[20] **viXra:1901.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-15 16:43:30*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: An increase of 10 million years for the very hot period of the universe and increasing the universe's radius to be exactly c/ fine-structure constant alpha produce full 3-digit agreement with Planck Collaboration critical density data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1901.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-14 14:00:49*

**Authors:** Bryn.s.Cat

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Charge,Parity,Time Symmetry

How special relativity can be reinterpreted
with Charge,Parity,Time Symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1901.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-14 05:57:21*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, we find electro-magnetic wave functions of Cosmic Microwave Background and Schwarzschild space-time. Specially, this article is that electromagnetic wave equations are treated by gauge fixing equations in RobertsonWalker space-time and Schwarzschild space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1901.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-12 11:14:27*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The flexibility of time in the theory of relativity is achieved by unnatural behavior of the clock. Einstein assumes the existence of such a clock, which indicates more time than would have passed according to its speed. In nature there is no such clock. Therefore his assumptions should be reconsidered anew.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1901.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-11 18:08:02*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The application of reflection symmetry to two inertial reference frames shows that
the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. The conservation of the
elapsed time indicates that the reflection of light between a pair of stationary mirrors should take the same elapsed time
in all inertial reference frames. In one reference frame, both mirrors are stationary. In other reference
frames, both mirrors are moving. The distance traveled by the light between the moving mirrors
depends on the direction. The conservation law
shows that the light travels at a different speed upon reflection by a moving mirror.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1901.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-11 23:49:00*

**Authors:** Jebin larosh

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This theoretical framework shows an entropy model of FRW universe and describes the behaviour of Lambda-CDM. The possibility that the Dark photon in a hidden sector is a Maxwell demon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1901.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-11 09:49:04*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The FLRW metric is derived for a constant curvature scalar, showing that pressure and density obey two distinct equations of state.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1901.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-10 09:23:48*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 3 pages

The article discusses the circumstances before the Big Bang. Only a photon can exist in such conditions. This article discloses a variant how the Universe can emerge from “nothing”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1901.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-09 11:23:26*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

The c constant is as we know the speed of light and when large masses move at a speed near the speed of light its known that time should dilate till time passing actually ends up being zero now if we look at photons moving at the speed of light we could say that it has a c constant however there should be more to that because photons should time dilate too now when we look at the photons that should time dilate and it doesn't we could say that its because it’s the smallest mass or maybe even because its massless now when we look at bigger masses we find that the masses actually time dilate maybe because the masses have larger mass than photons so assuming that the photon is the base of all masses we could assume that particles having mass are the only ones that time dilate but the photon being the base of all masses we could say that a photon moves 1 m/s if the time increases to c or 3*10^8 s now when we look again we find that photons never change the distance it takes in one sec that is c more over time never dilates for photons because again it has a c constant meaning that if you dilate time you would end up increasing the distance by which the photon moves in one sec so if we look again we could say that photons do not experience time dilation but then this effects larger masses than the base of a photon now lets see the photon equations:
C=3*10^8/1=3*10^8 m/s and c=3*10^8/3*10^8=1 m/s if time dilates for photons and if we take the c=1 or the second equation we could throw it onto the masses as we say that as the 1 kg mass moves at a distance of 1 m/s we would find that it takes the force that pushed the photon now imagine we give 3*10^8 the force that pushed the photon we get to the 1 kg moving at the speed of light and maximum time dilation now suppose we look at the largest mass in the universe at the middle of the universe it could be estimated to be of c*c*c=(3*10^8)^3 where the first c is the force and the second c the inertia the the last c the time dilation refutation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1901.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-10 02:14:53*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Whitehead's description of the gravitational field of a static point mass source is equivalent to Schwarzshild's solution of Einstein's equations. Conveniently generalized in the framework of Special relativity, I proved that it leads to a new description of the linear approximation of General relativity with a color gage group symmetry. Here I introduce a new line of thought to discuss the problem of spacecrafts orbiting a planet taking into account its motion around the Sun or its proper rotation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1901.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-08 08:19:13*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We consider a system of a gravitational wave coming from infinity that collides with a mass M. The metric of the system approaches the metric of a gravitational plane wave pulse as the mass of M goes to zero. The metric of the gravitational plane wave pulse having a specific form. We show there is a limiting curve of M, as mass and size of M go to zero, that is not a geodesic curve. We show conservation of energy-momentum does not hold and there is no solution to the Einstein field equations for this system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1901.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-07 06:56:49*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

in this paper we will propose two laser experiments the first is to spin the laser at the speed of light and see whether the photons coming out of it still have the speed of light and the second experiment to make photons coming out of laser go for a long distance hitting mirrors for a very long distance probably good to do in cern and see whether the photons move at the speed of light while
measuring with time the photons take to reach a distance of c or the speed of light

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1901.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-07 17:38:49*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

In this work, we aim to unify statistical physics with relativity. As such, we construct a system of statistical physics under an appropriate equilibrium condition such that its Lagrange multipliers imply, instead of the usual uniform constant temperature, a uniform constant speed: the speed of light. With it, both special and general relativity are emergent from its equation of state and the system describes the statistical physics of space-time events as measured by observers. We show, as the main result, that the entropy dynamics of the system admits a plausible mechanism for the notoriously stubborn quantum measurement problem by proving that light traces a surface in space-time along which all observers agree on the results of all random measurements within the system. Finally, we make the case that the role normally taken by the uniform temperature is, in a statistical system of space-time events, replaced by the uniform speed of light, and we re-formulate the three laws of thermodynamics within this optic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1901.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-07 23:15:06*

**Authors:** David Colasante

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The particle aspects of light are accommodated so well by the photon model that alternative models are rarely considered. Interval-time coordinates provide a Euclidean lens, through which light quanta are seen to exchange by direct, physical contact. The ALPHA collaboration at CERN is uniquely positioned to experimentally distinguish between the models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1901.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-08 01:43:04*

**Authors:** Francesco Ferrara

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The document presents a model for the electron, different from the conventional one. The electron is represented as a current loop of 19.79 A. The document also explains the electrical nature of the inertia of a physical body

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1901.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-06 22:37:07*

**Authors:** J Foukzon, E R Men’kova, A A Potapov

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

The cosmological constant problem arises because the magnitude of
vacuum energy density predicted by quantum field theory is about 120 orders of
magnitude larger than the value implied by cosmological observations of accelerating
cosmic expansion. We pointed out that the fractal nature of the quantum space-time
with negative Hausdorff- Colombeau dimensions can resolve this tension. The canonical
Quantum Field Theory is widely believed to break down at some fundamental
high-energy cutoff and therefore the quantum fluctuations in the vacuum can be
treated classically seriously only up to this high-energy cutoff. In this paper we argue that
Quantum Field Theory in fractal space-time with negative Hausdorff-Colombeau
dimensions gives high-energy cutoff on natural way. In order to obtain disered physical
result we apply the canonical Pauli-Villars regularization up to . It means that there exist
the ghost-driven acceleration of the univers hidden in cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1901.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-04 13:46:40*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

The clockwise spin in electrons and protons is probably the reason why they have attracting charges because when we look at a bigger scale we find that electrons spin around the protons in clockwise direction too and when we look at a bigger scale we find that planets spin clockwise too around themselves also when we look at a bigger scale we find that moons spin around planets in clockwise direction probably the reason this happens is because there are two interacting masses here namely the electrons and protons or the planet and moons those two masses spinning in the clockwise direction while one is spinning in clockwise direction around the other only and the bigger mass is not meaning that the bigger one is not spinning around the other while the smaller mass is spinning for example if we look at two masses that are equal in mass as two neutron stars we would find that both of them is spinning around the other leading to higher spin velocity around the other but with distance or radius around each other loss but in other systems where the two masses are not equal we find that the radius is kept under time easily
i actually have the ability to write better physics paper now and sine i do not remember my last account password i will not delete papers anymore so all papers from now are not garbage except ofcourse for the method to find pi paper

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1901.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-05 04:31:26*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 2 pages

Existence of a Cosmic String, going vertically upwards from the north pole, can be verified by flying around it in circles and measuring the associated Aharonov-Bohm effect \cite{Belluci 2014}. The cosmic string plays a pivotal role in rotation of universe around/over the stationary earth \cite{Modgil 2018 c}. Anthropogenic thermal up currents over the north pole, would interact with the cosmic string - winding around it and effecting its rotational state. Such up currents can be generated by the heat from the nuclear reactors on north pole \cite{Modgil 2002, Modgil 2008, Modgil 2011}. This gives an anthropic engineering control over the cosmological rotation reversals. Nuclear submarines surfacing by breaking through the polar ice cap, - heating sea water, - converting it into steam - and releasing it into the polar atmosphere - are a possible way to achieve this.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1901.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-06 12:17:18*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show how one can measure the speed of gravity only using gravitational phenomena. Our approach offers several ways to measure the speed of gravity (light) and checks existing assumptions about light in new types of experiments. The speed of light is included in several well-known gravitational formulas. However, if we can measure this speed from gravitational phenomena alone, then is it the speed of light or the speed of gravity we are measuring? We think it is more than a mere coincidence that they are the same. In addition, even if it is not possible to draw strong conclusions now, our formulations support the view that there is a link between electromagnetism and gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1901.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-01 02:09:00*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The application of symmetry to physics leads to conservation law and conserved quantity.
For inertial reference frames, the reflection symmetry generates not only conservation but also transformation.
Under reflection symmetry, the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. The displacement in space is also conserved in all inertial reference frames.
From the conservation of the elapsed time and the displacement, the coordinate transformation between inertial reference frame is derived.
Based on the coordinate transformation, both the time transformation and the velocity transformation are also derived.
The derivation shows that all three transformations are dependent exclusively on the relative motion
between inertial reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology