of interest is the fact that, by formulating PLTIRL as a physical axiom, the possibility is opened
up for the acceptance, or on the contrary, rejection of this physical axiom PLTIRL, thus leading to two possible theories of Special Relativity.
And to add further likelihood to such a possibility, the rejection of PLTIRL leads easily to effects which involve unlimited time and/or space
intervals, thus are not accessible to usual experimentation for the verification of their validity, or otherwise. A conclusion is that a more careful
consideration of the assumptions underlying Special Relativity is worth pursuing. In this regard, a corresponding trend has lately been observable
in Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity. In the former, the respective analysis is more involved than has so far been the case for Special Relativity.
As for the latter, the technical and conceptual diffculties are considerable. Regarding Quantum Field Theory, the situation is, so far, unique in
Physics since, to start with, there is not even one single known rigorous and comprehensive enough mathematical model. This paper is a new version of [20].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1203.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-13 11:58:21*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

After the expansion of universe was observed in the 1920s, physicists and astronomers introduced the concept of ``space expands" into physics and many observations and research results were used based on this. However, we can't explain why space expands and why it has a specific velocity and is no observations of expansion of space. This study proves that the expansion of the universe and Hubble's law doesn't result from the expansion of space, but is a dynamical result from the movement of galaxies in space. We could confirm that Hubble's law was always valid when the effect of acceleration was smaller than initial velocity. We can define the center of the universe and find it. There is a possibility that 2.7K background radiation is not radiation in the early days of the universe. In that case, we can't estimate that our universe is isotropic and uniform from CMBR. Also, this shows that cosmological redshift comes out from the Doppler effect of light. Expansion of space was explained that it was related to redshift and scale factor. Therefore, it is influencing many areas of astronomy and cosmology. Therefore, if this discovery is true, all matters related to redshift and scale factor should be reviewed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1203.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-12 15:52:25*

**Authors:** David Proffitt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Earlier work on the mass distribution in black hole interiors left the question of what happens to a plunging particle unanswered. This issue is resolved here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1203.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-12 05:27:04*

**Authors:** Juan Ramón González Álvarez

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It is broadly believed that general relativity --a geometric theory-- is fully equivalent to the field theory of a massless, self-interacting, spin-2 field. This belief is reinforced by statements in many textbooks. However, an increasing criticism to this belief has been published. To settle this old debate about the precise physical nature of gravitation, this author introduces a simple but exact argument --based in the equivalence principle-- that shows that general relativity is not equivalent to a field theory of gravity. Subsequently, both the general relativistic Lagrangian for a particle and the Hilbert & Einstein equations are obtained as an approximation from a field theory of gravity, somehow as geometric optics can be derived from physical optics. The approximations involved in the geometrization are two: (i) the neglect of $T_{grav}^{\mu\nu}$ and $T_{int}^{\mu\nu}$ in the field-theoretic tensor $\Theta^{\mu\nu}$ and (ii) the approximation of the effective metric by the curved spacetime metric $g_{\mu\nu} = \hat{g}_{\mu\nu} + O(h_{\mu\nu}^2)$. Further discussion of this derivation and of the approximations involved is given.
Several misunderstandings about the consistency and observability of the flat spacetime theories of gravity are corrected. A detailed analysis of the fundamental differences between geometric and field-theoretic expressions reveals that all the well-known deficiencies of general relativity --including the impossibility to obtain a consistent quantum general relativity-- are direct consequences of the geometrization of the gravitational interaction. Finally, remarks about the status of dark matter are given, from the perspective of a generalized theory of gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1203.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-12 14:52:23*

**Authors:** Piotr Ogonowski

**Comments:** The article has been published as: P. Ogonowski, "Time Dilation as
Field," Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2012, pp. 200-207.
(DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.32027). You may also find proof and tensor based
generalization at: www.tp-theory.net/eng/proof-theory.html

It is proved, there is no aether and time-space is the only medium for electromagnetic wave. However, considering time-space as the medium we may expect, there should exist field equations, describing electromagnetic wave as disturbance in time-space structure propagating in the time-space.
I derive such field equations and show that gravitational field as well as electromagnetic field may be considered through one phenomena – time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1203.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-20 09:08:54*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In 2012 all eyes on elusive Higgs thought to give all particles mass and neutrinos may be tahyons.Both which are false and unobservable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1203.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-07 10:36:56*

**Authors:** J. P. Baugher

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The meaning and existence of the cosmological constant has come to the forefront of physics as a dark energy that could be responsible for an accelerating expansion of the universe, as well as having an extremely large magnitude as predicted by quantum field theory. This presents the most challenging physics problems known today. In this work I ask questions of a simple equivalency substituted into the Einstein field equation and demonstrate that this results in a repulsive Newtonian gravity that can be explained in terms of a large cosmological constant as well as a proposed path for dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1203.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-05 15:09:28*

**Authors:** Glenn A.Baxter (P.E.)

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We explore, newly published physics papers by Dr. D. Sasso and Dr. M. S. Khan, both of whom dispute Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity. Dr. Sasso writes about On Primary Physical Transformations of Elementary Particles: the Origin of Electric Charge (www.k1man.com/a14) and Relativistic Theory of Black Holes www.k1man.com/a15 All of Dr. Sasso’s papers are at www.k1man.com/k Dr. Khan writes about On The Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies By Albert Einstein is Based On Trickeries, Michelson Morley Experiment: A Misconceived and Misinterpreted Experiment, Experimental & Theoretical Evidences of Fallacy of Space-time Concept and Actual State of Existence of the Physical Universe, and Energy Theory of Matter and Cosmology See www.k1man.com/k8

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1203.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-04 07:03:44*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

As shown, the famous formula E=mc2 is a direct consequence of Maxwell´s theory of electromagnetic radiation known long before its mistaken derivation by A. Einstein from the relativistic viewpoint.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1203.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-04 07:15:34*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The elementary building unit of the Universe - quantum connection of opposite poles (quantum dipole) represents the elementary quantum of space. The Universe pulsates thanks to its dialectic contradiction between attraction and repulsion. The cosmic expansion is caused by systematic expelling of new quantum dipoles accompanied with the transition of the Universe from one quantum state to the next by elementary quantum jump, which represents the elementary quantum of time. This fact can be expressed by simple space-time equation of the Universe, which has important consequences and enables to calculate such cosmic characteristics like mass and energy of the Universe, its volume, average density, radius of cosmic curvature and others.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1203.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-03 19:49:18*

**Authors:** Marcelo Carvalho

**Comments:** 10 Pages. marcelocarv12@gmail.com

We investigate the twin paradox assuming the acceleration acts instantaneously in one of the twins and whose effect is just to revert the relative movement of the twins keeping the same relative speed. The relative motion of the twins is then split in two stages: one where they move away and another when they approach each other. Each stage is described by specific Lorentz transformations that obey certain boundary conditions related to the reversion of motion. We then show how the paradox arises from the particular form of the Lorentz transformation describing the approaching movement of the twins.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1203.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-01 07:34:13*

**Authors:** V. V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 4 Figures

Galaev's experiments of 1998-2002 (Kharkov, Ukraine) are positive, since regular nonzero shifts of the interference fringe are obtained in them. His experiments are unique because he was the first who used non-mechanical (electrical) instantaneous rotation of the interferometer at 180 degrees. Owing to this Galaev appeared to be the third experimenter in the world who revealed the daily trend of these fringe shifts qualitatively consistent with measurements of daily trends of the horizontal projection of speed of "aether wind" in Miller's (1926) and Demjanov’s (1970) works.
But Galaev, like Miller, incorrectly interpreted his experiments, having ignored the necessity for account-ing the relativistic structure of refractive index n≠1 of light carriers of the interferometer; it lessened the value of his results, having made them negative ones. We eliminate these incorrection of Miller and Galaev on the basis of modern times Lorentz-invariant interpretation of his experiments, that gives the speed υ of motion of the Earth relative to stationary aether not units, but hundreds km/s.
After the experiment by Michelson&Morley (1887) the nonzero shift of fringe is invariably present in measurements of all experimenters in different countries. On the basis of my own measurements of the same trends I have found the right algorithm of their Lorentz-invariant interpretation which takes into account the re-lativistic binary structure (n^2–1)/n^2 of the polarization of translationally moving particles of the light-carrying optical media of the interferometer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology