[36] **viXra:1901.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-29 03:19:56*

**Authors:** Tony Christopher Collins

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Inertia, the force you feel pulling on you as you accelerate, and gravity – the force that attracts all. Are two separate and distinct phenomena, yet they share an equivalence which has yet to be explained. Starting from first principles and general assumptions we present a heuristic argument that provides an explanation for this equivalence, as well an in-depth understanding of how time is the responsible underlining mechanism and why. To accomplish this, we took a step back and reanalyzed the nature of time, which subsequently led to an undeniable conclusion. A conclusion that leads a way to the reconciliation of gravity with quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1901.0466 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-31 10:20:09*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Agreement with Planck Collaboration critical density data and assumption of 10^27 galaxy count verifies the importance of holography in MHCE8S theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1901.0454 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-30 07:14:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

Dark matter, which is thought to account for nearly a quarter of matter in the universe (but has yet to be observed), has perplexed physicists for decades. [28]
Almost 20 years ago, the DAMA/LIBRA experiment at Italy's Gran Sasso National Laboratory—LNGS began publishing data showing that it had detected a signal modulation produced by an interaction with the Milky Way's dark matter halo. [27]
This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/detector/" detector . [26]
If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1901.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-30 09:21:29*

**Authors:** Lindsay Forbes

**Comments:** Pages.

The accepted view is that the universe is totally self-contained. All of its dynamics are governed purely by its interior contents. In this hypothesis I challenge this view and offer a simple explanation for Dark Energy and provide a model of the cosmos which may simplify much more.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1901.0437 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-31 04:24:44*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 24 pages

This work presents an indisputable mathematical demonstration revealing that the Special Relativity equations are fudged. It also shows that the actual equations resulting from Einstein’s assumptions are inconsistent, and lead to mathematical inconsistency, falsifying the special relativity predictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1901.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-29 02:43:37*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The human perspective is incomplete, we see only outward from a point and cannot resolve the sequence of quantum action because Euclidean geometry is used to define relativity. A geometry indicated by special relativity defining separation not by distance but as separation in the constant proper time of the observer, allows distinction between electrical and quantum action. The proper time of the observer then has a natural complex conjugate when multiplied by the subjects relative velocity as a proportion of the velocity of light and a single equation describes relativity between charges without assuming geometry for empty space. Time dilation and divergence between charges then constitute a mechanism for all interaction, providing a common explanation for gravity, inertia and electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1901.0419 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-07 09:10:53*

**Authors:** Friedhelm M. Jöge

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The rudiments of a theory of dark energy. The theoretical result is confronted with the numerical value calculated from the available data. Excellent matching of the numerical values resulting in three independent paths makes the approach plausible. The work at hand is analogous to Kepler's laws of planetary orbits. Only Isaac Newton put Kepler's laws on a theoretical basis, which is provided here by Thomas Görnitz [1]. The empirical Balmer formula for the frequencies of the spectral lines in the arc spectrum of hydrogen was also theoretically justified by Niels Bohr, who calculated the energy levels of the hydrogen atom and the frequencies of spectral lines.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1901.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-26 15:37:43*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A new experiment for registration of variable speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1901.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-26 05:35:32*

**Authors:** Thomas Heiko Günther

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recently, anti-de Sitter spaces are used in promising theories of quantum gravity like the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence. The latter provides an approach to string theorie, which includes more than four dimensions. Unfortunately, the anti-de Sitter model contains no mass and is not able to describe our universe adequately. Nevertheless, the rising interest in higherdimensional theories motivates to take a deeper look at the n-dimensional AdS Spacetime. In this paper, a solution of Einstein's field equations is constructed from a modified anti-de Sitter metric in n dimensions. The idea is based on the connection between Schwarzschild- and McVittie metric: McVittie's model, which interpolates between a Schwarzschild Black Hole and an expanding global Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker spacetime, can be constructed by a simple coordinate replacement in Schwarzschild's isotropic intervall, where radial coordinate and it's differential is multiplied by a time dependent scale factor a(t). In a previous work I showed, that an exact solution of Einstein's equations can analogously be generated from a static transformation of de Sitter's metric. The present article is concerned with the application of this method on an AdS (Anti de Sitter) related spacetime in n dimensions. It is shown that the resulting isotropic intervall is a solution of the n-dimensional Einstein equations. Further, it is transformed into a spherical symmetric but anisotropic form, analogously to the transformtion found by Kaloper, Kleban and Martin for McVittie's metric.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1901.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-24 06:47:25*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty this is my best paper ever and hopefully the best paper ever

The universe has a volume and we can say it has other three components the universe has masses space and time now since we denote space as nothing then if we say that the universe is composed of two things masses and time then we should say that the universe is split up into two stuff masses and time and if so we can say that mass and time occupy the volume of the universe fully now if we actually look at the night sky we could see that the stars are less than half the volume of the universe and that is because masses consumed themselves to move and consume themselves as time pass in other words time didn't want its half of the volume of the universe only it also zombied(from the word zombie) up the masses half or turned the masses into moving masses that consumed their mass as time passed by now we have the c constant we have cosmology we can look at the sky and know how much volume of the stars compared to half the volume of the universe is still existent and we can calculate everything till the pi value of mathematical circles now I don't know how to do it but it seems other people can take time and calculate everything with mathematics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1901.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-09 09:07:26*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A didactic approach to the foundations of Total Relativity Theory as an extension of General Relativity Theory to n dimensions, with a comparison between scalar and tensorial equations of Fluid Dynamics theory. The Conservative Principle is established, pointing the problem of Total Energy Conservation of Nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1901.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-10 19:49:31*

**Authors:** Harvey Scribner

**Comments:** 32 Pages. Version 2 includes Section IX - "The Meaning of Area K3"

Abstract—In [1] an observer at rest and perpendicular to moving source will detect a difference in the time of arrival of the initial τ0 and final τ' waves as τ' > τ0 a transverse relative time shift. The position of the observer in [1] for source velocities near the speed of light has the disadvantage of having to wait a long time to detect τ'. The observer cannot detect τ' for velocities equal to or greater than the speed of light. This work shows that moving the observer to a strategic position downstream from the τ' signal has the advantage of introducing observability of τ'. The transverse relative time shift formulas are derived for the stationary observer perpendicular to and also on the path axis for velocities less than and much greater than c. Also, a method to calculate transverse relative length is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1901.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-17 23:47:45*

**Authors:** Henrich Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This article shows that clocks in a moving reference frame cannot be slowed down, as this leads to double the time in a moving frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1901.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-17 13:35:26*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A proper derivation of the FLRW metric shows the Ricci curvature scalar to be embedded in the metric's constant k (0, -1 or +1) that largely determines the fate of the universe. But in general R is not a constant, and the consequence of this issue is briefly presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1901.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-16 06:13:59*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The muon paradox and the twin paradox are the result of time dilation, but time itself doesn't dilate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1901.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-16 10:14:59*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering Vol:12, No:8, 2018

As is known, the role of the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitational field is to extend the conservation law to the gravitational interaction by taking into account the energy and momentum of the gravitational field. We calculated the contribution of the Einstein pseudotensor to the total mass of a stationary material body and its gravitational field. It turned out that this contribution is positive, despite the fact that the mass-energy of a stationary gravitational field is negative. We concluded that the pseudotensor incorrectly describes the energy of the gravitational field. Nevertheless this pseudotensor has been used in a large number of scientific works for 100 years. We explain this by the fact that the covariant component of the pseudotensor was regarded as the mass-energy. Besides, we prove the advantage of the covariant energy-momentum conservation law for matter in the Minkowski space-time

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1901.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-15 16:43:30*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: An increase of 10 million years for the very hot period of the universe and increasing the universe's radius to be exactly c/ fine-structure constant alpha produce full 3-digit agreement with Planck Collaboration critical density data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1901.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-14 14:00:49*

**Authors:** Bryn.s.Cat

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Charge,Parity,Time Symmetry

How special relativity can be reinterpreted
with Charge,Parity,Time Symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1901.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-14 05:57:21*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, we find electro-magnetic wave functions of Cosmic Microwave Background and Schwarzschild space-time. Specially, this article is that electromagnetic wave equations are treated by gauge fixing equations in RobertsonWalker space-time and Schwarzschild space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1901.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-12 11:14:27*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The flexibility of time in the theory of relativity is achieved by unnatural behavior of the clock. Einstein assumes the existence of such a clock, which indicates more time than would have passed according to its speed. In nature there is no such clock. Therefore his assumptions should be reconsidered anew.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1901.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-11 18:08:02*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The application of reflection symmetry to two inertial reference frames shows that
the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. The conservation of the
elapsed time indicates that the reflection of light between a pair of stationary mirrors should take the same elapsed time
in all inertial reference frames. In one reference frame, both mirrors are stationary. In other reference
frames, both mirrors are moving. The distance traveled by the light between the moving mirrors
depends on the direction. The conservation law
shows that the light travels at a different speed upon reflection by a moving mirror.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1901.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-11 23:49:00*

**Authors:** Jebin larosh

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This theoretical framework shows an entropy model of FRW universe and describes the behaviour of Lambda-CDM. The possibility that the Dark photon in a hidden sector is a Maxwell demon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1901.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-11 09:49:04*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The FLRW metric is derived for a constant curvature scalar, showing that pressure and density obey two distinct equations of state.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1901.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-10 09:23:48*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 3 pages

The article discusses the circumstances before the Big Bang. Only a photon can exist in such conditions. This article discloses a variant how the Universe can emerge from “nothing”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1901.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-09 11:23:26*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

The c constant is as we know the speed of light and when large masses move at a speed near the speed of light its known that time should dilate till time passing actually ends up being zero now if we look at photons moving at the speed of light we could say that it has a c constant however there should be more to that because photons should time dilate too now when we look at the photons that should time dilate and it doesn't we could say that its because it’s the smallest mass or maybe even because its massless now when we look at bigger masses we find that the masses actually time dilate maybe because the masses have larger mass than photons so assuming that the photon is the base of all masses we could assume that particles having mass are the only ones that time dilate but the photon being the base of all masses we could say that a photon moves 1 m/s if the time increases to c or 3*10^8 s now when we look again we find that photons never change the distance it takes in one sec that is c more over time never dilates for photons because again it has a c constant meaning that if you dilate time you would end up increasing the distance by which the photon moves in one sec so if we look again we could say that photons do not experience time dilation but then this effects larger masses than the base of a photon now lets see the photon equations:
C=3*10^8/1=3*10^8 m/s and c=3*10^8/3*10^8=1 m/s if time dilates for photons and if we take the c=1 or the second equation we could throw it onto the masses as we say that as the 1 kg mass moves at a distance of 1 m/s we would find that it takes the force that pushed the photon now imagine we give 3*10^8 the force that pushed the photon we get to the 1 kg moving at the speed of light and maximum time dilation now suppose we look at the largest mass in the universe at the middle of the universe it could be estimated to be of c*c*c=(3*10^8)^3 where the first c is the force and the second c the inertia the the last c the time dilation refutation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1901.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-08 14:11:09*

**Authors:** David Colasante

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

To fully characterize any spin requires identification of its spin vector and its plane of rotation. Classical presumptions obscure both for “intrinsic” spin. Here, Euclidean interval-time coordinates literally "lift the veil" of space to reveal it. Probability amplitude is also physically realized.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1901.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-10 02:14:53*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Whitehead's description of the gravitational field of a static point mass source is equivalent to Schwarzshild's solution of Einstein's equations. Conveniently generalized in the framework of Special relativity, I proved that it leads to a new description of the linear approximation of General relativity with a color gage group symmetry. Here I introduce a new line of thought to discuss the problem of spacecrafts orbiting a planet taking into account its motion around the Sun or its proper rotation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1901.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-08 08:19:13*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We consider a system of a gravitational wave coming from infinity that collides with a mass M. The metric of the system approaches the metric of a gravitational plane wave pulse as the mass of M goes to zero. The metric of the gravitational plane wave pulse having a specific form. We show there is a limiting curve of M, as mass and size of M go to zero, that is not a geodesic curve. We show conservation of energy-momentum does not hold and there is no solution to the Einstein field equations for this system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1901.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-07 06:56:49*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

in this paper we will propose two laser experiments the first is to spin the laser at the speed of light and see whether the photons coming out of it still have the speed of light and the second experiment to make photons coming out of laser go for a long distance hitting mirrors for a very long distance probably good to do in cern and see whether the photons move at the speed of light while
measuring with time the photons take to reach a distance of c or the speed of light

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1901.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-24 16:29:21*

**Authors:** David Colasante

**Comments:** 6 Pages. added image

The particle aspects of light are accommodated so well by the photon model that alternative models are rarely considered. Interval-time coordinates provide a Euclidean lens, through which light quanta are seen to exchange by direct, physical contact. The ALPHA collaboration at CERN is uniquely positioned to experimentally distinguish between the models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1901.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-08 01:43:04*

**Authors:** Francesco Ferrara

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The document presents a model for the electron, different from the conventional one. The electron is represented as a current loop of 19.79 A. The document also explains the electrical nature of the inertia of a physical body

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1901.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-05 18:21:48*

**Authors:** J Foukzon, E R Men’kova, A A Potapov

**Comments:** Journal of Modern Physics Vol.10 No.07(2019), Article ID:93134,66 pages 10.4236/jmp.2019.107053

The cosmological constant problem arises because the magnitude of vacuum energy density predicted by quantum field theory is about 120 orders of magnitude larger than the value implied by cosmological observations of accelerating cosmic expansion. We pointed out that the fractal nature of the quantum space-time with negative Hausdorff- Colombeau dimensions can resolve this tension. The canonical Quantum Field Theory is widely believed to break down at some fundamental high-energy cutoff and therefore the quantum fluctuations in the vacuum can be treated classically seriously only up to this high-energy cutoff. In this paper we argue that Quantum Field Theory in fractal space-time with negative Hausdorff-Colombeau dimensions gives high-energy cutoff on natural way. In order to obtain disered physical result we apply the canonical Pauli-Villars regularization up to . It means that there exist the ghost-driven acceleration of the univers hidden in cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1901.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-04 13:46:40*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

The clockwise spin in electrons and protons is probably the reason why they have attracting charges because when we look at a bigger scale we find that electrons spin around the protons in clockwise direction too and when we look at a bigger scale we find that planets spin clockwise too around themselves also when we look at a bigger scale we find that moons spin around planets in clockwise direction probably the reason this happens is because there are two interacting masses here namely the electrons and protons or the planet and moons those two masses spinning in the clockwise direction while one is spinning in clockwise direction around the other only and the bigger mass is not meaning that the bigger one is not spinning around the other while the smaller mass is spinning for example if we look at two masses that are equal in mass as two neutron stars we would find that both of them is spinning around the other leading to higher spin velocity around the other but with distance or radius around each other loss but in other systems where the two masses are not equal we find that the radius is kept under time easily
i actually have the ability to write better physics paper now and sine i do not remember my last account password i will not delete papers anymore so all papers from now are not garbage except ofcourse for the method to find pi paper

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1901.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-05 04:31:26*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 2 pages

Existence of a Cosmic String, going vertically upwards from the north pole, can be verified by flying around it in circles and measuring the associated Aharonov-Bohm effect \cite{Belluci 2014}. The cosmic string plays a pivotal role in rotation of universe around/over the stationary earth \cite{Modgil 2018 c}. Anthropogenic thermal up currents over the north pole, would interact with the cosmic string - winding around it and effecting its rotational state. Such up currents can be generated by the heat from the nuclear reactors on north pole \cite{Modgil 2002, Modgil 2008, Modgil 2011}. This gives an anthropic engineering control over the cosmological rotation reversals. Nuclear submarines surfacing by breaking through the polar ice cap, - heating sea water, - converting it into steam - and releasing it into the polar atmosphere - are a possible way to achieve this.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1901.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-21 12:46:55*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We show how one can measure the speed of gravity only using gravitational phenomena. Our approach offers several ways to measure the speed of gravity (light) and checks existing assumptions about light (gravity) in new types of experiments. The speed of light is included in several well-known gravitational formulas. However, if we can measure this speed from gravitational phenomena alone, then is it the speed of light or the speed of gravity we are measuring? We think it is more than a mere coincidence that they are the same. In addition, even if it is not possible to draw strong conclusions now, our formulations support the view that there is a link between electromagnetism and gravity.
This paper also shows that all major gravity phenomena can be predicted from only performing two to three light observations. There is no need for knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant G or the mass size to complete a series of major gravity predictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1901.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-01 02:09:00*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The application of symmetry to physics leads to conservation law and conserved quantity.
For inertial reference frames, the reflection symmetry generates not only conservation but also transformation.
Under reflection symmetry, the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. The displacement in space is also conserved in all inertial reference frames.
From the conservation of the elapsed time and the displacement, the coordinate transformation between inertial reference frame is derived.
Based on the coordinate transformation, both the time transformation and the velocity transformation are also derived.
The derivation shows that all three transformations are dependent exclusively on the relative motion
between inertial reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology